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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Daytime Variations in Phytoplankton Photosynthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Daytime Variations in Phytoplankton Photosynthesis. JACOB VERDUIN. Bowling Green State University,. Bowling Green, Ohio. ABSTRACT. A study of ...

1999-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

2

Einstein and the Daytime Sky - C  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Einstein "Einstein and the Daytime Sky" (continued) A B C D C. Imitation of opal Since Einstein was addressing a more general question than the color of the atmosphere, his results...

3

Property:Building/FloorAreaHealthServicesDaytime | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Floor area for Daytime health services Pages using the property "BuildingFloorAreaHealthServicesDaytime" Showing 4...

4

NAME: STUDENT NUMBER (PID): CITY, STATE ZIP: DAYTIME PHONE NUMBER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NAME: STUDENT NUMBER (PID): ADDRESS: CITY, STATE ZIP: DAYTIME PHONE NUMBER: CELL PHONE NUMBER of financial institution. 14 Cell Phone Expenses 15 Other ordinary and necessary living expenses. 16 TOTAL (add

5

Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in...

Sharon A. Kidd; Blythe A. Corbett…

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

MODELING DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME POPULATION DISTRIBUTIONS IN PORTUGAL USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a neighborhood, city block, or single building”, and therefore the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), based on the 2000 census, is developing LandScan USA as daytime and nighttime population surfaces at the higher resolution of 3 arc seconds...

Freire, Sergio Carneiro

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

7

Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes R. L. Coulter Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Surface layer estimates of surface sensible heat flux have been made at 10 - 14 locations within the Central Facility (CF) of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program site by using energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations located mostly in uncultivated areas. The advent of the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM) with approximately 50 stations within the boundaries of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site that measure a variety of meteorological parameters leads to the possibility of using the OKM to provide additional estimates of surface energy budget to augment

8

Abnormal daytime sleepiness in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to Alzheimer’s disease using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Excessive daytime sleepiness is a commonly reported problem in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined the relationship between nighttime sleep continuity and the propensity to fall asleep during the day ...

Tanis J Ferman; Glenn E Smith; Dennis W Dickson…

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

A cloud detection algorithm for AATSR data, optimized for daytime observations in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To extract information about the Earth's surface from Earth Observation data, a key processing step is the separation of pixels representing clear-sky observations of land or water surfaces from observations substantially influenced by clouds. This paper presents an algorithm used for this purpose specifically for data from the AATSR sensor on ENVISAT. The algorithm is based on the structure of the SPARC cloud detection scheme developed at CCRS for AVHRR data, then modified, calibrated and validated for AATSR data. It uses a series of weighted tests to calculate per-pixel cloud presence probability, and also produces an estimate of cloud top height and a cloud shadow flag. Algorithm parameters have been optimized for daytime use in Canada, and evaluation shows good performance with a mean daytime kappa coefficient of 0.76 for the ‘cloud’/‘clear’ classification when compared to independent validation data. Performance is independent of season, and is a dramatic improvement over the existing AATSR L1B cloud flag for Canada. The algorithm will be used at CCRS for processing AATSR data, and will form the basis of similar processing for data from the SLSTR sensors on Sentinel-3.

Anders Knudby; Rasim Latifovic; Darren Pouliot

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Multiple daytime nucleation events in semi-clean savannah and industrial environments in South Africa: analysis based on observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUPPLEMENT Multiple daytime nucleation events in semi-clean savannah and industrial environments Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627: Troposphäre (IEK-8), Jülich, Germany. This supplement contains example figures of the multiple nucleation

Meskhidze, Nicholas

11

Effect of Woody Debris abundance on daytime refuge use by cotton mice.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract - Daytime refuges are important to nocturnal rodents for protection from predators and environmental extremes. Because refuges of forest-dwelling rodents are often associated with woody debris, we examined refuge use by 37 radio-collared Peromyscus gossypinus (cotton mice) in experimental plots with different levels of woody debris. Treatment plots had six times (? 60 m3/ha) the volume of woody debris as control plots (? 10 m3/ha). Of 247 refuges, 159 were in rotting stumps (64%), 32 were in root boles (13%), 19 were in brush piles (8%), and 16 were in logs (6%); 10 refuges could not be identified. Stumps were the most common refuge type in both treatments, but the distribution of refuge types was significantly different between treatment and control plots. Root boles and brush piles were used more on treatment plots than on control plots, and logs were used more on control plots than on treatment plots. Refuge type and vegetation cover were the best predictors of refuge use by cotton mice; root bole refuges and refuges with less vegetation cover received greater-than-expected use by mice. Abundant refuges, particularly root boles, may improve habitat quality for cotton mice in southeastern pine forests.

Hinkelman, Travis, M.; Loeb, Susan, C.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Removing Solar Radiative Effect from the VIIRS M12 Band at 3.7 ?m for Daytime Sea Surface Temperature Retrievals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Operational sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithms are stratified into nighttime and daytime. The nighttime algorithm uses two split-window Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) bands—M15 and M16, centered at ~11 and ~12 m, ...

Quanhua Liu; Alexander Ignatov; Fuzhong Weng; XingMing Liang

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Design and Simulation for Architectural Geometry Figure 1: Daytime and nighttime scenes of designed roof by using the developed computational tools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

roof by using the developed computational tools 031.PDF Keywords: Architectural Geometry, Procedural an innovative computational design tool used to edit architectural geometry interactively and demonstratesDesign and Simulation for Architectural Geometry Figure 1: Daytime and nighttime scenes of designed

14

Raman-shifted KrF laser radiation with low amplified spontaneous emission for a rotational Raman daytime-temperature lidar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various configurations of a tunable two-stage KrF laser have been investigated for providing powerful laser pulses with very low amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The lowest fraction (0.00017%) of ASE was attained with a single-pass amplifier and a phase-conjugate Brillouin mirror. The most suitable application envisaged for the laser source, i.e., remote daytime-temperature measurement by means of rotational Raman scattering, is a dedicated oscillator--amplifier configuration with an ASE of 0.005% at an output of 300 mJ. The very low values of ASE were measured with the aid of a thallium atomic-vapor filter.

Luckow, F.; Voss, E.; Zeyn, J.; Lahmann, W.; Weitkamp, C.; Michaelis, W. (Institut fuer Physik, GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany))

1994-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Advances in materials science, metals and ceramics division. Triannual progress report, June-September 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning the magnetic fusion energy program; the laser fusion energy program; geothermal research; nuclear waste management; Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) research; diffusion in silicate minerals; chemistry research resources; and chemistry and materials science research.

Truhan, J.J.; Hopper, R.W.; Gordon, K.M. (eds.)

1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

16

LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

Pera, C.J.; Moyer, C.B.

1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

17

Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Quarterly progress report, June-September 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents progress for the following major research projects: stabilization, engineering, and monitoring alternatives assessment for improving regulation of uranium recovery operations and waste management; attenuation of radon emission from uranium tailings; assessment of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings; and methods of minimizing ground-water contaminants from in-situ leach uranium mining.

Foley, M.G.; Deutsch, W.J.; Gee, G.W.; Hartley, J.N.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Mayer, D.W.; Nelson, R.W.; Opitz, B.E.; Peterson, S.R.; Serne, R.J.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Einstein and the Daytime Sky - D  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

D. Fun with polarizers D. Fun with polarizers In one respect, Einstein's mathematical analysis (like Rayleigh's earlier one) proves quite accurate, in a way that's easy to demonstrate. This has to do with how the sky's scattered light is polarized. Try looking at a patch of clear sky through one lens of a pair of polarizing sunglasses while you rotate the lens. You'll notice that the sky looks brighter as you look through the lens in some positions, and darker when the lens is in other positions. If the sun is not far from the patch of sky you're looking at, you'll find that the sky looks brightest when the sun is to the left or right of the lens, and darkest when the sun is "above the top" or "below the bottom" of the lens. Why is this? Any kind of wave-whether sound wave, water wave, light wave-is associated

19

Einstein and the Daytime Sky - A  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The distinction between a fluid's liquid and gaseous phases breaks down at a certain temperature and pressure; when illuminated under these conditions, the fluid looks milky white, like a common opal. Einstein found how this relates to the reason the sky is blue. A B C D A. A path with a detour If you look at many artists' renderings of Albert Einstein, you are likely to find some that depict Einstein with some representation of the universe as a whole, or black holes, or other objects in deep space. Because many such pictures exist, we may, somewhat unconsciously, associate Einstein with the dark nighttime sky. This is a quite reasonable association, since Einstein's theories of space and time deal with the universe as a whole and with certain astrophysical

20

Einstein and the Daytime Sky - B  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

B. Effects of an uneven random distribution Einstein's work involved giving some greater mathematical precision to some recent ideas of the physicist Marian von Smoluchowski....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Solar and Daytime Infrared Irradiance during Winter Chinooks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chinook winds bring unseasonably warm temperatures to southern Alberta in the winter. They also melt the snow and evaporate, the surface and near surface soil water. Hitherto, the warmth of the wind had almost exclusively been linked to the ...

Lawrence C. Nkemdirim

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Last update: COURSE DAY/TIME INSTRUCTOR LMT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Janssen 10 MOR 034 2 11736 436 A Foundation Design MW 830-1020 Arduino 50 MOR 220 3 11737 451 A Design

23

Precipitation Estimates from MSG SEVIRI Daytime, Nighttime, and Twilight Data with Random Forests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present study, a new rainfall retrieval technique to determine rainfall rates in a continuous manner (day, twilight and night) resulting in a 24-hour estimation applicable to mid-latitudes is presented. The approach is based on satellite-...

Meike Kühnlein; Tim Appelhans; Boris Thies; Thomas Nauß

24

Evidence of Aerosols as a Media for Rapid Daytime HONO Production over China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study also highlights the complex and uncertain heterogeneous chemistry in China, which merits future efforts of reconciling regional modeling and laboratory experiments, in order to understand and mitigate the regional particulate and O3 pollutions over China. ... We use the GEOS-Chem photochemical scheme,(35) and have added aromatics VOC chemistry based on the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC)-07 chemical mechanism. ... Further research on the spatial extent of the transition regime over the polluted eastern China is critically important for controlling regional O3 pollution. ...

Zhen Liu; Yuhang Wang; Francisca Costabile; Antonio Amoroso; Chun Zhao; L. Greg Huey; Robert Stickel; Jin Liao; Tong Zhu

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

25

A decadal survey of the Daytime Arietid meteor shower using the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......altitude in the atmosphere typically within...in the meteor plasma column can be...moves and the plasma column is formed...the mean pre-atmospheric speed for the...measurements of a large number of good-quality...and 38.15-MHz. Originally developed...echo collecting area of CMOR introduces......

J. S. Bruzzone; P. Brown; R. J. Weryk; M. D. Campbell-Brown

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

A decadal survey of the Daytime Arietid meteor shower using the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......110-km altitude in the atmosphere typically within a mass...electrons in the meteor plasma column can be probed...meteoroid moves and the plasma column is formed, the...estimate the mean pre-atmospheric speed for the Arietid...29.85 and 38.15-MHz. Originally developed......

J. S. Bruzzone; P. Brown; R. J. Weryk; M. D. Campbell-Brown

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Daytime microclimatic impacts of the SOVALP project in summer: A case study in Geneva, Switzerland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Société Simple de Valorisation de Terrains Ă Genève-La Praille (SOVALP) project was conceived as a means of providing adequate housing within redevelopment policies during the last decades in Geneva, Switzerland including, among other ... Keywords: ENVI-met, PET, SOVALP, UTCI, microclimate analysis

Flávia Osaku Minella, Eduardo Krüger, Susan Honjo, Stéphane Goyette, Alexandre Hedjazi

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Asymmetric effects of daytime and night-time warming on Northern Hemisphere vegetation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... higher night temperature from global warming. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 9971–9975 (2004) Prasad, P. V. V., Pisipati, S. R., Ristic, ...

Shushi Peng; Shilong Piao; Philippe Ciais; Ranga B. Myneni; Anping Chen; Frédéric Chevallier; Albertus J. Dolman; Ivan A. Janssens; Josep Peńuelas; Gengxin Zhang; Sara Vicca; Shiqiang Wan; Shiping Wang; Hui Zeng

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

29

Deriving Daytime Variables From the AmeriFlux Standard Eddy Covariance Data Set  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gap-filled, quality assessed eddy covariance dataset has recently become available for the AmeriFluxnetwork. This dataset uses standard processing and produces commonly used science variables. This shared dataset enables robust comparisons across different analyses. Of course, there are many remaining questions. One of those is how to define 'during the day' which is an important concept for many analyses. Some studies have used local time ?for example 9am to 5pm; others have used thresholds on photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). A related question is how to derive quantities such as the Bowen ratio. Most studies compute the ratio of the averages of the latent heat (LE) and sensible heat (H). In this study, we use different methods of defining 'during the day' for GPP, LE, and H. We evaluate the differences between methods in two ways. First, we look at a number of statistics of GPP. Second, we look at differences in the derived Bowen ratio. Our goal is not science per se, but rather informatics in support of the science.

Ingen, Catharine van; Agarwal, Deborah A; Humphrey, Marty; Li, Jie

2008-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

30

MOTORCYCLE CONSPICUITY: THE EFFECTS OF AGE AND VEHICULAR DAYTIME RUNNING LIGHTS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Research has shown that riding a motorcycle can potentially be much more dangerous than operating a conventional vehicle. There are factors inherent in driving or… (more)

Torrez, Lorenzo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Idealised Simulations of Daytime Pollution Transport in a Steep Valley and its Sensitivity to Thermal Stratification and Surface Albedo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of tracer transport in an idealised, east-west aligned valley are performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling ... consistent with wintertime observations in the Austrian Inn Valley. The...

M. Lehner; A. Gohm

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Observation of daytime N2O5 in the marine boundary layer during New England Air Quality StudyIntercontinental Transport and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Wallington et al., 1986] and aldehydes [Atkinson, 1991; D'Anna et al., 2001] are efficient pathways

33

Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 138: 5671, January 2012 A Initiation of daytime local convection in a semi-arid region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­71. DOI:10.1002/qj.903 1. Introduction Current climate and Earth system models exhibit large biases their representation in climate and Earth system models. Recent studies on the diurnal cycle and the transition from

Guichard, Francoise

34

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1193311942, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/11933/2012/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Spichtinger et al., 2003b; Spichtinger, 2004). This might point to formation of ice supersaturation by lifting-Range Weather Forecasts for four months covering the four seasons, June, September, De- cember 2011 and March- mation of cirrus clouds is possible (i.e. formation by slow up- lift) and aircraft condensation trails

Meskhidze, Nicholas

35

MEDICAL ENTRANCE FORM (REQUIRED) UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE ONLY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ______________________ Zip Code: ______________ Cell Phone #: ___________________________ Email: ______________________ Zip Code: ______________ Cell Phone #: ___________________________ Email: ____________ Daytime phone: _________________ Evening phone: _________________ Email

Weitz, Joshua S.

36

Arterial Performance and Evaluation using Bluetooth and GPS Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

across the nation. Using Bluetooth and INRIX speed data, this thesis develops a new reference speed methodology that accurately reflects arterial delay during daytime hours. This study found that a 60% daytime free-flow reference speed best represents...

Shollar, Brian 1988-

2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

37

Computational Study on Thermal Properties of HVAC System with Building Structure Thermal Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building structure thermal storage (BSTS) HVAC systems can store heat during nighttime thermal storage operation (nighttime operation hours) by using off-peak electricity and release it in the daytime air-conditioning operation (daytime operation...

Sato, Y.; Sagara, N.; Ryu, Y.; Maehara, K.; Nagai, T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Accessible Furniture Request Form Disabled Student Services 180 Strand Union Building (406) 994-2824 Fax: (406) 994-3943  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ten (10) working days prior to the start of the semester. · It is MY responsibility to inform DSS Accessible Furniture. (Example: WRIT 101, 01, MWF, 11-11:50, WIL 1119) Course # Section # Day/Time Location Course # Section # Day/Time Location Course # Section # Day/Time Location Course # Section # Day

Maxwell, Bruce D.

39

Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

40

Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sun charts freeze probability ground temperature sunshine hours wind direction distributionsun as a function of time). Suggested Nonsolar Data Frequency distributions of daytime temperature,

erdahl, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Microsoft Word - winter.doc  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Florida, where daytime highs in the mid 30s occurred for several days last week. Composite average temperatures for the four cities monitored for this report (Chicago, Kansas...

42

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric sound Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

predicted, especially when Summary: velocity at a reference height of 10 meter, wind turbines in a stable atmosphere generate more sound than... B in daytime. This is perceived...

43

Novel Controls of Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Farms.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solar Farms are absolutely idle in the night and even during daytime operate below capacity in early mornings and late afternoons. Thus, the entire expensive… (more)

Rahman, Shah Arifur

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

E-Print Network 3.0 - arctic cloudy boundary Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University of Wisconsin at Madison Collection: Geosciences 11 Daytime Arctic Cloud Detection Based on Multi-Angle Satellite Data With Case Studies Summary: near cloud...

45

Discharge/Home Care Plan for Childhood Asthma Children's Medical Center, University of Virginia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________, ___________ puffs nebs as needed for cough or wheezing and of _______________. Increased runny nose or daytime cough Medication requirement more often than every 4 hrs. Night-time cough

Acton, Scott

46

Index to Limnology and Oceanography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cyprinus curpio, factors controlling input of electrical energy into, 55-61. D. Davis, Charles C., note, 158-159. Daytime variations in phytoplankton photosynthesis ...

47

X:\\ARM_19~1\\4264.FRT  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

absorption lidar DISORT discrete ordinate radiative transfer DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DOE U.S. Department of Energy DVN daytime versus nighttime DWR dual...

48

Supplementary Material for: A Comparison of the chemical sinks of atmospheric organics in the gas and aqueous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

panel: daytime OH conditions with LWC = 0.5 g m-3 . Upper right panel: nighttime OH conditions with LWC = 0.5 g m-3 . Lower left panel: daytime OH conditions with LWC = 0.001 g m-3 . Upper right panel photolysis, Y, as a function of solar zenith angle and altitude for compounds where the absorption cross

Nizkorodov, Sergey

49

Data:51910892-d368-49b7-8d44-94abe4ca0f05 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

910892-d368-49b7-8d44-94abe4ca0f05 910892-d368-49b7-8d44-94abe4ca0f05 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: 2010/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation Option C Sector: Commercial Description: * Applicable to water pumping over 5HP.The facilities and demand charges are billed June- September. Minimum:Higher of facilities charge plus kW/Demand charge of $96 per year. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Summer rates cover May- October and Winter cover November- April . Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University)

50

Fermilab Folk Club  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Club Club The Fermilab Folk Club sponsors regular monthly barn dances to promote and preserve traditional square and contra dancing. You can also do International Folk Dancing, Scottish Country Dance, and English Country at Fermilab. 2013/2014 Barn Dance Schedule Kuhn Village Barn 2nd Sunday Dances - 6:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. September through June September 8, 2013 Music by Can I Get an Amen Caller: Square Dance Jam! October 13, 2013 Music by Just Us Chicks Caller: Meg Dedolph November 10, 2013 Music by Baker's Dozen Caller: Maggie Jo Salyer December 8, 2013 Music by No Man's Land Caller: Lynn Garren January 12, 2014 Music by Common Taters Caller: Paul Watkins February 9, 2014 Music by $8000 Stringband Caller: Maggie Jo Saylor March 9, 2014 Music by Caller: Meg Dedolph

51

Data:54d267a4-bfec-4ea7-9412-ff3962ff0803 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7a4-bfec-4ea7-9412-ff3962ff0803 7a4-bfec-4ea7-9412-ff3962ff0803 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Commercial General Service Demand Sector: Commercial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

52

Data:E9e6009a-3637-4069-ba6e-6eb4aaec0e96 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9a-3637-4069-ba6e-6eb4aaec0e96 9a-3637-4069-ba6e-6eb4aaec0e96 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Primary Metering Sector: Residential Description: *Applicable to all residential customer in individually metered family residences for all domestic uses within the city limits. Individual single phase motors or heating equipment shall not exceed 15 hp or 15 kW in size. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $5.60/month during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

53

Data:7f8decb8-d8ed-4d89-b659-a13a65d23093 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

decb8-d8ed-4d89-b659-a13a65d23093 decb8-d8ed-4d89-b659-a13a65d23093 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Commercial General Service Demand Primary Metering Sector: Commercial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

54

Data:E6c8349c-3804-4623-9b7e-ab5cd9117d87 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c8349c-3804-4623-9b7e-ab5cd9117d87 c8349c-3804-4623-9b7e-ab5cd9117d87 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial General Service Demand Primary Metering Sector: Industrial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

55

Agency datasets monthly list | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

December 2012) This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data as of December 2012. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope Employment Cube (http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/). The following workforce characteristics are available for analysis: Agency, State/Country, Occupation, Occupation Category, Pay Plan & Grade, GS & Equivalent Grade, Salary Level ($10,000 interval), Work Schedule, Type of Appointment, Gender, Age (5 year interval), Length of Service (5 year interval), Employment, Average Salary, and Average Length of Service. Starting in FY 2010, the OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is the source for all FedScope data. Data is processed on a quarterly basis (i.e. March, June, September and December). OPM Federal Government Finances and Employment 2013-03-15 10:32:45

56

Data:18aade9a-90bf-42e9-b25c-dabbaff3c553 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

aade9a-90bf-42e9-b25c-dabbaff3c553 aade9a-90bf-42e9-b25c-dabbaff3c553 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Large Power, Industrial Secondary Service Sector: Industrial Description: * Available to Commercial or industrial service over 25kw. Minimum:Higher of 25kw or 90% of previous June-September demand. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Summer rates cover May- October and Winter cover November- April. Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability

57

Data:C7f5ff12-ba8f-41f6-9962-8958e594c5f3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f5ff12-ba8f-41f6-9962-8958e594c5f3 f5ff12-ba8f-41f6-9962-8958e594c5f3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: 2010/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power ,Commercial Secondary Service Sector: Commercial Description: * Available to Commercial or industrial service over 25kw. Minimum:Higher of 25kw or 90% of previous June-September demand. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Summer rates cover May- October and Winter cover November- April. Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments

58

Data:4aabcf17-3199-49b2-8eb4-aa4c584fd23f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

aabcf17-3199-49b2-8eb4-aa4c584fd23f aabcf17-3199-49b2-8eb4-aa4c584fd23f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Municipal Service Primary Metering/Ownership Sector: Commercial Description: *Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. 3.5% reduction in bill for primary metering and ownership/maintenance of transformation equipment.

59

Data:0b859c21-6965-4b6e-b060-8f8903132ded | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c21-6965-4b6e-b060-8f8903132ded c21-6965-4b6e-b060-8f8903132ded No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: 2010/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power, Industrial Primary Service Sector: Industrial Description: * Available to Commercial or industrial service over 25kw. Minimum:Higher of 25kw or 90% of previous June-September demand. Delivery of power at primary voltage will be billed with 3% discount given on demand and energy charges. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Summer rates cover May- October and Winter cover November- April.

60

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Differences in Cloud Characteristics at Barrow and Atqasuk at the NSA/AAO Differences in Cloud Characteristics at Barrow and Atqasuk at the NSA/AAO CART Doran, J.C., Barnard, J.C., Zhong, S., and Jakob, C., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Data obtained from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSRs) and microwave radiometers (MWRs) have been used to examine the differences in the cloud characteristics at Barrow and Atqasuk during the period June-September of 1999. Because the size of a grid cell in a GCM may be on the order of 100 km or more, it is important to determine to what extent meteorological and radiometric observations made at Barrow or Atqasuk

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The Collaborator | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Collaborator The Collaborator The Collaborator August 16, 2013 - 11:06am Addthis The Collaborator also known as the DOE Workforce Training Newsletter is a publication of the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer's Office of Learning and Workforce Development. The Collaborator is published quarterly (March, June, September and December). It is designed to keep Federal DOE managers, supervisors, employees and the departmental community informed of all training topics relevant to DOE. Click here to access The Collaborator in Powerpedia. The December 2013 The Collaborator is the 8th issue. Addthis Related Articles Sunita Satyapal is the Director of the Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Women @ Energy: Sunita Satyapal

62

Research Highlight  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Retrieving Cloud Characteristics from Ground-Based Daytime Color All-Sky Retrieving Cloud Characteristics from Ground-Based Daytime Color All-Sky Images Submitter: Long, C. N., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Properties Journal Reference: Long, C. N., J. M. Sabburg, J. Calbo, and D. Pages, (2006): Retrieving Cloud Characteristics from Ground-based Daytime Color All-sky Images, JTech, 23, No. 5, 633–652. Long, C. N., J. M. Sabburg, J. Calbo, and D. Pages, (2006): Papers of Note: Retrieving Cloud Characteristics from Ground-based Daytime Color All-sky Images, BAMS, 87, No. 6, 743–744. Figure 1. Sky image (left) from 1300 LST Sept 4, 2004, and corresponding cloud decision image (right) denoting originally retrieved clear sky (blue), thin cloud (gray), and opaque cloud (white). Black denotes masked

63

As the world turns in a convergence culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The American daytime serial drama is among the oldest television genres and remains a vital part of the television lineup for ABC and CBS as what this thesis calls an immersive story world. However, many within the television ...

Ford, Samuel Earl

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Math 30440, Spring 2009 Exam 2 solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

normal). 1 #12;3. Suppose the high on December 26 is normally distributed with mean -6 degrees Celsius on Christmas weekend 2010 (December 25th and 26th)? Solution: Let C26 be the daytime high on December 26

Galvin, David

65

Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air cooled power plants experience significant performance fluctuations as plant cooling capacity reduces due to higher daytime temperature than nighttime temperature. The purpose of this thesis is to simulate the detailed ...

Williams, Daniel David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Significance of Semivolatile Diesel Exhaust Organics for Secondary HONO Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The atmospheric origin of nitrous acid (HONO) is largely unknown despite its estimated importance as an OH source during daytime due to its rapid photolysis. Recently, primary HONO contained in automobile exhaust as well as secondary HONO formation on ...

Lukas Gutzwiller; Frank Arens; Urs Baltensperger; Heinz W. Gäggeler; Markus Ammann

2002-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

67

The goal of the DC Immersion Experience is to provide a program for 18 Syracuse University sophomores interested in gaining an understanding and foundation of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: __________________________________________________________ Phone: (____)-______-______ Cell Phone: (____)-_____-______ E-mail address: __________________________________________________________ Daytime Phone: (____)-_____-______ Evening Phone: (____)-_____-______ Cell Phone Student Center Syracuse, New York 13244 Phone: (315) 443-9092 E-mail: scfeeney@syr.edu Application

Raina, Ramesh

68

Determining Nighttime Atmospheric Optical Depth Using Mars Exploration Rover Images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was compared to the expected flux to give nighttime optical depth values. The observed nighttime optical depth was consistently similar to the daytime optical depth values on both an individual image and sol-averaged basis. Recommendations are made going...

Bean, Keri Marie

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

69

Meteorol Atmos Phys 102, 135157 (2008) DOI 10.1007/s00703-008-0289-4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and balloons. The urban Surface Energy Balance differs between sum- mer and winter: in summer, the solar heat stored during the previous daytime period is enough to maintain the heat re- lease at night

Ribes, Aurélien

70

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Secondary Sewage Treatment Versus Ocean Outfalls: An Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stable. The membrane will overheat and be de-stroyed...W. A. Beckman, in Solar Ener-gy Thermal Processes (Wiley, New...was supported by a Solar Energy Traineeship grant...have sufficient daytime solar insolation and sufficiently...

Charles B. Officer; John H. Ryther

1977-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

Growing Roots in STEM Engineering Challenge Camp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robot Demonstration ESB Atrium John Dowling- Army ROTC Enrollment Operation Officer 10:00 a.m. Travel to Wow! Factory Leave from ESB Daytime Counselors 1:30 p.m. Science Behind Kiln/Paint Your Own

Mohaghegh, Shahab

73

Download  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aug 31, 1983 ... ing chamber experiments in artificial pools. In situ grazing .... of energy flow and carbon assimilation in zooplankton ... roughly equal efficiency and that most of the seston ...... create a similar disturbance to swimming. Daytime ...

2000-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

74

Sustainability Project Fund Application Form Requirements Project Title  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sustainability Project Fund Application Form Requirements Project Title: Budget Requested: Applicant/Project Leader: Faculty/Department: Email: Daytime Phone: Project Team: (Please include. Project Overview Project summary: · Provide a brief background, describing the project, objectives

Volesky, Bohumil

75

ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DWR Bulletin 194. Hydroelectric Energy Potential inmore than 6 bil- of hydroelectric poweL of view of energyfrom peak demand Daytime hydroelectric Two wate:r age) would

Krieg, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

A Numerical Study of the Evolving Convective Boundary Layer and Orographic Circulation around the Santa Catalina Mountains in Arizona. Part I: Circulation without Deep Convection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The daytime evolution of the thermally forced boundary layer (BL) circulation over an isolated mountain, about 30 km in diameter and 2 km high, is examined by means of numerical simulations validated with data collected in the Cumulus ...

J. Cory Demko; Bart Geerts

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

B. Cairns, M.D. Alexandrov, A.A. Lacis, and B.E. Carlson Daytime Overlapping Cloud Detection in MODIS Data B.A. Baum, S.L. Nasiri, and P. Yang Determination of Nitrogen...

78

A satellite view of the radiative impact of clouds on surface downward fluxes in the Tibetan Plateau  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using thirteen years of satellite observations for the Tibetan Plateau, we investigate and quantify the sensitivities (or partial derivatives) of daytime surface downward shortwave and longwave fluxes with respect to changes in cloud cover and ...

C. M. Naud; I. Rangwala; M. Xu; J. R. Miller

79

Simultaneous detection/separation of mineral dust and cirrus clouds using MODIS thermal infrared window data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and cloud coverage for the Persian Gulf case compares reasonably well to those from the ``Deep Blue-laden scenes, including a daytime dust case over the Persian Gulf and two nighttime dust events over the Cape

Liou, K. N.

80

Activation Tagging in Tomato Identifies a Transcriptional Regulator of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis, Modification, and Transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for further evaluation. Greenhouse Evaluation of Activation-Tagged...hardening before transfer to a greenhouse for further growth and observation. The greenhouse maintained a daytime temperature...20 to 22C. Supplemental lighting was provided by 400-W...

Helena Mathews; Stephanie K. Clendennen; Colby G. Caldwell; Xing Liang Liu; Karin Connors; Nikolaus Matheis; Debra K. Schuster; D. J. Menasco; Wendy Wagoner; Jonathan Lightner; D. Ry Wagner

2003-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Cost efficiency estimations and the equity returns for the US public solar energy firms in 1990–2008  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......efficiency. Keywords: solar energy; cost efficiency analysis; stochastic...returns. 1. Introduction Solar energy is considered the cleanest, most abundant, renewable energy source available. It provides a cost-effective solution for daytime......

Chris Kuo

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Cool Storage Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilities have promoted the use of electric heat and thermal storage to increase off peak usage of power. High daytime demand charges and enticing discounts for off peak power have been used as economic incentives to promote thermal storage systems...

Eppelheimer, D. M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Quasi-16-day periodic meridional movement of the equatorial ionization anomaly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on the daytime location of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest derived from GPS observations at low latitude over China during the 2005–2006 stratospheric sudden warming (SSW), a quasi-16-day periodic ...

Mo, X. H.

84

U of L Calgary Campus-Friday, August 31, 2012 Parking Information for Rocky Mountain Plaza and Bow Valley College  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U of L Calgary Campus- Friday, August 31, 2012 Parking Information for Rocky Mountain Plaza and Bow daytime hours. The flat rate costs are as follows: Monday to Friday (evenings): $3.00 Weekends & Holidays

Morris, Joy

85

Macrophysical Properties of Tropical Cirrus Clouds from the CALIPSO Satellite and from Ground-based Micropulse and Raman Lidars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lidar observations of cirrus cloud macrophysical properties over the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Darwin, Australia site are compared from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and In- frared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the ground-based ARM micropulse lidar (MPL), and the ARM Raman lidar (RL). Comparisons are made using the subset of profiles where the lidar beam is not fully attenuated. Daytime measurements using the RL are shown to be relatively unaffected by the solar background and are therefore suited for checking the validity of diurnal cycles. RL and CALIPSO cloud fraction profiles show good agreement while the MPL detects significantly less cirrus, particularly during the daytime. Both MPL and CALIPSO observations show that cirrus clouds occur less frequently during the day than at night at all altitudes. In contrast, the RL diurnal cy- cle is significantly different than zero only below about 11 km; where it is the opposite sign (i.e. more clouds during the daytime). For cirrus geomet- rical thickness, the MPL and CALIPSO observations agree well and both datasets have signficantly thinner clouds during the daytime than the RL. From the examination of hourly MPL and RL cirrus cloud thickness and through the application of daytime detection limits to all CALIPSO data we find that the decreased MPL and CALIPSO cloud thickness during the daytime is very likely a result of increased daytime noise. This study highlights the vast im- provement the RL provides (compared to the MPL) in the ARM program's ability to observe tropical cirrus clouds as well as a valuable ground-based lidar dataset for the validation of CALIPSO observations and to help im- prove our understanding of tropical cirrus clouds.

Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, D.; Turner, David D.

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

86

Research Highlight  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Improved Daytime Precipitable Water Vapor from Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Improved Daytime Precipitable Water Vapor from Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Sensors Download a printable PDF Submitter: Cady-Pereira, K. E., Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Mlawer, E. J., Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Turner, D. D., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Shephard, M. W., Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, S. A., Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Area of Research: Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Vertical Structures Working Group(s): Radiative Processes Journal Reference: Cady-Pereira, K, M Shephard, E Mlawer, D Turner, S Clough, and T Wagner. 2008. "Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology doi: 10.1175/2007JTECHA1027.1.

87

1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Daytime Overlapping Cloud Detection in MODIS Data Daytime Overlapping Cloud Detection in MODIS Data B. A. Baum National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia S. L. Nasiri Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Satellite Studies University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin P. Yang Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Current efforts to derive a global cloud climatology from satellite data generally suffer in situations involving multilayered clouds. In fact, cloud properties are inferred for each imager pixel assuming only one cloud layer is present. Currently available satellite cloud climatologies provide a horizontal distribution of clouds, but need improvement in the description of the vertical distribution of clouds.

88

Data:D42a3a9b-0b28-488f-8505-4aca1f336b2c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a3a9b-0b28-488f-8505-4aca1f336b2c a3a9b-0b28-488f-8505-4aca1f336b2c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial General Service Demand Sector: Industrial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

89

Data:4cef4c8c-61a0-4b70-9022-c4e56362a6c3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cef4c8c-61a0-4b70-9022-c4e56362a6c3 cef4c8c-61a0-4b70-9022-c4e56362a6c3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: 2010/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power, Commercial Primary Service Sector: Commercial Description: * Available to Commercial or industrial service over 25kw. Minimum:Higher of 25kw or 90% of previous June-September demand. Delivery of power at primary voltage will be billed with 3% discount given on demand and energy charges. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Summer rates cover May- October and Winter cover November- April.

90

FedScope Employment Cube (September 2011) | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

September 2011) September 2011) BusinessUSA Data/Tools Apps Challenges Let's Talk BusinessUSA You are here Data.gov » Communities » BusinessUSA » Data FedScope Employment Cube (September 2011) Dataset Summary Description This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data as of September 2011. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope Employment Cube (http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/). The following workforce characteristics are available for analysis: Agency, State/Country, Occupation, Occupation Category, Pay Plan & Grade, GS & Equivalent Grade, Salary Level ($10,000 interval), Work Schedule, Type of Appointment, Gender, Age (5 year interval), Length of Service (5 year interval), Employment, Average Salary, and Average Length of Service. Starting in FY 2010, the OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is the source for all FedScope data. Data is processed on a quarterly basis (i.e. March, June, September and December).

91

Data:Db1be124-43dc-48d0-afd5-4307a7b882e3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

be124-43dc-48d0-afd5-4307a7b882e3 be124-43dc-48d0-afd5-4307a7b882e3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Primary Metering/Ownership Sector: Residential Description: *Applicable to all residential customer in individually metered family residences for all domestic uses within the city limits. Individual single phase motors or heating equipment shall not exceed 15 hp or 15 kW in size. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $5.60/month during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

92

Data:2274547f-89a6-483b-9805-6d820ed214bd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

89a6-483b-9805-6d820ed214bd 89a6-483b-9805-6d820ed214bd No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Rochester Public Utilities Effective date: 2009/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large industrial service rate Sector: Industrial Description: AVAILABILITY: At all locations for loads with measured demands in excess of 10,000 kW for three or more billing periods in a given calendar year, and where facilities of adequate capacity and voltage are adjacent to the premises to be served. DETERMINATION OF DEMAND: Measured demand is defined as the maximum rate at which energy is used for any period of fifteen consecutive minutes during the billing period. The billing demand shall be the greater of the measured demand for the billing period adjusted for power factor, or 75% of the maximum measured demand for the most current June - September billing periods adjusted for power factor. Billing periods may not coincide with calendar months.

93

Data:6e5a9b57-50bc-4b73-82ce-00f8c0686e0f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a9b57-50bc-4b73-82ce-00f8c0686e0f a9b57-50bc-4b73-82ce-00f8c0686e0f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Laurens, South Carolina (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/09/02 End date if known: Rate name: General Service Time-of-Use Rate Sector: Industrial Description: Demand Charge A) On-Peak Billing Demand 1. Summer Months (June-September) For all kW per month $12.50 per kW 2. Winter Months (October-May) For all kW per month $7.14 per kW B) Economy (Off-Peak) Demand per Month $1.25 per kW Energy Charge A) All on-peak Energy Charge $0.0723 per kWh B) All off-peak Energy Charge $0.0713 per kWh

94

Data:3c466e7c-b80a-48a0-971f-225830fe0c0a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6e7c-b80a-48a0-971f-225830fe0c0a 6e7c-b80a-48a0-971f-225830fe0c0a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Municipal Service Sector: Commercial Description: *Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Source or reference: http://www.ci.gothenburg.ne.us/Ordinances/2010_Current/868%20Utility%20Rates.pdf

95

Data:De495ae2-d2a2-40b7-93e1-d896bcb5540b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ae2-d2a2-40b7-93e1-d896bcb5540b ae2-d2a2-40b7-93e1-d896bcb5540b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Commercial General Service Demand Primary Metering/Ownership Sector: Commercial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

96

Data:8bb7a5a9-fffc-4a4b-9ef2-f0df45621a5f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bb7a5a9-fffc-4a4b-9ef2-f0df45621a5f bb7a5a9-fffc-4a4b-9ef2-f0df45621a5f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial General Service Demand Primary Metering/Ownership Sector: Industrial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

97

Data:5ad07f4e-d7ca-4a15-bd22-6545c8df8d01 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7f4e-d7ca-4a15-bd22-6545c8df8d01 7f4e-d7ca-4a15-bd22-6545c8df8d01 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Suwannee Valley Elec Coop Inc Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Time of Use Sector: Commercial Description: Minimum Charge $20.00 Not applicable for Residential Services On Peak Demand Charge: June- September & December- March Source or reference: http://www.svec-coop.com/Member_Services/memberinfo.htm#CURRENT_RATE_INFORMATION-_Effective_November_1,_20/07 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh):

98

FedScope Employment Cube (December 2011) | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

December 2011) December 2011) BusinessUSA Data/Tools Apps Challenges Let's Talk BusinessUSA You are here Data.gov » Communities » BusinessUSA » Data FedScope Employment Cube (December 2011) Dataset Summary Description This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data as of December 2011. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope Employment Cube (http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/). The following workforce characteristics are available for analysis: Agency, State/Country, Occupation, Occupation Category, Pay Plan & Grade, GS & Equivalent Grade, Salary Level ($10,000 interval), Work Schedule, Type of Appointment, Gender, Age (5 year interval), Length of Service (5 year interval), Employment, Average Salary, and Average Length of Service. Starting in FY 2010, the OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is the source for all FedScope data. Data is processed on a quarterly basis (i.e. March, June, September and December).

99

Data:53bd76aa-f1f6-412d-ae28-e52010b5239f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6aa-f1f6-412d-ae28-e52010b5239f 6aa-f1f6-412d-ae28-e52010b5239f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Sector: Residential Description: *Applicable to all residential customer in individually metered family residences for all domestic uses within the city limits. Individual single phase motors or heating equipment shall not exceed 15 hp or 15 kW in size. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $5.60/month during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

100

Data:A8f2cadd-08ec-46d8-8395-11ee0edd803b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f2cadd-08ec-46d8-8395-11ee0edd803b f2cadd-08ec-46d8-8395-11ee0edd803b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Municipal Service Primary Metering Sector: Commercial Description: *Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. 1.5% reduction in bill for primary metering. Source or reference: http://www.ci.gothenburg.ne.us/Ordinances/2010_Current/868%20Utility%20Rates.pdf

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 55235532, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/5523/2013/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Access Solid Earth OpenAccess The Cryosphere OpenAccess Multiple daytime nucleation events in semi-clean, Finland 3Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, University-und Klimaforschung: Troposph¨are (IEK-8), J¨ulich, Germany Correspondence to: A. Hirsikko (anne

Meskhidze, Nicholas

102

Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2010) 134:327351 DOI 10.1007/s10546-009-9442-y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of tracer transport in an idealised, east-west aligned valley are performed with the Regional Atmospheric simulations of tracer dispersion using a two-dimensional (2D) north-west to south-east oriented valley Simulations of Daytime Pollution Transport in a Steep Valley and its Sensitivity to Thermal Stratification

Gohm, Alexander

103

[OMB # 0648-0327 EXP 07-31-2015] NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phone No. ( ) City State Zip Code Fax Phone No. ( ) Email Address Website Cell Phone No. ( ) SECTION 2 No. ( ) Email Address Birth Date (mm/dd/yy) Cell Phone No. ( ) SECTION 4 - ADDITIONAL FEDERAL - ADDITIONAL FACILITIES (add additional sheets if necessary) Business Name Daytime Phone No. Fax Phone No

104

List of OTC Products (Items subject to change without notice)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

List of OTC Products (Items subject to change without notice) Allergy/Cough/Cold/Flu Symptoms * Requires Valid ID for purchase/18 yo Cough Drops Cherry 30ct Cold Eeze tablets 18ct Allergy Tablets 24ct Loratidine D* 10ct Comtrex Cold and Cough* Daytime* Softgels 12 & 20ct Nighttime* Softgels 12ct Banophen Tabs

Stuart, Steven J.

105

New Astronomy Reviews 42 (1998) 489492 Site tests for CLEAR by solar scintillometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mexico) because the Big the boundary layer, which for day-time solar observ- Bear measurements indicatedNew Astronomy Reviews 42 (1998) 489­492 Site tests for CLEAR by solar scintillometry a b Jacques M. Beckers , Robert J. Rutten a 1 National Solar Observatory/NOAO, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726, USA b

Rutten, Rob

106

The Impact of Horizontal Model Grid Resolution on the Boundary Layer Structure over an Idealized Valley  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The role of horizontal model grid resolution on the development of the daytime boundary layer over mountainous terrain is studied. A simple idealized valley topography with a cross-valley width of 20 km, a valley depth of 1.5 km, and a constant ...

Johannes S. Wagner; Alexander Gohm; Mathias W. Rotach

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Nonvisual effects of led coloured ambient lighting on well-being and cardiac reactivity: preliminary findings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examined the immediate nonvisual effects of ambient lighting colours and illuminance on momentary wellbeing and physiology during daytime. As reported in recent literature, the effects of lighting extend beyond comfort and safety issues. Illuminance ... Keywords: LED, cardiac reactivity, colour lighting, illuminance, nonvisual effects, well-being

Michel Varkevisser; Roy J. E. M. Raymann; David V. Keyson

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

EECBG Success Story: Historic School Building Taking On New Energy-Efficient Role  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The historic Baton Rouge Junior High School in Louisiana is going through a renovation to integrate energy efficiency upgrades including LED lighting improvements, digital controls for air handling units and lights, tankless hot water heaters and the addition of photovoltaic panels on the rooftop to offset daytime electrical use and to serve as a backup power source during emergencies. Learn more.

109

JOURNAL of GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, YOLo 90, NO. C3, PAGES 4907-4910, MAY 20, 1985 The Effect of Water Temperature and Synoptic Winds on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature and Synoptic Winds on the Development of Surface Flows Over Narrow, Elongated Water Bodies M surfacetemperature and of the large-scalesynoptic winds on the devel- opment of surfaceflows over the water created by damming of a river). In these locations, a daytime induced breeze, including its interaction

Pielke, Roger A.

110

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 81398158, 2009 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/8139/2009/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) vibrational level populations responsible for this emission depend on energy exchange processes within the H2O coefficients using the nearly coinciden- tal solar occultation H2O density measurements by the ACE- FTS, O2, and O. Using the advantages of the daytime retrievals in the MLT, which are more stable and less

Meskhidze, Nicholas

111

Twilight-zone and canopy shade induction of the Athb-2 homeobox gene in green plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...occur at dawn and dusk (end- of-day FR, EOD-FR) and during the daytime under the...Abbreviations: FR, far-red; R, red; EOD-FR, end-of-day FR; PHYA, phytochrome...mediates the Athb-2 response to FR light. An EOD-FR-Light Treatment Dramatically Affecting...

M Carabelli; G Morelli; G Whitelam; I Ruberti

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

28 MARCH 2014 VOL 343 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org1430 edited by Jennifer Sills  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

activities--such as daytime lawn watering and car washing--to rules promot- ing efficient water use in Australians' concep- tion of the environment, climate change, and water. The sticking power of those les- sons- wide strategies to save water, but Californian residents and policy-makers can do even more: They can

AghaKouchak, Amir

113

CCECE 2003 -CCGEI 2003, Montral, May/mai 2003 0-7803-7781-8/03/$17.00 2003 IEEE -001 -  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This paper presents a system for detection of moving vehicles approaching an intersection from color images existing vision based vehicle detection systems suffer from a lack of robustness in dealing with various is used to switch between daytime and nighttime modes. This system succeeds to detect vehicles during

Payeur, Pierre

114

PLAYER REGISTRATION City State Zip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a $100 tax deductible/tax credit donation to Michigan State University. Staff, student and spouse fees are reduced and will not include a tax credit. The balance of the fee covers green fees, cart, lunch ________________________________________________ Name Daytime phone Golfers are registered on a first-come, first-served basis. CREDIT CARD USERS

115

A solar sensor to monitor the orientation of the gondola of a stratospheric balloon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors describe a simple and economical device used to monitor the orientation of the gondola in a stratospheric flight from Sicily to Spain. The solar sensor furnished the orientation of the gondola in daytime with an accuracy of +or-40'.

G Belli; V Natale; G Ventura

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Treasures of Colombia, Panama,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s Treasures of Colombia, Panama, & Costa Rica Aboard the Variety Voyager · January 10­19, 2014 With Professor Michael Littman, Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Featuring a Panama Canal Daytime Transit the Panama Canal in daylight and continue along the Pacific coast of Panama and Costa Rica. Along the Journey

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

117

A&A 542, A2 (2012) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201218844  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Cao1,3, and P. R. Goode1,3 1 Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA between 1­7 km comprises 30­40% of the turbulent energy, 3. and the remaining 5% are generated) in Big Bear Lake, California, is located on the lake, which is characterized by a daytime westerly wind

118

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 117 (2003) 5371 Ecophysiological controls on the carbon balances of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, which was attributed to a large increase in R while Amax had not reached its full capacity. Non evapotranspiration at each site. Annual ecosystem respiration (R) derived from daytime analyses of EC data was 1141 (Amax). At the evergreen sites, Amax was marginally larger at SOBS; however, annual carbon sequestration

Minnesota, University of

119

Parasitoids select plants more heavily infested with their caterpillar hosts: a new approach to aid interpretation of plant headspace volatiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...compost (Minster Brand Products, Dorchester, UK) in a greenhouse with a minimum day-time temperature of 20C (16 h...minimum night-time temperature of 14C (8 h). Overhead lighting (mercury halide and sodium bulbs) was provided during...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Experimental Investigation of Direct Expansion Dynamic Ice-on-coil Storage System Used in Residential Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reduction in electricity consumption of an ice-storage system in the daytime leads to financial savings for building owners and extension savings for a power plant and national economy. Great advancements have been made in domestic ice-storage...

Zheng, M.; Kong, F.; Han, Z.; Liu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Security & Sustainability College of Charleston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Security & Sustainability POLI 399 College of Charleston Fall 2013 Day/Time: T/H; 10@cofc.edu Office: 284 King Street, #206 (Office of Sustainability) Office Hours: by appt or virtual apt Instructor is that if sustained well-being and prosperity of human and ecological systems is the goal of sustainability

Young, Paul Thomas

122

Applied Sustainability Political Science 319  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Applied Sustainability Political Science 319 College of Charleston Spring 2013 Day/Time: TH 1 Address: fisherb@cofc.edu Office: 284 King Street, #206 (Office of Sustainability) Office Hours: by appt sustainability. It will focus on the development of semester-long sustainability projects, from conception

Young, Paul Thomas

123

Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields: Supplementary material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and local winds had once again become orientated to favour development of backdoor sea breezes on the southIdealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore. Daytime temperatures were sufficiently high to trigger convection over land and the geostrophic wind

Meskhidze, Nicholas

124

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 159174, 2014 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/159/2014/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Fore- casting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to sim- ulate the direct and semi daytime heating (0.3 K) is largely confined above the low-level clouds, and results in a local convergence-level cloud frac- tion decreases more than 10 %. However, the change of lo- cal wind, including sea breeze

Meskhidze, Nicholas

125

Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 52745297 Influence of the PBL scheme on high-resolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

`cnica de Catalunya (UPC), C/ Jordi Girona 1,3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain Received 4 August 2005; received pollutants, such as PBL height, temperature, and wind speed and direction, are analysed. Important temperatures and the weakest winds during daytime, which provokes an enhanced O3 formation. The higher

126

Travel directions to "Lingezicht" 't Oosteneind 9  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the westernmost platform. In the daytime they run at quarter-hour intervals; less frequently in the late evening to the left go instead right over the bump = straight on; turn right on the dike; second house. In more detail (right) and Shell gasoline station (left), do not take the left marked "Deil" after 1 km but continue

Rutten, Rob

127

Agency datasets monthly list | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Combined Federal Campaign, CFC, 2011 Information on donor contributions through the 2011 Combined Federal Campaign by local campaign. Data includes information on the number of donors, campaign costs, payroll deduction contributions, and recipient organizations. OPM Population 2013-01-23 13:35:53 Combined Federal Campaign, CFC, 2011 Information on donor contributions through the 2011 Combined Federal Campaign by local campaign. Data includes information on the number of donors, campaign costs, payroll deduction contributions, and recipient organizations. OPM Population 2013-01-23 13:35:53 Combined Federal Campaign, CFC, 2009-2011 Information on donor contributions through the 2010 Combined Federal Campaign by local campaign. Data includes information on the number of donors, campaign costs, payroll deduction contributions, and recipient organizations. OPM Population 2013-01-23 13:35:54 FedScope Employment Cube (December 2012) This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data as of December 2012. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope Employment Cube (http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/). The following workforce characteristics are available for analysis: Agency, State/Country, Occupation, Occupation Category, Pay Plan & Grade, GS & Equivalent Grade, Salary Level ($10,000 interval), Work Schedule, Type of Appointment, Gender, Age (5 year interval), Length of Service (5 year interval), Employment, Average Salary, and Average Length of Service. Starting in FY 2010, the OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is the source for all FedScope data. Data is processed on a quarterly basis (i.e. March, June, September and December). OPM Federal Government Finances and Employment 2013-03-15 10:32:45

128

1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Improvements in AVHRR Daytime Cloud Improvements in AVHRR Daytime Cloud Detection Over the ARM NSA Site V. Chakrapani, D. A. Spanenberg, and D. R. Doelling Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Q. Z. Trepte and R. F. Arduini Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia Introduction Clouds play an important role in the radiation budget over the Arctic and Antarctic. Because of limited surface observing capabilities, it is necessary to detect clouds over large areas using satellite imagery. At low- and mid-latitudes, satellite-observed visible (VIS; 0.65 µm) and infrared (IR; 11 µm) radiance data are used to derive cloud fraction, temperature, and optical depth. However, the extreme variability

129

shields-98.pdf  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 7 The Whole Sky Imager - A Year of Progress J. E. Shields and M. E. Karr Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego San Diego, California T. P. Tooman Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, California D. H. Sowle and S. T. Moore Mission Research Corporation Santa Barbara, California Abstract Much progress has been made this last year in realizing the potential of the whole sky imager (WSI). Two imagers are deployed [at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA)], two are being prepared for deployment in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and more are in production. Data products now include daytime thick cloud fraction and calibrated radiance. Night cloud fraction and daytime thin cloud

130

Alcohol processing speed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Central Valley Jr. Academy Central Valley Jr. Academy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Our class has been studying about big cats. We studied cats' eyes. We learned why cats' eyes seem to glow in the dark. The back of each cat's eyes has mirror-like cells that reflect light. We used a coffee can and some construction paper to make a model of a cat's eye. We made the pupil oval shaped like a cat's eye. We shone a flashlight in the pupil and we saw the reflection. A book that we read said that nocturnal hungers mostly have long, oval-shaped pupils and daytime hunters have round pupils. We w want to know what difference that makes to an animal in being able to see.j Why do daytime hunters have round pupils and nocturnal hunters have oval shaped pupils. Do you know why?

131

Name  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Name Name ___________________________________________ Address _________________________________________ City or Town ______________________________________ State, ZIP ________________________________________ If rural location, directions to property _________________ ________________________________________________ E-mail Address ____________________________________ Daytime Phone ( ) _________________________ Evening Phone ( ) __________________________ I would like more information concerning authorized uses of Southwestern rights-of-way. When can a tree, a fence, or a building be dangerous? When it's too close to a high voltage transmission line! Electrical transmission lines are a familiar part of the American landscape that stand as a testimony

132

An investigation of passing operations on a rural, two-lane, two-way highway with centerline rumble strips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-centers. Pavement markings were striped over the CRSs. iv Data were collected using an innovative data collection system developed by the author through the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI). This system was mounted to a four-door sedan, and it consisted... of four concealed cameras that recorded the entire passing maneuver around the data collection vehicle. Data were collected at three different speeds during the daytime. The speeds were 55, 60, and 65 mph (15, 10, and 5 mph, respectively, under...

Miles, Jeffrey David

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

133

Source- and Age-Resolved Mechanistic Air Quality Models: Model Development and Application in Southeast Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIST OF TABLES Page Table 2-1. Percentage contributions of each NOx region (RG) to averaged 8-hour daytime O3 concentrations in different counties in the HGB and BPA (three shadowed rows) areas... density of industrial facilities located in the Houston-Galveston Bay (HGB) and Beaumont-Port Arthur (BPA) areas. Houston is the fourth-largest city in the United States with a population over 2.2 million. Because of the immense emissions of gas phase...

Zhang, Hongliang

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

134

Investigation of Thin Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties on the Basis of Satellite Observations and Fast Radiative Transfer Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

function of ?CALIOP. the frequency is scaled by dividing the largest frequency in each ?CALIOP bin. Data are from collocated MODIS and CALIOP measurements made in August 2006. ............... 126 5.7 Daytime frequencies of (a) cloud, (b) ice cloud, (c...) and Stubenrauch et al. (2006) investigated the climatology of thin cirrus properties. 1.2.2 Limb-view-instrument-based observations Limb-view-instruments observe cloud or atmosphere by eliminating the signals from the surface and therefore increase the SNRs...

Wang, Chenxi

2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

135

Intervention to Reduce Transmission of Resistant Bacteria in Intensive Care  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...less than required (Figure 2), particularly with respect to contacts with the environment only, and may have been overestimated because monitoring was not surreptitious and was performed only during daytime and evening hours. However, we found no evidence of an inverse relationship between providers' use... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) are major causes of health care–associated infection.1 Infections caused by these bacteria are usually preceded by colonization of mucous membranes, skin, ...

Huskins W.C.; Huckabee C.M.; O'Grady N.P.

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

136

Response of office building electricity consumption to urban weather in Adelaide, South Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Knowledge of climate dependency of building energy consumption is useful for predicting the impacts of climate change and urban heat island on energy demand and associated carbon emissions, and to evaluate and improve building energy performance. Climate dependent electricity consumption is examined in this study for four office buildings in Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia with a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Influences of both outdoor temperature and specific humidity on building electricity consumption are analyzed using the multiple linear regression, based on both sub-daily and monthly electricity consumption data. The results indicate that there is a daytime mean temperature threshold of around 17 °C, above which, electricity consumption increases with air temperature. Specific humidity also contributes to interpreting the temporal variability of office hour electricity consumption. Daytime temperature and specific humidity together determine 80–90% of office hour electricity consumption variation for days with mean daytime temperature above the threshold temperature. Office building daily electricity consumption can be examined with monthly electricity consumption data of a period of three years. The results also suggest that heatwaves may increase office building electricity demand by up to 50%, and that one degree warming can increase annual office electricity consumption by 2% in Adelaide.

Huade Guan; Veronica Soebarto; John Bennett; Roger Clay; Robert Andrew; Yunhui Guo; Saeedeh Gharib; Kathryn Bellette

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995-2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 _ 37,444 fruits; 12,009 _ 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 _ 7,667 fruits; 5,079 _ 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 _ 8,351 fruits; 4,621 _ 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 _ 8,301 fruits; 4,102 _ 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 _ 5,034 fruits; 3,261 _ 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995-2003). Fruit availability was highest June-September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. Land managers could enhance fruit availability for wildlife by creating and maintaining diverse forest types and age classes. .

Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; McCarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.; Sargent, Sarah; Kilgo, John

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

138

Behavior of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) associated with a drifting FAD monitored with ultrasonic transmitters in the equatorial central Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The behavior of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis released at a drifting fish aggregating device (FAD) in the equatorial central Pacific Ocean was investigated using ultrasonic transmitters. We conducted two types of field observations: one to track a single fish using a continuous transmitter, and the other to simultaneously monitor multiple individuals with coded transmitters. In the first examination, the behavior of one individual (fork length (FL) of 65.2 cm) was monitored when the fish was both near and away from the FAD. In the second examination, the behaviors of 14 individuals (FL between 36.0 and 64.0 cm) were monitored only when these were associated with the FAD. The behaviors of the fish were monitored 82.0 and 154.5 h using continuous and coded transmitters, respectively. The fish monitored with a continuous transmitter made several excursions from the FAD (maximum distance of approximately 9700 m) during the monitoring period. The swimming depth during daytime was deeper than that observed during nighttime, and this difference was markedly more obvious when the fish was away from the FAD. Additionally, the daytime swimming depth was deeper when the fish was away from the FAD. The swimming speed of the fish monitored with a continuous transmitter was usually less than 3 KT and was higher during daytime compared with nighttime. The fish monitored with coded transmitters occasionally left the FAD, particularly during nighttime, partly demonstrated diurnal vertical movements, and were mainly distributed in the mixed layer or upper part of the thermocline. In addition, the results showed a synchronicity in the vertical movements of two or more fish. This study indicated a clear difference between the on-FAD and the off-FAD vertical movements, occasional excursions from the FAD, and diurnal movements of the fish, especially when away from the FAD.

Takayuki Matsumoto; Keisuke Satoh; Mikio Toyonaga

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Simulation of Urban Climate with High-Resolution WRF Model: A Case Study in Nanjing, China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, urban climate in Nanjing of eastern China is simulated using 1-km resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model. Based on the 10-summer simulation results from 2000 to 2009 we find that the WRF model is capable of capturing the high-resolution features of urban climate over Nanjing area. Although WRF underestimates the total precipitation amount, the model performs well in simulating the surface air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation frequency, diurnal cycle and inter-annual variability. We find that extremely hot events occur most frequently in urban area, with daily maximum (minimum) temperature exceeding 36şC (28şC) in around 40% (32%) of days. Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect at surface is more evident during nighttime than daytime, with 20% of cases the UHI intensity above 2.5şC at night. However, The UHI affects the vertical structure of Planet Boundary Layer (PBL) more deeply during daytime than nighttime. Net gain for latent heat and net radiation is larger over urban than rural surface during daytime. Correspondingly, net loss of sensible heat and ground heat are larger over urban surface resulting from warmer urban skin. Because of different diurnal characteristics of urban-rural differences in the latent heat, ground heat and other energy fluxes, the near surface UHI intensity exhibits a very complex diurnal feature. UHI effect is stronger in days with less cloud or lower wind speed. Model results reveal a larger precipitation frequency over urban area, mainly contributed by the light rain events (<10 mm day-1). Consistent with satellite dataset, around 10-20% more precipitation occurs in urban than rural area at afternoon induced by more unstable urban PBL, which induces a strong vertical atmospheric mixing and upward moisture transport. A significant enhancement of precipitation is found in the downwind region of urban in our simulations in the afternoon.

Yang, Ben; Zhang, Yaocun; Qian, Yun

2012-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

140

An Automated System for the Measurement of Nitrogen Oxides and Ozone Concentrations from a Passenger Aircraft:? Instrumentation and First Results of the NOXAR Project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exhaust gas from the analyzer is drawn through a thermal ozone scrubber (ECO PHYSICS) and into the vacuum pump (P1 in Figures 1 and 3). ... The individual capacity of each one of the 110 W fans (2100 m3/h in free air) is sufficient to ensure that the rack will not overheat even if the other should malfunction. ... Photolysis rates were calculated for clear-sky conditions from all daytime NO and O3 measurements at solar zenith angles <85° using the STAR (system for transfer of atmospheric radiation) model (27). ...

Peter Dias-Lalcaca; Dominik Brunner; Walter Imfeld; Werner Moser; Johannes Staehelin

1998-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The Corporate Headquarters for Alabama Power Company  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the rate, customers can purchase the same amount of electricity for less money by shaving peaks and shifting consumption to off-peak hours. ESL-IE-87-09-75 Proceedings from the Ninth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, September... Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, September 16-18, 1987 In the daytime water chilling mode (Figure 4), refrigerant is pumped from the low pressure re ceivers through chiller barrels which pre-cool building water from 62 degrees F...

Reardon, J. G.; Penuel, K. M.

142

Enhancement of Local Air Pollution by Urban CO2 Domes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For this study, the nested global-through-urban 3-D model, GATOR-GCMOM (13-17) was used to examine the effects of locally emitted CO2 on local climate and air pollution. ... Jacobson, M. Z. GATOR-GCMM: 2. A study of day- and nighttime ozone layers aloft, ozone in national parks, and weather during the SARMAP Field Campaign J. Geophys. ... GATOR-GCMM 2. A study of daytime and nighttime ozone layers aloft, ozone in national parks, and weather during the SARMAP field campaign ...

Mark Z. Jacobson

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

143

X:\ARM_19~1\P113-137.WPD  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 7 C/day, 1.5 C/day m 2 55 C 45 C 45 C 65 C Session Papers 125 Figure 1. Map showing analysis domain for GMS OLR data. Basic spatial units are five by five latitude-longitude areas, four of which are shown outlined by solid lines in the area north of Papau New Guinea; the large dot on the equator at 140 E shows the approximate satellite sub-point and the large area outlined between 150E to 180, 20 N to 20 S is the subject of analyses in Figures 2 and 3. Shading shows areas of intense convection at 00Z during July 1985. Variability of Radiatively Forced Diurnal Cycle of Intense Convection in the Tropical West Pacific W. M. Gray, J. D. Sheaffer, and W. B. Thorson Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Introduction Strong differences occur in daytime versus nighttime

144

Number | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Number Number Jump to: navigation, search Properties of type "Number" Showing 200 properties using this type. (previous 200) (next 200) A Property:AvgAnnlGrossOpCpcty Property:AvgTempGeoFluidIntoPlant Property:AvgWellDepth B Property:Building/FloorAreaChurchesChapels Property:Building/FloorAreaGroceryShops Property:Building/FloorAreaHealthServices24hr Property:Building/FloorAreaHealthServicesDaytime Property:Building/FloorAreaHeatedGarages Property:Building/FloorAreaHotels Property:Building/FloorAreaMiscellaneous Property:Building/FloorAreaOffices Property:Building/FloorAreaOtherRetail Property:Building/FloorAreaResidential Property:Building/FloorAreaRestaurants Property:Building/FloorAreaSchoolsChildDayCare Property:Building/FloorAreaShops Property:Building/FloorAreaSportCenters

145

Tir (Aster) Geothermal Anomalies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tir (Aster) Geothermal Anomalies Tir (Aster) Geothermal Anomalies Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Tir (Aster) Geothermal Anomalies Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The focus of this research is the detection of shallow thermal anomalies for geothermal exploration and field management. The objective of this paper is to outline the steps involved in applying thermal infrared imagery (TIR) for this task. This process is part of an ongoing project at the Energy & Geoscience Institute (EGI), where we are developing a methodology to use daytime and nighttime thermal infrared imagery produced by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) to map shallow thermal anomalies. Kinetic temperature images

146

U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Management Program Management Program (FEMP) facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Located near Louisville, Kentucky, Fort Knox is home to the U.S. Army's Armor Center, Armor School, Recruiting Command, and numerous other facilities. The post has a daytime population of more than 30,000 people and more than 3,000 family housing units. In total, Fort Knox encompasses 11 million square feet of conditioned space across more than 109,000 acres. A military post of this size consumes a significant amount of energy. Fort Knox is acutely aware of the need for sustainability to ensure continuous operations and meet Federal energy goals and requirements.

147

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

January 02, 2002 January 02, 2002 Spot prices in the Midwest and the East moved up most days during the holiday period as cold weather blanketed much of the area. .(See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) (Temperature map) (Temperature Deviation Map). Prices in Chicago moved close to $3.00 per MMBtu last week, while prices in the New York City area approached $5.00 on the last day of the year. Daytime temperatures early this week in the Northeast remained in the 20s and 30s from Washington, DC to Boston. The National Weather Service is calling for the wintry temperatures to continue through the end of the week in most areas in the eastern two thirds of the country. On the NYMEX, the daily settlement price for the futures contract for February delivery has declined in recent trading as the higher-than-average

148

Sweden Building 05K0119 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Private company Private company Total floor area (BRA), m2 1946.0 OID, m2 1960.0 Interior height, m 2.5 Year of construction 1 (taxation year) 1973 Year of construction 2 (Year of construction) 1973 County Västernorrland County, Sweden Mean annual temperature during the calculation period[1] 4.98333333333 Mean annual temperature at the site 3.8 Start of the period (first day of the month) 2004/01/01 End of the period (last day of the month) 2004/12/01 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Areas by category, m2 (Gross Floor Area) - Offices 1608.0 - Warehouses 73.0 - Daytime health services 235.0 - Schools, including child day-care centres 30.0 Total 1946.0 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Purchased energy for the period [MWh/year] Electricity, total 180.0 District heating 273.0

149

Research Highlight  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Validation of CERES-MODIS Cloud Properties Using ARM Data Validation of CERES-MODIS Cloud Properties Using ARM Data Submitter: Dong, X., University of North Dakota Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Properties Journal Reference: Dong, X., P. Minnis, B. Xi, S. Sun-Mack, and Y. Chen, 2007: Validation of CERES-MODIS stratus cloud properties using ground-based measurements at the DOE ARM SGP site. Accepted by J. Geophys. Res. Wielicki, B. A. and Co-authors (2000), CERES Validation Plan Overview, Release 4, 10/20/00, 58 pp. (Available at http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/ceres/validation/ ceresval_r4.0_over.pdf) Figure 1. Time series of surface-derived cloud-base and -top heights and temperatures (1-hour average) and matched MODIS-derived effective cloud heights and temperatures (30-km x 30-km box) for daytime single-layer and

150

Minutes Ops mtg 070111  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1, 2011 1, 2011 10:30 - 11:30 AM Minutes Attendees: Ken Barat, Tom McVeigh, Abdi Salehi, Pat Thomas, Herb Toor, Weyland Wong 1. ES&H News and Lessons Learned: * Yale shop fatality - In April, an astronomy and physics graduate student working alone late at night inside a machine shop was killed when her hair become caught in a lathe. The shop had a staff member present during daytime hours, but not at night. Students were allowed to use the shop after completing an introductory shop course. Yale is reviewing safety policies for facilities with power equipment. * Reciprocating saw injury - On March 3, an Idaho National Laboratory employee was injured while preparing to cut a brace with a reciprocating saw (Saws-All). The employee was wearing PPE (gloves and safety

151

Sweden Building 05K0040 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Government building Government building Total floor area (BRA), m2 2960.0 OID, m2 3112.0 Interior height, m 3.0 Year of construction 1 (taxation year) 1936 Year of construction 2 (Year of construction) 1890 County Stockholm County, Sweden Mean annual temperature during the calculation period[1] 7.73333333333 Mean annual temperature at the site 6.6 Start of the period (first day of the month) 2004/10/01 End of the period (last day of the month) 2005/09/01 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Areas by category, m2 (Gross Floor Area) - Offices 1851.0 - Daytime health services 240.0 - Miscellaneous 869.0 Total 2960.0 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Purchased energy for the period [MWh/year] Electricity, total 239.7 District heating 367.0 Oil-fired boiler 0.0 Natural gas 0.0

152

Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" Docket No. EO-05-01. Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc. has prepared a review of the "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" written by ENSR Corporation on behalf of the Mirant Potomac River Power Plant. This report models only Unit #1 operating under two daytime only scenarios to reduce exposures and meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM10, SO2, and NOx that were not met using normal operating procedures.

153

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

University of North Dakota- University of North Dakota- Novel Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants Program or Field Office: Advanced Research Projects Agency- Energy (ARPA-E) Location(s) (City/County/State): University of North Dakota (Grand Forks, ND) Proposed Action Description: Funding will support efforts to develop a desiccant dry cooling (DOC) technology for power plants that can minimize high capital costs of coventional dry cooling technologies and maintain high cooling performance during daytime temperature peaks. Project tasks will be conducted on a small-scale, pilot basis in dedicated university laboratory, testing, and office facilities at the University of North Dakota's Energy and Environmental Research Center. Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: B3.6 - Small-scale research and development, laboratory operations, and pilot projects

154

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Using The Sun For Hot Water And Electricity, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, covering 125,000 acres including 17 miles of Southern-California coastline, is the largest expeditionary training facility on the West Coast. More than 41,500 marines and family members call the base home, which reaches a daytime population of approximately 100,000. In fiscal year 2007, Camp Pendleton saved energy and money and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through solar hot water (SHW) and photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The base implemented two integrated solar thermal/PV systems at its 53 Area and 62 Area training pools. The projects demonstrate Camp Pendleton's continuing commitment to energy conservation while helping meet Federal requirements for on-site renewable energy and solar hot water generation.

155

U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Management Program Management Program (FEMP) facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Located near Louisville, Kentucky, Fort Knox is home to the U.S. Army's Armor Center, Armor School, Recruiting Command, and numerous other facilities. The post has a daytime population of more than 30,000 people and more than 3,000 family housing units. In total, Fort Knox encompasses 11 million square feet of conditioned space across more than 109,000 acres. A military post of this size consumes a significant amount of energy. Fort Knox is acutely aware of the need for sustainability to ensure continuous operations and meet Federal energy goals and requirements.

156

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Vapor IOP Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered sonde/kite measurements. Primary operational hours were from 6 p.m. Central until at least midnight, with aircraft support normally from about 9 p.m. until midnight when available. However, many daytime measurements were made to support this IOP. The first Water Vapor IOP primarily concentrated on the atmosphere's lowest

157

Takara_ARM2007  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The longwave effective cloud fraction derived from The longwave effective cloud fraction derived from measurements with a comparison to shortwave cloud amounts for single layer clouds Ezra E. Takara and Robert G. Ellingson Dept. of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 Known clear Derived clear Known overcast Derived overcast Flux Time Introduction This poster describes a comparison of the longwave effective cloud fraction (N e ) to shortwave cloud amounts: the cosine weighted cloud fraction from the Total Sky Imager (TSI), the cloud fraction from the shortwave flux analysis (swfan), and the Whole Sky Imager (WSI). These daytime comparisons are for single low cloud layers in 2000 and 2001 at the ARM SGP Central Facility as described in Ma and Ellingson (2005). Longwave N e The average longwave surface over a large area can be

158

ARM - Facility News Article  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sunphotometer Re-installed at North Slope of Alaska Sunphotometer Re-installed at North Slope of Alaska Bookmark and Share The CIMEL sunphotometer takes sky radiance measurements during daylight hours, when the sun is above horizon. The CIMEL sunphotometer takes sky radiance measurements during daylight hours, when the sun is above horizon. In early May, a CIMEL sunphotometer owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was re-installed at Barrow, Alaska, one of two research sites that make up the ARM Climate Research Facility's North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale. The CIMEL is a multi-channel, automatic sun-and-sky scanning radiometer that takes daytime measurements of direct solar radiance and sky radiance at the Earth's surface. Measurements are taken at discrete wavelengths in visible and near-infrared regions of the solar

159

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Using The Sun For Hot Water And Electricity, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, covering 125,000 acres including 17 miles of Southern-California coastline, is the largest expeditionary training facility on the West Coast. More than 41,500 marines and family members call the base home, which reaches a daytime population of approximately 100,000. In fiscal year 2007, Camp Pendleton saved energy and money and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through solar hot water (SHW) and photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The base implemented two integrated solar thermal/PV systems at its 53 Area and 62 Area training pools. The projects demonstrate Camp Pendleton's continuing commitment to energy conservation while helping meet Federal requirements for on-site renewable energy and solar hot water generation.

160

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Validation of CERES/MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals Using Ground-Based Validation of CERES/MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals Using Ground-Based Measurements Obtained at the DOE ARM SGP Site Dong, X.(a), Minnis, P.(b), Sun-Mack, S.(b), and Mace, G.G.(a), University of Utah (a), NASA Langley Research Center (b) Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties derived from the NASA TERRA (EOS-AM) Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) as part of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project during November 2000-June 2001 are compared to simultaneous ground-based observations. The ground-based data taken by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are used as "ground truth" data set in the validation of the CERES cloud products and to improve the CERES daytime and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Retrieving Aerosols from the Atmospheric Emitted Retrieving Aerosols from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Can it be Done? L. Moy, H.E. Revercomb, and R.O. Knuteson Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) Madison, Wisconsin D.D. Turner and E. Kassianov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer observes downwelling infrared radiance from 3-19 ÎĽm that may enable better retrievals of aerosol optical and physical properties. Theoretical study suggests that the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer's infrared aerosol signal is strong enough to overcome instrument noise constraints and uncertainties in the water vapor, especially in the 3-4 ÎĽm band where scattering dominates the observed signal during the daytime. Unlike other aerosol

162

Research Highlight  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modification of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer by a Small Island: Modification of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer by a Small Island: Observations from Nauru Submitter: Long, C. N., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Radiative Processes Journal Reference: Matthews, S., J. M. Hacker, J. Cole, J. Hare, C. N. Long, and R. M. Reynolds, (2007): Modification of the atmospheric boundary layer by a small island: observations from Nauru, MWR, Vol. 135, No. 3, pages 891–905. Figure 1. Illustration of daytime heating producing a thermal internal boundary layer effect over Nauru, which in turn produces cumulous clouds above the boundary layer. Figure 2. Illustration of Nauru heat-island produced by convective rolls forming cloud streets. Figure 3. Satellite images of Nauru on December 13, 2000 showing the cloud

163

ARM - VAP Process - diffcor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Productsdiffcor Productsdiffcor Documentation & Plots Technical Report Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP : Correction of Diffuse Shortwave Measurements (DIFFCOR) Instrument Categories Derived Quantities and Models The DIFFCORR1DUTT VAP uses two techniques to correct shortwave (SW) data during daytime hours, using information from a collocated pyrgeometer. First, the detector-only correction technique uses data in the form of irradiance loss from the pyrgeometer detector. Second, the full-correction technique uses information from collocated pyrgeometer detector data, plus the difference between the case and dome temperatures. Both techniques

164

Research Highlight  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Increased Accuracy for Sky Imager Retrievals Increased Accuracy for Sky Imager Retrievals Download a printable PDF Submitter: Long, C. N., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Properties Journal Reference: Long CN. 2010. "Correcting for circumsolar and near-horizon errors in sky cover retrievals from sky images." The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, 4, doi:10.2174/1874282301004010045. Long CN, JM Sabburg, J Calbo, and D Pages. 2006. "Retrieving cloud characteristics from ground-based daytime all-sky images." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 23, 633-652. Sample sky image (left) and corresponding cloud decision image (right) showing an example of the over-estimating problem. White and gray in the

165

ferrare-99.PDF  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CART Raman Lidar Retrievals of Aerosol Extinction CART Raman Lidar Retrievals of Aerosol Extinction and Relative Humidity Profiles R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia L. A. Heilman Science Applications International Corporation/ National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington W. F. Feltz University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Introduction We have developed and recently implemented automated algorithms to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. These profiles are important for determining the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the aerosol retrieval

166

Safety_Tips_for_Christmas_Shopping-DEC-2011  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Christmas Shopping for Christmas Shopping The holiday shopping season can be a time of great joy safety risks. Below are some safety tips to keep in mind while shopping. * Carry a cell phone and program emergency and * If you plan on carrying a purse or handbag, carry it as clo body as possible. * Try to shop during the daytime hours and bring a friend or family member Safety in numbers! * Carry minimal amounts of cash. * Have credit card numbers and customer service numbers case. * If your card(s) are lost or stolen, call the credit card loss. * Do not overload yourself with packages. * If you must leave purchases * When walking to the parkin * When unloading the content purse unattended in the shopping cart. * Be cautious of anyone who approaches you in a parking lot or in a store. It could be a

167

Sweden Building 05K0098 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7 7 Category Office Boundaries Several buildings Ownership Category Local community owner Total floor area (BRA), m2 5192.0 OID, m2 5347.0 Interior height, m 3.0 Year of construction 1 (taxation year) 1990 Year of construction 2 (Year of construction) 1957 County Dalarna County, Sweden Mean annual temperature during the calculation period[1] 3.58333333333 Mean annual temperature at the site 3.7 Start of the period (first day of the month) 2004/01/01 End of the period (last day of the month) 2004/12/01 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Areas by category, m2 (Gross Floor Area) - Hotels 330.0 - Restaurants 170.0 - Offices 4392.0 - Daytime health services 300.0 Total 5192.0 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Purchased energy for the period [MWh/year]

168

1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Regularities of Angular Distribution of Near-Horizon Sky Regularities of Angular Distribution of Near-Horizon Sky Brightness in the Cloudless Atmosphere S.M. Sakerin, T.B. Zhuravleva, and I.M. Nasrtdinov Institute of Atomospheric Optics SB RAS Tomsk, Russia Introduction The methods of sun-photometry of the atmosphere based, for example, on interpretation of the angular distribution of radiation in the solar almucantar are widely used for retrieval of the aerosol optical characteristics (Dubovik et al. 2000). Preliminary analysis has shown that the near-horizon region also can be interesting for solving some applied problems. As is known, investigations of the structure of the daytime cloudless sky brightness at observation from the ground were carried out principally at zenith angles less than 80° in visible wavelength range. For further development of the methods it is necessary

169

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

On the Detection and Analysis of Multilayered Clouds: Comparison of MODIS On the Detection and Analysis of Multilayered Clouds: Comparison of MODIS Analyses with ARM CART Site Cloud Products Baum, B.A.(a), Nasiri, S.L.(b), and Mace, G.G.(c), NASA Langley Research Center (a), University of Wisconsin-Madison (b), University of Utah (c) Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting We will present new ideas regarding the detection and analysis of multilayered clouds in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. Over the past year, the MODIS cloud property retrieval effort has matured considerably as algorithms have been improved and the instrument performance has been characterized more accurately. Errors caused by noise, striping, and out-of-band response have been reduced. We have developed and tested different approaches for daytime and nighttime

170

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cloud Fraction Retrieval Utilizing Whole Sky Imagers Cloud Fraction Retrieval Utilizing Whole Sky Imagers Tooman, T.P., Sandia National Laboratories; Moore, S., and Sowle, D., Mission Research Corporation; Shields, J., Marine Physical Laboratory Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Long-term statistics on cloud cover and cloud thickness are desirable for understanding how clouds affect climate. We are attempting to use images collected by the Whole Sky Imager (WSI) to extract this information. For nighttime retrieval, we intend to develop algorithms and software to detect star occultations due to clouds. For daytime retrievals, we intend to develop an appoach based on sky radiance variations. We have implemented software to detect star locations, to map image pixel space to celestial

171

Section 66  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comparisons of Cloud Heights Derived from Satellite and Comparisons of Cloud Heights Derived from Satellite and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Surface Lidar Data W.L. Smith, Jr., L. Nguyen, D.P. Garber, D.F. Young Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis Atmospheric Sciences Division NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia J. Spinhirne NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Cloud heights derived from single-channel, satellite infrared data can be relatively uncertain under certain conditions such as overlapped or optically thin clouds. During the daytime, optical depths derived from 0.63 µm visible (VIS) reflec- tances are used to adjust the altitude of optically thin clouds. Without the adjustment, the cloud heights are significantly underestimated diminishing the reliability and utility of the

172

Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" Docket No. EO-05-01. Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc. has prepared a review of the "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" written by ENSR Corporation on behalf of the Mirant Potomac River Power Plant. This report models only Unit #1 operating under two daytime only scenarios to reduce exposures and meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM10, SO2, and NOx that were not met using normal operating procedures.

173

Section 57  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Figure 1. Mean and standard deviation of the scaled irradiance time Figure 1. Mean and standard deviation of the scaled irradiance time series after a 21-minute moving average window has been applied on March 31, 1995. A Daytime Radiation and Cloud Climatology from Time Series of Measured Surface Irradiance M. S. O'Malley and C. E. Duchon School of Meteorology University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Pyranometer measurements spatially integrate the effects of The former is a measure of the average amount of irradiance clouds on the shortwave energy budget that fundamentally over a period. The latter is a measure of the cloud structure drives the daily and annual cycles of heating at the earth's created by cloud elements passing between the sun and the surface and lower troposphere. In addition to their value in sensor. Together, the mean and standard deviation can be

174

Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor Figure 3: Ratio of MWR TCWV to radiosonde derived TCWV, and the solar zenith angle at the radiosonde launch time (black dots). The dry bias observed in sonde TCWV values is mainly attributable to a dry RH bias near the surface The red dots show the 1000 hPa RH correction factors suggested by Voemel et al for sondes launched near noon (10-30 degree solar zenith angle), and at night time (90 degree zenith angle). The green line shows a modified RH correction factor which is a function of the solar zenith angle. â—Ź During the day-time, the TCWV bias is significantly smaller when the zenith angle correction is applied than when no correction, or only the Crad and Ccal corrections are applied.

175

Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Overview  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electricity Delivery Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability Organized by: Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy W i t h h e l p b y : Agenda Day/Time Speaker Subject Wednesday, March 07, 2012 8:45-9:00 Adam Weber, LBNL Welcome and workshop overview 9:00-9:30 Various, EERE, OFCT Background, approach, and reversible fuel cells 9:30-9:55 Michael Perry, UTRC Renaissance in flow cells: opportunities 9:55-10:20 Joe Eto, LBNL Energy storage requirements for the smart grid 10:20-10:35 AM Break 10:35-11:00 Robert Savinell, CWRU Revisiting flow-battery R&D 11:00-11:25 Stephen Clarke, Applied Intellectual Capital Lessons learned and yet to be learned from 20 years in RFB R&D 11:25-11:45 Imre Gyuk, DOE OE Research and deployment of stationary storage at DOE

176

haeffelin-99  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shortwave Radiation Measurements: Shortwave Radiation Measurements: Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulations of Pyranometers M. Haeffelin, A. M. Smith, and J. R. Mahan Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, Virginia C. K. Rutledge Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia S. Kato Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Pyranometers are used extensively in networks around the globe to monitor solar radiation. Uncertainties in irradiances measured by pyranometers are due in part to the detector sensitivity to thermal radiation exchange within the instrument, often referred to as "instrument offset." Bush et al. (1999) established a relationship between the outer-dome-to-body temperature difference and the instrument offset at night and presented possible corrections for the daytime offsets. Alberta and

177

ARM - Field Campaign - IRSI Inter-Comparison Study  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsIRSI Inter-Comparison Study govCampaignsIRSI Inter-Comparison Study Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : IRSI Inter-Comparison Study 2007.08.27 - 2007.09.23 Lead Scientist : Victor Morris For data sets, see below. Description The principle objective of this campaign was to compare measurements of cloud fraction from different types of commercially available infrared sky imagers (IRSI) and to compare the daytime values with an operational Total Sky Imager (TSI). In 2004, the Radiative Processes working group requested that an infrared sky imaging system be added to our measurement suite to provide a nighttime cloud fraction product. A Blue Sky Imaging Ltd. (BSI) All-Sky Thermal Infrared Camera (ASTIC) was purchased and deployed at the SGP Guest

178

Research Highlight  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Raman Lidar Observations of Aerosol Humidification Near Clouds Raman Lidar Observations of Aerosol Humidification Near Clouds Submitter: Ferrare, R. A., NASA - Langley Research Center Area of Research: Aerosol Properties Working Group(s): Aerosol Journal Reference: Ferrare, R., et al., Evaluation of Daytime Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor Made by an Operational Raman Lidar over the Southern Great Plains, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05S08, doi:10.1029/2005JD005836, 2006. Relative humidity profiles derived from the Raman lidar during the ALIVE 2005 field experiment. Aerosol extinction profiles derived from the Raman lidar during the ALIVE 2005 field experiment. Aerosol humidification factor f(RH) from Raman lidar measured profiles of aerosol extinction and relative humidity. Upgrades to the Raman lidar at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF)

179

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

January 28, 2002 January 28, 2002 Natural gas prices generally declined last week as mild temperatures continued in most of the country and working gas storage stocks remain at very high levels. Spot prices at most major markets that serve the eastern two-thirds of the country ended the week down from the previous Friday with weather forecasts for the past weekend calling for daytime temperatures to be in the mid 50s to the low 60s in an area stretching from Chicago to Boston. At the Henry Hub prices moved down 9 cents on Friday to end at $2.04 per MMBtu--$0.25 below the previous Friday. The National Weather Service's (NWS) latest 6- to 10-day forecast is calling for above normal temperatures to continue through this week in most areas east of the Mississippi River. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) At the NYMEX

180

Sweden Building 05K0080 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search Start Page General Information Year of construction 1988 Category Office Boundaries One building Ownership Category Private company Total floor area (BRA), m2 9619.0 OID, m2 9907.0 Interior height, m 2.8 Year of construction 1 (taxation year) 1988 Year of construction 2 (Year of construction) 1988 County Skåne County, Sweden Mean annual temperature during the calculation period[1] 8.65833333333 Mean annual temperature at the site 8.2 Start of the period (first day of the month) 2004/01/01 End of the period (last day of the month) 2004/12/01 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Areas by category, m2 (Gross Floor Area) - Offices 5727.0 - Daytime health services 117.0 - Schools, including child day-care centres 687.0 - Unheated but rented-out premises (garages) < 10 °C 2000.0

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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181

Thermal characteristics of a classical solar telescope primary mirror  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a detailed thermal and structural analysis of a 2m class solar telescope mirror which is subjected to a varying heat load at an observatory site. A 3-dimensional heat transfer model of the mirror takes into account the heating caused by a smooth and gradual increase of the solar flux during the day-time observations and cooling resulting from the exponentially decaying ambient temperature at night. The thermal and structural response of two competing materials for optical telescopes, namely Silicon Carbide -best known for excellent heat conductivity and Zerodur -preferred for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion, is investigated in detail. The insight gained from these simulations will provide a valuable input for devising an efficient and stable thermal control system for the primary mirror.

Banyal, Ravinder K

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The Cost of Carbon Capture and Storage for Natural Gas Combined Cycle Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Historically, natural gas has been used to provide peak-load power at a relatively high cost per kilowatt-hour during the daytime intervals when electricity demands peak and cannot be supplied wholly by baseload generators. ... (1) This share is projected to grow to 47% by 2035, with natural gas accounting for 60% of new generating capacity additions between 2010 and 2035 in the Department of Energy’s reference case scenario. ... To answer this question we use the LCOE results above to generate a probabilistic difference in cost, recognizing that some parameters should have the same value for plants with and without CCS, such as the power block capital cost, natural gas price, and the plant labor rate. ...

Edward S. Rubin; Haibo Zhai

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

183

System Demand-Side Management: Regional results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the Bonneville Power Administration's (Bonneville's) ability to analyze the value and impacts of demand-side programs, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed and implemented the System Demand-Side Management (SDSM) model, a microcomputer-based model of the Pacific Northwest Public Power system. This document outlines the development and application of the SDSM model, which is an hourly model. Hourly analysis makes it possible to examine the change in marginal revenues and marginal costs that accrue from the movement of energy consumption from daytime to nighttime. It also allows a more insightful analysis of programs such as water heater control in the context of hydroelectric-based generation system. 7 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

Englin, J.E.; Sands, R.D.; De Steese, J.G.; Marsh, S.J.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Concentrating Solar Power: Technology Overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) has the potential to contribute significantly to the generation of electricity by renewable energy resources in the U.S.. Thermal storage can extend the duty cycle of CSP beyond daytime hours to early evening where the value of electricity is often the highest. The potential solar resource for the southwest U.S. is identified, along with the need to add power lines to bring the power to consumers. CSP plants in the U.S. and abroad are described. The CSP cost of electricity at the busbar is discussed. With current incentives, CSP is approaching competiveness with conventional gas-fired systems during peak-demand hours when the price of electricity is the highest. It is projected that a mature CSP industry of over 4 GWe will be able to reduce the energy cost by about 50%, and that U.S. capacity could be 120 GW by 2050.

Mehos, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Light  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sunlight contains energy which can be directly converted into electricity in solar cells of various types. This is an example of what is called 'direct conversion', involving no moving parts or heat conversion processes. This chapter looks at photovoltaic and photoelectric devices and also at other ideas for using light energy, some of which operate in the infrared part of the spectrum. Solar electric power is a rapidly developing field, opening up many opportunities for novel applications, as well as requirements, including for storage, with one idea being solar-powered hydrogen production and then direct conversion to electricity in fuel cells. Direct conversion is not always efficient, and this chapter introduces the concept of 'energy return on energy invested'. In speculative mood this chapter also looks at the idea of a global grid, allowing daytime solar generation to be used on the night side of the planet.

David Elliott ? Pages 4-1 to 4-20

186

Concentrating Solar Power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) has the potential to contribute significantly to the generation of electricity by renewable energy resources in the U.S.. Thermal storage can extend the duty cycle of CSP beyond daytime hours to early evening where the value of electricity is often the highest. The potential solar resource for the southwest U.S. is identified along with the need to add power lines to bring the power to consumers. CSP plants in the U.S. and abroad are described. The CSP cost of electricity at the busbar is discussed. With current incentives CSP is approaching competiveness with conventional gas?fired systems during peak?demand hours when the price of electricity is the highest. It is projected that a mature CSP industry of over 4 GWe will be able to reduce the energy cost by about 50% and that U.S. capacity could be 120 GW by 2050.

Mark Mehos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Satellite thermal observation of oil slicks on the Persian Gulf  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A possibility of oil slicks detection is discussed for oil slicks spread in the vicinity of the Nowruz oil fields in the Persian Gulf since March 1983 to July 1983 with considering an apparent thermal inertia. The apparent thermal was computed from continuous observations of sea surface temperature and albedo by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-7 through day and night with 12 h interval. The apparent thermal inertia is defined as a function of a temperature difference between the daytime and the nighttime and an apparent albedo. Sea surface temperature used for computing the apparent thermal inertia was obtained through an atmospheric correction with an empirical equation which uses an energy difference between two thermal channels of the AVHRR. Although there was an ambiguity on a selection of same object on water body, the computed apparent thermal inertia showed the possibility of oil slicks detection from sea water. 17 references.

Asanuma, I.; Muneyama, K.; Sasaki, Y.; Iisaka, J.; Yasuda, Y.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Phase sensor for solar adaptive-optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wavefront sensing in solar adaptive-optics is currently done with correlating Shack-Hartmann sensors, although the spatial- and temporal-resolutions of the phase measurements are then limited by the extremely fast computing required to correlate the sensor signals at the frequencies of daytime atmospheric-fluctuations. To avoid this limitation, a new wavefront-sensing technique is presented, that makes use of the solar brightness and is applicable to extended sources. The wavefront is sent through a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A small, central part of the wavefront is used as reference and is made to interfere with the rest of the wavefront. The contrast of two simultaneously measured interference-patterns provides a direct estimate of the wavefront phase, no additional computation being required. The proposed optical layout shows precise initial alignment to be the critical point in implementing the new wavefront-sensing scheme.

Kellerer, Aglae

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River, September 1992. Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the end of summer in 1992 the fishery of the Great Miami River took an unexpected deviation from the stasis of past years as an intense suspended algal bloom decreased the compositional diversity found at the lower GMR stations. Daytime supersaturation of oxygen and elevated pHs, reaching 9 by midday during the month of August, undoubtedly caused severe deficits of oxygen at night. Despite the aeration at every riffle, the intensities of the biological processes in the water were sufficient to cause very high positive and negative excursions of oxygen over the day and night cycle. This report documents a fish harvest that was conducted as part of the oxygen excess/deficit study.

Miller, M.C.; Bixby, R.; Engman, J.; Ross, L.; Stocker, L. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Energy saving in lighting system with fuzzy logic controller which uses light-pipe and dimmable ballast  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Approximately, 20% of the electricity consumed in the world is spent for lighting. More efficient utilization of the sun, as a natural source of light, for lighting would save electricity used for lighting. The aim of this study is to illuminate a windowless room via a light-pipe and dimmable electronic ballasts. Light-pipe is used for the illumination of the space during the daytime. In case of inadequate daylight, artificial lighting is made via dimmable electronic ballasts and fluorescence lamps. Artificial lighting is supervised by a fuzzy logic control system to keep the illumination level at 350 lux. When there is a motion in the room, the system works with the message of the motion sensor, which, thereby, enables energy saving. Additionally, dimming the lamps result in conversation of the electrical energy used for illumination. After the experimental studies, 350 lux value targeted in the work plane is achieved with ±10 lux error.

Sertaç Görgülü; Nazmi Ekren

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Invention disclosure: modular passive solar walls with swivel types of insulation systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention comprises means of controlling the insulation and radiation of passive solar thermal storage columns for heating and cooling of homes and other structures. In one embodiment rotatable insulating panels control the exposure of round thermal storage columns to daytime sunlight and the nighttime sky. In a second embodiment the rotatable insulating panels are positioned in concave depressions formed in vertical thermal storage columns. These columns include individual thermal convection means formed therein and are particularly suited to precast concrete or masonry construction. The initial experimental test results of the first embodiment of the invention have been included in this report, and this invention has been studied as a possible application for the City of Ann Arbor retrofit housing project. The preliminary test results of the prototype have been achieved and reported.

Lee, K.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One fundamental property and limitation of grid based models is their inability to identify spatial details smaller than the grid cell size. While decades of work have gone into developing sub-grid treatments for clouds and land surface processes in climate models, the quantitative understanding of sub-grid processes and variability for aerosols and their precursors is much poorer. In this study, WRF-Chem is used to simulate the trace gases and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenarios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid variability (SGV) of trace gases and aerosols within a typical global climate model grid cell, i.e. 75x75 km2. Our results suggest that a simulation with 3-km horizontal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols downwind of Mexico City, while 75-km horizontal grid spacing is insufficient to represent local emission and terrain-induced flows along the mountain ridge, subsequently affecting the transport and mixing of plumes from nearby sources. Therefore, the coarse model grid cell average may not correctly represent aerosol properties measured over polluted areas. Probability density functions (PDFs) for trace gases and aerosols show that secondary trace gases and aerosols, such as O3, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, are more likely to have a relatively uniform probability distribution (i.e. smaller SGV) over a narrow range of concentration values. Mostly inert and long-lived trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC, are more likely to have broad and skewed distributions (i.e. larger SGV) over polluted regions. Over remote areas, all trace gases and aerosols are more uniformly distributed compared to polluted areas. Both CO and O3 SGV vertical profiles are nearly constant within the PBL during daytime, indicating that trace gases are very efficiently transported and mixed vertically by turbulence. But, simulated horizontal variability indicates that trace gases and aerosols are not well mixed horizontally in the PBL. During nighttime the SGV for trace gases is maximum at the surface, and quickly decreases with height. Unlike the trace gases, the SGV of BC and secondary aerosols reaches a maximum at the PBL top during the day. The SGV decreases with distance away from the polluted urban area, has a more rapid decrease for long-lived trace gases and aerosols than for secondary ones, and is greater during daytime than nighttime. The SGV of trace gases and aerosols is generally larger than for meteorological quantities. Emissions can account for up to 50% of the SGV over urban areas such as Mexico City during daytime for less-reactive trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC. The impact of emission spatial variability on SGV decays with altitude in the PBL and is insignificant in the free troposphere. The emission variability affects SGV more significantly during daytime (rather than nighttime) and over urban (rather than rural or remote) areas. The terrain, through its impact on meteorological fields such as wind and the PBL structure, affects dispersion and transport of trace gases and aerosols and their SGV.

Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.

2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

193

Survey Simulations of an New Near-Earth Asteroid Detection System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have carried out simulations to predict the performance of a new space-based telescopic survey operating at thermal infrared wavelengths that seeks to discover and characterize a large fraction of the potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. Two potential architectures for the survey were considered: one located at the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point, and one in a Venus-trailing orbit. A sample cadence was formulated and tested, allowing for the self-follow-up necessary for objects discovered in the daytime sky on Earth. Synthetic populations of NEAs with sizes >=140 m in effective spherical diameter were simulated using recent determinations of their physical and orbital properties. Estimates of the instrumental sensitivity, integration times, and slew speeds were included for both architectures assuming the properties of new large-format 10 um detector arrays capable of operating at ~35 K. Our simulation included the creation of a preliminary version of a moving object processing pipeline ...

Mainzer, A; Bauer, J; Conrow, T; Cutri, R M; Dailey, J; Fowler, J; Giorgini, J; Jarrett, T; Masiero, J; Spahr, T; Statler, T; Wright, E L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Seasonal And Decadal Variation of the Mixed Layer Across the ACRF Using RWP Data  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Seasonal And Decadal Variation of the Mixed Layer Seasonal And Decadal Variation of the Mixed Layer Across the ACRF Using RWP Data Richard Coulter, Barry Lesht, and Brad Orr Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL INTRODUCTION The radar wind profilers (RWPs) located at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site have been collecting data for more than a decade at the intermediate facilities (I1: Beaumont, KS; I2: Medicine Lodge, KS; I3 Meeker OK) and 15 years at the Central Facility. They provide a good picture of the temporal and spatial variation across the SGP site over this time period Here we elucidate the variation of the height of the mixed layer (z i ) and precipitation, two parameters that illustrate the potential richness of the wind profiler data beyond wind profiles. Daytime Mixed Layer An automated routine, operating

195

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

an Improved Convective Triggering Mechanism in the NCAR CAM2 an Improved Convective Triggering Mechanism in the NCAR CAM2 under the CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT) Framework Xie, S.C.(a), Cederwall, R.T.(a), Potter, G.L.(a), Boyle, J.S.(a), Yio, J.J.(a), Zhang, M.H.(b), and Lin, W.Y.(b), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (a), State University of New York at Stony Brook (b) Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting In this study, we implement an improved convective triggering mechanism, which was developed by Xie and Zhang [2000] based on the ARM observations and Single-Column Model (SCM) tests, in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM2) in order to reduce the problem that the model produces excessive warm season daytime precipitation over land. This problem is closely

196

Intermittent cathodic protection using solar power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An intermittent impressed current cathodic protection technique using photovoltaic energy was evaluated to determine it`s ability to protect bridge concrete piles in marine environments against corrosion. The technique uses commercially available anode systems to deliver the cathodic protection current to the concrete and onto the reinforcing steel. Cathodic protection current is only applied during the daytime hours. The magnitude of the applied current was based on sunlight availability. An evaluation was conducted on laboratory specimens as well as in the field. The laboratory work was performed on steel reinforced concrete specimens placed in simulated salt water tanks. For the field evaluation, ten prestressed concrete piles of a bridge structure with an existing rectifier powered cathodic protection system were used. In both cases, intermittent cathodic protection was provided. Polarization and depolarization of the steel reinforcement as well as the protection current delivered were monitored to evaluate the cathodic protection performance as well as the behavior of periodic polarization-depolarization.

Kessler, R.J.; Powers, R.G.; Lasa, I.R. [Florida Dept. of Transportation, Gainesville, FL (United States). Corrosion Research Lab.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Studying the feedback effects of aerosols on ozone and temperatures in Los Angeles with an Eulerian air pollution model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Eulerian air pollution model (GATOR/MMTD) was used to study the effects of aerosols on surface solar radiation, surface air temperatures, and ozone mixing ratios. Model results were also compared to data from the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS) period of August 27-29, 1987. Gross errors for sulfate, sodium, light absorption, temperature, surface solar radiation, sulfur dioxide gas, formaldehyde gas, and ozone were lowest among parameters compared (1-40%). Gross errors for elemental carbon, organic carbon, total particulate mass, ammonium, ammonia gas, nitric acid gas, and light scattering, were larger (40-61%). Gross errors for particulate nitrate were largest (65-70%). Doubling of the land-based particulate emissions inventory caused gross errors of total particulate mass and elemental carbon to increase by factors of more than two. Also, setting lateral boundary inflow concentrations of particles to zero caused slight (< 1%) erosion of results for most species, large erosion (10%) for sodium and chloride, but slight improvement (< 1%) for a few species. Spinning up the meteorological model 24 hours in advance caused most gross errors to increase. Finally, model predictions for several parameters, with and without the inclusion of aerosols, were compared to data. The presence of aerosols reduced peak daytime surface solar radiation by approximately 6.4% (55 W m-2), increased night-time temperatures by about 0.77 K, decreased daytime temperatures by about 0.08 K, and increased overall temperatures (day plus night during the two day simulation period) by 0.43 K. The relatively small cooling during the day was due to heat trapping by elemental carbon-containing aerosols. The presence of aerosols also caused ozone mixing ratios to decrease by 2%.

Jacobson, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Satellite-based overshooting top detection methods and an analysis of correlated weather conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper addresses two topics: the possibilities of satellite-based automatic detection of overshooting convective cloud tops and the connection between the overshootings and the occurrence of severe weather on the ground. Because the use of visible images is restricted to daytime, four detection methods based on the Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI 10.8 ?m infra-red window channel and the absorption channels of water vapor (6.2 ?m), ozone (9.7 ?m) and carbon dioxide (13.4 ?m) in the form of brightness temperature differences were used. The theoretical background of all four methods is explained, and the detection results are compared with daytime high?resolution visible (HRV) satellite images to validate each method. Of the four tested methods, the best performance is found for the combination of brightness temperature differences 6.2–10.8 and 9.7–10.8 ?m, which are correlated to overshootings in HRV images in 80% of the cases. The second part of the research is focused on determining whether the appearance of the overshooting top, a manifestation of a very strong updraft in the cloud, can be connected to an abrupt change of certain weather elements on the ground. For all overshooting tops found by the above-mentioned combined method, automatic station data within the range of 0.1° and available hail observations within 0.2° were analyzed. The results show that the overshootings are connected to precipitation in 80% and to wind gusts in 70% of the cases; in contrast, a slightly lower correlation was found for temperature and humidity changes. Hail is observed in the vicinity of the overshooting in 38% of the cases.

Petra Mikuš; Nataša Strelec Mahovi?

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Development of the table of initial isolation distances and protective action distances for the 2004 emergency response guidebook.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides technical documentation for values in the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances (PADs) in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG2004). The objective for choosing the PADs specified in the ERG2004 is to balance the need to adequately protect the public from exposure to potentially harmful substances against the risks and expenses that could result from overreacting to a spill. To quantify this balance, a statistical approach is adopted, whereby the best available information is used to conduct an accident scenario analysis and develop a set of up to 1,000,000 hypothetical incidents. The set accounts for differences in containers types, incident types, accident severity (i.e., amounts released), locations, times of day, times of year, and meteorological conditions. Each scenario is analyzed using detailed emission rate and atmospheric dispersion models to calculate the downwind chemical concentrations from which a 'safe distance' is determined. The safe distance is defined as the distance downwind from the source at which the chemical concentration falls below health protection criteria. The American Industrial Hygiene Association's Emergency Response Planning Guideline Level 2 (ERPG-2) or equivalent is the health criteria used. The statistical sample of safe distance values for all incidents considered in the analysis are separated into four categories: small spill/daytime release, small spill/nighttime release, large spill/daytime release, and large spill/nighttime release. The 90th-percentile safe distance values for each of these groups became the PADs that appear in the ERG2004.

Brown, D. F.; Freeman, W. A.; Carhart, R. A.; Krumpolc, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

200

Undisturbed and disturbed above canopy ponderosa pine emissions: PTR-TOF-MS measurements and MEGAN 2.1 model results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the first eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (PTR-TOFMS) above a ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA. The high mass resolution of the PTR-TOF-MS enabled the identification of chemical sum formulas. During a 30 day measurement period in August and September 2010, 649 different ion mass peaks were detected in the ambient air mass spectrum (including primary ions and mass calibration ompounds). Eddy covariance with the vertical wind speed was calculated for all ion mass peaks. On a typical day, 17 ion mass peaks including protonated parent compounds, their fragments and isotopes as well as VOC-H+-water clusters showed a significant flux with daytime average emissions above a reliable flux threshold of 0.1mgcompoundm?2 h?1. These ion mass peaks could be assigned to seven compound classes. The main flux contributions during daytime (10:00-18:00 LT) are attributed to the sum of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and isoprene (50 %), methanol (12%), the sum of acetic acid and glycolaldehyde (10%) and the sum of monoterpenes (10 %). The total MBO+isoprene flux was composed of 10% isoprene and 90% MBO. There was good agreement between the light and temperature dependency of the sum of MBO and isoprene observed for this work and those of earlier studies. The above canopy flux measurements of the sum of MBO and isoprene and the sum of 20 monoterpenes were compared to emissions calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN 2.1). The best agreement between MEGAN 2.1 and measurements was reached using emission factors determined from site specific leaf cuvette measurements. While the modelled and measured MBO+isoprene fluxes agree well the emissions of the sum of monoterpenes is underestimated by MEGAN 2.1. This is expected as some factors impacting monoterpene emissions, such as physical damage of needles and branches due to storms, are not included in MEGAN 2.1.

Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Graus, M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Turnipseed, A.; Fischer, L.; Harley, P.; Madronich, M.; Gochis, David; Keutsch, Frank N.; Hansel, A.

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Data:Af3b1397-f479-491a-868a-c7767a15b987 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Af3b1397-f479-491a-868a-c7767a15b987 Af3b1397-f479-491a-868a-c7767a15b987 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W High Pressure Sodium -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

202

Data:B907a47a-2ebd-4252-a342-e22c259b938b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7a47a-2ebd-4252-a342-e22c259b938b 7a47a-2ebd-4252-a342-e22c259b938b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W Metal Halide, Flood -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

203

Data:1cab31fd-2325-43b6-a85b-617baee6ff66 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cab31fd-2325-43b6-a85b-617baee6ff66 cab31fd-2325-43b6-a85b-617baee6ff66 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W Metal Halide, Flood -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

204

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monday, January 28, 2002 Monday, January 28, 2002 Natural gas prices generally declined last week as mild temperatures continued in most of the country and working gas storage stocks remain at very high levels. Spot prices at most major markets that serve the eastern two-thirds of the country ended the week down from the previous Friday with weather forecasts for the past weekend calling for daytime temperatures to be in the mid 50s to the low 60s in an area stretching from Chicago to Boston. At the Henry Hub prices moved down 9 cents on Friday to end at $2.04 per MMBtu--$0.25 below the previous Friday. The National Weather Service's (NWS) latest 6- to 10-day forecast is calling for above normal temperatures to continue through this week in most areas east of the Mississippi River. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) At the NYMEX futures market, the February contract continued to trend down as it ended the week trading at $2.037 per MMBtu-off almost $0.20 from previous Friday. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil gained almost $1.80 per barrel reaching $19.80 on Friday or about $3.40 per MMBtu.

205

Data:9a164f94-b9bb-4654-bc28-435c307feeca | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4f94-b9bb-4654-bc28-435c307feeca 4f94-b9bb-4654-bc28-435c307feeca No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 100W High Pressure Sodium -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

206

Data:3bf8d2f5-7573-4b55-9b97-6996759ffaef | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

d2f5-7573-4b55-9b97-6996759ffaef d2f5-7573-4b55-9b97-6996759ffaef No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W High Pressure Sodium, Flood -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

207

Bullfrog Care  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bullfrog Care Bullfrog Care Name: Susan Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: My son Noah, 9, has a bullfrog that he acquired from a catfish pond just outside of Cape Girardeau, MO. He brought it back to SD after a trip to relatives in Oct., 1999. The frog lives in an acquarium in Noah's bedroom. We feed him crickets (dozen at a time) 1 to 2 times per week. We change his water weekly (about 1 inch.) He has a foam pad and a couple smooth big rocks he sits on. We keep the acquarium light on him during the daytime, for warmth. Two days ago, he did not eat his crickets in his usual gobble em up fashion. This evening, we noticed brown spots on his otherwise greenish brown skin. Noah is wondering if he has "frog pox." His father and I are wondering if he is sick. What do you recommend? We can't let him go in the winter. Noah is devoted to keeping him as a pet, so we have a commitment here. Thank you for any help you might give us.

208

Sleeping Birds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sleeping Birds Sleeping Birds Nature Bulletin No. 445-A February 19, 1972 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation SLEEPING BIRDS Each winter, a few years ago, several thousand crows, roosted in the big woods near our house. In daytime they spread out over the countryside to find food but each evening, about sundown, they came streaming back in a continuous parade that took almost an hour to pass. In flocks of dozens or hundreds with scattered birds between, they flew the same route every day. In downstate Illinois, similar flocks roost in overgrown hedgerows of osage orange, isolated groves of timber, or on willow grown islands in large rivers. A much smaller flock still roosts the year-round in our woods. Ordinarily they slip in a little before dusk and settle down quietly but occasionally there is a hullabaloo as if they were squabbling over a favorite perch occupied by some newcomers. Just before dawn, one old bird we call "the bugler" caws three times. A minute or two later he repeats it. Then, one by one, drowsy voices of other crows are heard -- much like human sleepyheads in the morning. Sometimes an alarm call is heard during the night followed by a general clamor as if the flock had been disturbed by a marauding owl, weasel or raccoon. Crows are very wary and, like most birds, light sleepers.

209

Bats  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bats Bats Nature Bulletin No. 147 March 20, 1948 Forest Preserve District of Cook County William N. Erickson, President Roberts Mann, Supt of Conservation BATS Flying squirrels only glide. Bats are the only fur bearing animals that truly fly, and they've been doing it for at least 50 million years Twisting, looping and zig-zagging through the air, at dusk and dawn, they catch flying insects more skillfully than the swallow or the chimney swift. Each twist and turn means another insect caught, A bat can consume one-half its weight in insects in a single twilight. Harmful? No, We have one in Trailside Museum that likes to be handled and fed mealworms. They do not get in women's hair. They do not distribute our kind of bed bugs. They are not blind; even in daytime they see fairly well. But they can fly through timber or the narrow twisting passages of caves in total darkness because they have radar, Bats have large specialized ears, Their squeak is pitched so high that few people can hear it, As they fly they also make a supersonic squeak about 30 times per second and are guided by the echoes bouncing back from obstacles.

210

Data:98de151b-1d5d-4884-9580-551cb0d2045c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

51b-1d5d-4884-9580-551cb0d2045c 51b-1d5d-4884-9580-551cb0d2045c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W Metal Halide, Flood -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

211

Data:208f7ef3-cfb5-4748-a8d8-d569f0491c16 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f7ef3-cfb5-4748-a8d8-d569f0491c16 f7ef3-cfb5-4748-a8d8-d569f0491c16 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W Mercury Vapor -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

212

Data:Eb0ca68b-e5bc-4c3b-8301-737584d9ca18 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ca68b-e5bc-4c3b-8301-737584d9ca18 ca68b-e5bc-4c3b-8301-737584d9ca18 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W High Pressure Sodium -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

213

Data:2e1b1e4c-522d-4ba1-9ec3-c0d78cb0b47e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b1e4c-522d-4ba1-9ec3-c0d78cb0b47e b1e4c-522d-4ba1-9ec3-c0d78cb0b47e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 100W High Pressure Sodium -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

214

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Wednesday, January 02, 2002 Wednesday, January 02, 2002 Spot prices in the Midwest and the East moved up most days during the holiday period as cold weather blanketed much of the area. .(See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) (Temperature map) (Temperature Deviation Map). Prices in Chicago moved close to $3.00 per MMBtu last week, while prices in the New York City area approached $5.00 on the last day of the year. Daytime temperatures early this week in the Northeast remained in the 20s and 30s from Washington, DC to Boston. The National Weather Service is calling for the wintry temperatures to continue through the end of the week in most areas in the eastern two thirds of the country. On the NYMEX, the daily settlement price for the futures contract for February delivery has declined in recent trading as the higher-than-average storage levels continue to be the main contributor to the current strong natural gas supply situation. An estimated 2,992 Bcf remains in storage as of December 21, 2001. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil moved down in last week's trading and ended the year at $19.96 per barrel or $3.44 per MMBtu on Monday.

215

Data:A4986fcc-f75a-404f-9fdc-614db53a03f7 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fcc-f75a-404f-9fdc-614db53a03f7 fcc-f75a-404f-9fdc-614db53a03f7 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W Metal Halide, Flood -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

216

Data:888bfe95-0df0-448d-9acb-571d263e39c2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bfe95-0df0-448d-9acb-571d263e39c2 bfe95-0df0-448d-9acb-571d263e39c2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W High Pressure Sodium, Flood -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

217

Owls  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Owls Owls Nature Bulletin No. 267-A April 29, 1967 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation OWLS The owls, of all our native birds, are least understood. Most kinds remain hidden, motionless and silent during the day and hunt only at night or in the dim twilight of morning and evening. Only a few, like our common Short-eared Owl and those big owls of the far north -- the Snowy Owl, the Great Gray Owl and the Hawk Owl -- habitually hunt in daytime. Because an owl' s feathers are peculiarly soft and fluffy, it flies as silently as a passing shadow, swoops upon its prey unheard, and its Indian name was "hush-wing". Since ancient times there have been many superstitions and legends about these birds. They have been regarded as the companions of sorcerers, witches, ghosts, hobgoblins and Satan himself. Their weird nocturnal hootings, gobblings and screams were and are believed to predict death, illness or disaster. Even today, in our southern states, the plaintive quavering cry of the Little Screech Owl -- which they call the "Shivering" Owl -- will cause some people to get out of bed and turn over their left shoe; others to throw a nail or other iron object into the fire. To the Greeks and Romans, the owl was a symbol of wisdom and was the companion of their goddess of wisdom.

218

Data:D2feacd8-36c3-4655-b59c-579941a8eee4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

feacd8-36c3-4655-b59c-579941a8eee4 feacd8-36c3-4655-b59c-579941a8eee4 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W High Pressure Sodium, Flood -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

219

Data:90d8a14a-f202-49a6-9479-1b4082c4c939 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a14a-f202-49a6-9479-1b4082c4c939 a14a-f202-49a6-9479-1b4082c4c939 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W High Pressure Sodium, Flood -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

220

Data:7db38318-eb0e-4353-a5ba-5bf16d3e63e4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

db38318-eb0e-4353-a5ba-5bf16d3e63e4 db38318-eb0e-4353-a5ba-5bf16d3e63e4 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 175W Mercury Vapor -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year$^{-1}$ and 12.5 year$^{-1}$. We have previously found these oscillations in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and we have suggested that these oscillations are attributable to some form of solar radiation that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. This may be a systematic effect but, if it is not, this property should help narrow the theoretical options for the mechanism responsible for decay-rate variability.

Peter A. Sturrock; Gideon Steinitz; Ephraim Fischbach; Daniel Javorsek, II; Jere H. Jenkins

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Solar Site Survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telecope. I. Analysis of the Seeing Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope concluded recently after more than two years of data gathering and analysis. Six locations, including lake, island and continental sites, were thoroughly probed for image quality and sky brightness. The present paper describes the analysis methodology employed to determine the height stratification of the atmospheric turbulence. This information is crucial because day-time seeing is often very different between the actual telescope aperture (~30 m) and the ground. Two independent inversion codes have been developed to analyze simultaneously data from a scintillometer array and a solar differential image monitor. We show here the results of applying them to a sample subset of data from May 2003, which was used for testing. Both codes retrieve a similar seeing stratification through the height range of interest. A quantitative comparison between our analysis procedure and actual in situ measurements confirms the validity of the inversions. The sample data presented in this paper reveal a qualitatively different behavior for the lake sites (dominated by high-altitude seeing) and the rest (dominated by near-ground turbulence).

H. Socas-Navarro; J. Beckers; P. Brandt; J. Briggs; T. Brown; W. Brown; M. Collados; C. Denker; S. Fletcher; S. Hegwer; F. Hill; T. Horst; M. Komsa; J. Kuhn; A. Lecinski; H. Lin; S. Oncley; M. Penn; T. Rimmele; K. Streander

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

Evaluation of night capable sensors for the detection of oil on water. Final report, May 1993-March 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During May, 1993, the USCG participated in a field exercise conducted at the Canadian Forces Base, Petawawa, Canada. Environment Canada set up a test facility that consisted of a lined pool separated into twelve individual tanks. Four types of petroleum products were added to nine of the tanks while three tanks were left clean as control tanks. The field exercise provided an opportunity to evaluate several night-capable sensors for detection of oil slicks on water. The USCG evaluated the day and night imaging capabilities of long wave infrared (LWIR) sensors (FLIR 2000, WF-360TL, and RS- 18C) installed on three Coast Guard aircraft. Three commercially-available hand-held medium wave infrared (MWIR) sensors (AGEMA Thermovision 210, FSI PRISM, and IRC-160ST) were also evaluated. Surface truth data were collected at the test site and through the use of visible-spectrum imagers (S-VHS camcorder and WF-360TL TV camera - day and Dark Invader Owl NVG camcorder night). Sensor imagery was recorded to S-VHS tape format for post exercise review and processing Analysis of the images confirmed several aspects of expected phenomenology. Both IR and visible spectrum sensors were readily able to detect the oil slicks during daytime sorties. Infrared, Infrared images, Long wave infrared, Medium wave infrared, Night vision goggles, Oil slick detection, visible spectrum, Remote sensing of oil slicks.

Hover, G.L.; Plourde, J.V.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Dinelli, B. M. [ISAC-CNR, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E. [IAPS-INAF, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Moriconi, M. L. [ISAC-CNR, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: puertas@iaa.es [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

A critical comparison of ionospheric depletion chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Six chemicals, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, SF{sub 6}, CF{sub 3}BR, and Ni(CO){sub 4}, are considered as ionospheric modification agents. Each of these species reacts in the F region to produce localized plasma depletions. The first three interact with O{sup +} and yield polyatomic ions which dissociatively recombine with electrons to give neutrals. The last three dissociatively attach electrons to produce heavy negative ions which become mutually neutralized by reactions with O{sup +}. The effectiveness of these chemicals depends on the amount which goes into the vapor state upon release. Thermodynamic calculations show that H{sub 2}O has the lowest vapor yield of about 20% from a heated, pressurized tank. Over 60% of the other substances should be vented in gaseous form. Based on estimates of plasma density reduction and airglow stimulation, nickel carbonyl is the most efficient of the six species for modifying the nighttime ionosphere. During the daytime, CF{sub 3}BR and SF{sub 6} provide the largest depletions.

Bernhardt, P.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Trends and variations in the baseline soundscape of America’s first offshore wind farm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the development of Cape Wind Nantucket Sound Massachusetts may become home to America’s first offshore wind farm. The goal of this ongoing project is to establish the baseline (pre-construction) soundscape of anthropogenic and biological activity including diel and seasonal variability of various sound types at the construction site and nearby comparison sites. Acoustic recorders have been deployed since April 2012 recording on a 10% duty cycle (sample rate: 80 kHz). Multiple fish sounds have been identified with the predominant signals attributed to cusk eels (Family Ophidiidae). Cusk eel sounds consist of a series of pulses with energy between 400 and 2500 Hz. They are detectable from April to October with dense choruses occurring during the summer months. Sound energy levels during these choruses increased near the hours of sunrise and sunset. Vessel traffic also showed diel and seasonal trends with peaks during the daytime and in the summer. These trends in biological and human activity provide key baseline records for evaluating the possible influence of wind farm construction and operation on a local US soundscape.

T Aran Mooney; Maxwell B. Kaplan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Passive acoustic monitoring of biological and anthropogenic sounds at America’s first offshore wind farm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cape Wind situated in Nantucket Sound Massachusetts is poised to become America’s first offshore windfarm. Our objective is to establish baseline (pre-construction) sound levels of human and biological activity including diel and seasonal variability of various sound types at the construction site and three nearby comparison sites. Acoustic recorders have been deployed since April 2012 recording on a 10% duty cycle (sample rate: 80 kHz). Biological contributions to the local soundscape are primarily fish sounds with the dominant signal likely being cusk eel (Family Ophidiidae) calls. These calls which are composed of stereotyped pulses with an average bout duration of 3.3 ±0.8 s and mean peak frequency of 1030 ±200 Hz show both seasonal and diel variation. Dense choruses were detected during summer (July) but limited activity occurred in the fall and winter. During vocal periods detections occurred throughout the day but peaked near dusk. Vessel traffic also showed diel and seasonal trends with peaks during the daytime and in the summer which indicates that boat activity can be tracked acoustically. These trends in biological and anthropogenic activity provide key baseline records for evaluating the influence of windfarm construction and operation on a local US soundscape.

T. Aran Mooney; Maxwell B. Kaplan; Luca Lamoni; Aimee Boucher; Laela S. Sayigh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Idaho field experiment 1981. Volume 2: measurement data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in southeastern Idaho over the upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were conducted between July 15 and 30, 1981. Releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made for 8-hour periods from 46m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24km square. Also, a single total integrated sample of about 30 hours duration was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72km square (using 6km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plume releases were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were collected. Volume II lists the data in tabular form or cites the special supplemental reports by other participating contractors. While the primary user file and the data archive are maintained on 9 track/1600 cpi magnetic tapes, listings of the individual values are provided for the user who either cannot utilize the tapes or wishes to preview the data. The accuracies and quality of these data are described.

Start, G E; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R; Cate, J H; Hukari, N F; Dickson, C R

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Receptor modeling assessment of particle total exposure assessment methodology data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data from the 1991 Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) study in Riverside, CA, were analyzed using a new receptor modeling method. In this study, ambient (outdoor), indoor, and personal particulate matter (PM) concentrations and elemental concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} were measured for a number of participants. These measurements made is possible to relate the pollution to which people were exposed throughout their daily activities with the outdoor air conditions. Personal daytime concentrations of the PM{sub 10} and majority of elements were significantly higher than outdoor or indoor concentrations, suggesting that a significant part of personal aerosol exposure is the result of personal daily activities. Possible sources of additional particulate mass include resuspension of particles that penetrate from the outdoors and formation of new particles during cooking, smoking, etc. Positive matrix factorization analysis was performed to describe the sources of personal exposure. To identify relative contribution of different sources, regression of the particulate matter mass against the factor contributions was performed. Major sources of PM{sub 2.5} were oil combustion, nonferrous metal operations, and motor vehicles. The mass contributions of particles from these sources were similar for outdoor air and personal exposure. Personal exposure to particles from these sources can be controlled by changing outdoor sources. The primary source of PM{sub 10} was soil.

Yakovleva, E.; Hopke, P.K.; Wallace, L.

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (-0.15 to -0.25 C.decade{sup -1}), which corresponds to a cooling estimated at -2.0 - -3.3 C since the introduction of irrigation practice. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (-0.06 to -0.19 C.decade{sup -1}). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for most irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broadscale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide roughly 40% of global food production.

Bonfils, C; Lobell, D

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

233

Agent-based Large-Scale Emergency Evacuation Using Real-Time Open Government Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The open government initiatives have provided tremendous data resources for the transportation system and emergency services in urban areas. This paper proposes a traffic simulation framework using high temporal resolution demographic data and real time open government data for evacuation planning and operation. A comparison study using real-world data in Seattle, Washington is conducted to evaluate the framework accuracy and evacuation efficiency. The successful simulations of selected area prove the concept to take advantage open government data, open source data, and high resolution demographic data in emergency management domain. There are two aspects of parameters considered in this study: user equilibrium (UE) conditions of traffic assignment model (simple Non-UE vs. iterative UE) and data temporal resolution (Daytime vs. Nighttime). Evacuation arrival rate, average travel time, and computation time are adopted as Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) for evacuation performance analysis. The temporal resolution of demographic data has significant impacts on urban transportation dynamics during evacuation scenarios. Better evacuation performance estimation can be approached by integrating both Non-UE and UE scenarios. The new framework shows flexibility in implementing different evacuation strategies and accuracy in evacuation performance. The use of this framework can be explored to day-to-day traffic assignment to support daily traffic operations.

Lu, Wei [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Day, night and all-weather security surveillance automation synergy from combining two powerful technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, night-time and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics. (authors)

Morellas, Vassilios; Johnson, Andrew [Honeywell Labs, 3660, Technology Drive, Minneapolis MN 5518 (United States); Johnston, Chris [Honeywell ACS, 1985 Douglas Drive North, Golden Valley MN 55422 (United States); Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L. [L-3 Communications Infrared Products, 13532 N. Central Expressway, Dallas TX 75243 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

Not Available

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Comparison of two techniques for the simulation of PV systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For several years, MIT Lincoln Laboratory has conducted computer simulations of the performance of photovoltaic solar energy systems in order to size system components, to define designs of potential economic feasibility, to test various control schemes, and to monitor the performance of working systems in the field. When used as an aid-to-design, these hourly simulations step through a full year's worth of insolation and weather data at a specific geographical site. These data are available on computer tapes in the SOLMET format from the National Climatic Center. More recently, a simulation technique has been developed that does not require marching through time but instead works with probability-density functions of daily values of insolation and load as inputs while still providing estimates of the usual measures of system performance (e.g., auxiliary energy required, surplus energy thrown away, fraction of load displaced). Results obtained compare well with results previously obtained from an hourly simulation of a daytime radio station. This technique may be used to study the effect on system performance of varying degrees of correlation of load with insolation and to test the sensitivity of economic analyses to variations in utility escalation rate (discounted for inflation), PV module and balance-of-system costs.

Bucciarelli, L.L.; Grossman, B.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

MISOLFA solar monitor for the ground PICARD program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developed at the Observatoire de la C\\^ote d'Azur (OCA) within the framework of the PICARD space mission (Thuillier et al., 2006) and with support from the french spatial agency (CNES), MISOLFA (Moniteur d'Images Solaires Franco-Alg\\'erien) is a new generation of daytime turbulence monitor. Its objective is to measure both the spatial and temporal turbulence parameters in order to quantify their effects on the solar diameter measurements that will be made from ground using the qualification model of the SODISM (SOlar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper) instrument onboard PICARD. The comparison of simultaneous images from ground and space should allow us, with the help of the solar monitor, to find the best procedure possible to measure solar diameter variations from ground on the long term. MISOLFA is now installed at the Calern facility of OCA and PICARD is scheduled to be launched in 2010. We present here the principles of the instrument and the first results obtained on the characteristics of the turbulenc...

Corbard, T; Assus, P; Dufour, C; Fodil, M; Morand, F; Renaud, C; Simon, E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

In-Situ Monitoring of Trace Gases in a Non-Urban Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of commercial instruments measuring carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides [nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and odd nitrogens (NOX)] was integrated and deployed in a non–urban environment. The deployment occurred between July 2, 2007 and August 7, 2007 in Richland, WA. The mixing ratios of all species were lower than in most rural–suburban environments, and strong diurnal patterns were observed. NO2 was depleted by photochemically formed ozone during the day and replenished at night as ozone was destroyed. The highest ozone concentration during these episodes was 45 ppb. The overall average was 15 ppb with readings approaching near zero at times. This observation is low compared to average daytime summer readings of 60–80 ppb in highly populated and industrialized urban areas in the Pacific Northwest region. Back?trajectory analysis and prevailing weather conditions both indicated that much of the ozone was transported locally or was produced in–situ. Analysis of SO2 as a tracer for O3 advection further indicated lack of long–range regional transport of pollutants to Richland. We also present results of analysis of high ozone episodes and comparisons relative to other areas in the Pacific Northwest region. These results provide a useful sample data set to study the historical record of air quality in rural Eastern Washington.

Mioduszewski, John R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Morris, Victor R.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Flaherty, Julia E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Classification of behavior using vocalizations of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens)a)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surface behavior and concurrent underwater vocalizations were recorded for Pacific white-sided dolphins in the Southern California Bight (SCB) over multiple field seasons spanning 3 years. Clicks click trains and pulsed calls were counted and classified based on acoustic measurements leading to the identification of 19 key call features used for analysis. Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated that call features differ significantly across behavioral categories. Previous work had discovered two distinctive click Types (A and B) which may correspond to known subpopulations of Pacific white-side dolphins in the Southern California Bight; this study revealed that animals producing these different click types also differ in both their behavior and vocalizationpatterns. Click Type A groups were predominantly observed slow traveling and milling with little daytime foraging while click Type B groups were observed traveling and foraging. These behavioral differences may be characteristic of niche partitioning by overlapping populations; coupled with differences in vocalizationpatterns they may signify that these subpopulations are cryptic species. Finally random forest decision trees were used to classify behavior based on vocalization data with rates of correct classification up to 86% demonstrating the potential for the use of vocalizationpatterns to predict behavior.

E. Elizabeth Henderson; John A. Hildebrand; Michael H. Smith

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Raman lidar profiling of water vapor and aerosols over the ARM SGP Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. The Raman lidar sytem is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols. These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. The authors have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

Ferrare, R.A.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. This Raman lidar system is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols (Goldsmith et al., 1998). These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. We have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (Feltz et al., 1998; Turner et al., 1999). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

FERRARE,R.A.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

242

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

243

Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

245

Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

None

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

246

Quality-Controlled Upper-Air Sounding Dataset for DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE: Development and Corrections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The upper-air sounding network for DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation or MJO) has provided an unprecedented set of observations for studying the MJO over the Indian Ocean (IO) where coupling of this oscillation with deep convection first occurs. With 72 sounding sites and dropsonde data from 13 aircraft mission, the sonde network covers the tropics from Eastern African to the West Pacific. In total nearly 26,000 sondes were collected from this network during the experiment’s 6-month extended observing period (from October 2011 to March 2012). Slightly more than half of the sondes, collected from 33 sites, are at high vertical resolution. Rigorous post-field phase processing of the sonde data included several levels of quality checks and a variety of corrections which address a number of issues (e.g., daytime dry bias, baseline surface data errors, ship deck-heating effects, artificial dry spikes in slow ascent sondes). Because of the importance of an accurate description of the moisture field in meeting the scientific goals of the experiments, particular attention is given to humidity correction and its validation. The humidity corrections, though small relative to some previous field campaigns, produced high fidelity moisture analyses in which sonde precipitable water compared well with independent estimates. An assessment of model operational analyses moisture using corrected sonde data shows an overall good agreement with the exception at upper-levels where model moisture and clouds are more abundant than the sounding data would indicate.

Ciesielski, Paul; Yu, Hungjui; Johnson, Richard; Yoneyama, Kunio; Katsumata, Masaki; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Junhong; Loehrer, Scot; Young, Kate; Williams, S.; Brown, William; Braun, John; Van Hove, Terese

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Shortwave Spectroradiometer (SWS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Shortwave Spectroradiometer (SWS), measures the absolute visible and near infrared spectralradiance (units of watts per meter square per nanometer per steradian) of the zenith directly above the instrument. The SWS is a moderate resolution sensor comprised of two Zeiss spectrometers (MMS 1 NIR enhanced and NIR-PGS 2.2) for visible and near-infrared detection in the wavelength range 350 – 2170 nm. The sampling frequency is 1 Hz. The spectral resolution is 8 nm for the MMS 1 NIR and 12 nm for the NIR-PGS 2.2. The light collector is a narrow field of view (1.4°) collimator at the front end of a high-grade custom-made fiber optic bundle. The SWS does daily daytime measurements. The SWS is located in a darkroom, constructed by Southern Great Plains (SGP) site personnel within the optical trailer, to permit calibrations to be conducted without the necessity of moving the instrument to a different location. Calibrations are performed at regularly scheduled times using the ARM 12” integrating sphere.

Pilewskie, P; Pommier, J

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Chapter 28 - Sleep and the Immune System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

About one-quarter of the population of the United States experiences sleep problems, with the prevalence of at least one insomnia complaint occurring in up to one-third of the population (Ohayon, 1996; Ohayon, 2002). Nearly 10% of all persons fulfill diagnostic criteria for chronic syndromal insomnia characterized by symptoms of insomnia of greater than 6 months duration with difficulties in sleep initiation or maintenance (e.g., greater than 30 minutes awake per night), frequent sleep problems (e.g., greater than three times per week), and associated distress and clinical signifi cant impairments in daytime functioning (e.g., fatigue) (Ancoli-Israel and Cooke, 2005; Ohayon, 2002; Savard and Morin, 2001). Moreover, during the past 90 years the amount of time that we spend sleeping has steadily decreased (Jean-Louis et al, 2000), and average nightly sleep has declined from 9 hours in 1910 to 7 hours in 2002. Together, the high prevalence of insomnia and the curtailment of sleep amounts pose a large economic burden to society with reduced productivity, accidents, behavioral and cognitive consequences, and possibly disease risk (Ancoli-Israel and Cooke, 2005; Lager, 1994).

Mark R. Opp; Jan Born; Michael R. Irwin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Flywheel energy storage using superconducting magnetic bearings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Storage of electrical energy on a utility scale is currently not practicable for most utilities, preventing the full utilization of existing base-load capacity. A potential solution to this problem is Flywheel Energy Storage (FES), made possible by technological developments in high-temperature superconducting materials. Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC), the research arm of Commonwealth Edison Company, and Argonne National Laboratory are implementing a demonstration project to advance the state of the art in high temperature superconductor (HTS) bearing performance and the overall demonstration of efficient Flywheel Energy Storage. Currently, electricity must be used simultaneously with its generation as electrical energy storage is not available for most utilities. Existing storage methods either are dependent on special geography, are too expensive, or are too inefficient. Without energy storage, electric utilities, such as Commonwealth Edison Company, are forced to cycle base load power plants to meet load swings in hourly customer demand. Demand can change by as much as 30% over a 12-hour period and result in significant costs to utilities as power plant output is adjusted to meet these changes. HTS FES systems can reduce demand-based power plant cycling by storing unused nighttime capacity until it is needed to meet daytime demand.

Abboud, R.G. [Commonwealth Research Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Uherka, K.; Hull, J.; Mulcahy, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Near-ground cooling efficacies of trees and high-albedo surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Daytime summer urban heat islands arise when the prevalence of dark-colored surfaces and lack of vegetation make a city warmer than neighboring countryside. Two frequently-proposed summer heat island mitigation measures are to plant trees and to increase the albedo (solar reflectivity) of ground surfaces. This dissertation examines the effects of these measures on the surface temperature of an object near the ground, and on solar heating of air near the ground. Near-ground objects include people, vehicles, and buildings. The variation of the surface temperature of a near-ground object with ground albedo indicates that a rise in ground albedo will cool a near-ground object only if the object`s albedo exceeds a critical value. This critical value of object albedo depends on wind speed, object geometry, and the height of the atmospheric thermal boundary layer. It ranges from 0.15 to 0.37 for a person. If an object has typical albedo of 0.3, increasing the ground albedo by.

Levinson, R.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

Oberbauer, S. F.

2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

252

Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

Lee, Jack M.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

Kurzeja, R.

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

254

Impact of land use change on the local climate over the Tibetan Plateau  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observational data show that the remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) has a significant downward trend over the east Tibetan Plateau (TP), while a warming trend is found in the same area. Further analysis indicates that this warming trend mainly results from the nighttime warming. The Single-Column Atmosphere Model (SCAM) version 3.1 developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is used to investigate the role of land use change in the TP local climate system and isolate the contribution of land use change to the warming. Two sets of SCAM simulations were performed at the Xinghai station that is located near the center of the TP Sanjiang (three rivers) Nature Reserve where the downward LAI trend is largest. These simulations were forced with the high and low LAIs. The modeling results indicate that, when the LAI changes from high to low, the daytime temperature has a slight decrease, while the nighttime temperature increases significantly, which is consistent with the observations. The modeling results further show that the lower surface roughness length plays a significant role in affecting the nighttime temperature increase.

Jin, J.; Lu, S.; Li, S.; Miller, N.L.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Determining window solar heat gain coefficient  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solar heat gain characteristics of fenestration systems impact daytime building energy performance, occupant comfort and utility load demands. A measure of the fraction of available solar energy entering a building interior per unit window area is defined as the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC). Together with a window's thermal transmittance (U-value), the SHGC is used to compare fenestration products, and it allows for the calculation of energy rating number and annual energy performance. The need to measure and compared advances in window technology has led to the development of experimental and analytical methods for the determination of SHGC performance. Several test facilities currently or previously capable of performing SHGC measurements exist worldwide. Results experimentally determined using these facilities have provided design data for handbook tables, and have been instrumental in the development and validation of predictive analytical methods and computer simulation tools. However, these facilities have operated without a standard test procedure for SHGC performance. Consequently, recent efforts have been focused on developing consensus test procedures for the evaluation of window energy performance.

Harrison, S.J.; Wonderen, S.J. van (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Solar Calorimetry Lab.)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Design and simulation of a geothermal–solar combined chimney power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is dominated by the solar radiation, and therefore its discontinuous operation is an unavoidable problem. In this paper, low temperature geothermal water is introduced into the SCPP for overcoming this problem. Based on a developed transient model, theoretical analyses are carried out to investigate the performance of the geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) with main dimensions the same as the Manzanares prototype in Spain. Three operation models, viz. the full solar model, the full geothermal model and the geothermal–solar combined model are compared in typical summer and winter days and throughout the year. It is found that the GSCPP can attractively run in the GSM to deliver power continuously. Due to the ambient-dependant geothermal water outlet temperature, introducing the geothermal water makes greater contribution in winter days than in summer days, in the night than in the daytime. Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. GSM is not the simple superposition of FSM and FGM, but makes better utilization of solar and geothermal energy. In addition, introducing high temperature and mass flow rate geothermal water can doubled and redoubled improve the GSCPP’s power capacity.

Fei Cao; Huashan Li; Qiuming Ma; Liang Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Meteorological Simulations of Ozone Episode Case Days during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on Aug. 13,1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were petiormed using the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model using a 1,2,4, and 8 km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the Aug. 11-13 time period is emphasized in this paper. Comparison of model-produced wind speed profiles to rawirisonde and radar profiler measurements shows reasonable agreement. A persistent upper-level jet was captured in the model simulations through data assimilation. In the evening hours, the model was not able to produce the strong wind direction shear seen in the radar wind profiles. Based on virtual potential temperature profile comparisons, the model appears to correctly simulate the daytime growth of the convective mixed layer. However, the model underestimates the cooling of the surface layer at night. We found that the upper-level jet significantly impacted the turbulence structure of the boundary layer, leading to relatively high turbulent kinetic energy (tke) values aloft at night. The model indicates that these high tke values aloft enhance the mid-morning growth of the boundary layer. No upper-level turbulence measurements were available to verify this finding, however. Radar profiler-derived mixing heights do indicate relatively rapid morning growth of the mixed layer.

Brown, M.J.; Costigan, K.; Muller, C.; Wang, G.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Data:4ed3157d-7ba5-4c44-afbe-dbfad0390461 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

157d-7ba5-4c44-afbe-dbfad0390461 157d-7ba5-4c44-afbe-dbfad0390461 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W Mercury Vapor -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

259

Data:54fbf39f-9e57-4398-9fef-4ed99efe41e8 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Data Data Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Data:54fbf39f-9e57-4398-9fef-4ed99efe41e8 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Pee Dee Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2008/03/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule 7: Security Light Service, 200-Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamps Sector: Lighting Description: Service under this schedule is available in all territory served by the Cooperative, subject to the Cooperative's established Service Rules and Regulations. This schedule is applicable to any consumer of the Cooperative. All facilities necessary for service under this Schedule, including fixtures, lamps, controls, poles, hardware, transformers, conductors, power, and other necessary materials shall be owned and maintained by the Cooperative. Equipment other than that supplied by the Cooperative as standard is not available under this Schedule. The consumer may designate the lamp(s) location, provided it is within a distance that can be reached by a secondary extension from the Cooperative's nearest distribution facilities. Lamps will burn from approximately one-half hour after sunset until approximately one-half hour before sunrise. The Cooperative will replace burned out lamps and otherwise maintain the fixture during regular daytime working hours as soon as possible following notification by the consumer.

260

Data:A720c823-97ef-4e50-8ed2-e8187e45df59 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c823-97ef-4e50-8ed2-e8187e45df59 c823-97ef-4e50-8ed2-e8187e45df59 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 175W Mercury Vapor -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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261

Behavioral responses of cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) to large amounts of coarse woody debris.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hinkleman, Travis M. 2004. MS Thesis. Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. 62 pp. Coarse woody debris (CWD) is any log, snag, or downed branch >10 cm in diameter. As a major structural feature of forest ecosystems, CWD serves as an important habitat component for a variety of organisms. Rodents frequently use CWD for travel routes and daytime refugia. Although rodents are known to use CWD extensively and selectively, the use and selection of CWD by rodents may vary according to the abundance of CWD. The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of CWD abundance on the habitat use patterns of a common terrestrial rodent, the cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus). I tracked cotton mice with fluorescent pigments and radiotelemetry in 6 plots, situated in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands, with manipulated levels of woody debris. Treatment plots had 6x the amount of woody debris as control plots. I determined log use and movement patterns from the paths produced by powder-tracking, and I identified daytime refugia by radio-tracking. Travel along logs was almost exclusively associated with the surface of logs (91%). The proportion of a movement path associated with logs was not the best predictor of path complexity; rather, the sex of the individual was the only significant indicator of relative displacement (i.e., males moved farther from the point of release than females) and vegetation cover was the only significant predictor of mean turning angle (i.e., increasing vegetation cover yielded more convoluted paths). Mice used logs to a greater extent on treatment plots (23.7%) than mice on control plots (4.8%). Mice on treatment plots used logs with less decay, less ground contact, and more bark than logs used by mice on control plots. Differences in log use patterns were largely a result of the attributes of available logs, but mice used logs selectively on treatment plots. Refuges were highly associated with woody debris, including refuges in rotting stumps (65%), root boles (13%), brush piles (8%), and logs (7%). Mice used different frequencies of refuge types between treatments; root bole and brush pile refuges were used more on treatment plots whereas stump and log refuges were used more on control plots. Refuge type, log volume, and tree basal area were significant predictors of refuge selection on control plots whereas refuge type and size were significant predictors of refuge selection on treatment plots. Refuges were significantly more dispersed on treatment plots. Mice used refuges more intensely and switched refuges less in the winter than the summer, regardless of woody debris abundance. The extensive and selective use of logs by cotton mice suggests that logs may be an important resource. However, logs are not a critical habitat component. Over half of the paths on control plots were not associated with logs, and logs were used infrequently as refuges. Nonetheless, refuges were highly associated with woody debris (e.g., stumps, root boles), which suggests that woody debris may be a critical habitat component.

Hinkleman, Travis M.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Data:158847a9-e149-4803-8d41-b98678d1c062 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a9-e149-4803-8d41-b98678d1c062 a9-e149-4803-8d41-b98678d1c062 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Waverly Municipal Elec Utility Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Commercial and Municipal time of Use Service Sector: Commercial Description: Available to small commercial customers and City departmental operations within the service area for service delivered through one meter at one location for normal lighting, power, and supplemental heating purposes. Service requirements cannot exceed 50 kW on this rate. Whenever monthly consumption exceeds 15,000 kWh, a demand meter will be installed to determine whether the customer should be transferred to the General and Municipal Time of Use rate. The customer will be moved to the General and Municipal Time of Use rate if their demand exceeds 50 kW four or more times in any 12 month period. Service is subject to applicable terms and conditions of Waverly Light and Power's electric service Rules of Operation. The rate is designed for customers who can readily switch a substantial portion of their service from daytime operation to nighttime operation, thereby contributing to a reduction of system peak. The service is available on an optional basis to any customer for a minimum of one year.

263

A Modeling Study of Irrigation Effects on Surface Fluxes and Land-Air-Cloud Interactions in the Southern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the authors incorporate an operational-like irrigation scheme into the Noah land surface model as part of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). A series of simulations, with and without irrigation, is conducted over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) for an extremely dry (2006) and wet (2007) year. The results show that including irrigation reduces model bias in soil moisture and surface latent heat (LH) and sensible heat (SH) fluxes, especially during a dry year. Irrigation adds additional water to the surface, leading to changes in the planetary boundary layer. The increase in soil moisture leads to increases in the surface evapotranspiration and near-surface specific humidity but decreases in the SH and surface temperature. Those changes are local and occur during daytime. There is an irrigation-induced decrease in both the lifting condensation level (ZLCL) and mixed-layer depth. The decrease in ZLCL is larger than the decrease in mixed-layer depth, suggesting an increasing probability of shallow clouds. The simulated changes in precipitation induced by irrigation are highly variable in space, and the average precipitation over the SGP region only slightly increases. A high correlation is found among soil moisture, SH, and ZLCL. Larger values of soil moisture in the irrigated simulation due to irrigation in late spring and summer persist into the early fall, suggesting that irrigation-induced soil memory could last a few weeks to months. The results demonstrate the importance of irrigation parameterization for climate studies and improve the process-level understanding on the role of human activity in modulating land–air–cloud interactions.

Qian, Yun; Huang, Maoyi; Yang, Ben; Berg, Larry K.

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

264

Spruce roots under heavy machinery loading in two different soil types  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We studied the influence of soil compaction by heavy machinery (two-wheeled trailer with 0.2 MPa pressure) on spruce roots at two sites in the Moravian Highlands with different soil properties to determine whether soil compaction by loading affects root water uptake. We also analysed the effects of the soil type and water-holding capacity with regards to root structure development. Site Jedovnice has a loamy to sandy–loamy soil texture with a shallow groundwater table at approximately 1 m in depth. The roots are mostly distributed in deeper layers. Site Mraveništ? has shallow, sandy–loamy soil overlying a granodiorite. This site has no access to groundwater and a higher proportion of shallow roots. To evaluate the effect of soil compaction, we installed heat-field-deformation sap flow sensors in the superficial roots and stem bases of trees close to machinery trails. Our results showed that loading mainly affected soils with a high proportion of shallow roots (33% of shallow roots at site Mraveništ?; 22% at site Jedovnice). The number of roots treated by loading, verified after root opening with an air spade, depended on root positioning in soil. Acropetal sap flow occurred in roots in soil layers with sufficient available soil water. Some of the sampled trees exhibited decreased daytime sap flow after loading. In the shallower site Mraveništ? the root responses to loading were also accompanied by water redistribution among the roots and between the roots and soil. Basipetal (reverse) flow was recorded in roots in dryer soil layers. Soil compaction due to loading substantially increased the magnitude and duration of redistributed flow between soil layers with different water contents. Determining the soil type and soil water content is recommended before choosing the machinery type for a given forest because the predicted tree root structure can be used to assess possible damage due to loading.

Nadezhda Nadezhdina; Alois Prax; Jan ?ermák; Valerij Nadezhdin; Radomír Ulrich; Jind?ich Neruda; Adolf Schlaghamersky

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Atmospheric Amines and Ammonia Measured with a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report ambient measurements of amines and ammonia with a fast response chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) in a Southeastern U.S. forest in Alabama and a moderately polluted Midwestern site during the summer. In the Alabama forest, mostly C3-amines (from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 2 ppbv) were detected on a daily basis. C3-amines and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends and temperature and wind direction dependences, and were not associated with transported CO and SO2 plumes. Consistent with temperature dependences, amine and ammonia in the gas and aerosol phases showed opposite diurnal trends, indicating gas-to-particle partitioning of amines and ammonia. Temperature dependences also imply reversible processes of amines and ammonia evaporation from soil surfaces in daytime and deposition of amines and ammonia to soil surfaces at nighttime. Various amines (C1-C6) at the pptv level were observed in the transported biomass burning plumes, showing that biomass burning can be a substantial source of amines in the Southeast U.S. At the moderately polluted Kent site, higher concentrations of amines (C1-C6, from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 6 ppbv) were detected. Diurnal variations of C1- to C3-amines and ammonia were correlated with the ambient temperature. C4- to C6-amines showed abrupt increases during the nighttime, suggesting that they were emitted from local sources. These abundant amines and ammonia may in part explain the frequent new particle formation events reported from Kent. Lower amine concentrations at the rural forested site highlight the importance of constraining anthropogenic sources of amines.

You, Y.; Kanawade, V. P.; de Gouw, J. A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Madronich, Sasha; Sierra-Hernandez, M. R.; Lawler, M.; Smith, James N.; Takahama, S.; Ruggeri, G.; Koss, A.; Olson, K.; Baumann, K.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Guo, H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Porcelli, L.; Brune, W. H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Lee, S.-H

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

266

Light extinction in the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosol particles originating from natural sources, such as volcanos and sulfur-bearing gas emissions from the oceans, and from human sources, such as sulfur emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, strongly affect visual air quality and are suspected to significantly affect radiative climate forcing of the planet. During the daytime, aerosols obscure scenic vistas, while at night they diminish our ability to observe stellar objects. Scattering of light is the main means by which aerosols attenuate and redistribute light in the atmosphere and by which aerosols can alter and reduce visibility and potentially modify the energy balance of the planet. Trends and seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol loading, such as column-integrated light extinction or optical depth, and how they may affect potential climate change have been difficult to quantify because there have been few observations made of important aerosol optical parameters, such as optical depth, over the globe and over time and often these are of uneven quality. To address questions related to possible climate change, there is a pressing need to acquire more high-quality aerosol optical depth data. Extensive deployment of improved solar radiometers over the next few years will provide higher-quality extinction data over a wider variety of locations worldwide. An often overlooked source of turbidity data, however, is available from astronomical observations, particularly stellar photoelectric photometry observations. With the exception of the Project ASTRA articles published almost 20 years ago, few of these data ever appear in the published literature. This paper will review the current status of atmospheric extinction observations, as highlighted by the ASTRA work and augmented by more recent solar radiometry measurements.

Laulainen, N.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A comparison of fine particle and aerosol strong acidity at the interface zone (1540 m) and within (452 m) the planetary boundary layer of the Great Gulf and Presidential-Dry River Class I Wildernesses on the Presidential Range, New Hampshire USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mount Washington, NH in the White Mountain National Forest, is flanked to the north-northeast and south by two Class I Wilderness areas, the Great Gulf and Presidential Range-Dry River Wildernesses, respectively. The Clean Air Act protects Class I Area natural resource values from air pollution. Aerosol sulfate, a fine particulate component that is often transported long distances, is a known contributor to visibility degradation and acidic deposition. We examined summertime fine particulate aerosol mass and sulfate, strong acidity and ammonium concentrations from 1988 to 2007 on Mount Washington at two elevations, 452 and 1540 m (msl). The former site is often within, and the latter at the interface of, the planetary boundary layer. Comparisons of sampling interval durations (10 and 24 h) and site vs. site are made. We also examine the extent to which aerosol sulfate is neutralized. Ten hour (daytime) compared to 24 h samples have higher mass and aerosol sulfate concentrations, however paired samples are well correlated. Fine mass concentrations compared between the 452 m and 1540 m sites (standard temperature and pressure corrected) show a weak positive linear relationship with the later being approximately 32% lower. We attribute the lack of a strong correlation to the facts that the 1540 m site is commonly at the interface of and even above the regional planetary boundary layer in summer and that it can intercept different air masses relative to the 452 m site. Sulfate is ?18% lower at the higher elevation site, but comprises a greater percentage of total fine mass; 42% compared to 37% for the high and low elevation site, respectively. Aerosol strong acidity was found to increase with increasing sulfate concentrations at both sites. Further the ratio of hydrogen to sulfate ion was greater in 24 h than 10 h samples at the higher elevation site likely due to overnight transport of fresh acidic aerosols.

Georgia L.D. Murray; Kenneth Kimball; L. Bruce Hill; George A. Allen; Jack M. Wolfson; Alex Pszenny; Thomas Seidel; Bruce G. Doddridge; Alexandra Boris

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Treatment Outcome of Medium-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Comparison With Low-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of medium-dose-rate (MDR) and low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 419 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated by radical radiotherapy with curative intent at Tokyo Women's Medical University from 1969 to 1999. LDR was used from 1969 to 1986, and MDR has been used since July 1987. When compared with LDR, fraction dose was decreased and fraction size was increased (1 or 2 fractions) for MDR to make the total dose of MDR equal to that of LDR. In general, the patients received a total dose of 60 to 70 Gy at Point A with external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage. In the LDR group, 32 patients had Stage I disease, 81 had Stage II, 182 had Stage III, and 29 had Stage IVA; in the MDR group, 9 patients had Stage I disease, 19 had Stage II, 55 had Stage III, and 12 had Stage IVA. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates for Stages I, II, III, and IVA in the LDR group were 78%, 72%, 55%, and 34%, respectively. In the MDR group, the 5-year overall survival rates were 100%, 68%, 52%, and 42%, respectively. No significant statistical differences were seen between the two groups. The actuarial rates of late complications Grade 2 or greater at 5 years for the rectum, bladder, and small intestine in the LDR group were 11.1%, 5.8%, and 2.0%, respectively. The rates for the MDR group were 11.7%, 4.2%, and 2.6%, respectively, all of which were without statistical differences. Conclusion: These data suggest that MDR ICBT is effective, useful, and equally as good as LDR ICBT in daytime (about 5 hours) treatments of patients with cervical cancer.

Kaneyasu, Yuko, E-mail: kaneyasu@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Kita, Midori [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Clinical Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Okawa, Tomohiko [Evaluation and Promotion Center, Utsunomiya Memorial Hospital, Tochigi (Japan)] [Evaluation and Promotion Center, Utsunomiya Memorial Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Maebayashi, Katsuya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Kohno, Mari [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Sonoda, Tatsuo; Hirabayashi, Hisae [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Norio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Compilation of demographic data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are eight installations in the continental US where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions have been stored since the late 1950`s. In December, 1985, Congress directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to destroy these stockpiles of aging chemical warfare weapons. The destruction was to take place in such a manner as to provide: (1) maximum protection of the environment, the general public, and the personnel involved in the destruction, (2) adequate and safe facilities designed solely for the destruction of the stockpile, and (3) clean-up dismantling, and disposal of the facilities when the disposal program was complete. To help communities develop emergency response capabilities, the Army established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program or CSEPP based on principals established in the Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP). The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly oversee the CSEPP. An important part of the ERCP guidance was establishing cooperative interaction between local, state, and federal agencies and the development of emergency planning zones (EPZs) to support the emergency response concept. The purpose of this document is to describe how the population figures were derived for the population estimates for both the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program and the CSEPP analyses. Most of the data is derived from the US Census 1990 population figures. However, the Census only counts residential populations and does not attempt to document daytime populations within commercial or residential facilities. One conclusion from this review is that there is a need for better and more consistent population data in the Emergency Planning Guides.

Vogt, B.; Sorensen, J.; Coomer, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shumpert, B.; Hardee, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Energy dispatch schedule optimization for demand charge reduction using a photovoltaic-battery storage system with solar forecasting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A battery storage dispatch strategy that optimizes demand charge reduction in real-time was developed and the discharge of battery storage devices in a grid-connected, combined photovoltaic-battery storage system (PV+ system) was simulated for a summer month, July 2012, and a winter month, November 2012, in an operational environment. The problem is formulated as a linear programming (LP; or linear optimization) routine and daily minimization of peak non-coincident demand is sought to evaluate the robustness, reliability, and consistency of the battery dispatch algorithm. The LP routine leverages solar power and load forecasts to establish a load demand target (i.e., a minimum threshold to which demand can be reduced using a photovoltaic (PV) array and battery array) that is adjusted throughout the day in response to forecast error. The LP routine perfectly minimizes demand charge but forecasts errors necessitate adjustments to the perfect dispatch schedule. The PV+ system consistently reduced non-coincident demand on a metered load that has an elevated diurnal (i.e., daytime) peak. The average reduction in peak demand on weekdays (days that contain the elevated load peak) was 25.6% in July and 20.5% in November. By itself, the PV array (excluding the battery array) reduced the peak demand on average 19.6% in July and 11.4% in November. PV alone cannot perfectly mitigate load spikes due to inherent variability; the inclusion of a storage device reduced the peak demand a further 6.0% in July and 9.3% in November. Circumstances affecting algorithm robustness and peak reduction reliability are discussed.

R. Hanna; J. Kleissl; A. Nottrott; M. Ferry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Environmental control system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An environmental control system for controlling the environmental conditions in a swimming pool hall 1 comprises a heat pump having a multi-section evaporator 8, compressors 23a and 23b and a multi-section condensor 18. In the day-time, the dry bulb temperature in the pool hall is maintained by circulating space air through a duct 3 to the evaporator 8 where the latent heat is recovered from the moisture laden air. This heat is rejected via the condensor 18 either to the now drier recirculated air or fresh air from an inlet 13 or a mixture of air from the two sources. In a night mode of operation, circulation of space air through the duct 3 is prevented and instead it is recirculated via a direct recirculation duct 53 and is heated by the condensor 18, the heat used to do this being recovered from outside air inducted into the evaporator 8 via an inlet 50. In order to prevent frosting of the evaporator when the outside air temperature is too low, a damper 52 may be opened to allow some space air to pass through the evaporator 8 and raise its temperature. In order to increase the heat recovery capability of the compressor, storage tank 56 is used to collect waste water from showers etc. and also from backwash through the pool water filter and when this tank is full, its water is chilled by means of a water chiller 15 in parallel with the evaporator and the heat so recovered is rejected to the re-circulating space air by means of the condensor 18.

Foley, P. N.; Turbard, A. M.

1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

273

The Effects of Quality Control on Decreasing Error Propagation in the LandScan USA Population Distribution Model: A Case Study of Philadelphia County  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Landscan USA is a high resolution dasymetric model incorporating multiple ancillary variables to distribute populations. LandScan USA is a valuable tool in determining the population at risk during emergency response situations. However, a critical evaluation is necessary to produce user confidence regarding model accuracy through the verification and validation of model outputs. Unfortunately, dynamic models, such as population distribution, are often not validated due to the difficulty of having multiple input datasets and lack of validated data. A validated dataset allows analysis of model accuracy, as well as quantifying the benefits and costs of improving input datasets compared to find a balance for producing the best model. This paper examines inaccuracies present within the input variables of two national school datasets incorporated in the model. Schools were chosen since a validated school dataset exists for Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. Quality control efforts utilized throughout the LandScan USA process are quantified to determine the degree of quality control necessary to have a statistically significant effect on model output. Typical LandScan USA quality control resulted in 43% of school enrollment values changed, compared to 89% for the validated dataset. Normal quality control methods resulted in 36% of schools being spatially relocated compared to 87% for the validated dataset. However, the costs of increasing quality control from normal to the validated dataset equated to a 600% increase in manual labor time for statistically insignificant improvements in LandScan USA daytime. This study enabled validation verification of not only the quality control process for LandScan USA, but also provides confidence in model output and use for policy issues, planning and emergency situations.

Patterson, Lauren [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Urban, Marie L [ORNL; Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Coleman, Phil R [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Comparison of the CALIPSO satellite and ground-based observations of cirrus clouds at the ARM TWP sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Statistics of ice cloud macrophysical and optical properties from the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite are compared with those from ground-based lidar observations over a 31 month period. Ground-based lidar observations are taken from the micropulse lidars (MPL) at the three Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) tropical western pacific (TWP) sites: Manus, Nauru and Darwin. CALIPSO observations show a larger cloud fraction at high altitudes while the ground-based MPLs show a larger cloud fraction at low altitudes. The difference in mean ice cloud top and base heights at the Manus and Nauru sites are all within 0.51 km, although differences are statistically significant. Mean ice cloud geometrical thickness agree to within 0.05 km at the Manus and Nauru sites. Larger differences exist at Darwin due to excessive degradation of the MPL output power during our sampling period. Both sets of observations show thicker clouds during the nighttime which may be real but could also be partially an artifact of the decreased signal-to-noise ratio during the daytime. The number of ice cloud layers per profile are also shown to be consistent after accounting for the difference in spatial resolution. For cloud optical depths, four different retrieval methods are compared, two for each set of observations. All products show that the majority of ice cloud optical depths ({approx}60%) fall below an optical depth of 0.2. For most comparisons all four retrievals agree to within the uncertainty intervals. We find that both CALIPSO retrievals agree best to ground-based optical depths when the lidar ratio in the latter is retrieved instead of set to a fixed value. Also thoroughly compared is the cloud properties for the subset of ice clouds which reside in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Q.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

275

SCENARIOS FOR DEEP CARBON EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM ELECTRICITY BY 2050 IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA USING THE SWITCH ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR PLANNING MODEL California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was installed on some gas plants by 2050.

Collaboration/ University of California, Berkeley; Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Heat balance for two commercial broiler barns with solar preheated ventilation air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In temperate climatic zones, solar air heaters can reduce heating loads, and increase winter ventilation rates thereby improving inside air quality and livestock performance without additional fuel input. A heat balance was carried out to measure bird heat production under field conditions on two commercial broiler barns to evaluate the impact of solar heated ventilation air on bird performance, and identify strategies to reduce winter heating load. Located 40 km east of Montreal, Canada, the experimental broiler barns were identically built with three floors housing 6500 birds per floor in an all-in all-out fashion. Equipped with solar air pre-heaters over their fresh air inlets, the barns were instrumented to monitor inlet, inside and outside air conditions, ventilation rate and heating system operating time. The effects on bird performance were observed from November 2007 to March 2009 by alternating their operation between the barns. The measured sensible and total heat productions of 4.5 W and 8.4 W, respectively, for 1 kg birds corresponded to laboratory measured values. Bird performance was not affected by the solar air pre-heaters which increased the ventilation rate above normal during only 20% of the daytime period. Room air temperature stratification resulted in 20–40 kW of heat losses during the winter, representing 25% of the total natural gas heat load. Because inside air moved directly to the fans, large and rapid increases in ventilation inlet air temperature, produced by the solar air pre-heaters, resulted in further heat losses equivalent to 15% of the solar energy recovered. Sustainable energy management in livestock barns requiring heating should incorporate an air mixing system to eliminate air temperature stratification and improve fan flows.

Sébastien Cordeau; Suzelle Barrington

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Bonnyrigg solar village: An analysis of annual energy use and comfort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1981, 12 solar-efficient houses and 3 standard houses were designed and built for the New South Wales Housing commission near Sydney, Australia. Recently, a pilot study was done to evaluate the energy use and comfort levels in these 15 houses over a two-year period. Heavyweight, well insulated houses, as a group, used the least energy annually, averaging 19,235 MJ in 1983-1984. They are least likely to require winter space heating, which typically contributes 31% of the total energy bill. A trade-off of a well insulated house is less comfort in the summer unless active measures are taken by the residents to open windows in the evenings and close shades in the day for effective cooling. Even so, the four houses with heavyweight wall construction remained in the daytime comfort zone an average of 76% of the time in 1983. The annual energy use in the houses was compared to other studies done in Australia. The average energy consumption of the 12 passive solar homes was 22,687 MJ/year in the two-year period 1983-1984. Bartels (1985) found the average household consumption in New South Wales to be 28,000 MJ. The three control houses used 30,059 MJ/year on average, though the sample size was considerably smaller, and thus more likely to be affected by atypical user behavior. This study provides clear evidence of the effectiveness of solar efficient design in significantly reducing winter heating loads.

Ballinger, J.A.; Di Franco, T.L.; Prasad, D.K. (Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

High incidence of sleep problems in children with developmental disorders: Results of a questionnaire survey in a Japanese elementary school  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective: The aim of the present school-based questionnaire was to analyze the sleep problems of children with developmental disorders, such as pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods: The sleep problems of 43 children with developmental disorders were compared with those of 372 healthy children (control group). All children attended one public elementary school in Kurume, Japan; thus, the study avoided the potential bias associated with hospital-based surveys (i.e. a high prevalence of sleep disturbance) and provided a more complete picture of the children’s academic performance and family situation compared with a control group under identical conditions. Children’s sleep problems were measured with the Japanese version of the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Results: Children with developmental disorders had significantly higher total CSHQ scores, as well as mean scores on the parasomnias and sleep breathing subscales, than children in the control group. The total CSHQ score, bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and daytime sleepiness worsened with increasing age in children with developmental disorders; in contrast, these parameters were unchanged or became better with age in the control group. In children with developmental disorders, there was a significant association between a higher total CSHQ score and lower academic performance, but no such association was found in the control group. For both groups, children’s sleep problems affected their parents’ quality of sleep. There were no significant differences in physical, lifestyle, and sleep environmental factors, or in sleep/wake patterns, between the two groups. Conclusions: Children with developmental disorders have poor sleep quality, which may affect academic performance. It is important for physicians to be aware of age-related differences in sleep problems in children with developmental disorders. Further studies are needed to identify the association between sleep quality and school behavioral performance.

Michiko Matsuoka; Shinichiro Nagamitsu; Mizue Iwasaki; Akiko Iemura; Yushiro Yamashita; Masaharu Maeda; Shingo Kitani; Tatsuyuki Kakuma; Naohisa Uchimura; Toyojiro Matsuishi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Data:23ad04af-0efa-4232-97c6-83c049b50ea8 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ad04af-0efa-4232-97c6-83c049b50ea8 ad04af-0efa-4232-97c6-83c049b50ea8 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Pee Dee Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2008/03/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule 7: Security Light Service, 100-Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamps Sector: Lighting Description: Service under this schedule is available in all territory served by the Cooperative, subject to the Cooperative's established Service Rules and Regulations. This schedule is applicable to any consumer of the Cooperative. All facilities necessary for service under this Schedule, including fixtures, lamps, controls, poles, hardware, transformers, conductors, power, and other necessary materials shall be owned and maintained by the Cooperative. Equipment other than that supplied by the Cooperative as standard is not available under this Schedule. The consumer may designate the lamp(s) location, provided it is within a distance that can be reached by a secondary extension from the Cooperative's nearest distribution facilities. Lamps will burn from approximately one-half hour after sunset until approximately one-half hour before sunrise. The Cooperative will replace burned out lamps and otherwise maintain the fixture during regular daytime working hours as soon as possible following notification by the consumer.

280

Annual daylighting performance of a passive optical light shelf in sidelit  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Annual daylighting performance of a passive optical light shelf in sidelit Annual daylighting performance of a passive optical light shelf in sidelit perimeter zones of commercial buildings Title Annual daylighting performance of a passive optical light shelf in sidelit perimeter zones of commercial buildings Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2013 Authors McNeil, Andrew, and Eleanor S. Lee Keywords bidirectional scattering distribution functions, building energy efficiency, daylighting, Radiance simulations Abstract Sunlight redirecting systems have the potential to significantly offset electric lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones of buildings where the windows are subject to high daylight availability. New Radiance modeling tools have recently been developed and validated, enabling accurate and timely simulation analysis of the annual energy and comfort performance of these optically-complex, anisotropic systems. A parametric study was conducted using these tools to evaluate the performance of a commercially-available passive optical light shelf (OLS) in a 17.4 m deep (57 ft), south-facing open plan office zone in three climates. Daylighting efficiency, discomfort glare, and lighting energy savings with continuous dimming and bi-level switching controls were determined at varying depths within the zone. The OLS decreased lighting energy use significantly throughout the depth of the space and achieved these savings with minimal discomfort glare in the area near the window. Annual lighting energy use intensity was reduced to 1.71-1.82 kWh/ft2-yr (22-27%) over the full depth of the perimeter zone across the three climates modeled (Phoenix, Washington DC, and Minneapolis) compared to a non-daylit zone at 2.34 kWh/ft2-yr. There was a greater occurrence of discomfort glare (3-7% during daytime work hours) if the occupant was in a seated view position looking at the window from the back of the room. The system is passive, needing no adjustment during the day and over the seasons and can be used as a retrofit measure in existing buildings. These results are encouraging and demonstrate how the primary daylit sidelit area can be extended well beyond the defined limits provided by the newly adopted ASHRAE 90.1-2010 code (i.e., 1.0 times the head height of the window).

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281

Grand Observatories and multiple-OWL for high energy neutrino astrophysics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A possible “Space Factory” on the International Space Station (ISS) for “Grand Observatories” would permit a large astrophysical observatory in space. Grand-Observatories could revolutionize the great observatories that were hitherto pre-assembled and deployed by the Space Transportation System (STS). The concept of the ISS-Space-Factory envisages a plan of orbital construction fine-tuning and deployment of large-scale astrophysical instruments into the desired free-flying orbit. It incorporates physical aids of the robotics arms and Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) of astronauts. This concept study also examines the necessary infrastructure on ISS for manufacturing a large spaceship for future deployment to the Moon Mars and other interplanetary destinations. We envision a step-by-step advancement of the “Space Factory” with the most frontier astrophysical programs. Less demanding experiments could precede the construction of the most demanding optical telescopes. Multiple-OWL (Orbiting-array of Wide-angle Light collector) has very forgiving optical resolution (?0.1 degrees) and would be suitable for the first generation payload to be built on and deployed from the ISS. This system is an earth’s night-sky-watcher for observing the highest energy cosmic rays and other atmospheric phenomena and is currently in the SEU Explorer Concept. Using the Space Factory this collector can drastically advance its capacity to cover a 120° Field-of-View (FOV) in which the entire horizon of the earth (?6000 km diameter) can be viewed from a low-earth orbit (?1000 km). We have already developed a revolutionary wide-angle Fresnel-lens optic in the OWL program and the Multiple-OWL can use several units of them. As one of the Grand Observatories the proposed Multiple-OWL satellite can open a new window for observational universe in terms of high energy neutrino astrophysics. The OWL may also be used for monitoring earth-threatening meteorites if flipped on orbit at daytime for deep space observation.

Yoshiyuki Takahashi; John O. Dimmock; Lloyd W. Hillman; James B. Hadaway; David J. Lamb; Mamoru Mohri; Toshikazu Ebisuzaki

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

MULTISCALE THERMAL-INFRARED MEASUREMENTS OF THE MAUNA LOA CALDERA, HAWAII  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until recently, most thermal infrared measurements of natural scenes have been made at disparate scales, typically 10{sup {minus}3}-10{sup {minus}2} m (spectra) and 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} m (satellite images), with occasional airborne images (10{sup 1} m) filling the gap. Temperature and emissivity fields are spatially heterogeneous over a similar range of scales, depending on scene composition. A common problem for the land surface, therefore, has been relating field spectral and temperature measurements to satellite data, yet in many cases this is necessary if satellite data are to be interpreted to yield meaningful information about the land surface. Recently, three new satellites with thermal imaging capability at the 10{sup 1}-10{sup 2} m scale have been launched: MTI, TERRA, and Landsat 7. MTI acquires multispectral images in the mid-infrared (3-5{micro}m) and longwave infrared (8-10{micro}m) with 20m resolution. ASTER and MODIS aboard TERRA acquire multispectral longwave images at 90m and 500-1000m, respectively, and MODIS also acquires multispectral mid-infrared images. Landsat 7 acquires broadband longwave images at 60m. As part of an experiment to validate the temperature and thermal emissivity values calculated from MTI and ASTER images, we have targeted the summit region of Mauna Loa for field characterization and near-simultaneous satellite imaging, both on daytime and nighttime overpasses, and compare the results to previously acquired 10{sup {minus}1} m airborne images, ground-level multispectral FLIR images, and the field spectra. Mauna Loa was chosen in large part because the 4x6km summit caldera, flooded with fresh basalt in 1984, appears to be spectrally homogeneous at scales between 10{sup {minus}1} and 10{sup 2} m, facilitating the comparison of sensed temperature. The validation results suggest that, with careful atmospheric compensation, it is possible to match ground measurements with measurements from space, and to use the Mauna Loa validation site for cross-comparison of thermal infrared sensors and temperature/emissivity extraction algorithms.

L. BALICK; A. GILLESPIE; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Impacts of elevation data spatial resolution on two-dimensional dam break flood simulation and consequence assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A grid resolution sensitivity analysis using a two-dimensional flood inundation model has been presented in this paper. Simulations for 6 dam breaches located randomly in the United States were run at 10,30,60,90, and 120 meter resolutions. The dams represent a range of topographic conditions, ranging from 0% slope to 1.5% downstream of the dam. Using 10 meter digital elevation model (DEM) simulation results as the baseline, the coarser simulation results were compared in terms of flood inundation area, peak depths, flood wave travel time, daytime and nighttime population in flooded area, and economic impacts. The results of the study were consistent with previous grid resolution studies in terms of inundated area, depths, and velocity impacts. The results showed that as grid resolution is decreased, the relative fit of inundated area between the baseline and coarser resolution decreased slightly. This is further characterized by increasing over prediction as well as increasing under prediction with decreasing resolution. Comparison of average peak depths showed that depths generally decreased as resolution decreased, as well as the velocity. It is, however, noted that the trends in depth and velocity showed less consistency than the inundation area metrics. This may indicate that for studies in which velocity and depths must be resolved more accurately (urban environments when flow around buildings is important in the calculation of drag effects), higher resolution DEM data should be used. Perhaps the most significant finding from this study is the perceived insensitivity of socio-economic impacts to grid resolution. The difference in population at risk (PAR) and economic cost generally remained within 10% of the estimated impacts using the high resolution DEM. This insensitivity has been attributed to over estimated flood area and associated socio-economic impacts compensating for under estimated flooded area and associated socio-economic impacts. The United States has many dams that are classified as high-hazard potential that need an emergency action plan (EAP). It has been found that the development of EAPs for all high-hazard dams is handicapped due to funding limitations. The majority of the cost associated with developing an EAP is determining the flooded area. The results of this study have shown that coarse resolution dam breach studies can be used to provide an acceptable estimate of the inundated area and economic impacts, with very little computational cost. Therefore, the solution to limited funding may be to perform coarse resolution dam breach studies on high-hazard potential dams and use the results to help prioritize the order in which detailed EAPs should be developed.

Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV OF UTAH

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Unique Challenges in the Design and Operation Philosophy of Solar Thermal Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solar thermal power plant design and operation philosophy involves unique challenges as compared to design of conventional thermal power plants. The solar receiver operation should be able to absorb maximum solar load during transient events like daily start-up and shut-down. This requires aggressive ramp rates for transient operation of the power plant. However, the component and system level limitations must be considered in formulating these modes of operation and ramp rates. A solar receiver which usually receives heat from heliostats is designed to receive high heat flux to operate at high temperature and pressure during daytime. However, during night-time the receiver receives no heat flux and is losing heat to the environment. Day-night cyclic operation of a solar thermal power plant induces thermal cycles in the solar receiver pressure parts. Since solar receiver tubes are not insulated, the amplitude of thermal cycling is significant and needs to be addressed with proper tools and design approach. Besides, higher plant cycle efficiency requires higher operating temperature and pressure of a solar receiver, further increasing the amplitude of thermal cycling. The system level and component level response to these day-night cycles has a significant impact on modes of operation as well as on the life usage of various components. It also affects the design, specifications and operation of various plant level components. The solar thermal power plant design and operation process is optimized by having a system level thermal-hydraulics model for the solar receiver to simulate the transient start-up and shut-down events. Since all of the major components of the system are included in the model, it reflects the transient response of each of the components on each other and on the overall system. This simulation can be used to generate input conditions for component level life usage analysis. The component level life usage analysis is done using the finite-element method. The component level life usage analysis determines the permissible ramp rates. The thermal-hydraulics dynamic simulation outlines the operational philosophy of the system.

R. Terdalkar; H. Qian; G. Ye

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Turbulence Considerations for Comparing Ecosystem Exchange over Old-Growth and Clear-Cut Stands For Limited Fetch and Complex Canopy Flow Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy fluxes were measured using eddy covariance (EC) methodology over three adjacent forests in southern Washington State to identify stand-level age-effects on ecosystem exchange. The sites represent Douglas-fir forest ecosystems at two contrasting successional stages: old-growth (OG) and early seral (ES). Here we present eddy flux and meteorological data from two early seral stands and the Wind River AmeriFlux old-growth forest during the growing season (March-October) in 2006 and 2007. We show an alternative approach to the usual friction velocity (u*) method for determining periods of adequate atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) mixing based on the ratio of mean horizontal ({bar u}) and vertical ({bar w}) wind flow to a modified turbulent kinetic energy scale (uTKE). This new parameter in addition to footprint modeling showed that daytime CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE}) in small clear-cuts (< 10 hectares) can be measured accurately with EC if micrometeorological conditions are carefully evaluated. Peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -14.0 to -12.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) at OG were measured in April in both 2006 and 2007 before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit were relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels were favorable for photosynthesis. At the early seral stands, peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -11.0 to -8.7 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were measured in June and July while spring-time CO{sub 2} fluxes were much smaller (F{sub NEE} = -3.8 to -3.6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Overall, we measured lower evapotranspiration (OG = 230 mm; ES = 297 mm) higher midday F{sub NEE} (OG F{sub NEE} = -9.0 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}; ES F{sub NEE} = -7.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and higher Bowen ratios (OG {beta} = 2.0. ES {beta} = 1.2) at the old-growth forest than at the ES sites during the summer months (May-August). Eddy covariance studies such as ours add critical land-atmosphere exchange data for an abundant, but rarely studied Douglas-fir age class.

Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Paw U, K T; Falk, M; Bible, K

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

286

A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in the building. The plants used in the rooftop greenhouse and on the floors were made up of a number of species selected for the following functions: daytime metabolic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption, nighttime metabolic CO{sub 2} absorption, and volatile organic compound (VOC) and inorganic gas absorption/removal for air cleaning. The building contains a reported 910 indoor plants. Daytime metabolic species reported by the PBC include Areca Palm, Oxycardium, Rubber Plant, and Ficus alii totaling 188 plants (21%). The single nighttime metabolic species is the Sansevieria with a total of 28 plants (3%). The 'air cleaning' plant species reported by the PBC include the Money Plant, Aglaonema, Dracaena Warneckii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm with a total of 694 plants (76%). The plants in the greenhouse (Areca Palm, Rubber Plant, Ficus alii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm) numbering 161 (18%) of those in the building are grown hydroponically, with the room air blown by fan across the plant root zones. The plants on the building floors are grown in pots and are located on floors 1-6. We conducted a one-day monitoring session in the PBC on January 1, 2010. The date of the study was based on availability of the measurement equipment that the researchers had shipped from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab in the U.S.A. The study date was not optimal because a large proportion of the regular building occupants were not present being New Year's Day. An estimated 40 people were present in the building all day during January 1. This being said, the building systems were in normal operations, including the air handlers and other HVAC components. The study was focused primarily on measurements in the Greenhouse and 3rd and 5th floor environments as well as rooftop outdoors. Measurements included a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes, with a more limited set of observations of indoor and outdoor particulate and carbon dioxide concentrations. Continuous measurements of Temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) were made selected indoor and outdoor locations.

Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

287

Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

Beverly E. Law (PI), Christoph K. Thomas (CoI)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

288

Characterization of submicron particles influenced by mixed biogenic and anthropogenic emissions using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: results from CARES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) took place in the Sacramento Valley of California in summer 2010. We present results obtained at Cool, CA, the T1 site of the project ({approx}40 km downwind of urban emissions from Sacramento), where we deployed an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) in parallel with complementary instrumentation to characterize the sources and processes of submicron particles (PM1). Cool is located at the foothill of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, where intense biogenic emissions are periodically mixed with urban outflow transported by daytime southwesterly winds from the Sacramento metropolitan area. The particle mass loading was low (3.0 {micro}gm{sup -3} on average) and dominated by organics (80% of the PM1 mass) followed by sulfate (9.9 %). Organics and sulfate appeared to be externally mixed, as suggested by their different time series (r2 = 0.13) and size distributions. Sulfate showed a bimodal distribution with a droplet mode peaking at {approx}400nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter (Dva), and a condensation mode at {approx}150 nm, while organics generally displayed a broad distribution in 60-600nm (Dva). New particle formation and growth events were observed almost every day, emphasizing the roles of organics and sulfate in new particle growth, especially that of organics. The organic aerosol (OA) had a nominal formula of C{sub 1}H{sub 1.38}N{sub 0.004}O{sub 0.44}, thus an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM/OC) ratio of 1.70. Two different oxygenated OA (OOA, 90% of total OA mass) and a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 10 %) were identified by Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high resolution mass spectra. The more oxidized MO-OOA (O/C = 0.54) corresponded to secondary OA (SOA) primarily influenced by biogenic emissions, while the less oxidized LO-OOA (O/C = 0.42) corresponded to SOA associated with urban transport. The HOA factor corresponded to primary emissions mainly due to local traffic. Twenty three periods of urban plumes from T0 (Sacramento) to T1 (Cool) were identified using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). The average PM1 mass loading was much higher in urban plumes (3.9 {micro}gm{sup -3}) than in air masses dominated by biogenic SOA (1.8 {micro}gm{sup -3}). The change in OA mass relative to CO ({Delta}OA/{Delta}CO) varied in the range of 5-196 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1}, reflecting large variability in SOA production. The highest {Delta}OA/{Delta}CO were reached when urban plumes arrived at Cool in the presence of a high concentration of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs=isoprene+monoterpenes+2-methyl-3-buten-2- ol [MBO]+methyl chavicol). This ratio, which was 77 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1} on average when BVOCs > 2 ppb, is much higher than when urban plumes arrived in a low biogenic VOCs environment (28 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1} when BVOCs < 0.7 ppb) or during other periods dominated by biogenic SOA (40 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1}). The results from this study demon10 strate that SOA formation is enhanced when anthropogenic emissions interact with biogenic precursors.

Setyan, Ari; Zhang, Qi; Merkel, M.; Knighton, Walter B.; Sun, Y.; Song, Chen; Shilling, John E.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Herndon, Scott C.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berg, Larry K.; Wiedensohler, A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Subramanian, R.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

289

Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific riverbed elevation and providing minimum spawning flows that have the greatest chance of being maintained through egg incubation and fry emergence. However, managing the lower Columbia River for a stable tailwater elevation does not provide much operational flexibility at Bonneville Dam, which has little storage capacity. When river discharges increase due to rain events, the traditional approach has been to pass excess water at night to maintain stable tailwater elevations during the daytime. The underlying assumption of this strategy, referred to as reverse load following, is that fish do not spawn at night. However, Tiffan et al. (2005) showed that this assumption is false by documenting nighttime spawning by chum salmon in the Ives Island area. Similarly, McMichael et al. (2005) reported nighttime spawning by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Columbia River, indicating that diel spawning may be a common occurrence in Pacific salmon. During the latter portion of the chum spawning period in December 2003 and 2004, discharges from Bonneville Dam increased from an average of 3,398 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 3.5 m above mean sea level) during the day to over 5,664 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 5.1 m) at night, with peak discharges of 7,080 m{sup 3}/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 6.1 m). This caused concern among fishery managers regarding the potential effects of these high discharges on this population of spawning chum salmon, which is listed under the Endangered Species Act (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1999). We hypothesized that increased water velocities associated with elevated tailwaters might alter chum salmon spawning behavior if water velocities at redd locations increased beyond the range of suitability (>0.8 m/s; Salo 1991). In 2005, we investigated the movement and behavioral responses of spawning chum salmon at Ives Island to increased tailwater elevations at Bonneville Dam. We used acoustic telemetry to determine if the higher velocities associated with increased tailwater elevations caused fish to leave their re

Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Ground Motion Studies at NuMI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ground motion can cause significant deterioration in the luminosity of a linear collider. Vibration of numerous focusing magnets causes continuous misalignments, which makes the beam emittance grow. For this reason, understanding the seismic vibration of all potential LC sites is essential and related efforts in many sites are ongoing. In this document we summarize the results from the studies specific to Fermilab grounds as requested by the LC project leader at FNAL, Shekhar Mishra in FY04-FY06. The Northwestern group focused on how the ground motion effects vary with depth. Knowledge of depth dependence of the seismic activity is needed in order to decide how deep the LC tunnel should be at sites like Fermilab. The measurements were made in the NuMI tunnel, see Figure 1. We take advantage of the fact that from the beginning to the end of the tunnel there is a height difference of about 350 ft and that there are about five different types of dolomite layers. The support received allowed to pay for three months of salary of Michal Szleper. During this period he worked a 100% of his time in this project. That include one week of preparation: 2.5 months of data taking and data analysis during the full period of the project in order to guarantee that we were recording high quality data. We extended our previous work and made more systematic measurements, which included detailed studies on stability of the vibration amplitudes at different depths over long periods of time. As a consequence, a better control and more efficient averaging out of the daytime variation effects were possible, and a better study of other time dependences before the actual depth dependence was obtained. Those initial measurements were made at the surface and are summarized in Figure 2. All measurements are made with equipment that we already had (two broadband seismometers KS200 from GEOTECH and DL-24 portable data recorder). The offline data analysis took advantage of the full Fourier spectra information and the noise was properly subtracted. The basic formalism is summarized if Figure 3. The second objective was to make a measurement deeper under ground (Target hall, Absorber hall and Minos hall - 150 ft to 350 ft), which previous studies did not cover. All results are summarized in Figure 3 and 4. The measurements were covering a frequency range between 0.1 to 50 Hz. The data was taken continuously for at least a period of two weeks in each of the locations. We concluded that the dependence on depth is weak, if any, for frequencies above 1 Hz and not visible at all at lower frequencies. Most of the attenuation (factor of about 2-3) and damping of ground motion that is due to cultural activity at the surface is not detectable once we are below 150 ft underground. Therefore, accelerator currently under consideration can be build at the depth and there is no need to go deeper underground is built at Fermi National Laboratory.

Mayda M. Velasco; Michal Szleper

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

291

Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10{sup -10} m{sup -1} and agrees very well with the values between 10{sup -10} m{sup -1} and 10{sup -9} m{sup -1} previously reported. We observed a mean Pu/Am ratio of 7.1 with a relative variation of 30%, which compares well with a mean value of 6.5 for nearby plot 2-2. The resuspension rate (R) was in the middle of the range, 10{sup -11} s{sup -1} to 10{sup -12} s{sup -1} as observed in other stable sites, and indicates low potential for Pu redistribution.

Shinn, J

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z