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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Einstein and the Daytime Sky - C  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Einstein "Einstein and the Daytime Sky" (continued) A B C D C. Imitation of opal Since Einstein was addressing a more general question than the color of the atmosphere, his results...

2

Daytime heat transfer processes over mountainous terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The daytime heat transfer mechanisms over mountainous terrain are investigated by means of large-eddy simulations over idealized valleys. Two- and three-dimensional topographies, corresponding to infinite and finite valleys, are used in order to ...

Juerg Schmidli

3

Job Posting Facilitator Business Finance & Accounting -Daytime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Management System, during daytime hours, Monday to Friday Online using a synchronous live platform, during candidate will have a CGA or CA designation with a minimum of 7 years of work experience in the field candidates: Send resume and cover letter to mcewenc@mcmaster.ca, subject line BUS. FINANCE INSTRUCTOR

Hitchcock, Adam P.

4

The Daytime Evolution of the East African Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a combined observational and theoretical study of the daytime evolution of the equatorial East African low-level jet stream. During the daytime, as the flow advects from a suppressed marine environment across the East African coastline ...

David M. Rubenstein

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Daytime Evolution of Relative Humidity at the Boundary Layer Top  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from the Hydrological and Atmospheric Pilot Experiment-Modélisation du Bilan Hydrigue (HAPEX-MOBILHY) field program and results from a one-dimensional model of the soil and atmospheric boundary layer are analyzed to study the daytime ...

M. Ek; L. Mahrt

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Implementation of the Daytime Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties Algorithm (DCOMP) in PATMOS-x  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the daytime cloud optical and microphysical properties (DCOMP) retrieval for the Pathfinder Atmosphere’s Extended (PATMOS-x) climate dataset. Within PATMOS-x, DCOMP is applied to observations from the Advanced Very High ...

Andi Walther; Andrew K. Heidinger

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Intercomparison of Mesoscale Model Simulations of the Daytime Valley Wind System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional simulations of the daytime thermally induced valley wind system for an idealized valley–plain configuration, obtained from nine nonhydrostatic mesoscale models, are compared with special emphasis on the evolution of the along-...

Juerg Schmidli; Brian Billings; Fotini K. Chow; Stephan F. J. de Wekker; James Doyle; Vanda Grubiši?; Teddy Holt; Qiangfang Jiang; Katherine A. Lundquist; Peter Sheridan; Simon Vosper; C. David Whiteman; Andrzej A. Wyszogrodzki; Günther Zängl

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

A Simple Scheme for Daytime Estimates of the Surface Fluxes from Routine Weather Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a simple empirical scheme is presented, which gives hourly estimates of the surface fluxes of heat and momentum from routine weather data during daytime. The scheme is designed for grass surfaces, but it contains parameters which ...

A. A. M. Holtslag; A. P. Van Ulden

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Estimation of Daytime Net Radiation from Shortwave Radiation Measurements and Meteorological Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in surface net radiation Rn control the earth’s climate, the hydrological cycle, and plant photosynthesis. However, Rn is not readily available. This study develops a method to estimate surface daytime Rn from solar shortwave radiation ...

Kaicun Wang; Shunlin Liang

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Daytime Local Circulations and Their Interactions in the Seoul Metropolitan Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daytime local circulations and their interactions in the Seoul, South Korea, metropolitan area are investigated using a high-resolution mesoscale model. It is found that the urban-breeze circulation interacts strongly with other local circulations,...

Young-Hee Ryu; Jong-Jin Baik

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Daytime Variation of Shortwave Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass Burning Aerosols from GOES-8 Imager  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 (GOES-8) imager data (1344–1944 UTC) from 20 July–31 August 1998 were used to study the daytime variation of shortwave direct radiative forcing (SWARF) of smoke aerosols over biomass ...

Sundar A. Christopher; Jianglong Zhang

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Daytime Heat Transfer Processes Related to Slope Flows and Turbulent Convection in an Idealized Mountain Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanisms governing the daytime development of thermally driven circulations along the transverse axis of idealized two-dimensional valleys are investigated by means of large-eddy simulations. In particular, the impact of slope winds and ...

Stefano Serafin; Dino Zardi

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Multiyear Summertime Observations of Daytime Fair-Weather Cumuli at the ARM Southern Great Plains Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long data record (14 yr) of ground-based observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is analyzed to document the macroscopic and dynamical properties of daytime fair-weather cumulus clouds ...

Arunchandra S. Chandra; Pavlos Kollias; Bruce A. Albrecht

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Along-Valley Structure of Daytime Thermally Driven Flows in the Wipp Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution Doppler lidar observations obtained during the Mesoscale Alpine Program (MAP) 1999 field campaign are used to investigate the along-valley structure of daytime valley flows in the Wipp Valley, Austria. The observations show that ...

Magdalena Rucker; Robert M. Banta; Douw G. Steyn

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Daytime Cycle of Low-Level Clouds and the Tropical Convective Boundary Layer in Southwestern Amazonia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the wet season in the southwestern Amazon region, daytime water transport out of the atmospheric mixed layer into the deeper atmosphere is shown to depend upon cloud amounts and types and synoptic-scale velocity fields. Interactions among ...

C. Strong; J. D. Fuentes; M. Garstang; A. K. Betts

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

The Impact of Wet Soil and Canopy Temperatures on Daytime Boundary–Layer Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of very wet soil and canopy temperatures on the surface sensible heat flux, and on related daytime boundary-layer properties is evaluated. For very wet soils, two winter situations are considered, related to significant changes in soil ...

M. Segal; J. R. Garratt; G. Kallos; R. A. Pielke

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Sensitivity of Model-Generated Daytime Surface Heat Fluxes over Snow to Land-Cover Changes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow cover can significantly suppress daytime temperatures by increasing the surface albedo and limiting the surface temperature to 0°C. The strength of this effect is dependent upon how well the snow can cover, or mask, the underlying surface. ...

John E. Strack; Roger A. Pielke Sr.; Jimmy Adegoke

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Lagrangian and Eulerian Time-Scale Relations in the Daytime Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagrangian (neutral balloon) and Eulerian (tower and aircraft) turbulence observations were made in the daytime mixed layer near Boulder, Colorado. Average sampling time was 25 min. Average Lagrangian time scale is 70 s and average ratio of ...

Steven R. Hanna

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Impact of Local Convective Cloud Systems on Summer Daytime Shelter Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential impact of daytime local summer convective cloud systems on shelter air temperature is illustrated by numerical modeling and observations. Prolonged reductions in surface solar irradiance due to cloudiness result in a noticeable ...

Moti Segal; Graham Feingold

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Retrieving Cloud Characteristics from Ground-Based Daytime Color All-Sky Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion is presented of daytime sky imaging and techniques that may be applied to the analysis of full-color sky images to infer cloud macrophysical properties. Descriptions of two different types of sky-imaging systems developed by the ...

C. N. Long; J. M. Sabburg; J. Calbó; D. Pagčs

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Rapid Daytime Estimation of Cloud Properties over a Large Area from Radiance Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm is developed to rapidly estimate cloud properties for a large area from daytime imager data. In this context, a large area refers to a grid cell composed of many imager pixels. The algorithm assumes a gamma distribution to model the ...

Andrew K. Heidinger

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Slippery Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean Arising Due to Daytime Solar Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements made in the Equatorial Atlantic during the 35th cruise of the R/V Akademic Vernadsky using a free-rising profiler and drifters revealed a near-surface slippery layer of the ocean arising due to daytime solar heating. The solar ...

Vladimir N. Kudryavtsev; Alexander V. Soloviev

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Heat Budget Analysis of Nocturnal Cooling and Daytime Heating in a Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nocturnal cooling and daytime heating in a basin were studied on clear and calm days by means of heat budget observations. In the nighttime, drainage flow occurs along the basin sideslope and advects cold air to the boundary layer over the basin ...

Junsei Kondo; Tsuneo Kuwagata; Shigenori Haginoya

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Daytime Global Cloud Typing from AVHRR and VIIRS: Algorithm Description, Validation, and Comparisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three multispectral algorithms for determining the cloud type of previously identified cloudy pixels during the daytime, using satellite imager data, are presented. Two algorithms were developed for use with 0.65-, 1.6-/3.75-, 10.8-, and 12.0-?m ...

Michael J. Pavolonis; Andrew K. Heidinger; Taneil Uttal

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Assessing Stability of CERES-FM3 Daytime Longwave Unfiltered Radiance with AIRS Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) daytime longwave (LW) radiances are determined from the difference between a total (TOT) channel (0.3–200 ?m) measurement and a shortwave (SW) channel (0.3–5 ?m) measurement, while nighttime LW ...

Xianglei Huang; Norman G. Loeb; Huiwen Chuang

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Predictability of June–September Rainfall in Ethiopia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In much of Ethiopia, similar to the Sahelian countries to its west, rainfall from June to September contributes the majority of the annual total, and is crucial to Ethiopia’s water resource and agriculture operations. Drought-related disasters ...

Diriba Korecha; Anthony G. Barnston

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes R. L. Coulter Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Surface layer estimates of surface sensible heat flux have been made at 10 - 14 locations within the Central Facility (CF) of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program site by using energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations located mostly in uncultivated areas. The advent of the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM) with approximately 50 stations within the boundaries of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site that measure a variety of meteorological parameters leads to the possibility of using the OKM to provide additional estimates of surface energy budget to augment

28

Field Guide: Daytime Discharge Inspection of Transmission and Distribution Overhead Lines and Substations – Guide with Video  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI visual guide, one of a series of field guides designed to support inspection and assessment of transmission components, is devoted to the subject of daytime discharge inspection. Although technology for viewing corona and arcing discharges during the day has been available for a number of years, it can be rather difficult to interpret the images produced by this technology. This systematically organized document was prepared to help overcome some of these difficulties. It is intended for ...

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Evaluation of an LES-Based Wind Profiler Simulator for Observations of a Daytime Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The daytime atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) is characterized by strong turbulence that is primarily caused by buoyancy forced from the heated underlying surface. The present study considers a combination of a virtual radar and large ...

Danny E. Scipión; Phillip B. Chilson; Evgeni Fedorovich; Robert D. Palmer

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Effects of Atmospheric Thermal Stability and Slope Steepness on the Development of Daytime Thermally Induced Upslope Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of background atmospheric thermal stability and slope steepness on the daytime thermally induced upslope flows was investigated using analytical and numerical model approaches. The study focuses on meso-? domains and considers the noon ...

Z. J. Ye; M. Segal; R. A. Pielke

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Evaluating Cloud Contamination in Clear-Sky MODIS Terra Daytime Land Surface Temperatures Using Ground-Based Meteorology Station Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environment Canada meteorological station hourly sampled air temperatures Tair at four stations in the southwest Yukon were used to identify cloud contamination in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra clear-sky daytime ...

Scott N. Williamson; David S. Hik; John A. Gamon; Jeffrey L. Kavanaugh; Saewan Koh

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Morning Inversion Near the Ground and Its Daytime Transition at Two Rural Sites in the Carolinas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six years of tower data from two dissimilar sites in the eastern piedmont of the Carolinas are analyzed to yield a selective climatology of the lower portion of the morning inversion. Its transition to daytime conditions is then described and ...

Allen J. Riordan; Jerry M. Davis; Raymond B. Kiess

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Multi-year, Summertime Observations of Daytime Fair-Weather Cumuli at the ARM Southern Great Plains facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long data record (14-year) of ground-based observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is analyzed to document the macroscopic and dynamical properties of daytime fair-weather cumulus ...

Arunchandra S. Chandra; P. Kollias; B. A. Albrecht

34

The Effect of Local Atmospheric Circulations on Daytime Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurements over a Pinus elliottii Canopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The daytime net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) was measured in an even-aged slash pine plantation in northern Florida from 1999 to 2001 using the eddy covariance technique. In August 2000, two clear-cuts were formed approximately 1 km west of ...

H. W. Loescher; G. Starr; T. A. Martin; M. Binford; H. L. Gholz

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Evaluation of a Satellite Multispectral VIS–IR Daytime Statistical Rain-Rate Classifier and Comparison with Passive Microwave Rainfall Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A daytime surface rain-rate classifier, based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), is proposed for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat-8 geostationary satellite. It is developed over the British Isles ...

Davide Capacci; Federico Porců

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Solar energy system performance evaluation. Aratex Services, Inc. , industrial laundry, Fresno, California, June--September 1978  

SciTech Connect

The system utilizes 140 collectors manufactured by Ying. The collectors are flat plate and lexan glazed. They provide an effective aperture area of 6500 square feet. The collectors are mounted in 24 rows on the flat roof of the building. The 12,500 gallon insulated fiberglass storage tank is mounted on an above ground slab in a partially enclosed area. All solar energy system piping is copper. All exterior piping is insulated with fiberglass covered by an aluminum jacket. The solar energy system is used in conjunction with a heat recovery system. Softened cold water is first pumped through a heat exchanger which recovers heat from the laundry wastewater. The water then flows into the solar storage tank and circulates through the collectors. It is then pumped through another heat exchanger which boosts the water to the required temperature of 170/sup 0/F. Steam from a low pressure gas-fired boiler located in the building is used as the auxiliary energy source. The hot water is stored in a 4,000 gallon holding tank which contains an immersed heat exchanger that adds heat to the water from the steam condensate. The ARATEX solar system has an average hot water demand of over 30,000 gallons per day at a temperature of 180/sup 0/F. The heat recovery system reduced the hot water load at the laundry by 30 percent. Of the remaining load, 25 percent was provided by solar energy.

Armstrong, H.L.; Sohoni, V.S.; Murphy, L.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Advances in materials science, metals and ceramics division. Triannual progress report, June-September 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning the magnetic fusion energy program; the laser fusion energy program; geothermal research; nuclear waste management; Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) research; diffusion in silicate minerals; chemistry research resources; and chemistry and materials science research.

Truhan, J.J.; Hopper, R.W.; Gordon, K.M. (eds.)

1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

38

Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly progress report, June--September 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each utilize catalysts and sulfur containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2}, and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this first quarter, progress in the following areas has been made. One high surface area molybdenum catalyst has been prepared. An existing unit at IGT is being modified to accommodate the sulfur feedstocks and the higher temperatures(> 1300{degrees}K) required for studying the reactions of hydrogen sulfide and methane as proposed in Tasks 2 through 5. An HP 5890 gas chromatograph with a TCD(thermal conductivity detector) for detecting fixed gases including hydrogen and an FPD(flame photometric detector) for detecting sulfur compounds was purchased using SMP funds and has been received.

Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Quarterly progress report, June-September 1983  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents progress for the following major research projects: stabilization, engineering, and monitoring alternatives assessment for improving regulation of uranium recovery operations and waste management; attenuation of radon emission from uranium tailings; assessment of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings; and methods of minimizing ground-water contaminants from in-situ leach uranium mining.

Foley, M.G.; Deutsch, W.J.; Gee, G.W.; Hartley, J.N.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Mayer, D.W.; Nelson, R.W.; Opitz, B.E.; Peterson, S.R.; Serne, R.J.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Wind Power as an Electrical Energy Source in Illinois  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using 3 h wind data (1970–74) from nine first-order NWS stations in and around Illinois, monthly frequency histograms of wind speeds for each station, and for each half-day (0700–1800 and 1900–0600 LST) were constructed. The histogram class ...

Wayne M. Wendland

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Einstein and the Daytime Sky - D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D. Fun with polarizers D. Fun with polarizers In one respect, Einstein's mathematical analysis (like Rayleigh's earlier one) proves quite accurate, in a way that's easy to demonstrate. This has to do with how the sky's scattered light is polarized. Try looking at a patch of clear sky through one lens of a pair of polarizing sunglasses while you rotate the lens. You'll notice that the sky looks brighter as you look through the lens in some positions, and darker when the lens is in other positions. If the sun is not far from the patch of sky you're looking at, you'll find that the sky looks brightest when the sun is to the left or right of the lens, and darkest when the sun is "above the top" or "below the bottom" of the lens. Why is this? Any kind of wave-whether sound wave, water wave, light wave-is associated

43

Einstein and the Daytime Sky - A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The distinction between a fluid's liquid and gaseous phases breaks down at a certain temperature and pressure; when illuminated under these conditions, the fluid looks milky white, like a common opal. Einstein found how this relates to the reason the sky is blue. A B C D A. A path with a detour If you look at many artists' renderings of Albert Einstein, you are likely to find some that depict Einstein with some representation of the universe as a whole, or black holes, or other objects in deep space. Because many such pictures exist, we may, somewhat unconsciously, associate Einstein with the dark nighttime sky. This is a quite reasonable association, since Einstein's theories of space and time deal with the universe as a whole and with certain astrophysical

44

Einstein and the Daytime Sky - B  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

B. Effects of an uneven random distribution Einstein's work involved giving some greater mathematical precision to some recent ideas of the physicist Marian von Smoluchowski....

45

Solar and Daytime Infrared Irradiance during Winter Chinooks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinook winds bring unseasonably warm temperatures to southern Alberta in the winter. They also melt the snow and evaporate, the surface and near surface soil water. Hitherto, the warmth of the wind had almost exclusively been linked to the ...

Lawrence C. Nkemdirim

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Mesoscale Simulation of Rapid Soil Drying and Its Implications for Predicting Daytime Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapid soil-surface drying, which is called “decoupling,” accompanied by an increase in near-surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, is typically confined to the top 1–2 cm of the soil, while the deeper layers remain relatively moist. ...

Joseph A. Santanello Jr.; Toby N. Carlson

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Numerical Study of the Daytime Urban Effect and Its Interaction with the Sea Breeze  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under light gradient-wind conditions, the heat-island effect associated with large urban areas is characterized by a temperature rise after sunrise over the land (??L)and a temperature difference between the urban and rural areas (??) during the ...

Hiroshi Yoshik Ado

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

The Role of Human Activity in the Recent Warming of Extremely Warm Daytime Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Formal detection and attribution analyses of changes in daily extremes give evidence of a significant human influence on the increasing severity of extremely warm nights and decreasing severity of extremely cold days and nights. This paper ...

Nikolaos Christidis; Peter A. Stott; Simon J. Brown

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A Daytime Complement to the Reverse Absorption Technique for Improved Automated Detection of Volcanic Ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated volcanic cloud detection algorithm that utilizes four spectral channels (0.65, 3.75, 11, and 12 ?m) that are common among several satellite-based instruments is presented. The new algorithm is physically based and globally applicable ...

Michael J. Pavolonis; Wayne F. Feltz; Andrew K. Heidinger; Gregory M. Gallina

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Satellite-Based Imagery Techniques for Daytime Cloud/Snow Delineation from MODIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents two multispectral enhancement techniques for distinguishing between regions of cloud and snow cover using optical spectrum passive radiometer satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)...

Steven D. Miller; Thomas F. Lee; Robert L. Fennimore

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

An Improved Parameterization for Estimating Effective Atmospheric Emissivity for Use in Calculating Daytime Downwelling Longwave Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved parameterization is presented for estimating effective atmospheric emissivity for use in calculating downwelling longwave radiation based on temperature, humidity, pressure, and solar radiation observations. The first improvement is ...

Todd M. Crawford; Claude E. Duchon

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Colors of the daytime overcast sky Raymond L. Lee, Jr. and Javier Hernndez-Andrs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

depth. Simulations using the radiative-transfer model MODTRAN4 help explain the observed bluing T , we use the detailed and extensively tested radiative-transfer model MOD- TRAN4. MODTRAN combines as noted below, each of our MODTRAN simulations includes the following parameters: a default midlatitude

Lee Jr., Raymond L.

53

Improved Daytime Column-Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor from Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate water vapor profiles from radiosondes are essential for long-term climate prediction, weather prediction, validation of remote sensing retrievals, and other applications. The Vaisala RS80, RS90, and RS92 radiosondes are among the more ...

K. E. Cady-Pereira; M. W. Shephard; D. D. Turner; E. J. Mlawer; S. A. Clough; T. J. Wagner

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A Comparative Study of Daytime Thermally Induced Upslope Flow on Mars and Earth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several characteristics of thermally induced mesoscale upslope flow on Mars and its comparison with that on Earth were investigated using both analytical and numerical model approaches. The conclusions obtained from the analytical and the ...

Z. J. Ye; M. Segal; R. A. Pielke

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Observed 1970–2005 Cooling of Summer Daytime Temperatures in Coastal California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluated 1950–2005 summer [June–August (JJA)] mean monthly air temperatures for two California air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA). The study focuses on the more rapid post-1970 warming ...

Bereket Lebassi; Jorge González; Drazen Fabris; Edwin Maurer; Norman Miller; Cristina Milesi; Paul Switzer; Robert Bornstein

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Scaling the Daytime Urban Heat Island and Urban-Breeze Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The urban-breeze circulation is a mesoscale response of the atmospheric flow that is related to horizontal variations in temperature associated, for dry conditions, with gradients in sensible heat flux densities. This local circulation is ...

Julia Hidalgo; Valéry Masson; Luis Gimeno

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Effects of Surface Property Variations on Simulated Daytime Airflow over Coastal Southern California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of simulations were performed to determine the sensitivity of a three-dimensional mesoscale model to the spatial variation of surface properties across coastal southern California, including the Los Angeles basin. Properties were allowed ...

Brian L. Ulrickson

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Forecasting Convective Initiation by Monitoring the Evolution of Moving Cumulus in Daytime GOES Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study identifies the precursor signals of convective initiation within sequences of 1-km-resolution visible (VIS) and 4–8-km infrared (IR) imagery from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) instrument. Convective ...

John R. Mecikalski; Kristopher M. Bedka

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The Vertical Distribution of Radon in Clear and Cloudy Daytime Terrestrial Boundary Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radon (222Rn) is a powerful natural tracer of mixing and exchange processes in the atmospheric boundary layer. The authors present and discuss the main features of a unique dataset of 50 high-resolution vertical radon profiles up to 3500 m above ...

Alastair G. Williams; Wlodek Zahorowski; Scott Chambers; Alan Griffiths; Jörg M. Hacker; Adrian Element; Sylvester Werczynski

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

High-Resolution Daytime Cloud Observations for Northwestern Mexico from GOES-7 Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first stage in a program of research to develop a regional model capable of describing the hydrology of semiarid areas of northwest Mexico and southwest United States, using remotely sensed data, is described in this paper. Finescale ...

Jaime Garatuza-Payan; Rachel T. Pinker; W. James Shuttleworth

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Daytime Boundary Layer Evolution over Mountainous Terrain. Part II: Numerical Studies of Upslope Flow Duration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulators of upslope flow forming on the lee side of a heated mountain ridge showed this flow to be a transient phenomenon, in agreement with observations. The simulations, performed with a two-dimensional, dry version of the cloud ...

Robert M. Banta

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Parameterization of Joint Frequency Distributions of Potential Temperature and Water Vapor Mixing Ratio in the Daytime Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Joint frequency distributions (JFDs) of potential temperature (?) versus water vapor mixing ratio (r) within the convective boundary layer were measured during a new field experiment named Boundary Layer Experiment 1996 (BLX96). These JFDs were ...

Larry K. Berg; Roland B. Stull

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Multiscale Local Forcing of the Arabian Desert Daytime Boundary Layer, and Implications for the Dispersion of Surface-Released Contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four 6-day simulations of the atmospheric conditions over the Arabian Desert during the time of the 1991 detonation and release of toxic material at the Khamisiyah, Iraq, weapons depot were performed using a mesoscale model run in a data-...

Thomas T. Warner; Rong-Shyang Sheu

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Daytime Mixed Layer over the Santiago Basin: Description of Two Years of Observations with a Lidar Ceilometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two years of high-resolution backscatter profiles obtained with a commercial lidar ceilometer in Santiago Basin (33.5°S, 70.6°W) are analyzed. The generally large aerosol load in the Santiago atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) facilitates the use ...

Ricardo C. Muńoz; Angella A. Undurraga

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

The 1988 and 1990 Summer Season Simulations for West Africa Using a Regional Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations have been undertaken using a regional climate model (RegCM2) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research for the West African growing season (June–September) periods of 1988 and 1990. The regional climate model ...

Gregory S. Jenkins

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Precipitation Efficiency of Warm-Season Midwestern Mesoscale Convective Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The precipitation efficiencies for mesoscale convective systems (MCS) over the central United States are calculated. During July–September 2000 and June–September 2001, 24 MCS for which sufficient data were available occurred over or near ...

Patrick Market; Stacy Allen; Roderick Scofield; Robert Kuligowski; Arnold Gruber

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Heat Balance and Eddies in the Caribbean Upwelling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The upper-ocean heat budget of the Caribbean upwelling system is investigated during the onset of the Atlantic warm pool (June–September) using high-resolution observations of sea surface temperature and a high-resolution (°) regional model. ...

Julien Jouanno; Julio Sheinbaum

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Unusual Central Indian Drought of Summer Monsoon 2008: Role of Southern Tropical Indian Ocean Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While many of the previous positive Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) years were associated with above (below)-normal monsoon rainfall over central (southern) India during summer monsoon months [June–September (JJAS)], the IOD event in 2008 is associated ...

Suryachandra A. Rao; Hemantkumar S. Chaudhari; Samir Pokhrel; B. N. Goswami

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Seasonal-to-Interannual Variability of Ethiopia/Horn of Africa Monsoon. Part I: Associations of Wavelet-Filtered Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation and Global Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Horn of Africa rainfall varies on multiple time scales, but the underlying climate system controls on this variability have not been examined comprehensively. This study therefore investigates the linkages between June–September Horn of Africa (...

Zewdu T. Segele; Peter J. Lamb; Lance M. Leslie

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Interannual Variability and Ensemble Forecast of Upper Blue Nile Basin Kiremt Season Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethiopian agriculture and Nile River flows are heavily dependent upon the Kiremt season (June–September) precipitation in the upper Blue Nile basin, as a means of rain-fed irrigation and streamflow contribution, respectively. Climate diagnostics ...

Paul Block; Balaji Rajagopalan

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Large-Scale Precipitation and Outgoing Longwave Radiation from INSAT-1B during the 1986 Southwest Monsoon Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Areally averaged precipitation and broadband outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) have been estimated from infrared window channel observations from INSAT-1B, the Indian geostationary satellite, for the period June–September 1986. The estimation ...

Phillip A. Arkin; A. V. R. Krishna Rao; R. R. Kelkar

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Global Extratropical Response to Diabatic Heating Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global teleconnections associated with the Asian summer monsoon convective activities are investigated based on monthly data of 29 Northern Hemisphere summers defined as June–September (JJAS). Two distinct teleconnection patterns are identified ...

Hai Lin

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

The Sensitivity of African Wave Disturbances to Remote Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ensembles of three simulations each, forced by June?September 1987 and 1988 sea surface temperatures, respectively, were made with a new version of the general circulation model of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard ...

Leonard M. Druyan; Timothy M. Hall

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Developing versus Nondeveloping Disturbances for Tropical Cyclone Formation. Part II: Western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global daily reanalysis fields from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) are used to analyze Northern Hemisphere summertime (June–September) developing and nondeveloping disturbances for tropical cyclone (TC) ...

Bing Fu; Melinda S. Peng; Tim Li; Duane E. Stevens

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

All-India Summer Monsoon Rainfall and Sea Surface Temperatures around Northern Australia and Indonesia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between Indian summer (June–September) monsoon rainfall and sea surface temperatures around northern Australia–Indonesia has been explored using data from 1949 to 1991. Warm sea surface temperatures are generally associated with ...

Neville Nicholls

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Relationship Between Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures and Rainfall over India and Sri Lanka  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monsoon season (June–September) precipitation data from 31 Indian subdivisions and mean monthly precipitation data from 35 Indian and Sri Lanka stations, spanning the period 1875–79, were analyzed to determine the relationship between equatorial ...

Eugene M. Rasmusson; Thomas H. Carpenter

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

An Investigation of Warm-Season Spatial Rainfall Variability in Oklahoma City: Possible Linkages to Urbanization and Prevailing Wind  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study used 9 yr (1998–2006) of warm-season (June–September) mean daily cumulative rainfall data from both the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis and rain gauge stations to examine spatial ...

Lauren M. Hand; J. Marshall Shepherd

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

High spectral resolution test and calibration of an ultra-narrowband Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter for use in daytime mesospheric resonance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fiber Beam(s) 1 Beam 2 Beam 4 Beam 3 Telescope Fig. 1. Optical arrangement of the Faraday filter test the telescope is injected into the lidar receiver optical fiber, and thus to the Faraday filter, following daylight operations with the lidar. Ultra-narrow bandpass filters enable optical observations

Chu, Xinzhao

79

Effects of Regional Warming due to Urbanization on Daytime Local Circulations in a Complex Basin of the Daegu Metropolitan Area, Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical and observational analyses were conducted using realistic and historical three-set land-use data over 40 yr from 1963 to 2002 to evaluate regional warming in the Daegu metropolitan area due to dramatic land-use alterations in the basin ...

Soon-Hwan Lee; Hae-Dong Kim

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Rainfall trends in India and their impact on soil erosion and land management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Figure 2.3 Interannual variation of southwest monsoon seasonal (June-September) rainfall from the IMD gridded data set and VASClimo data set for the period 1951- 2000 (Rajeevan et al., 2005) 15 Figure 2.4 Homogeneous study regions in India except...

Pal, Indrani

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Factors Controlling Multiple Tropical Cyclone Events in the Western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The statistical feature of occurrence of multiple tropical cyclone (MTC) events in the western North Pacific (WNP) is examined during summer (June–September) for the period of 1979–2006. The number of MTC events ranged from one to eight per year, ...

Jianyun Gao; Tim Li

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

A Field Computer for Animal Trackers Edwin H Blake, Lindsay Steventon, Jacqlyn Edge and Andrea Foster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was initially developed from February 1996 and tested in the Karoo National Park in June and September to the Karoo National Park in June, September and October 1996), and two, Karel Benadie and James Minye, have extensively tested the field computer system for over three years in the Karoo National Park. The biographical

Blake, Edwin

83

Ethiopian Highlands Crop-Climate Prediction: 1979–2009  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares different methods of predicting crop-related climate in the Ethiopian highlands for the period 1979–2009. A target index (ETH4) is developed as an average of four variables in the June–September season—rainfall, rainfall minus ...

Mark R. Jury

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Statistical Characteristics of the Large-Scale Response of Coastal Sea Level to Atmospheric Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a study of the large-scale response of coastal sea level to atmospheric forcing along the west coast of North America during June–September 1973, Halliwell and Allen calculate space- and time-lagged cross-correlation coefficients R?? ...

J. S. Allen; D. W. Denbo

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Intriguing Aspects of the Monsoon Low-Level Jet over Peninsular India Revealed by High-Resolution GPS Radiosonde Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strong cross-equatorial flow in the lower troposphere, widely known as the monsoon low-level jet (MLLJ), plays an important role in the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall during June–September. Using high-resolution GPS radiosonde ...

M. Roja Raman; M. Venkat Ratnam; M. Rajeevan; V. V. M. Jagannadha Rao; S. Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Sea Ice Cover and Related Atmospheric Conditions in Arctic Canada During the Summer of 1978  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maps are presented of sea ice cover and open water in the Canadian Arctic for the final day of each month, June–September, 1978. The maps are derived from NOAA satellite imagery and show an extent of open water which is considerably smaller than ...

B. Dey

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Energy Analysis, Baselining and Modeling of Prairie View A&M University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of the available data found that electricity savings in the J.B. Coleman Library for June - September, 1998 were 298 MWh, or 38% of the baseline consumption during these months. Extrapolation of these savings to a full year leads would result in savings of 894 MWh/year. This would result in annual electricity cost savings of $42,500 at the average cost of $0.0475/kWh which was paid by the University for the period October, 1997 - September, 1998. Smaller savings were expected in chilled water, but were not evident in the data available. Likewise, no significant increase in hot water use was observed during the June - September period analyzed.

Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.; Eggebrecht, J.; Carlson, K. A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8PR = Rate of thermal input to power plant receiver (MWt)the solar thermal inputs to the daytime power plant and theof solar thermal inputs to the daytime power plant and the

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Wintertime Boundary Layer Structure in the Grand Canyon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wintertime temperature profiles in the Grand Canyon exhibit a neutral to isothermal stratification during both daytime and nighttime, with only rare instances of actual temperature inversions. The canyon warms during daytime and cools during ...

C. David Whiteman; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Fast Two-Stream Method for Computing Diurnal-Mean Actinic Flux in Vertically Inhomogeneous Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on a derivation of the two-stream daytime-mean equations of radiative flux transfer, a method for computing the daytime-mean actinic fluxes in the absorbing and scattering vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere is suggested. The method applies ...

V. V. Filyushkin; S. Madronich; G. P. Brasseur; I. V. Petropavlovskikh

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Cloud Formation and Time of Day  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

daytime or nighttime? Replies: Dena Daytime. If there is enough moisture in the air the Sun will heat the uneven land surface, unevenly, causing air currents that rise (because...

92

Simulated diurnal rainfall physics in a multi-scale global climate model with embedded explicit convection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

waves, compensating subsidence and detrainment aroundunrealistic deep barotropic subsidence wave that otherwisethrough continuity) daytime subsidence over adjacent ocean.

Pritchard, Michael Stephen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Anticipating PHEV Energy Impacts in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

contribute to peak electricity demand (depending on a givenadditions to daytime electricity demand from PHEVs. However,Their higher peak electricity demand estimate is due to

Axsen, John; Kurani, Kenneth S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Research Highlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radar reflectivity data from the TRMM precipitation radar were used to identify daytime storm systems (cloud conditions near local noon have the greatest impact on the solar...

95

Management of SARP Preparation - registration  

Zip Code: Country: Daytime Phone: (including area code) Cell Phone: (including area code) Fax: (including area code) Comments: Last updated: September 7, 2010 ...

96

Housing Reservation Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 24, 1998 ... Zip: • Daytime Phone #: Fax #: • E-mail Address: Number of persons in party: • Handicapped-accessible accommodations requested: Yes. No.

97

Office of Waste Processing Technical Exchange  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Company: Professional Title: Email Address: Street Address: City: State: Postal CodeZip: Country: Daytime Phone: (including area code) Fax: (including area code) Comments:...

98

PDF form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zip/Postal Code: Country: Daytime Phone: : Additional Room Occupants: E-mail: (Confirmation will be sent via e-mail if address is provided.) n Nonsmoking ...

99

NIST Tech Beat, June 2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... great product: the world's largest stock engine motorcycles ... Irvine C. Gardner, was to take the world's ... daytime darkness" when it was taken to Canton ...

100

Novel Controls of Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Farms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solar Farms are absolutely idle in the night and even during daytime operate below capacity in early mornings and late afternoons. Thus, the entire expensive… (more)

Rahman, Shah Arifur

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Data:51910892-d368-49b7-8d44-94abe4ca0f05 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

910892-d368-49b7-8d44-94abe4ca0f05 910892-d368-49b7-8d44-94abe4ca0f05 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: 2010/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation Option C Sector: Commercial Description: * Applicable to water pumping over 5HP.The facilities and demand charges are billed June- September. Minimum:Higher of facilities charge plus kW/Demand charge of $96 per year. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Summer rates cover May- October and Winter cover November- April . Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University)

102

Fermilab Folk Club  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Club Club The Fermilab Folk Club sponsors regular monthly barn dances to promote and preserve traditional square and contra dancing. You can also do International Folk Dancing, Scottish Country Dance, and English Country at Fermilab. 2013/2014 Barn Dance Schedule Kuhn Village Barn 2nd Sunday Dances - 6:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. September through June September 8, 2013 Music by Can I Get an Amen Caller: Square Dance Jam! October 13, 2013 Music by Just Us Chicks Caller: Meg Dedolph November 10, 2013 Music by Baker's Dozen Caller: Maggie Jo Salyer December 8, 2013 Music by No Man's Land Caller: Lynn Garren January 12, 2014 Music by Common Taters Caller: Paul Watkins February 9, 2014 Music by $8000 Stringband Caller: Maggie Jo Saylor March 9, 2014 Music by Caller: Meg Dedolph

103

Data:54d267a4-bfec-4ea7-9412-ff3962ff0803 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7a4-bfec-4ea7-9412-ff3962ff0803 7a4-bfec-4ea7-9412-ff3962ff0803 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Commercial General Service Demand Sector: Commercial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

104

Data:E9e6009a-3637-4069-ba6e-6eb4aaec0e96 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9a-3637-4069-ba6e-6eb4aaec0e96 9a-3637-4069-ba6e-6eb4aaec0e96 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Primary Metering Sector: Residential Description: *Applicable to all residential customer in individually metered family residences for all domestic uses within the city limits. Individual single phase motors or heating equipment shall not exceed 15 hp or 15 kW in size. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $5.60/month during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

105

Data:7f8decb8-d8ed-4d89-b659-a13a65d23093 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

decb8-d8ed-4d89-b659-a13a65d23093 decb8-d8ed-4d89-b659-a13a65d23093 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Commercial General Service Demand Primary Metering Sector: Commercial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

106

Data:E6c8349c-3804-4623-9b7e-ab5cd9117d87 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c8349c-3804-4623-9b7e-ab5cd9117d87 c8349c-3804-4623-9b7e-ab5cd9117d87 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial General Service Demand Primary Metering Sector: Industrial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

107

Agency datasets monthly list | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

December 2012) This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data as of December 2012. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope Employment Cube (http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/). The following workforce characteristics are available for analysis: Agency, State/Country, Occupation, Occupation Category, Pay Plan & Grade, GS & Equivalent Grade, Salary Level ($10,000 interval), Work Schedule, Type of Appointment, Gender, Age (5 year interval), Length of Service (5 year interval), Employment, Average Salary, and Average Length of Service. Starting in FY 2010, the OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is the source for all FedScope data. Data is processed on a quarterly basis (i.e. March, June, September and December). OPM Federal Government Finances and Employment 2013-03-15 10:32:45

108

Data:18aade9a-90bf-42e9-b25c-dabbaff3c553 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

aade9a-90bf-42e9-b25c-dabbaff3c553 aade9a-90bf-42e9-b25c-dabbaff3c553 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Large Power, Industrial Secondary Service Sector: Industrial Description: * Available to Commercial or industrial service over 25kw. Minimum:Higher of 25kw or 90% of previous June-September demand. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Summer rates cover May- October and Winter cover November- April. Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability

109

Data:C7f5ff12-ba8f-41f6-9962-8958e594c5f3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f5ff12-ba8f-41f6-9962-8958e594c5f3 f5ff12-ba8f-41f6-9962-8958e594c5f3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: 2010/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power ,Commercial Secondary Service Sector: Commercial Description: * Available to Commercial or industrial service over 25kw. Minimum:Higher of 25kw or 90% of previous June-September demand. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Summer rates cover May- October and Winter cover November- April. Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments

110

Data:4aabcf17-3199-49b2-8eb4-aa4c584fd23f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

aabcf17-3199-49b2-8eb4-aa4c584fd23f aabcf17-3199-49b2-8eb4-aa4c584fd23f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Municipal Service Primary Metering/Ownership Sector: Commercial Description: *Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. 3.5% reduction in bill for primary metering and ownership/maintenance of transformation equipment.

111

Data:0b859c21-6965-4b6e-b060-8f8903132ded | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c21-6965-4b6e-b060-8f8903132ded c21-6965-4b6e-b060-8f8903132ded No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: 2010/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power, Industrial Primary Service Sector: Industrial Description: * Available to Commercial or industrial service over 25kw. Minimum:Higher of 25kw or 90% of previous June-September demand. Delivery of power at primary voltage will be billed with 3% discount given on demand and energy charges. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Summer rates cover May- October and Winter cover November- April.

112

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Differences in Cloud Characteristics at Barrow and Atqasuk at the NSA/AAO Differences in Cloud Characteristics at Barrow and Atqasuk at the NSA/AAO CART Doran, J.C., Barnard, J.C., Zhong, S., and Jakob, C., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Data obtained from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSRs) and microwave radiometers (MWRs) have been used to examine the differences in the cloud characteristics at Barrow and Atqasuk during the period June-September of 1999. Because the size of a grid cell in a GCM may be on the order of 100 km or more, it is important to determine to what extent meteorological and radiometric observations made at Barrow or Atqasuk

113

Interannual variability of summer monsoon rainfall onset date across India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Variability of Indian summer monsoon onset dates is investigated at 1-degree spatial resolution by applying an agronomic definition (i.e. the first significant rains without a potentially damaging dry spell thereafter) to gridded observed daily rainfall data (1951–2003). Median onset dates compare well with previous estimates. The inter-quartile range varies from less than two weeks over the monsoon zone and western Ghats, to about a month over the northwestern desert. Local onset date is shown to be poorly correlated with regional-scale definitions of monsoon onset, and this is attributed to low estimates of spatial coherence, found for local onset-date variability. There is a weak relationship between local onset date and the June–September seasonal rainfall total, while the latter is shown to be more spatially coherent—and thus more potential predictable—over the monsoon zone than local onset date. 1.

Vincent Moron; Andrew W. Robertson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

The Collaborator | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Collaborator The Collaborator The Collaborator August 16, 2013 - 11:06am Addthis The Collaborator also known as the DOE Workforce Training Newsletter is a publication of the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer's Office of Learning and Workforce Development. The Collaborator is published quarterly (March, June, September and December). It is designed to keep Federal DOE managers, supervisors, employees and the departmental community informed of all training topics relevant to DOE. Click here to access The Collaborator in Powerpedia. The December 2013 The Collaborator is the 8th issue. Addthis Related Articles Sunita Satyapal is the Director of the Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Women @ Energy: Sunita Satyapal

115

Research Highlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Retrieving Cloud Characteristics from Ground-Based Daytime Color All-Sky Retrieving Cloud Characteristics from Ground-Based Daytime Color All-Sky Images Submitter: Long, C. N., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Properties Journal Reference: Long, C. N., J. M. Sabburg, J. Calbo, and D. Pages, (2006): Retrieving Cloud Characteristics from Ground-based Daytime Color All-sky Images, JTech, 23, No. 5, 633–652. Long, C. N., J. M. Sabburg, J. Calbo, and D. Pages, (2006): Papers of Note: Retrieving Cloud Characteristics from Ground-based Daytime Color All-sky Images, BAMS, 87, No. 6, 743–744. Figure 1. Sky image (left) from 1300 LST Sept 4, 2004, and corresponding cloud decision image (right) denoting originally retrieved clear sky (blue), thin cloud (gray), and opaque cloud (white). Black denotes masked

116

ARM - Facility News Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effort Will Help Dial In Carbon Profiles A graduate student from Penn State releases a weather balloon to support the CO2 DIAL field campaign. Soundings are focused on daytime...

117

Improving the Noah Land Surface Model in Arid Regions with an Appropriate Parameterization of the Thermal Roughness Length  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daytime land surface temperatures in arid and semiarid regions are typically not well simulated in current land surface models (LSMs). This study first evaluates the importance of parameterizing the thermal roughness length (z0h) to model the ...

Yingying Chen; Kun Yang; Degang Zhou; Jun Qin; Xiaofeng Guo

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Estimating Soil Wetness from the GOES Sounder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this note, the relationship between the observed daytime rise in surface radiative temperature, derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) sounder clear-sky data, and modeled soil moisture is explored over the ...

Robert M. Rabin; Timothy J. Schmit

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A Numerical Study of the Evolving Convective Boundary Layer and Orographic Circulation around the Santa Catalina Mountains in Arizona. Part I: Circulation without Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The daytime evolution of the thermally forced boundary layer (BL) circulation over an isolated mountain, about 30 km in diameter and 2 km high, is examined by means of numerical simulations validated with data collected in the Cumulus ...

J. Cory Demko; Bart Geerts

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Sensitivity of the Numerical Simulation of the Southwest Monsoon Boundary Layer to the Choice of PBL Turbulence Parameterization in MM5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Summertime convection over Arizona typically begins in the early afternoon and continues into the night. This suggests that the evolution of the daytime planetary boundary layer is important to the development of Arizona convection. If numerical ...

David R. Bright; Steven L. Mullen

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Nonclassical Mesoscale Circulations Caused by Surface Sensible Heat-Flux Gradients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant spatial heterogeneities of daytime surface sensible heat flux are common over land within mesoscale domains. Thermally induced circulations, similar to the sea/lake breeze [termed nonclassical mesoscale circulations (NCMSs)], are ...

M. Segal; R. W. Arritt

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Low Cloud Type over the Ocean from Surface Observations. Part II: Geographical and Seasonal Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synoptic surface cloud observations primarily made by volunteer observing ships are used to construct global climatologies of the frequency of occurrence of individual low cloud types over the ocean for daytime during summer and winter seasons ...

Joel R. Norris

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

A Comparison of Mixing Depths Observed by Ground-Based Wind Profilers and an Airborne Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors compare the mixing depths in the daytime convective boundary layers that were observed remotely by wind profilers and an airborne lidar during the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study. The comparison is used to determine whether the mixing ...

A. B. White; C. J. Senff; R. M. Banta

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Composite Climatology of Florida Summer Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an attempt to produce an objective climatology of peninsular Florida thunderstorms that does not suffer from observer bias, we composited 9088 hours of high-resolution manually digitized radar (MDR) data and 28 days of daytime satellite ...

Patrick J. Michaels; Roger A. Pielke; J. T. Mcqueen; D. E. Sappington

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Coincident Lidar and Aircraft Observations of Entrainment into Thermals and Mixed Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coincident observations of the daytime convective boundary layer over Oklahoma were made with the NCAR Queen Air aircraft and the University of Wisconsin ground-based lidar. The two data sets have been merged to provide a unique visual ...

Timothy D. Crum; Roland B. Stull; Edwin W. Eloranta

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air cooled power plants experience significant performance fluctuations as plant cooling capacity reduces due to higher daytime temperature than nighttime temperature. The purpose of this thesis is to simulate the detailed ...

Williams, Daniel David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Mesoscale Convective Vortices Observed during BAMEX. Part II: Influences on Secondary Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations from the Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex (MCV) Experiment are used to examine the role of the five mesoscale convective vortices described in Part I on heavy precipitation during the daytime heating cycle. Persistent ...

Stanley B. Trier; Christopher A. Davis

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Nocturnal Tornado Climatology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Very few studies on nocturnal tornadoes have been performed, and operational forecasting of nocturnal tornadoes is often guided by the results of studies that are biased toward daytime tornadoes. However, it is likely that tornado environments ...

Amanda K. Kis; Jerry M. Straka

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Effects of Synoptic-scale Wind under the Typical Summer Pressure Pattern on the Mesoscale High-Temperature Events in the Osaka and Kyoto Urban Areas in Japan by the WRF model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The actual conditions of the mesoscale summer high temperatures (HT) recorded in Osaka-Kyoto urban area in Japan were investigated by using our observation network. The daytime temperatures observed on ten HT events in this area were the highest ...

Yuya Takane; Yukitaka Ohashi; Hiroyuki Kusaka; Yoshinori Shigeta; Yukihiro Kikegawa

130

Comparison of Observed 10-m Wind Speeds to Those Based on Monin–Obukhov Similarity Theory Using IHOP_2002 Aircraft and Surface Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparisons of 10-m above ground level (AGL) wind speeds from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to point observations consistently show that model daytime wind speeds are slow compared to observations, even after improving model physics ...

Diane Strassberg; Margaret A. LeMone; Thomas T. Warner; Joseph G. Alfieri

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Measurement of Isoprene Emissions over a Black Spruce Stand Using a Tower-Based Relaxed Eddy-Accumulation System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daytime isoprene emissions were measured over a black spruce forest in Saskatchewan (Canada) during the Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study of 1994. The relaxed eddy-accumulation (REA) technique was used to measure isoprene fluxes in parallel with ...

E. Pattey; R. L. Desjardins; H. Westberg; B. Lamb; T. Zhu

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Precipitation and Latent Heating Characteristics of the Major Tropical Western Pacific Cloud Regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective tropical cloud regime classification based on daytime averaged cloud-top pressure and optical thickness information from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) is combined with precipitation and latent heating ...

Christian Jakob; Courtney Schumacher

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing as Determined from Nimbus-7 Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Collocated and coincident cloud and outgoing longwave radiation observations taken by experiments on board the Nimbus-7 satellite have been used to infer the daytime longwave cloud-radiative forcing. Through the specification of a time-series of ...

Philip E. Ardanuy; Larry L. Stowe; Arnold Gruber; Mitchell Weiss; Craig S. Long

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Study of the Aerosol Indirect Effect by Large-Eddy Simulation of Marine Stratocumulus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of 98 three-dimensional large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus clouds covering both nighttime and daytime conditions were performed to explore the response of cloud optical depth (?) to various aerosol number concentrations ...

Miao-Ling Lu; John H. Seinfeld

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main ...

Galina Wind; Steven Platnick; Michael D. King; Paul A. Hubanks; Michael J. Pavolonis; Andrew K. Heidinger; Ping Yang; Bryan A. Baum

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Effects of Surface Heat and Moisture Exchange on ARW-WRF Warm-Season Precipitation Forecasts over the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evolution of the daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) and its association with warm-season precipitation is strongly impacted by land–atmosphere heat and moisture exchange (hereafter surface exchange). However, substantial uncertainty ...

S. B. Trier; M. A. LeMone; F. Chen; K. W. Manning

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Removal of the Solar Component in AVHRR 3.7-µm Radiances for the Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical scheme has been developed to remove the solar component in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 3.7-µm channel for the retrieval of cirrus parameters during daytime. This method uses a number of prescribed threshold ...

N. X. Rao; S. C. Ou; K. N. Liou

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

An Estimation of the Bulk Transfer Coefficients for a Bare Soil Surface Using a Linear Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear heat budget model is developed to estimate the daytime means of the bulk transfer coefficients for heat and evaporation efficiency using the daily variation of observational data. The daily variation of shortwave radiation, ground-level ...

Dai Matsushima; Junsei Kondo

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DWR Bulletin 194. Hydroelectric Energy Potential inmore than 6 bil- of hydroelectric poweL of view of energyfrom peak demand Daytime hydroelectric Two wate:r age) would

Krieg, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Convectively Driven Turbulent Mixing in the Upper Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two experiments were performed to study the characteristics of turbulence in convective mixed layers in the upper Ocean. In the first, a diurnal convective mixed layer developed in the Bahamas under the influence of the cycle of daytime solar ...

T. J. Shay; M. C. Gregg

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

As the world turns in a convergence culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The American daytime serial drama is among the oldest television genres and remains a vital part of the television lineup for ABC and CBS as what this thesis calls an immersive story world. However, many within the television ...

Ford, Samuel Earl

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Evaluation of Vegetation Effects on the Generation and Modification of Mesoscale Circulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the present study is to evaluate (i) the effect of vegetated surfaces on modifying sea breeze and daytime thermally induced upslope flows, and (ii) the generation of thermally induced flow by vegetated areas contrasted by bare soil ...

M. Segal; R. Avissar; M. C. McCumber; R. A. Pielke

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Estimating Regional Surface Heat and Moisture Fluxes above Prairie Cropland from Surface and Upper-Air Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper-air budget methods can be used to estimate the surface sensible and latent heat flux densities on a regional scale. This study assesses the application of radiosonde-based budget methods above homogeneous cropland. Serial daytime soundings ...

Alan G. Barr; G. S. Strong

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Tips: Landscaping | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

illustration. Carefully positioned trees can save up to 25% of the energy a typical household uses. Research shows that summer day-time air temperatures can be 3-6 cooler...

145

Scaling Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Characteristics on Potential for Deep Convection over Uniform Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of surface characteristics on the daytime change in the potential for development of deep convection resulting from surface flux of heat and moisture is evaluated by conceptual, scaling, and numerical modeling approaches. It is shown ...

M. Segal; R. W. Arritt; C. Clark; R. Rabin; J. Brown

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Carlink II: A Commuter Carsharing Pilot Program Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

instrument, collecting car usage data automatically. TheseCarLink Allows Daytime Usage The Car Itself is Good CarLinkfee ($60/month/car), as well as usage fees ($1.50/hour and $

Shaheen, Susan; Wipyewski, Kamill; Rodier, Caroline; Novick, Linda; Meyn, Molly Anne; Wright, John

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Evaluation of the Relationship between Air and Land Surface Temperature under Clear- and Cloudy-Sky Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clear and cloudy daytime comparisons of land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature (Tair) were made for 14 stations included in the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) of stations from observations made from 2003 through 2008. ...

Kevin Gallo; Robert Hale; Dan Tarpley; Yunyue Yu

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb/TCu Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new automated daytime cumulonimbus/towering cumulus (Cb/TCu) cloud detection method for the months of May–September is presented that combines information on cloud physical properties retrieved from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared ...

Cintia Carbajal Henken; Maurice J. Schmeits; Hartwig Deneke; Rob A. Roebeling

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Aircraft Observation of Convection Waves over Southern Germany—A Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vertical cross section of 100 km × 10 km through a daytime midlatitude troposphere is analyzed using aircraft turbulence data with 1.5-m spatial resolution. Convectively forced internal gravity waves, also referred to as “convection waves,” ...

Thomas Hauf

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

The Radiative, Cloud, and Thermodynamic Properties of the Major Tropical Western Pacific Cloud Regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the radiative, cloud, and thermodynamic characteristics of the atmosphere separated into objectively defined cloud regimes in the tropical western Pacific (TWP). A cluster analysis is applied to 2 yr of daytime-only data ...

Christian Jakob; George Tselioudis; Timothy Hume

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Numerical Simulation of the Interaction between the Sea-Breeze Front and Horizontal Convective Rolls. Part I: Offshore Ambient Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional, cloud-resolving model is used to investigate the interaction between the sea-breeze circulation and boundary layer roll convection. Horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) develop over land in response to strong daytime surface ...

Peter S. Dailey; Robert G. Fovell

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Airborne Pseudo-Dual-Doppler Analysis of a Rear-Inflow Jet and Deep Convergence Zone within a Supercell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 22 May 1995, numerous thunderstorms, several of which produced large hail and small tornadoes, formed along a dryline in the central and northern Texas Panhandle. The only long-lasting, daytime, severe storms developed later, south of the ...

Howard B. Bluestein; Stephen G. Gaddy

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Evidence of an Agricultural Heat Island in the Lower Mississippi River Floodplain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Mississippi River floodplain in the states of Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana presents a readily discernible feature in weather satellite images. This floodplain appears in the spring and early summer as a daytime warm anomaly ...

William H. Raymond; Robert M. Rabin; Gary S. Wade

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Gravity Waves Driven by Diurnal Fluctuations in Mesoscale Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observed convective systems, such as mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs), often undergo repeated cycles of nocturnal growth and daytime decay especially during the summer. The gravity wave response to these pulsations is poorly understood. The ...

John H. E. Clark

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Diurnal Lightning Variability over the Maritime Continent: Impact of Low-Level Winds, Cloudiness, and the MJO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lightning over the Maritime Continent exhibits a pronounced diurnal cycle. Daytime and evening lightning occurs near coastlines and over mountain slopes, driven by sea and valley breezes. Nocturnal and morning thunderstorms are touched off where ...

Katrina S. Virts; John M. Wallace; Michael L. Hutchins; Robert H. Holzworth

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Effects of Solar Radiation on the Performance of Pyrgeometers with Silicon Domes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of the Eppley pyrgeometer with a silicon dome presents several anomalies during daytime measurements. These problems are related mainly to the solar heating of the dome, which causes nearly instantaneous fluctuations, about ±1%–2% ...

L. Alados-Arboledas; J. Vida; J. I. Jiménez

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

HRDI Observations of Mean Meridional Winds at Solstice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) measurements of daytime and nighttime winds at 95 km are used to deduce seasonally averaged Eulerian mean meridional winds during six solstice periods. These estimates are compared with seasonally averaged ...

R. S. Lieberman; W. A. Robinson; S. J. Franke; R. A. Vincent; J. R. Isler; D. C. Fritts; A. H. Manson; C. E. Meek; G. J. Fraser; A. Fahrutdinova; W. Hocking; T. Thayaparan; J. MacDougall; K. Igarashi; T. Nakamura; T. Tsuda

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

The Probability Distribution of Land Surface Wind Speeds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The probability density function (pdf) of land surface wind speeds is characterized using a global network of observations. Daytime surface wind speeds are shown to be broadly consistent with the Weibull distribution, while nighttime surface wind ...

Adam H. Monahan; Yanping He; Norman McFarlane; Aiguo Dai

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Column Water Vapor Content in Clear and Cloudy Skies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With radiosonde data from 15 Northern Hemisphere stations, surface-to-400-mb column water vapor is computed from daytime soundings for 1988–1990. On the basis of simultaneous surface visual cloud observations, the data are categorized according ...

Dian J. Gaffen; William P. Elliott

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Spatial Variability of Liquid Water Path in Marine Low Cloud: The Importance of Mesoscale Cellular Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid water path (LWP) mesoscale spatial variability in marine low cloud over the eastern subtropical oceans is examined using two months of daytime retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Terra ...

Robert Wood; Dennis L. Hartmann

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Mean and Flux Horizontal Variability of Virtual Potential Temperature, Moisture, and Carbon Dioxide: Aircraft Observations and LES Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of the horizontal variability of surface properties on the turbulent fluxes of virtual potential temperature, moisture, and carbon dioxide are investigated by combining aircraft observations with large-eddy simulations (LESs). Daytime ...

Monica Górska; Jordi Vilŕ-Guerau de Arellano; Margaret A. LeMone; Chiel C. van Heerwaarden

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Variability of Earth-Emitted Radiation from One Year of Nimbus-6 ERB Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements from the Nimbus-6 ERR wide field-of-view (WFOV) instrument are used to study daytime and nighttime radiation variability on a 15° regional, zonal and global scale. An analysis of components of ...

T. Dale Bess

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Application of Sun/star photometry to derive the aerosol optical depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols play a crucial role in the radiative transfer and chemical processes that control the Earth's climate. Aerosol optical depth and other related aerosol characteristics are widely known during daytime through Sun photometers, and so ...

D. Perez-Ramirez; B. Ruiz; J. Aceituno; F. J. Olmo; L. Alados-Arboledas

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Automated Measurements of Atmospheric Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of using a solid-state, linear-array imaging device coupled with computerized scene analysis and display to measure daytime atmospheric visibility is described. Computer software is implemented for routine conversion of observed ...

W. Viezee; W. E. Evans

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

On the Identification of the Large-Scale Properties of Tropical Convection using Cloud Regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of cloud regimes in identifying tropical convection and the associated large-scale atmospheric properties is investigated. The regimes are derived by applying cluster analysis to satellite retrievals of daytime-averaged frequency ...

Jackson Tan; Christian Jakob; Todd P. Lane

167

Sensitivity of Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) Calculated Air Pollutant Concentrations to the Vertical Diffusion Parameterization during Convective Meteorological Situations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations during photochemical smog episodes in Atlanta, Georgia, depend strongly on the numerical parameterization of the daytime vertical diffusivity. Results found ...

Peter Nowacki; Perry J. Samson; Sanford Sillman

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Instrument Development Principal Investigators: J.E.M. Goldsmith...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Capitini 1988). This paper will describe our development of a solar-blind Raman lidar capable of extended-range daytime profiling of atmospheric water vapor. The first part...

169

Horizontal Heat Fluxes over Complex Terrain Computed Using a Simple Mixed-Layer Model and a Numerical Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermally induced local circulation over a periodic valley is simulated by a two-dimensional numerical model that does not include condensational processes. During the daytime of a clear, calm day, heat is transported from the mountainous ...

Fujio Kimura; Tuneo Kuwagata

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Data:D42a3a9b-0b28-488f-8505-4aca1f336b2c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a3a9b-0b28-488f-8505-4aca1f336b2c a3a9b-0b28-488f-8505-4aca1f336b2c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial General Service Demand Sector: Industrial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

171

Data:4cef4c8c-61a0-4b70-9022-c4e56362a6c3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cef4c8c-61a0-4b70-9022-c4e56362a6c3 cef4c8c-61a0-4b70-9022-c4e56362a6c3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southwest Rural Elec Assn Inc Effective date: 2010/11/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power, Commercial Primary Service Sector: Commercial Description: * Available to Commercial or industrial service over 25kw. Minimum:Higher of 25kw or 90% of previous June-September demand. Delivery of power at primary voltage will be billed with 3% discount given on demand and energy charges. All bills are adjusted by applicable taxes. Summer rates cover May- October and Winter cover November- April.

172

FedScope Employment Cube (September 2011) | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September 2011) September 2011) BusinessUSA Data/Tools Apps Challenges Let's Talk BusinessUSA You are here Data.gov » Communities » BusinessUSA » Data FedScope Employment Cube (September 2011) Dataset Summary Description This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data as of September 2011. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope Employment Cube (http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/). The following workforce characteristics are available for analysis: Agency, State/Country, Occupation, Occupation Category, Pay Plan & Grade, GS & Equivalent Grade, Salary Level ($10,000 interval), Work Schedule, Type of Appointment, Gender, Age (5 year interval), Length of Service (5 year interval), Employment, Average Salary, and Average Length of Service. Starting in FY 2010, the OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is the source for all FedScope data. Data is processed on a quarterly basis (i.e. March, June, September and December).

173

Data:Db1be124-43dc-48d0-afd5-4307a7b882e3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

be124-43dc-48d0-afd5-4307a7b882e3 be124-43dc-48d0-afd5-4307a7b882e3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Primary Metering/Ownership Sector: Residential Description: *Applicable to all residential customer in individually metered family residences for all domestic uses within the city limits. Individual single phase motors or heating equipment shall not exceed 15 hp or 15 kW in size. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $5.60/month during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

174

Data:2274547f-89a6-483b-9805-6d820ed214bd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

89a6-483b-9805-6d820ed214bd 89a6-483b-9805-6d820ed214bd No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Rochester Public Utilities Effective date: 2009/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large industrial service rate Sector: Industrial Description: AVAILABILITY: At all locations for loads with measured demands in excess of 10,000 kW for three or more billing periods in a given calendar year, and where facilities of adequate capacity and voltage are adjacent to the premises to be served. DETERMINATION OF DEMAND: Measured demand is defined as the maximum rate at which energy is used for any period of fifteen consecutive minutes during the billing period. The billing demand shall be the greater of the measured demand for the billing period adjusted for power factor, or 75% of the maximum measured demand for the most current June - September billing periods adjusted for power factor. Billing periods may not coincide with calendar months.

175

Data:6e5a9b57-50bc-4b73-82ce-00f8c0686e0f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a9b57-50bc-4b73-82ce-00f8c0686e0f a9b57-50bc-4b73-82ce-00f8c0686e0f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Laurens, South Carolina (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/09/02 End date if known: Rate name: General Service Time-of-Use Rate Sector: Industrial Description: Demand Charge A) On-Peak Billing Demand 1. Summer Months (June-September) For all kW per month $12.50 per kW 2. Winter Months (October-May) For all kW per month $7.14 per kW B) Economy (Off-Peak) Demand per Month $1.25 per kW Energy Charge A) All on-peak Energy Charge $0.0723 per kWh B) All off-peak Energy Charge $0.0713 per kWh

176

Data:3c466e7c-b80a-48a0-971f-225830fe0c0a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6e7c-b80a-48a0-971f-225830fe0c0a 6e7c-b80a-48a0-971f-225830fe0c0a No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Municipal Service Sector: Commercial Description: *Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Source or reference: http://www.ci.gothenburg.ne.us/Ordinances/2010_Current/868%20Utility%20Rates.pdf

177

Data:De495ae2-d2a2-40b7-93e1-d896bcb5540b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ae2-d2a2-40b7-93e1-d896bcb5540b ae2-d2a2-40b7-93e1-d896bcb5540b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Commercial General Service Demand Primary Metering/Ownership Sector: Commercial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

178

Data:8bb7a5a9-fffc-4a4b-9ef2-f0df45621a5f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bb7a5a9-fffc-4a4b-9ef2-f0df45621a5f bb7a5a9-fffc-4a4b-9ef2-f0df45621a5f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Industrial General Service Demand Primary Metering/Ownership Sector: Industrial Description: *Applicable to any customer who has demand exceeding 100 kW for three consecutive months. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

179

Data:5ad07f4e-d7ca-4a15-bd22-6545c8df8d01 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7f4e-d7ca-4a15-bd22-6545c8df8d01 7f4e-d7ca-4a15-bd22-6545c8df8d01 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Suwannee Valley Elec Coop Inc Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Time of Use Sector: Commercial Description: Minimum Charge $20.00 Not applicable for Residential Services On Peak Demand Charge: June- September & December- March Source or reference: http://www.svec-coop.com/Member_Services/memberinfo.htm#CURRENT_RATE_INFORMATION-_Effective_November_1,_20/07 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh):

180

FedScope Employment Cube (December 2011) | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

December 2011) December 2011) BusinessUSA Data/Tools Apps Challenges Let's Talk BusinessUSA You are here Data.gov » Communities » BusinessUSA » Data FedScope Employment Cube (December 2011) Dataset Summary Description This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data as of December 2011. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope Employment Cube (http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/). The following workforce characteristics are available for analysis: Agency, State/Country, Occupation, Occupation Category, Pay Plan & Grade, GS & Equivalent Grade, Salary Level ($10,000 interval), Work Schedule, Type of Appointment, Gender, Age (5 year interval), Length of Service (5 year interval), Employment, Average Salary, and Average Length of Service. Starting in FY 2010, the OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is the source for all FedScope data. Data is processed on a quarterly basis (i.e. March, June, September and December).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Data:53bd76aa-f1f6-412d-ae28-e52010b5239f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6aa-f1f6-412d-ae28-e52010b5239f 6aa-f1f6-412d-ae28-e52010b5239f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Sector: Residential Description: *Applicable to all residential customer in individually metered family residences for all domestic uses within the city limits. Individual single phase motors or heating equipment shall not exceed 15 hp or 15 kW in size. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. Load management credit of $5.60/month during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management.

182

Giant outburst of EXO 2030+375: pulse-phase resolved analysis of INTEGRAL data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In June-September 2006 the Be/X-ray binary EXO 2030+375 experienced the second giant outburst since its discovery. The source was shown to have a complicated pulse-averaged X-ray spectral continuum with possible evidence of cyclotron absorption features. In this paper we present the first pulse-phase resolved analysis of the broad band X-ray spectra of EXO 2030+375 obtained with the INTEGRAL observatory close to the maximum and during the decay phase of the giant outburst. We report a strong variability of the spectrum with pulse phase. Alternative spectral continuum models are discussed. The dependence of the spectral parameters on pulse phase during the maximum of the outburst and the evolution of the pulse profiles with time are qualitatively consistent with the pulsar's emission diagram changing from the fan-beam geometry close to the maximum of the outburst to a combination of pencil and fan beams (of comparable intesities) at the end of the decay phase. Evidence of a cyclotron absorption line around 63 ...

Klochkov, D; Staubert, R; Ferrigno, C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

INTEGRAL and Swift observations of EXO 2030+375 during a giant outburst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims: We investigate the X-ray spectral and timing properties of the high mass X-ray binary EXO 2030+375 observed during its June-September 2006 giant (type II) outburst. Methods: The data analyzed in this work are from partly simultaneous observations with INTEGRAL Swift. The pulse period P and its temporal derivative P_dot are measured. X-ray pulse profiles in different energy ranges and time intervals are constructed. Pulse averaged X-ray spectra for different time intervals are studied. Results: We report a strong spin-up of the source during the outburst, comparable to that observed in 1985 during the previous giant outburst when the source was discovered. The value of P_dot is found to be linearly related to the X-ray luminosity of the source during the outburst. For the first time the hard X-ray (>25 keV) characteristics of the source during a type II outburst are studied. The X-ray pulse profiles apparently change with luminosity. The X-ray spectral continuum in the 3--120 keV energy range is modeled ...

Klochkov, D N; Santangelo, A; Staubert, R; Segreto, A; Ferrigno, C; Kretschmar, P; Kreykenbohm, I; La Barbera, A; Masetti, N; McCollough, M; Pottschmidt, K; Schoenherr, G; Wilms, J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Biological production of ethanol from coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research is continuing in attempting to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio from the C. ljungdahlii fermentation. Both batch and continuous reactors are being used for this purpose. The purpose of this report is four-fold. First, the data presented in PETC Report No. 2-4-91 (June--September 1991) are analyzed and interpreted using normalized specific growth and production rates. This technique eliminates experimental variation due to the differences in inoculum history. Secondly, the effects of the sulfur gases H{sub 2}S and COS on the performance of C. ljungdahlii are presented and discussed. Although these are preliminary results, they illustrate the tolerance of the bacterium to low levels of sulfur gases. Thirdly, the results of continuous stirred tank reactor studies are presented, where cell and product concentrations are shown as a function of agitation rate and gas flow rate. Finally, additional data are presented showing the performance of C. ljungdahlii in a CSTR with cell recycle.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Biological production of ethanol from coal. [Quarterly report], September 22, 1991--December 21, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research is continuing in attempting to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio (acetate to ethanol) from the C. ljungdahlii fermentation. Both batch and continuous reactors are being used for this purpose. The purpose of this report is four-fold. First, the data presented in PETC Report No. 2-4-91 (June--September, 1991) are analyzed and interpreted using normalized specific growth and production rates. This technique eliminates experimental variation due to differences in inoculum history. Secondly, the effects of the sulfur gases H{sub 2}S and COS on the performance of C. ljungdahlii are presented and discussed. Although these are preliminary results, they illustrate the tolerance of the bacterium to low levels of sulfur gases. Thirdly, the results of continuous stirred tank reactor studies are presented, where cell and product concentrations are shown as a function of agitation rate and gas flow rate. Finally, additional data are presented showing the performance of C. ljungdahlii in a CSTR with cell recycle.

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Biological production of ethanol from coal. [Quarterly technical report], September 22, 1991--December 21, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research is continuing in attempting to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio from the C. ljungdahlii fermentation. Both batch and continuous reactors are being used for this purpose. The purpose of this report is four-fold. First, the data presented in PETC Report No. 2-4-91 (June--September 1991) are analyzed and interpreted using normalized specific growth and production rates. This technique eliminates experimental variation due to the differences in inoculum history. Secondly, the effects of the sulfur gases H{sub 2}S and COS on the performance of C. ljungdahlii are presented and discussed. Although these are preliminary results, they illustrate the tolerance of the bacterium to low levels of sulfur gases. Thirdly, the results of continuous stirred tank reactor studies are presented, where cell and product concentrations are shown as a function of agitation rate and gas flow rate. Finally, additional data are presented showing the performance of C. ljungdahlii in a CSTR with cell recycle.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

Biological production of ethanol from coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research is continuing in attempting to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio (acetate to ethanol) from the C. ljungdahlii fermentation. Both batch and continuous reactors are being used for this purpose. The purpose of this report is four-fold. First, the data presented in PETC Report No. 2-4-91 (June--September, 1991) are analyzed and interpreted using normalized specific growth and production rates. This technique eliminates experimental variation due to differences in inoculum history. Secondly, the effects of the sulfur gases H{sub 2}S and COS on the performance of C. ljungdahlii are presented and discussed. Although these are preliminary results, they illustrate the tolerance of the bacterium to low levels of sulfur gases. Thirdly, the results of continuous stirred tank reactor studies are presented, where cell and product concentrations are shown as a function of agitation rate and gas flow rate. Finally, additional data are presented showing the performance of C. ljungdahlii in a CSTR with cell recycle.

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Data:A8f2cadd-08ec-46d8-8395-11ee0edd803b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f2cadd-08ec-46d8-8395-11ee0edd803b f2cadd-08ec-46d8-8395-11ee0edd803b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Gothenburg, Nebraska (Utility Company) Effective date: 2010/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Municipal Service Primary Metering Sector: Commercial Description: *Load management credit of $1.40/hp per month (minimum of $5.60 per month) during summer months (June-September) for customers with master metering and city controlled load management. Subject to production cost adjustment and power factor adjustment. 1.5% reduction in bill for primary metering. Source or reference: http://www.ci.gothenburg.ne.us/Ordinances/2010_Current/868%20Utility%20Rates.pdf

189

Research Highlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improved Daytime Precipitable Water Vapor from Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Improved Daytime Precipitable Water Vapor from Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Sensors Download a printable PDF Submitter: Cady-Pereira, K. E., Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Mlawer, E. J., Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Turner, D. D., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Shephard, M. W., Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, S. A., Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Area of Research: Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Vertical Structures Working Group(s): Radiative Processes Journal Reference: Cady-Pereira, K, M Shephard, E Mlawer, D Turner, S Clough, and T Wagner. 2008. "Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology doi: 10.1175/2007JTECHA1027.1.

190

1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Daytime Overlapping Cloud Detection in MODIS Data Daytime Overlapping Cloud Detection in MODIS Data B. A. Baum National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia S. L. Nasiri Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Satellite Studies University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin P. Yang Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Current efforts to derive a global cloud climatology from satellite data generally suffer in situations involving multilayered clouds. In fact, cloud properties are inferred for each imager pixel assuming only one cloud layer is present. Currently available satellite cloud climatologies provide a horizontal distribution of clouds, but need improvement in the description of the vertical distribution of clouds.

191

The Influence of Forests on Atmospheric Heating during the Snowmelt Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heating during the snowmelt season has been studied by means of data analysis and numerical model experiments. As a result of the data analysis, it was shown that in some examples the daytime air temperature rose above 0°C, even if ...

Takeshi Yamazaki

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

A Numerical Study of the Evolving Convective Boundary Layer and Orographic Circulation around the Santa Catalina Mountains in Arizona. Part II: Interaction with Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second part of a study that examines the daytime evolution of the thermally forced boundary layer (BL) circulation over a relatively isolated mountain, about 30 km in diameter and 2 km high, and its interaction with locally initiated ...

J. Cory Demko; Bart Geerts

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Spurious Signals in TRMM/VIRS Reflectance Channels and Their Effect on Aerosol Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol optical depths, ?1 and ?2, and the Ĺngström exponent ? = –ln(?1/?2)/ln(?1/?2), are retrieved from daytime measurements (sun zenith angle ?o < 60°) over ocean in reflectance bands 1 (?1 = 0.63 µm) and 2 (?2 = 1.61 µm) of the five-channel ...

Alexander Ignatov

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Security & Sustainability College of Charleston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Security & Sustainability POLI 399 College of Charleston Fall 2013 Day/Time: T/H; 10 we can think about generating greater security and prosperity through systemic change that arises, then providing security is paramount consideration along that path. Using frames of collective, national

Young, Paul Thomas

195

Computational Study on Thermal Properties of HVAC System with Building Structure Thermal Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building structure thermal storage (BSTS) HVAC systems can store heat during nighttime thermal storage operation (nighttime operation hours) by using off-peak electricity and release it in the daytime air-conditioning operation (daytime operation hours) by utilizing a large amount of the thermal capacity of building structures such as beams, columns and floors composed of concrete. These BSTS systems have recently been considered as one method for leveling hourly electricity demands for HVAC on a day-to-day basis. Through a simulation using a model developed with experimental data, this paper describes how various factors for the design and operation of a BSTS quantitatively affect the charge/discharge performances of a HVAC system. As a result, the following was revealed: the thermal performance of the system is strongly influenced by the daily heat storage operation hours, supply air volume and supply air temperature during the nighttime operation hours, stored heat caused the total daytime cooling extraction to decrease by 11% to 58% and the daily total cooling extraction through nighttime to daytime to increase by 4% to 17% compared with the values of non- thermal storage HVAC system.

Sato, Y.; Sagara, N.; Ryu, Y.; Maehara, K.; Nagai, T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

April 2006 ~ Get your last dose of SUBOG for the semester! S U N M O N T U E W E D T H U F R I S A T  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

19 20 Daytime Event 11-2, SU 21 22 SPRING CONCERT 23 Senior Week 24 Porn Debate 7pm Jorg 25 Lion King for details! PORN DEBATE 4/24 RON JEREMY vs. MICHAEL LEAHY FREE @ Jorg, 7pm Good Luck on Finals!! See you

Holsinger, Kent

197

Late-Twentieth-Century Climatology and Trends of Surface Humidity and Temperature in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climatological surface temperature and humidity variables for China are presented based on 6-hourly data from 196 stations for the period of 1961–90. Seasonal and annual means for daytime, nighttime, and the full day are shown. The seasonal cycle ...

Julian X. L. Wang; Dian J. Gaffen

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

National Aeronautics and Space Administration thaensingMeSemotR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to be `one-pagers' with a Teacher's Guide and Answer Key as a second page. This compact form was deemed very in kilometers? Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov #12;Answer Key 1 Problem 1 - A digital camera created://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov #12;Answer Key 1 Problem 1 - Suppose that the camera was photographing a bright daytime scene

199

History of Pacific Northwest Heat Waves: Synoptic Pattern and Trends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A historical record of Pacific Northwest (defined here as west of the Cascade Mountains in Washington and Oregon) heat waves is identified using the U.S. Historical Climate Network, version 2, daily data (1901–2009). Both daytime and nighttime ...

Karin A. Bumbaco; Kathie D. Dello; Nicholas A. Bond

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

pharyngeal dentition. Three pairs of dorsal pharyngeal tooth plates are present, associated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

where x, y positions of sharks were recorded by the RAP system. The boundary of this area (see ®ne stip detected within 15 min period during 24 hour cycle [white area daytime; stip- pled area nighttime; A or B

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Radar Nowcasting of Total Lightning over the Kennedy Space Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long-term radar dataset over Melbourne, Florida, was matched with three-dimensional lightning data to optimize radar-derived predictors of total lightning over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Four years (2006–09) of summer (June–August) daytime (...

Gregory N. Seroka; Richard E. Orville; Courtney Schumacher

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Numerical Study of Terrain-Induced Mesoscale Motions and Hydrostatic Form Drag in a Heated, Growing Mixed Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A four-layer three-dimensional model whose lowest layer is a time and space-dependent, well-mixed boundary layer is employed over artificial, irregular terrain on the mesoscale during a daytime heating cycle. Only if the surface heating and mixed-...

J. W. Deardorff; K. Ueyoshi; Y-J. Han

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

An Analytical Model of the Diurnal Oscillation of the Inversion Base Due to the Sea Breeze  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diurnal oscillation of the height of the inversion due to the sea breeze is studied analytically by use of a linear model. The base of the inversion over the sea moved downward during daytime and upward during nighttime. Over the land the ...

Yizhak Feliks

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Pressure and Temperature Differences between Vaisala RS80 and RS92 Radiosonde Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In several twin flight campaigns, Vaisala RS80 radiosonde systems report lower temperatures than Vaisala RS92 systems in the daytime. Simultaneous differences increase from less than 0.1 K at pressure altitudes below 100 hPa to 0.7 K at 10 hPa. ...

Wolfgang Steinbrecht; Hans Claude; Fritz Schönenborn; Ulrich Leiterer; Horst Dier; Eckhard Lanzinger

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Asymmetric Removal of Temperature Inversions in a High Mountain Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During July 1985 the transition from nighttime to daytime wind regimes was studied in a steep-sided, broad mountain valley at about 2200 m MSL, in southeastern Wyoming. An array of surface weather stations and plot balloon releases from several ...

Robert D. Kelly

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 7, PAGES 1231-1234, APRIL 1, 2001 Anthropogenic emission of mercury to the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at a regional scale in the northeast United States. This region has the highest Hg emission of the country [US by fossil fuel consumption [US EPA, 1997]. Third, anthropogenic C source strength is well understood measurement, we only use observations made in the daytime, convective conditions when the sur- face values

Lee, Xuhui

207

Radiation Dry Bias Correction of Vaisala RS92 Humidity Data and Its Impacts on Historical Radiosonde Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Vaisala RS92 radiosonde is the most widely used type of sonde in the current global radiosonde network. One of the largest biases in the RS92 humidity data is its daytime solar radiation dry bias (SRDB). An algorithm [referred to as NCAR ...

Junhong Wang; Liangying Zhang; Aiguo Dai; Franz Immler; Michael Sommer; Holger Vömel

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles of Wind-Borne Dust over Africa North of the Equator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a study of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of dust over North Africa, using surface visibility as an indicator of dust. The diurnal cycle shows a reduction of visibility during the daytime hours in the areas where dust is ...

G. N’Tchayi Mbourou; J. J. Bertrand; S. E. Nicholson

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

The Great 2006 Heat Wave over California and Nevada: Signal of an Increasing Trend  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the great California–Nevada heat waves can be classified into primarily daytime or nighttime events depending on whether atmospheric conditions are dry or humid. A rash of nighttime-accentuated events in the last decade was punctuated by ...

Alexander Gershunov; Daniel R. Cayan; Sam F. Iacobellis

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Survey of utility lighting programs: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Reshaping loads is a major goal of utility lighting efforts. Nearly 60% of the utilities in this survey use lighting for demand-side management. The most popular programs promote lighting efficiency to reduce daytime peaks and outdoor security lighting to increase off-peak loads.

Isaksen, L.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Snow/Cloud Discrimination with Multispectral Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm is developed and evaluated for discriminating between clouds, snow-covered land and snow-free land in satellite image data. The multispectral technique uses daytime images of NOAA AVHRR channels 1 (0.63 ?m), 3 (3.7 ?m), and 4 (11.0 ...

Robert C. Allen Jr.; Philip A. Durkee; Carlyle H. Wash

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Characteristics of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over a Tropical Station as Evidenced by Tethered Balloon Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A tethersonde observational program was conducted for eight days during February and March 1989 at Pune (18°32?N, 73°51?E, 559 m MSL), India, during daytime for the study of mixed-layer evolution. A surface- based nocturnal inversion of intensity ...

K. G. Vernekar; Brij Mohan; Sangeeta Saxena; M. N. Patil

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Regional Trends in Nimbus-7 OLR: Effects of a Spectrally Nonuniform Albedo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from the Earth Radiation Budget wide-field-of-view sensors on board the Nimbus-7 satellite during the period 1979–87 indicate a statistically significant downward trend in daytime outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of up to 14 W m?2 decade?1 ...

David H. Tashima; Dennis L. Hartmann

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Leslie Shao-ming Sun Field Station at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ergonomically superior diffuse light to meet daytime lighting needs. · All appliances are Energy Star rated as an educational tool to demonstrate principles of sustain- ability and energy efficiency. With this in mind, the Leslie Shao-ming Sun Field Station was designed for an annual energy budget of net zero carbon emissions

Ford, James

215

Influence of Land Cover and Soil Moisture on the Horizontal Distribution of Sensible and Latent Heat Fluxes in Southeast Kansas during IHOP_2002 and CASES-97  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of daytime fair-weather aircraft and surface-flux tower data from the May–June 2002 International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) and the April–May 1997 Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97) are used to document the role of ...

Margaret A. LeMone; Fei Chen; Joseph G. Alfieri; Mukul Tewari; Bart Geerts; Qun Miao; Robert L. Grossman; Richard L. Coulter

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

STATE SELF-INSURANCE CLAIM REPORT FORM For State Agencies Use Only  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STATE SELF-INSURANCE CLAIM REPORT FORM For State Agencies Use Only READ INSTRUCTIONS ON REVERSE BEFORE COMPLETING THIS FORM PLEASE PRINT OR TYPE Agency Agency Number Agency Address City State Zip AgencyAgencyAgencyAgency State Employee Involved Daytime Phone Date of Incident Time a.m. p.m. Building

Tullos, Desiree

217

Results of Sun Photometer–Derived Precipitable Water Content over a Tropical Indian Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compact, hand-held multiband sun photometer (ozone monitor) has been used to measure total precipitable water content (PWC) at the low-latitude tropical station in Pune, India (18°32?N, 73°51?E). Data collected in the daytime (0730–1800 LT) ...

P. Ernest Raj; P. C. S. Devara; R. S. Maheskumar; G. Pandithurai; K. K. Dani; S. K. Saha; S. M. Sonbawne; Y. K. Tiwari

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Influence of Soil Moisture on Boundary Layer Cloud Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The daytime interaction of the land surface with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is studied using a coupled one-dimensional (column) land surface–ABL model. This is an extension of earlier work that focused on modeling the ABL for 31 May ...

M. B. Ek; A. A. M. Holtslag

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Seasonal and Diurnal Fluxes of Radiation, Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide over a Suburban Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on 1 yr of field measurements, the diurnal, seasonal, and annual fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) at a residential area of Tokyo, Japan, are described. The major findings are as follows. 1) The storage heat flux G in the daytime ...

R. Moriwaki; M. Kanda

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

EMERGENCY CONTACT CAMPUS DIRECTORY INFORMATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EMERGENCY CONTACT and CAMPUS DIRECTORY INFORMATION Please complete this form so that we have a record of whom to contact should an emergency situation arise. Also, take this opportunity to tell us: University location: EMERGENCY CONTACT INFORMATION Name: Relationship: Home Address: Work/daytime phone

Roy, Subrata

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Measuring Mean Velocities with POGO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

POGO is a simple technique for measuring water transport between the surface and some preselected depth. Equipped with a 12-kHz pinger for tracking and range measurement, a xenon flasher for nighttime relocation, and a VHF beacon for daytime ...

T. Rossby; J. Fontaine; J. Hummon

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Radar Nowcasting of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning over Houston, Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ten years (1997–2006) of summer (June–August) daytime (1400–0000 UTC) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler data for Houston, Texas, were examined to determine the best radar-derived predictors of the first cloud-to-ground lightning flash from a ...

Richard M. Mosier; Courtney Schumacher; Richard E. Orville; Lawrence D. Carey

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Agency datasets monthly list | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combined Federal Campaign, CFC, 2011 Information on donor contributions through the 2011 Combined Federal Campaign by local campaign. Data includes information on the number of donors, campaign costs, payroll deduction contributions, and recipient organizations. OPM Population 2013-01-23 13:35:53 Combined Federal Campaign, CFC, 2011 Information on donor contributions through the 2011 Combined Federal Campaign by local campaign. Data includes information on the number of donors, campaign costs, payroll deduction contributions, and recipient organizations. OPM Population 2013-01-23 13:35:53 Combined Federal Campaign, CFC, 2009-2011 Information on donor contributions through the 2010 Combined Federal Campaign by local campaign. Data includes information on the number of donors, campaign costs, payroll deduction contributions, and recipient organizations. OPM Population 2013-01-23 13:35:54 FedScope Employment Cube (December 2012) This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data as of December 2012. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope Employment Cube (http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/). The following workforce characteristics are available for analysis: Agency, State/Country, Occupation, Occupation Category, Pay Plan & Grade, GS & Equivalent Grade, Salary Level ($10,000 interval), Work Schedule, Type of Appointment, Gender, Age (5 year interval), Length of Service (5 year interval), Employment, Average Salary, and Average Length of Service. Starting in FY 2010, the OPM Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is the source for all FedScope data. Data is processed on a quarterly basis (i.e. March, June, September and December). OPM Federal Government Finances and Employment 2013-03-15 10:32:45

224

Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 92: Area 6 Decon Pond Facility  

SciTech Connect

This Post-Closure Inspection Report provides an analysis and summary of inspections for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility. CAU 92 was closed according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Operational Permit (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP], 1995) and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). Closure activities were completed on February 16, 1999, and the Closure Report (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999) was approved and a Notice of Completion issued by NDEP on May 11, 1999. CAU 92 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 06-04-01, Decon Pad Oil/Water Separator, and CAS 06-05-02, Decontamination Pond (RCRA). Both CASs have use restrictions; however, only CAS 06-05-02 requires post-closure inspections. Visual inspections of the cover and fencing at CAS 06-05-02 are performed quarterly. Additional inspections are conducted if precipitation occurs in excess of 1.28 centimeters (cm) (0.50 inches [in.]) in a 24-hour period. This report covers calendar year 2007. Quarterly site inspections were performed in March, June, September, and December of 2007. All observations indicated the continued integrity of the unit. No issues or concerns were noted, and no corrective actions were necessary. Copies of the inspection checklists and field notes completed during each inspection are included in Appendix A of this report, and photographs taken during the site inspections are included in Appendix B of this report. Two additional inspections were performed after precipitation events that exceeded 1.28 cm (0.50 in.) within a 24-hour period during 2007. No significant changes in site conditions were noted during these inspections, and no corrective actions were necessary. A copy of the inspection checklists and field notes completed during these additional inspections are included in Appendix A. Precipitation records for 2007 are included in Appendix C.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

POST CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 92: AREA 6 DECON POND FACILITY, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005  

SciTech Connect

This Post-Closure Inspection Report provides an analysis and summary of inspections for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 92 was closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Operational Permit (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), 1995) and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. Closure activities were completed on February 16, 1999, and the Closure Report (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999) was approved and a Notice of Completion issued by the NDEP on May 11, 1999. CAU 92 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 06-04-01, Decon Pad Oil/Water Separator; and CAS 06-05-02, Decontamination Pond (RCRA). Both CASs have use restrictions; however, only CAS 06-05-02 requires post-closure inspections. Visual inspections of the cover and fencing at CAS 06-05-02 are performed quarterly. Additional inspections are conducted if precipitation occurs in excess of 1.28 centimeters (cm) (0.50 inches [in]) in a 24-hour period. This report covers calendar year 2005. Quarterly site inspections were performed in March, June, September, and December of 2005. All observations indicated the continued integrity of the unit. No issues or concerns were noted, and no corrective actions were necessary. Copies of the inspection checklists and field notes completed during each inspection are included in Appendix A. Five additional inspections were performed after precipitation events that exceeded 1.28 cm (0.50 in) within a 24-hour period during 2005. No significant changes in site conditions were noted during these inspections, and no corrective actions were necessary. Copies of the inspection checklists and field notes completed during each inspection are included in Appendix A. Precipitation records for 2005 are included in Appendix C.

NA

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Customer Cycling Program in the City of Weimar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The City of Weimar Conservation/Load Management (CLM) Program demonstrates to other small Public Power Systems that a small city electric distribution system with 1,097 meters serving a population of less than 2,500 can have an effect on electric energy usage and conservation. Although the reduction may be small in KW, the percentages of participation in the program are not; and neither, is the percent of reduction of seven percent (7%) realized by the Cycling Program. The Weimar Peak Time Intermission Program was implemented in July, 1986 with the assistance of the Guadalupe Valley Electric Cooperative (GVEC). The number of installed devices rose over the first six (6) months from 0 to 325 and remained relatively constant until the City initiated a $2.00 monthly credit per device in October, 1991. Shortly thereafter, we installed another thirty (30) devices and at present have 358 devices installed with the following breakdown: Central Air Conditioners 126 Heat Pumps 72 Electric Furnaces 30 Water Heaters 1 3 An outgrowth of the Residential/Small Business Cycling Program has been the commercial rate for businesses using more than 50 KW of demand. This rate is patterned after the LCRA WP-1 Wholesale Rate and a similar rate developed by GVEC. Under this rate measurement of both the Coincident Peak and the Non-coincident Peak is made each month. The charge per kilowatt of demand at the time (one-hour) of LCRA Coincident Peak is significantly higher than off-peak even though there is a seasonal variation between Summer (June-September) and Winter (October-May). This rate design gives the business an economic incentive to reduce or shift their demand requirements during the monthly LCRA System Peak. The program is voluntary and allows the business to make the decision to reduce or shift demand; and, to select how they wish to reduce KW demand.

Parks, F. E.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improvements in AVHRR Daytime Cloud Improvements in AVHRR Daytime Cloud Detection Over the ARM NSA Site V. Chakrapani, D. A. Spanenberg, and D. R. Doelling Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Q. Z. Trepte and R. F. Arduini Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia Introduction Clouds play an important role in the radiation budget over the Arctic and Antarctic. Because of limited surface observing capabilities, it is necessary to detect clouds over large areas using satellite imagery. At low- and mid-latitudes, satellite-observed visible (VIS; 0.65 µm) and infrared (IR; 11 µm) radiance data are used to derive cloud fraction, temperature, and optical depth. However, the extreme variability

228

Alcohol processing speed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central Valley Jr. Academy Central Valley Jr. Academy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Our class has been studying about big cats. We studied cats' eyes. We learned why cats' eyes seem to glow in the dark. The back of each cat's eyes has mirror-like cells that reflect light. We used a coffee can and some construction paper to make a model of a cat's eye. We made the pupil oval shaped like a cat's eye. We shone a flashlight in the pupil and we saw the reflection. A book that we read said that nocturnal hungers mostly have long, oval-shaped pupils and daytime hunters have round pupils. We w want to know what difference that makes to an animal in being able to see.j Why do daytime hunters have round pupils and nocturnal hunters have oval shaped pupils. Do you know why?

229

shields-98.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 The Whole Sky Imager - A Year of Progress J. E. Shields and M. E. Karr Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego San Diego, California T. P. Tooman Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, California D. H. Sowle and S. T. Moore Mission Research Corporation Santa Barbara, California Abstract Much progress has been made this last year in realizing the potential of the whole sky imager (WSI). Two imagers are deployed [at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA)], two are being prepared for deployment in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and more are in production. Data products now include daytime thick cloud fraction and calibrated radiance. Night cloud fraction and daytime thin cloud

230

results presented and for the opinions expressed in the paper rests solely with the authors. Energy Pricing and Temperature Interaction: British Experimental Evidence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The responsiveness of energy demand to pricing is shown to be dependent on temperature and vice versa. This is investigated empirically using residential electricity demand data obtained under conditions of price variation from a British time-of-use pricing experiment. Results confirm that consumer response to higher electricity prices may be conditional on temperature levels, particularly during the day-time and for households with high overall levels of electricity consumption.

Andrew Henley; John Peirson; Andrew Henley; John Peirson

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Vertical and horizontal movements of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) near Taiwan determined using pop-up satellite tags  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a , Wen-Yie Chen a , Don-Chung Liu d , Wei-Cheng Su d , Su-Zan Yeh c , Shin-Chin Fu a , Tzu-Lun Huang daytime ( x =35.21 m±35.37 SD). Depths and ambient water temperatures visited ranged from 0 to 214 m limited by an 8 °C change in water temperature. Diel diving patterns also suggested basking behavior

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

232

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Available meteorological data for reporting sites in National Solar Data Network are presented as follows: the insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extra-terrestrial radiation for the solar site; the temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum, and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. Wind speed and direction and relative humidity values for day and night are presented also. (MHR)

Not Available

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

ELF and VLF radiation from the polar electrojet antenna  

SciTech Connect

An approximate evaluation is made of the ELF/VLF dipole moment of the polar electrojet antenna established by ionospheric heating via the use of powerful HF waves amplitude modulated with frequencies in the ELF/VLF range. The theory of reciprocity is used to determine the magnitude of the ELF/VLF waveguide excitation produced by such a dipole immersed in the ionosphere. Propagation under a series of ionospheres ranging from quiet auroral nighttime to disturbed auroral daytime is considered. 32 references.

Barr, R.; Stubbe, P.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Grid operators' newest nightmare: managing low-demand periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As more renewable energy resources are added in many parts of the world, a new and even more daunting challenge is likely to face grid operators in the future - how to get through the minimum demand periods. This is especially a problem in systems where the difference between the daytime peak, usually in the early to late summer afternoons, and minimum load, usually in the late evening and early morning hours, is significant.

NONE

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Daylighting potential in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Daylighting has good potential for application in tropical climates. It can help save electric energy as well as reduce the daytime power demand substantially. It can bring another dimension of energy efficiency in addition to efficient lighting technology, as well as aesthetic value. Its integration with continuous-dimming electric lighting is found to be acceptable. However, fundamental research as well as daylighting application technology are required to realize the potential.

Chirarattananon, S.; Limmechokchai, B. [Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Name  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Name Name ___________________________________________ Address _________________________________________ City or Town ______________________________________ State, ZIP ________________________________________ If rural location, directions to property _________________ ________________________________________________ E-mail Address ____________________________________ Daytime Phone ( ) _________________________ Evening Phone ( ) __________________________ I would like more information concerning authorized uses of Southwestern rights-of-way. When can a tree, a fence, or a building be dangerous? When it's too close to a high voltage transmission line! Electrical transmission lines are a familiar part of the American landscape that stand as a testimony

237

Thermal Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS)  

SciTech Connect

Application of radiant barriers and low-emittance surface coatings in residential building attics can significantly reduce conditioning loads from heat flow through attic floors. The roofing industry has been developing and using various radiant barrier systems and low-emittance surface coatings to increase energy efficiency in buildings; however, minimal data are available that quantifies the effectiveness of these technologies. This study evaluates performance of various attic radiant barrier systems under simulated summer daytime conditions and nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions using the large scale climate simulator (LSCS). The four attic configurations that were evaluated are 1) no radiant barrier (control), 2) perforated low-e foil laminated oriented strand board (OSB) deck, 3) low-e foil stapled on rafters, and 4) liquid applied low-emittance coating on roof deck and rafters. All test attics used nominal RUS 13 h-ft2- F/Btu (RSI 2.29 m2-K/W) fiberglass batt insulation on attic floor. Results indicate that the three systems with radiant barriers had heat flows through the attic floor during summer daytime condition that were 33%, 50%, and 19% lower than the control, respectively.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 92: Area 6 Decon Pond Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2006  

SciTech Connect

This Post-Closure Inspection Report provides an analysis and summary of inspections for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility. CAU 92 was closed according to the ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' (RCRA) Part B Operational Permit (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP], 1995) and the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Closure activities were completed on February 16, 1999, and the Closure Report (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999) was approved and a Notice of Completion issued by NDEP on May 11, 1999. CAU 92 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), CAS 06-04-01, Decon Pad Oil/Water Separator; and CAS 06-05-02, Decontamination Pond (RCRA). Both CASs have use restrictions; however, only CAS 06-05-02 requires post-closure inspections. Visual inspections of the cover and fencing at CAS 06-05-02 are performed quarterly. Additional inspections are conducted if precipitation occurs in excess of 1.28 centimeters (cm) (0.50 inches [in.]) in a 24-hour period. This report covers calendar year 2006. Quarterly site inspections were performed in March, June, September, and December of 2006. All observations indicated the continued integrity of the unit. No issues or concerns were noted, and no corrective actions were necessary. Copies of the inspection checklists and field notes completed during each inspection are included in Appendix A of this report, and photographs taken during the site inspections are included in Appendix B of this report. One additional inspection was performed after a precipitation event that exceeded 1.28 cm (0.50 in.) within a 24-hour period during 2006. No significant changes in site conditions were noted during this inspection, and no corrective actions were necessary. A copy of the inspection checklist and field notes completed during this additional inspection is included in Appendix A of this report. Precipitation records for 2006 are included in Appendix C of this report.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Determining Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River Subbasin, Oregon ; 2007 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We will report results of an ongoing project in the Deschutes River Subbasin to describe Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) life history. Project objectives were to determine adult lamprey escapement from Sherars Falls located at Rkm 70.4 and determine lamprey focal spawning areas, spawn timing and habitat through radio telemetry. A mark-recapture study and tribal creel was conducted to determine adult escapement. Lamprey were radio tagged and are currently being mobile, aerial and fixed site tracked to describe spawning. Adult lamprey were collected at Sherars Falls using a long-handled dip net from June-September 2007. The fate of lamprey collected at Sherars Falls was determined based on girth measurements. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two markings for the mark-recapture estimation while those measuring 10.5 cm or greater were implanted with radio transmitters. Two-hundred and nine lamprey were marked during first event sampling, 2,501 lamprey inspected for marks and 64 recaptured during second event sampling. We estimate lamprey abundance to be 8,083 (6,352-10,279) with a relative precision of 19.8. Tribal harvest was 2,303 +/- 88. Escapement was estimated at 5,780 adult lamprey. Thirty-six lamprey received radio transmitters. Lamprey were transported upstream 6.3 Rkm for surgery, held to recover from anesthesia and released. Mobile tracking efforts started mid-July 2007 and are on-going. To date 35 of the 36 lamprey have been detected. Upon release, extensive ground-based tracking was conducted until fish became dormant in mid-October. Since, fixed site downloading and tracking have occurred weekly on the mainstem Deschutes River. Majority of lamprey (88%) are holding in the mainstem Deschutes River. Three lamprey moved upstream more than 70 Rkms into westside tributaries from August-December. Three moved approximately 18 Rkms downstream of the release site. Tracking will continue through the spawning season when redd characteristics will be measured and reported in the 2008-2009 annual report.

Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C. [Department of Natural Resources, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

240

Top-down estimate of anthropogenic emission inventories and their interannual variability in Houston using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique  

SciTech Connect

The 2000 and 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000 and 2006) field campaigns took place in eastern Texas in August-October of 2000 and 2006. Several flights of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) research aircraft were dedicated to characterizing anthropogenic emissions over Houston. Houston is known for having serious problems with non-attainment of air quality standards. We present a method that uses three models and aircraft observations to assess and improve existing emission inventories using an inverse modeling technique. We used 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional variational (3D-VAR and 4D-VAR) inverse modeling techniques based on a least-squares method to improve the spatial and temporal distribution of CO, NOy (sum of all reactive nitrogen compounds), and SO2 emissions predicted by the 4-km-resolution U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Inventory (NEI) for 2005. Differences between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed in detail. We found that in 2006 the prior daytime emissions in the urban area of Houston have to be reduced by 40% {+-} 12% for CO and 7% {+-} 13% for NOy. Over the Houston Ship Channel, where industrial emissions are predominant, the prior emissions have to be reduced by 41% {+-} 15% for CO and 51% {+-} 9% for NOy. Major ports around Houston have their NOy emissions reduced as well, probably due to uncertainties in near-shore ship emissions in the EPA NEI inventory. Using the measurements from the two field campaigns, we assessed the interannual emission variability between 2000 and 2006. Daytime CO emissions from the Houston urban area have been reduced by 8% {+-} 20%, while the NOy emissions have increased by 20% {+-} 12% from 2000 to 2006. In the Houston Ship Channel, the daytime NOy emissions have increased by 13% {+-} 17%. Our results show qualitative consistencies with known changes in Houston emissions sources.

Brioude, J.; Kim, S. W.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S. H.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, Michael; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Williams, E. J.; Petron, Gabrielle; Fast, Jerome D.

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Cooling thermal storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article gives some overall guidelines for successful operation of cooling thermal storage installations. Electric utilities use rates and other incentives to encourage thermal storage, which not only reduces their system peaks but also transfers a portion of their load from expensive daytime inefficient peaking plants to less expensive nighttime base load high efficiency coal and nuclear plants. There are hundreds of thermal storage installations around the country. Some of these are very successful; others have failed to achieve all of their predicted benefits because application considerations were not properly addressed.

Gatley, D.P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Advanced Thermal Energy Storage: Novel Tuning of Critical Fluctuations for Advanced Thermal Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: NAVITASMAX is developing a novel thermal energy storage solution. This innovative technology is based on simple and complex supercritical fluids— substances where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist, and tuning the properties of these fluid systems to increase their ability to store more heat. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system during the day and released at night—when the sun is not shining—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours.

None

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Energy saving through effective lighting control  

SciTech Connect

The energy savings associated with various lighting control strategies was investigated at the World Trade Center in New York using a relay-based lighting control system. By reducing after-hours lighting loads to one-third of daytime levels, a 32% energy savings was realized. Combining a very tight lighting schedule with lighting-load shedding in daylit areas reduced energy consumption for lighting 52% relative to baseline operation. The dependency of energy savings on the size of the switching zone was also investigated.

Peterson, D.; Rubinstein, F.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Radiative impact of mineral dust on monsoon precipitation variability over West Africa  

SciTech Connect

The radiative forcing of dust and its impact on precipitation over the West Africa monsoon (WAM) region is simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem). During the monsoon season, dust is a dominant contributor to AOD over West Africa. In the standard simulation, on 24-hour domain average, dust has a cooling effect (-6.11 W/m2) at the surface, a warming effect (6.94 W/m2) in the atmosphere, and a relatively small TOA forcing (0.83 W/m2). Dust modifies the surface energy budget and atmospheric diabatic heating and hence causes lower atmospheric cooling in the daytime but warming in the nighttime. As a result, atmospheric stability is increased in the daytime and reduced in the nighttime, leading to a reduction of late afternoon precipitation by up to 0.14 mm/hour (30%) and an increase of nocturnal and early morning precipitation by up to 0.04 mm/hour (23%) over the WAM region. Dust-induced reduction of diurnal precipitation variation improves the simulated diurnal cycle of precipitation when compared to measurements. However, daily precipitation is only changed by a relatively small amount (-0.14 mm/day or -4%). On the other hand, sensitivity simulations show that, for weaker-to-stronger absorbing dust, dust longwave warming effect in the nighttime surpasses its shortwave cooling effect in the daytime at the surface, leading to a less stable atmosphere associated with more convective precipitation in the nighttime. As a result, the dust-induced change of daily WAM precipitation varies from a significant reduction of -0.40 mm/day (-12%, weaker absorbing dust) to a small increase of 0.05 mm/day (1%, stronger absorbing dust). This variation originates from the competition between dust impact on daytime and nighttime precipitation, which depends on dust shortwave absorption. Dust reduces the diurnal variation of precipitation regardless of its absorptivity, but more reduction is associated with stronger absorbing dust.

Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

January 1981 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Insolation, temperature, wind, and humidity data recorded during the month of January 1981, at the National Solar Data Network for residential and commercial building solar demonstration sites throughout the United States are presented. The insolation tables present the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation. The temperature tables give the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar sites. Additional tables are presented for some of the sites, supplying either wind or relative humidity data, or both. These data are used to determine the thermal performance of the solar systems. (WHK)

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, R. L.; Mueller, Robert P.; Weiland, Mark A.; Johnson, P. N.

2001-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

The minisodar and planetary boundary layer studies  

SciTech Connect

The minisodar, in addition to being smaller than conventional sodar, operates at higher frequencies, obtains usable signal returns closer to the surface, and can use smaller range gates. Because the max range is generally limited to the lower 200 m above the surface, the minisodar is not able to interrogate the entire daytime atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL); however it can be a very useful tool for understanding the PBL. In concert with other instruments, the minisodar can add significant new insights to our understanding of the PBL. This paper gives examples of past and potential uses of minisodars in such situations.

Coulter, R.L.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

ASCOT FY-1981 progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the DOE Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program was initiated in 1978, the major emphasis of the program has been on the study of nocturnal drainage winds using The Geysers Known Geothermal Resource Area of northern California as the study site. Studies during this year were related to reducing and analyzing the data taken during a major field study in September 1980, model development and testing, and conducting the last series of field experiments in this area to determine the interaction of cooling tower plumes from the geothermal power plants with nocturnal drainage and limited daytime mixing regimes.

Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Simultaneous analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Raman Lidar was upgraded in 2004 with a new data system that provides simultaneous measurements of both the photomultiplier analog output voltage and photon counts. This paper describes recent improvements to the algorithm used to merge these two signals into a single signal with improved dynamic range. The impact of modifications to the algorithm are evaluated by comparing profiles of water vapor mixing ratio from the lidar with sonde measurements. The modifications that were implemented resulted in a reduction of the mean bias in the daytime mixing ratio from a 4% dry bias to well within 1%.

Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Mielke, Bernd; Clayton, Marian F.; Ferrare, Richard; Sivaraman, Chitra

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

250

Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation: Kokanee Depth Distribution in Dworshak Reservoir and Implications Toward Minimizing Entrainment, 1994 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors measured the day and night depth distribution of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi directly upstream of Dworshak Dam from October 1993 to December 1994 using split-beam hydroacoustics. At night most kokanee (70%) were distributed in a diffuse layer about 10 m thick. The depth of the layer varied with the season and ranged from 30 to 40 m deep during winter and from 15 to 25 m deep during summer. Nighttime depth of the kokanee layer during summer roughly corresponded to a zone where water temperatures ranged from 7 C to 12 C. Daytime kokanee distribution was much different with kokanee located in dense schools. Most kokanee (70%) were found in a 5--15 m thick layer during summer. Daytime depth distribution was also shallowest during fall and deepest during winter. Dworshak Dam has structures which can be used for selective water withdrawal and can function in depth ranges that will avoid the kokanee layer. Temperature constraints limit the use of selective withdrawal during the spring, summer, and fall, but in the winter, water is nearly isothermal and the full range of selector gate depths may be utilized. From October 1993 to February 1994, selector gates were positioned to withdraw water from above the kokanee layer. The discharge pattern also changed with more water being released during May and July, and less water being released during fall and winter. A combination of these two changes is thought to have increased kokanee densities to a record high of 69 adults/ha.

Maiolie, Melo; Elam, Steve

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Night-time naturally ventilated offices: Statistical simulations of window-use patterns from field monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates occupant behaviour of window-use in night-time naturally ventilated offices on the basis of a pilot field study, conducted during the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Cambridge, UK, and then demonstrates the effects of employing night-time ventilation on indoor thermal conditions using predictive models of occupant window-use. A longitudinal field study shows that occupants make good use of night-time natural ventilation strategies when provided with openings that allow secure ventilation, and that there is a noticeable time of day effect in window-use patterns (i.e. increased probability of action on arrival and departure). We develop logistic models of window-use for night-time naturally ventilated offices, which are subsequently applied to a behaviour algorithm, including Markov chains and Monte Carlo methods. The simulations using the behaviour algorithm demonstrate a good agreement with the observational data of window-use, and reveal how building design and occupant behaviour collectively affect the thermal performance of offices. They illustrate that the provision of secure ventilation leads to more frequent use of the window, and thus contributes significantly to the achievement of a comfortable indoor environment during the daytime occupied period. For example, the maximum temperature for a night-time ventilated office is found to be 3 C below the predicted value for a daytime-only ventilated office. (author)

Yun, Geun Young [Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea); Steemers, Koen [Department of Architecture, University of Cambridge, 1-5 Scroope Terrace, Cambridge CB2 1PX (United Kingdom)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2005 through February 28, 2006. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, data processing and analyses were completed for exposure and toxicological data collected during the field campaign at Plant 1, located in the Southeast. To recap from the previous progress report, Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats, and Stage II assessments were carried out in a compromised model (myocardial infarction-MI-model). Normal rats were exposed to the following atmospheric scenarios: (1) primary particles; (2) oxidized emissions; (3) oxidized emissions + SOA--this scenario was repeated; and (4) oxidized emissions + ammonia + SOA. Compromised animals were exposed to oxidized emissions + SOA (this scenario was also conducted in replicate). Mass concentrations in exposure atmospheres ranged from 13.9 {micro}g/m{sup 3} for the primary particle scenario (P) to 385 {micro}g/m{sup 3} for one of the oxidized emissions + SOA scenarios (POS). There was a fair amount of day-to-day variation in mass concentration, even within a given exposure round; this is likely due to the inherent variation in the power plant operation. Concentrations of ozone, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, and carbonyls were below 50 ppb. Total sulfate concentration ranged from 82 to 175 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Elemental data suggest substantial day-to-day variations which again provide insight about the inherent variations attributed to plant operation. All elements were present at low concentrations except for sulfur. Other prominent elements were: Si, Br, Ca, K, La and Cu. SOA was speciated using GC-MS, with typical {alpha}-pinene oxidation products being observed. Toxicological results obtained to date from Plant 1 indicate some biological responses to some exposure scenarios. We observed pulmonary function changes, increased oxidative stress, and increases in cardiac arrhythmias in response to certain scenarios. For the oxidative stress endpoint, an increase in chemiluminescence occurred only in those scenarios including SOA. More detailed statistical modeling also points to the importance of organic material in these scenarios; additional analyses are currently underway to better understand this finding. Fieldwork for Plant 2, located in the Midwest, is scheduled for June-September 2006, and logistical planning is now underway. During the next reporting period, we will complete fieldwork at Plant 2. A draft topical report for Plant 0 was submitted to DOE-NETL in December 2005, with the final report to be submitted in April, 2006. We will also complete a topical report for Plant 1 by June 30, 2006.

Annette Rohr

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Arterial Performance and Evaluation using Bluetooth and GPS Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate travel time data are necessary to monitor and evaluate traffic conditions effectively. In the past 20 years, the hours per year lost by the average driver have increased by 300% in the 85 largest U.S. cities, which translates into lost productivity and increased costs. State department of transportation (DOT) agencies and other government organizations need accurate travel time and speed information to better combat this congestion faced by motorists. In the past, ground truth travel time information was typically collected with probe vehicles using the “floating car” method. However, new methods using data collected from global positioning systems by private companies such as INRIX®, Navteq®, and TomTom® have emerged that allow travel time data to be obtained more cheaply and quickly. The Urban Mobility Report (UMR) has turned to these companies, specifically INRIX®, for calculating congestion indices across the United States. This is done by analyzing average speeds and reference speeds supplied by INRIX. The UMR analysis relies on INRIX-supplied reference speeds to calculate delay, which produces artificially high delay on many suburban arterials. Currently, these reference speeds are determined by taking the 85th percentile of weekly speeds (typically overnight hours [10PM to 6AM]). There is a need to refine the reference speeds on arterials in order to account for signal operations, particularly during the daytime hours, so that the UMR more accurately reflects arterial congestion across the nation. Using Bluetooth and INRIX speed data, this thesis develops a new reference speed methodology that accurately reflects arterial delay during daytime hours. This study found that a 60% daytime free-flow reference speed best represents arterial congestion. Using Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) guidelines, this thesis also explores the use of Bluetooth data for arterial and intersection level of service (LOS) analysis under both HCM 2000 and HCM 2010 methodologies. Through analysis, it was found that Bluetooth data capture more of the high and low LOS values compared to the HCM methodology based on segment speed calculations. These high and low LOS values, as well as the rapidly changing LOS between 15-minute intervals, could be attributed to an insufficient sample size.

Shollar, Brian 1988-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

X:\ARM_19~1\P113-137.WPD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 C/day, 1.5 C/day m 2 55 C 45 C 45 C 65 C Session Papers 125 Figure 1. Map showing analysis domain for GMS OLR data. Basic spatial units are five by five latitude-longitude areas, four of which are shown outlined by solid lines in the area north of Papau New Guinea; the large dot on the equator at 140 E shows the approximate satellite sub-point and the large area outlined between 150E to 180, 20 N to 20 S is the subject of analyses in Figures 2 and 3. Shading shows areas of intense convection at 00Z during July 1985. Variability of Radiatively Forced Diurnal Cycle of Intense Convection in the Tropical West Pacific W. M. Gray, J. D. Sheaffer, and W. B. Thorson Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Introduction Strong differences occur in daytime versus nighttime

255

Number | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Number Number Jump to: navigation, search Properties of type "Number" Showing 200 properties using this type. (previous 200) (next 200) A Property:AvgAnnlGrossOpCpcty Property:AvgTempGeoFluidIntoPlant Property:AvgWellDepth B Property:Building/FloorAreaChurchesChapels Property:Building/FloorAreaGroceryShops Property:Building/FloorAreaHealthServices24hr Property:Building/FloorAreaHealthServicesDaytime Property:Building/FloorAreaHeatedGarages Property:Building/FloorAreaHotels Property:Building/FloorAreaMiscellaneous Property:Building/FloorAreaOffices Property:Building/FloorAreaOtherRetail Property:Building/FloorAreaResidential Property:Building/FloorAreaRestaurants Property:Building/FloorAreaSchoolsChildDayCare Property:Building/FloorAreaShops Property:Building/FloorAreaSportCenters

256

Tir (Aster) Geothermal Anomalies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tir (Aster) Geothermal Anomalies Tir (Aster) Geothermal Anomalies Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Tir (Aster) Geothermal Anomalies Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The focus of this research is the detection of shallow thermal anomalies for geothermal exploration and field management. The objective of this paper is to outline the steps involved in applying thermal infrared imagery (TIR) for this task. This process is part of an ongoing project at the Energy & Geoscience Institute (EGI), where we are developing a methodology to use daytime and nighttime thermal infrared imagery produced by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) to map shallow thermal anomalies. Kinetic temperature images

257

U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Management Program Management Program (FEMP) facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Located near Louisville, Kentucky, Fort Knox is home to the U.S. Army's Armor Center, Armor School, Recruiting Command, and numerous other facilities. The post has a daytime population of more than 30,000 people and more than 3,000 family housing units. In total, Fort Knox encompasses 11 million square feet of conditioned space across more than 109,000 acres. A military post of this size consumes a significant amount of energy. Fort Knox is acutely aware of the need for sustainability to ensure continuous operations and meet Federal energy goals and requirements.

258

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

January 02, 2002 January 02, 2002 Spot prices in the Midwest and the East moved up most days during the holiday period as cold weather blanketed much of the area. .(See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) (Temperature map) (Temperature Deviation Map). Prices in Chicago moved close to $3.00 per MMBtu last week, while prices in the New York City area approached $5.00 on the last day of the year. Daytime temperatures early this week in the Northeast remained in the 20s and 30s from Washington, DC to Boston. The National Weather Service is calling for the wintry temperatures to continue through the end of the week in most areas in the eastern two thirds of the country. On the NYMEX, the daily settlement price for the futures contract for February delivery has declined in recent trading as the higher-than-average

259

Sweden Building 05K0119 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Private company Private company Total floor area (BRA), m2 1946.0 OID, m2 1960.0 Interior height, m 2.5 Year of construction 1 (taxation year) 1973 Year of construction 2 (Year of construction) 1973 County Västernorrland County, Sweden Mean annual temperature during the calculation period[1] 4.98333333333 Mean annual temperature at the site 3.8 Start of the period (first day of the month) 2004/01/01 End of the period (last day of the month) 2004/12/01 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Areas by category, m2 (Gross Floor Area) - Offices 1608.0 - Warehouses 73.0 - Daytime health services 235.0 - Schools, including child day-care centres 30.0 Total 1946.0 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Purchased energy for the period [MWh/year] Electricity, total 180.0 District heating 273.0

260

Research Highlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation of CERES-MODIS Cloud Properties Using ARM Data Validation of CERES-MODIS Cloud Properties Using ARM Data Submitter: Dong, X., University of North Dakota Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Properties Journal Reference: Dong, X., P. Minnis, B. Xi, S. Sun-Mack, and Y. Chen, 2007: Validation of CERES-MODIS stratus cloud properties using ground-based measurements at the DOE ARM SGP site. Accepted by J. Geophys. Res. Wielicki, B. A. and Co-authors (2000), CERES Validation Plan Overview, Release 4, 10/20/00, 58 pp. (Available at http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/ceres/validation/ ceresval_r4.0_over.pdf) Figure 1. Time series of surface-derived cloud-base and -top heights and temperatures (1-hour average) and matched MODIS-derived effective cloud heights and temperatures (30-km x 30-km box) for daytime single-layer and

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261

Minutes Ops mtg 070111  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 2011 1, 2011 10:30 - 11:30 AM Minutes Attendees: Ken Barat, Tom McVeigh, Abdi Salehi, Pat Thomas, Herb Toor, Weyland Wong 1. ES&H News and Lessons Learned: * Yale shop fatality - In April, an astronomy and physics graduate student working alone late at night inside a machine shop was killed when her hair become caught in a lathe. The shop had a staff member present during daytime hours, but not at night. Students were allowed to use the shop after completing an introductory shop course. Yale is reviewing safety policies for facilities with power equipment. * Reciprocating saw injury - On March 3, an Idaho National Laboratory employee was injured while preparing to cut a brace with a reciprocating saw (Saws-All). The employee was wearing PPE (gloves and safety

262

Sweden Building 05K0040 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Government building Government building Total floor area (BRA), m2 2960.0 OID, m2 3112.0 Interior height, m 3.0 Year of construction 1 (taxation year) 1936 Year of construction 2 (Year of construction) 1890 County Stockholm County, Sweden Mean annual temperature during the calculation period[1] 7.73333333333 Mean annual temperature at the site 6.6 Start of the period (first day of the month) 2004/10/01 End of the period (last day of the month) 2005/09/01 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Areas by category, m2 (Gross Floor Area) - Offices 1851.0 - Daytime health services 240.0 - Miscellaneous 869.0 Total 2960.0 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Purchased energy for the period [MWh/year] Electricity, total 239.7 District heating 367.0 Oil-fired boiler 0.0 Natural gas 0.0

263

Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" Docket No. EO-05-01. Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc. has prepared a review of the "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" written by ENSR Corporation on behalf of the Mirant Potomac River Power Plant. This report models only Unit #1 operating under two daytime only scenarios to reduce exposures and meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM10, SO2, and NOx that were not met using normal operating procedures.

264

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

University of North Dakota- University of North Dakota- Novel Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants Program or Field Office: Advanced Research Projects Agency- Energy (ARPA-E) Location(s) (City/County/State): University of North Dakota (Grand Forks, ND) Proposed Action Description: Funding will support efforts to develop a desiccant dry cooling (DOC) technology for power plants that can minimize high capital costs of coventional dry cooling technologies and maintain high cooling performance during daytime temperature peaks. Project tasks will be conducted on a small-scale, pilot basis in dedicated university laboratory, testing, and office facilities at the University of North Dakota's Energy and Environmental Research Center. Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: B3.6 - Small-scale research and development, laboratory operations, and pilot projects

265

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Using The Sun For Hot Water And Electricity, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, covering 125,000 acres including 17 miles of Southern-California coastline, is the largest expeditionary training facility on the West Coast. More than 41,500 marines and family members call the base home, which reaches a daytime population of approximately 100,000. In fiscal year 2007, Camp Pendleton saved energy and money and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through solar hot water (SHW) and photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The base implemented two integrated solar thermal/PV systems at its 53 Area and 62 Area training pools. The projects demonstrate Camp Pendleton's continuing commitment to energy conservation while helping meet Federal requirements for on-site renewable energy and solar hot water generation.

266

U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Management Program Management Program (FEMP) facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Located near Louisville, Kentucky, Fort Knox is home to the U.S. Army's Armor Center, Armor School, Recruiting Command, and numerous other facilities. The post has a daytime population of more than 30,000 people and more than 3,000 family housing units. In total, Fort Knox encompasses 11 million square feet of conditioned space across more than 109,000 acres. A military post of this size consumes a significant amount of energy. Fort Knox is acutely aware of the need for sustainability to ensure continuous operations and meet Federal energy goals and requirements.

267

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor IOP Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered sonde/kite measurements. Primary operational hours were from 6 p.m. Central until at least midnight, with aircraft support normally from about 9 p.m. until midnight when available. However, many daytime measurements were made to support this IOP. The first Water Vapor IOP primarily concentrated on the atmosphere's lowest

268

Research Highlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modification of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer by a Small Island: Modification of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer by a Small Island: Observations from Nauru Submitter: Long, C. N., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Radiative Processes Journal Reference: Matthews, S., J. M. Hacker, J. Cole, J. Hare, C. N. Long, and R. M. Reynolds, (2007): Modification of the atmospheric boundary layer by a small island: observations from Nauru, MWR, Vol. 135, No. 3, pages 891–905. Figure 1. Illustration of daytime heating producing a thermal internal boundary layer effect over Nauru, which in turn produces cumulous clouds above the boundary layer. Figure 2. Illustration of Nauru heat-island produced by convective rolls forming cloud streets. Figure 3. Satellite images of Nauru on December 13, 2000 showing the cloud

269

ARM - VAP Process - diffcor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Productsdiffcor Productsdiffcor Documentation & Plots Technical Report Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP : Correction of Diffuse Shortwave Measurements (DIFFCOR) Instrument Categories Derived Quantities and Models The DIFFCORR1DUTT VAP uses two techniques to correct shortwave (SW) data during daytime hours, using information from a collocated pyrgeometer. First, the detector-only correction technique uses data in the form of irradiance loss from the pyrgeometer detector. Second, the full-correction technique uses information from collocated pyrgeometer detector data, plus the difference between the case and dome temperatures. Both techniques

270

Research Highlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increased Accuracy for Sky Imager Retrievals Increased Accuracy for Sky Imager Retrievals Download a printable PDF Submitter: Long, C. N., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Properties Journal Reference: Long CN. 2010. "Correcting for circumsolar and near-horizon errors in sky cover retrievals from sky images." The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, 4, doi:10.2174/1874282301004010045. Long CN, JM Sabburg, J Calbo, and D Pages. 2006. "Retrieving cloud characteristics from ground-based daytime all-sky images." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 23, 633-652. Sample sky image (left) and corresponding cloud decision image (right) showing an example of the over-estimating problem. White and gray in the

271

ferrare-99.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CART Raman Lidar Retrievals of Aerosol Extinction CART Raman Lidar Retrievals of Aerosol Extinction and Relative Humidity Profiles R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia L. A. Heilman Science Applications International Corporation/ National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington W. F. Feltz University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Introduction We have developed and recently implemented automated algorithms to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. These profiles are important for determining the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the aerosol retrieval

272

Safety_Tips_for_Christmas_Shopping-DEC-2011  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Christmas Shopping for Christmas Shopping The holiday shopping season can be a time of great joy safety risks. Below are some safety tips to keep in mind while shopping. * Carry a cell phone and program emergency and * If you plan on carrying a purse or handbag, carry it as clo body as possible. * Try to shop during the daytime hours and bring a friend or family member Safety in numbers! * Carry minimal amounts of cash. * Have credit card numbers and customer service numbers case. * If your card(s) are lost or stolen, call the credit card loss. * Do not overload yourself with packages. * If you must leave purchases * When walking to the parkin * When unloading the content purse unattended in the shopping cart. * Be cautious of anyone who approaches you in a parking lot or in a store. It could be a

273

Sweden Building 05K0098 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7 7 Category Office Boundaries Several buildings Ownership Category Local community owner Total floor area (BRA), m2 5192.0 OID, m2 5347.0 Interior height, m 3.0 Year of construction 1 (taxation year) 1990 Year of construction 2 (Year of construction) 1957 County Dalarna County, Sweden Mean annual temperature during the calculation period[1] 3.58333333333 Mean annual temperature at the site 3.7 Start of the period (first day of the month) 2004/01/01 End of the period (last day of the month) 2004/12/01 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Areas by category, m2 (Gross Floor Area) - Hotels 330.0 - Restaurants 170.0 - Offices 4392.0 - Daytime health services 300.0 Total 5192.0 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Purchased energy for the period [MWh/year]

274

1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regularities of Angular Distribution of Near-Horizon Sky Regularities of Angular Distribution of Near-Horizon Sky Brightness in the Cloudless Atmosphere S.M. Sakerin, T.B. Zhuravleva, and I.M. Nasrtdinov Institute of Atomospheric Optics SB RAS Tomsk, Russia Introduction The methods of sun-photometry of the atmosphere based, for example, on interpretation of the angular distribution of radiation in the solar almucantar are widely used for retrieval of the aerosol optical characteristics (Dubovik et al. 2000). Preliminary analysis has shown that the near-horizon region also can be interesting for solving some applied problems. As is known, investigations of the structure of the daytime cloudless sky brightness at observation from the ground were carried out principally at zenith angles less than 80° in visible wavelength range. For further development of the methods it is necessary

275

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On the Detection and Analysis of Multilayered Clouds: Comparison of MODIS On the Detection and Analysis of Multilayered Clouds: Comparison of MODIS Analyses with ARM CART Site Cloud Products Baum, B.A.(a), Nasiri, S.L.(b), and Mace, G.G.(c), NASA Langley Research Center (a), University of Wisconsin-Madison (b), University of Utah (c) Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting We will present new ideas regarding the detection and analysis of multilayered clouds in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. Over the past year, the MODIS cloud property retrieval effort has matured considerably as algorithms have been improved and the instrument performance has been characterized more accurately. Errors caused by noise, striping, and out-of-band response have been reduced. We have developed and tested different approaches for daytime and nighttime

276

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud Fraction Retrieval Utilizing Whole Sky Imagers Cloud Fraction Retrieval Utilizing Whole Sky Imagers Tooman, T.P., Sandia National Laboratories; Moore, S., and Sowle, D., Mission Research Corporation; Shields, J., Marine Physical Laboratory Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Long-term statistics on cloud cover and cloud thickness are desirable for understanding how clouds affect climate. We are attempting to use images collected by the Whole Sky Imager (WSI) to extract this information. For nighttime retrieval, we intend to develop algorithms and software to detect star occultations due to clouds. For daytime retrievals, we intend to develop an appoach based on sky radiance variations. We have implemented software to detect star locations, to map image pixel space to celestial

277

Section 66  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparisons of Cloud Heights Derived from Satellite and Comparisons of Cloud Heights Derived from Satellite and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Surface Lidar Data W.L. Smith, Jr., L. Nguyen, D.P. Garber, D.F. Young Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis Atmospheric Sciences Division NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia J. Spinhirne NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Cloud heights derived from single-channel, satellite infrared data can be relatively uncertain under certain conditions such as overlapped or optically thin clouds. During the daytime, optical depths derived from 0.63 µm visible (VIS) reflec- tances are used to adjust the altitude of optically thin clouds. Without the adjustment, the cloud heights are significantly underestimated diminishing the reliability and utility of the

278

Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" Docket No. EO-05-01. Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc. has prepared a review of the "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" written by ENSR Corporation on behalf of the Mirant Potomac River Power Plant. This report models only Unit #1 operating under two daytime only scenarios to reduce exposures and meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM10, SO2, and NOx that were not met using normal operating procedures.

279

Section 57  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Figure 1. Mean and standard deviation of the scaled irradiance time Figure 1. Mean and standard deviation of the scaled irradiance time series after a 21-minute moving average window has been applied on March 31, 1995. A Daytime Radiation and Cloud Climatology from Time Series of Measured Surface Irradiance M. S. O'Malley and C. E. Duchon School of Meteorology University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Pyranometer measurements spatially integrate the effects of The former is a measure of the average amount of irradiance clouds on the shortwave energy budget that fundamentally over a period. The latter is a measure of the cloud structure drives the daily and annual cycles of heating at the earth's created by cloud elements passing between the sun and the surface and lower troposphere. In addition to their value in sensor. Together, the mean and standard deviation can be

280

Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor Figure 3: Ratio of MWR TCWV to radiosonde derived TCWV, and the solar zenith angle at the radiosonde launch time (black dots). The dry bias observed in sonde TCWV values is mainly attributable to a dry RH bias near the surface The red dots show the 1000 hPa RH correction factors suggested by Voemel et al for sondes launched near noon (10-30 degree solar zenith angle), and at night time (90 degree zenith angle). The green line shows a modified RH correction factor which is a function of the solar zenith angle. â—Ź During the day-time, the TCWV bias is significantly smaller when the zenith angle correction is applied than when no correction, or only the Crad and Ccal corrections are applied.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electricity Delivery Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability Organized by: Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy W i t h h e l p b y : Agenda Day/Time Speaker Subject Wednesday, March 07, 2012 8:45-9:00 Adam Weber, LBNL Welcome and workshop overview 9:00-9:30 Various, EERE, OFCT Background, approach, and reversible fuel cells 9:30-9:55 Michael Perry, UTRC Renaissance in flow cells: opportunities 9:55-10:20 Joe Eto, LBNL Energy storage requirements for the smart grid 10:20-10:35 AM Break 10:35-11:00 Robert Savinell, CWRU Revisiting flow-battery R&D 11:00-11:25 Stephen Clarke, Applied Intellectual Capital Lessons learned and yet to be learned from 20 years in RFB R&D 11:25-11:45 Imre Gyuk, DOE OE Research and deployment of stationary storage at DOE

282

haeffelin-99  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shortwave Radiation Measurements: Shortwave Radiation Measurements: Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulations of Pyranometers M. Haeffelin, A. M. Smith, and J. R. Mahan Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, Virginia C. K. Rutledge Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia S. Kato Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Pyranometers are used extensively in networks around the globe to monitor solar radiation. Uncertainties in irradiances measured by pyranometers are due in part to the detector sensitivity to thermal radiation exchange within the instrument, often referred to as "instrument offset." Bush et al. (1999) established a relationship between the outer-dome-to-body temperature difference and the instrument offset at night and presented possible corrections for the daytime offsets. Alberta and

283

ARM - Field Campaign - IRSI Inter-Comparison Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsIRSI Inter-Comparison Study govCampaignsIRSI Inter-Comparison Study Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : IRSI Inter-Comparison Study 2007.08.27 - 2007.09.23 Lead Scientist : Victor Morris For data sets, see below. Description The principle objective of this campaign was to compare measurements of cloud fraction from different types of commercially available infrared sky imagers (IRSI) and to compare the daytime values with an operational Total Sky Imager (TSI). In 2004, the Radiative Processes working group requested that an infrared sky imaging system be added to our measurement suite to provide a nighttime cloud fraction product. A Blue Sky Imaging Ltd. (BSI) All-Sky Thermal Infrared Camera (ASTIC) was purchased and deployed at the SGP Guest

284

Research Highlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Raman Lidar Observations of Aerosol Humidification Near Clouds Raman Lidar Observations of Aerosol Humidification Near Clouds Submitter: Ferrare, R. A., NASA - Langley Research Center Area of Research: Aerosol Properties Working Group(s): Aerosol Journal Reference: Ferrare, R., et al., Evaluation of Daytime Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor Made by an Operational Raman Lidar over the Southern Great Plains, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05S08, doi:10.1029/2005JD005836, 2006. Relative humidity profiles derived from the Raman lidar during the ALIVE 2005 field experiment. Aerosol extinction profiles derived from the Raman lidar during the ALIVE 2005 field experiment. Aerosol humidification factor f(RH) from Raman lidar measured profiles of aerosol extinction and relative humidity. Upgrades to the Raman lidar at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF)

285

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

January 28, 2002 January 28, 2002 Natural gas prices generally declined last week as mild temperatures continued in most of the country and working gas storage stocks remain at very high levels. Spot prices at most major markets that serve the eastern two-thirds of the country ended the week down from the previous Friday with weather forecasts for the past weekend calling for daytime temperatures to be in the mid 50s to the low 60s in an area stretching from Chicago to Boston. At the Henry Hub prices moved down 9 cents on Friday to end at $2.04 per MMBtu--$0.25 below the previous Friday. The National Weather Service's (NWS) latest 6- to 10-day forecast is calling for above normal temperatures to continue through this week in most areas east of the Mississippi River. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) At the NYMEX

286

Sweden Building 05K0080 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search Start Page General Information Year of construction 1988 Category Office Boundaries One building Ownership Category Private company Total floor area (BRA), m2 9619.0 OID, m2 9907.0 Interior height, m 2.8 Year of construction 1 (taxation year) 1988 Year of construction 2 (Year of construction) 1988 County Skåne County, Sweden Mean annual temperature during the calculation period[1] 8.65833333333 Mean annual temperature at the site 8.2 Start of the period (first day of the month) 2004/01/01 End of the period (last day of the month) 2004/12/01 References Swedish Energy Agency[2] Areas by category, m2 (Gross Floor Area) - Offices 5727.0 - Daytime health services 117.0 - Schools, including child day-care centres 687.0 - Unheated but rented-out premises (garages) < 10 °C 2000.0

287

Seasonal And Decadal Variation of the Mixed Layer Across the ACRF Using RWP Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Seasonal And Decadal Variation of the Mixed Layer Seasonal And Decadal Variation of the Mixed Layer Across the ACRF Using RWP Data Richard Coulter, Barry Lesht, and Brad Orr Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL INTRODUCTION The radar wind profilers (RWPs) located at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site have been collecting data for more than a decade at the intermediate facilities (I1: Beaumont, KS; I2: Medicine Lodge, KS; I3 Meeker OK) and 15 years at the Central Facility. They provide a good picture of the temporal and spatial variation across the SGP site over this time period Here we elucidate the variation of the height of the mixed layer (z i ) and precipitation, two parameters that illustrate the potential richness of the wind profiler data beyond wind profiles. Daytime Mixed Layer An automated routine, operating

288

Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols at the US Southern Great Plains Climate Study Site  

SciTech Connect

There are clearly identified scientific requirements for continuous profiling of atmospheric water vapor at the Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program, Southern Great Plains CART (Cloud and Radiation Testbed) site in northern Oklahoma. Research conducted at several laboratories has demonstrated the suitability of Raman lidar for providing measurements that are an excellent match to those requirements. We have developed and installed a ruggedized Raman lidar system that resides permanently at the CART site, and that is computer automated to eliminate the requirements for operator interaction. In addition to the design goal of profiling water vapor through most of the troposphere during nighttime and through the boundary layer during daytime, the lidar provides quantitative characterizations of aerosols and clouds, including depolarization measurements for particle phase studies.

Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Blair, F.H.; Bisson, S.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Concentrating Solar Power: Technology Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) has the potential to contribute significantly to the generation of electricity by renewable energy resources in the U.S.. Thermal storage can extend the duty cycle of CSP beyond daytime hours to early evening where the value of electricity is often the highest. The potential solar resource for the southwest U.S. is identified, along with the need to add power lines to bring the power to consumers. CSP plants in the U.S. and abroad are described. The CSP cost of electricity at the busbar is discussed. With current incentives, CSP is approaching competiveness with conventional gas-fired systems during peak-demand hours when the price of electricity is the highest. It is projected that a mature CSP industry of over 4 GWe will be able to reduce the energy cost by about 50%, and that U.S. capacity could be 120 GW by 2050.

Mehos, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

System Demand-Side Management: Regional results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To improve the Bonneville Power Administration's (Bonneville's) ability to analyze the value and impacts of demand-side programs, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed and implemented the System Demand-Side Management (SDSM) model, a microcomputer-based model of the Pacific Northwest Public Power system. This document outlines the development and application of the SDSM model, which is an hourly model. Hourly analysis makes it possible to examine the change in marginal revenues and marginal costs that accrue from the movement of energy consumption from daytime to nighttime. It also allows a more insightful analysis of programs such as water heater control in the context of hydroelectric-based generation system. 7 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

Englin, J.E.; Sands, R.D.; De Steese, J.G.; Marsh, S.J.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

T. E Girish; S Aranya

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

292

A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS&GSHP system can serve as cold energy thermal storage at night, produce chilled water in the daytime in summer and provide hot water for heating in winter. This is followed by its schematic and characteristic description. Then the various operation modes of such system according to different operational strategies are demonstrated in sequence. The system, firstly seen in open literature, is energy-saving, environmental-friendly and promising in the field of air-conditioning systems, and will help solve the problems currently existing with the GSHP system and ITES air conditioning system.

Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Thermal characteristics of a classical solar telescope primary mirror  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed thermal and structural analysis of a 2m class solar telescope mirror which is subjected to a varying heat load at an observatory site. A 3-dimensional heat transfer model of the mirror takes into account the heating caused by a smooth and gradual increase of the solar flux during the day-time observations and cooling resulting from the exponentially decaying ambient temperature at night. The thermal and structural response of two competing materials for optical telescopes, namely Silicon Carbide -best known for excellent heat conductivity and Zerodur -preferred for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion, is investigated in detail. The insight gained from these simulations will provide a valuable input for devising an efficient and stable thermal control system for the primary mirror.

Banyal, Ravinder K

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Solar Radiation and Tidal Exposure as Environmental Drivers of Enhalus acoroides Dominated Seagrass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is strong evidence of a global long-term decline in seagrass meadows that is widely attributed to anthropogenic activity. Yet in many regions, attributing these changes to actual activities is difficult, as there exists limited understanding of the natural processes that can influence these valuable ecosystem service providers. Being able to separate natural from anthropogenic causes of seagrass change is important for developing strategies that effectively mitigate and manage anthropogenic impacts on seagrass, and promote coastal ecosystems resilient to future environmental change. The present study investigated the influence of environmental and climate related factors on seagrass biomass in a large solar radiation. This study documents how natural long-term tidal variability can influence long-term seagrass dynamics. Exposure to desiccation, high UV, and daytime temperature regimes are discussed as the likely mechanisms for the action of these factors in causing this decline. The results emphasise the importance of understanding and assessing natural environmentally-driven change when

Richard K. F. Unsworth; Michael A. Rasheed; Kathryn M. Chartr; Anthony J. Roelofs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Study of the atmosphere and ionosphere using satellite observations of 300-1400 Ang airglow. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A study of the O(+) ion distribution reveals that the OII 834 A emission can be used to infer the O(+) density as a function of altitude. The ion temperature was obtained from these measurements. Variations of the ion density distributions were obtained as a function of latitude. Daytime observations show that the OII 834 A emissions contain the signature of the Appleton anomary. Analysis of the 300 to 900 A auroral spectra reveals a large number of OII features. Several pairs of OII features with a common upper state were used to obtain their branching ratios and compared with laboratory observations and theoretical calculations. Evidence for OIII emissions were also found in an aurora.

Chakrabarti, S.; Bowyer, S.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Some preliminary results from the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed  

SciTech Connect

With the remarkable rise in interest in variable-speed operation of larger wind turbines, it has become important for the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) to have access to a variable-speed test bed that can be specially instrumented for research. Accordingly, a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind, Grumman Windstream machine has been equipped with a set of composite blades and a direct-coupled, permanent-magnet, 20 kilowatt generator. This machine and its associated control system and data collection system are discussed. Several variations of a maximum power control algorithm have been installed on the control computer. To provide a baseline for comparison, several constant speed algorithms have also been installed. The present major effort is devoted to daytime, semi-autonomous data collection.

Carlin, P.W.; Fingersh, L.J.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

July 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental data collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network are tabulated for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of the total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

August 1981 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is tabulated for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum, and inlet-water temperature for the site. All of the passive and some active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information on wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain the data is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is tabulated for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation, as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental data collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network are tabulated for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of the total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

March 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network, June 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum, and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation, as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation, as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

April 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

January 1980 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum, and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

May 1982 environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network, October 1981  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, night-time, maximum and minimum ambient temperature and the inlet-water temperature for the site. All of the passive and some of the active sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Pilot aerial infrared roof top survey. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of a pilot aerial infrared roof top study conducted by the Minnesota Energy Agency. Infrared surveys of 27 Minnesota cities were conducted during the fall and winter of the 1976-1977 heating season. In addition, conventional daytime color photographs were taken of several cities. Film processing was done by the Environmental Protection Agency. The University of Minnesota conducted ground tests to verify the aerial infrared imagery. Thermograph dissemination centers were established in each city and training seminars and materials were prepared and delivered to dissemination center staff. A survey of homeowners who viewed their thermograph at a dissemination center were used to determine the energy savings resulting from the program. An Aerial Infrared Program Users Manual was prepared by the Energy Agency and the Remote Sensing Institute of Brookings, South Dakota.

1979-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Environmental information collected at the sites of the National Solar Data Network is presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extraterrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total to extraterrestrial radiation as a percent. The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors which provide information for two wind tables furnishing wind speed and direction. For some sites, a humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Thermal performance of clean horizontal radiant barriers under winter conditions: Laboratory measurements and mathematical modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several field experiments have been performed on attic radiant barriers under winter conditions; however, most of them have been confined to the fairly mild climates of Florida, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Only one field experiment in a very cold climate (Canada) has been performed. In addition, no previous laboratory experiments under winter conditions have been performed on an attic both with and without a radiant barrier. This paper presents the results of laboratory measurements of the thermal performance of clean horizontal radiant barriers in a simulated residential attic module under nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions. Comparing tests under the same conditions with and without a radiant barrier shows that the addition of a clean horizontal radiant barrier to insulation at the R-22 to R-25 level decreases the ceiling heat flow by 6 to 8%. The experimental results were found to be in very good agreement with predictions made with a mathematical model for the thermal performance of attics.

Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, P.W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Thermal performance of clean horizontal radiant barriers under winter conditions: Laboratory measurements and mathematical modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several field experiments have been performed on attic radiant barriers under winter conditions; however, most of them have been confined to the fairly mild climates of Florida, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Only one field experiment in a very cold climate (Canada) has been performed. In addition, no previous laboratory experiments under winter conditions have been performed on an attic both with and without a radiant barrier. This paper presents the results of laboratory measurements of the thermal performance of clean horizontal radiant barriers in a simulated residential attic module under nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions. Comparing tests under the same conditions with and without a radiant barrier shows that the addition of a clean horizontal radiant barrier to insulation at the R-22 to R-25 level decreases the ceiling heat flow by 6 to 8%. The experimental results were found to be in very good agreement with predictions made with a mathematical model for the thermal performance of attics.

Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, P.W.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Reduction of Tropical Cloudiness by Soot  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements and models show that enhanced aerosol concentrations can augment cloud albedo not only by increasing total droplet cross-sectional area, but also by reducing precipitation and thereby increasing cloud water content and cloud coverage. Aerosol pollution is expected to exert a net cooling influence on the global climate through these conventional mechanisms. Here we demonstrate an opposite mechanism through which aerosols can reduce cloud cover and thus significantly offset aerosol-induced radiative cooling at the top of the atmosphere on a regional scale. In model simulations the daytime clearing of trade cumulus is hastened and intensified by solar heating in dark haze (as found over much of the northern Indian Ocean during the northeast monsoon).

Ackerman, A.S.; Toon, O.B.; Stevens, D.E.; Heymsfield, A.J.; Ramanathan, V.

2000-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

314

An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One fundamental property and limitation of grid based models is their inability to identify spatial details smaller than the grid cell size. While decades of work have gone into developing sub-grid treatments for clouds and land surface processes in climate models, the quantitative understanding of sub-grid processes and variability for aerosols and their precursors is much poorer. In this study, WRF-Chem is used to simulate the trace gases and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenarios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid variability (SGV) of trace gases and aerosols within a typical global climate model grid cell, i.e. 75x75 km2. Our results suggest that a simulation with 3-km horizontal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols downwind of Mexico City, while 75-km horizontal grid spacing is insufficient to represent local emission and terrain-induced flows along the mountain ridge, subsequently affecting the transport and mixing of plumes from nearby sources. Therefore, the coarse model grid cell average may not correctly represent aerosol properties measured over polluted areas. Probability density functions (PDFs) for trace gases and aerosols show that secondary trace gases and aerosols, such as O3, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, are more likely to have a relatively uniform probability distribution (i.e. smaller SGV) over a narrow range of concentration values. Mostly inert and long-lived trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC, are more likely to have broad and skewed distributions (i.e. larger SGV) over polluted regions. Over remote areas, all trace gases and aerosols are more uniformly distributed compared to polluted areas. Both CO and O3 SGV vertical profiles are nearly constant within the PBL during daytime, indicating that trace gases are very efficiently transported and mixed vertically by turbulence. But, simulated horizontal variability indicates that trace gases and aerosols are not well mixed horizontally in the PBL. During nighttime the SGV for trace gases is maximum at the surface, and quickly decreases with height. Unlike the trace gases, the SGV of BC and secondary aerosols reaches a maximum at the PBL top during the day. The SGV decreases with distance away from the polluted urban area, has a more rapid decrease for long-lived trace gases and aerosols than for secondary ones, and is greater during daytime than nighttime. The SGV of trace gases and aerosols is generally larger than for meteorological quantities. Emissions can account for up to 50% of the SGV over urban areas such as Mexico City during daytime for less-reactive trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC. The impact of emission spatial variability on SGV decays with altitude in the PBL and is insignificant in the free troposphere. The emission variability affects SGV more significantly during daytime (rather than nighttime) and over urban (rather than rural or remote) areas. The terrain, through its impact on meteorological fields such as wind and the PBL structure, affects dispersion and transport of trace gases and aerosols and their SGV.

Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.

2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

315

Takara_ARM2007  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The longwave effective cloud fraction derived from The longwave effective cloud fraction derived from measurements with a comparison to shortwave cloud amounts for single layer clouds Ezra E. Takara and Robert G. Ellingson Dept. of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 Known clear Derived clear Known overcast Derived overcast Flux Time Introduction This poster describes a comparison of the longwave effective cloud fraction (N e ) to shortwave cloud amounts: the cosine weighted cloud fraction from the Total Sky Imager (TSI), the cloud fraction from the shortwave flux analysis (swfan), and the Whole Sky Imager (WSI). These daytime comparisons are for single low cloud layers in 2000 and 2001 at the ARM SGP Central Facility as described in Ma and Ellingson (2005). Longwave N e The average longwave surface over a large area can be

316

ARM - Facility News Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sunphotometer Re-installed at North Slope of Alaska Sunphotometer Re-installed at North Slope of Alaska Bookmark and Share The CIMEL sunphotometer takes sky radiance measurements during daylight hours, when the sun is above horizon. The CIMEL sunphotometer takes sky radiance measurements during daylight hours, when the sun is above horizon. In early May, a CIMEL sunphotometer owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was re-installed at Barrow, Alaska, one of two research sites that make up the ARM Climate Research Facility's North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale. The CIMEL is a multi-channel, automatic sun-and-sky scanning radiometer that takes daytime measurements of direct solar radiance and sky radiance at the Earth's surface. Measurements are taken at discrete wavelengths in visible and near-infrared regions of the solar

317

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Using The Sun For Hot Water And Electricity, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, covering 125,000 acres including 17 miles of Southern-California coastline, is the largest expeditionary training facility on the West Coast. More than 41,500 marines and family members call the base home, which reaches a daytime population of approximately 100,000. In fiscal year 2007, Camp Pendleton saved energy and money and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through solar hot water (SHW) and photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The base implemented two integrated solar thermal/PV systems at its 53 Area and 62 Area training pools. The projects demonstrate Camp Pendleton's continuing commitment to energy conservation while helping meet Federal requirements for on-site renewable energy and solar hot water generation.

318

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation of CERES/MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals Using Ground-Based Validation of CERES/MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals Using Ground-Based Measurements Obtained at the DOE ARM SGP Site Dong, X.(a), Minnis, P.(b), Sun-Mack, S.(b), and Mace, G.G.(a), University of Utah (a), NASA Langley Research Center (b) Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties derived from the NASA TERRA (EOS-AM) Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) as part of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project during November 2000-June 2001 are compared to simultaneous ground-based observations. The ground-based data taken by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are used as "ground truth" data set in the validation of the CERES cloud products and to improve the CERES daytime and

319

1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Retrieving Aerosols from the Atmospheric Emitted Retrieving Aerosols from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Can it be Done? L. Moy, H.E. Revercomb, and R.O. Knuteson Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) Madison, Wisconsin D.D. Turner and E. Kassianov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer observes downwelling infrared radiance from 3-19 ÎĽm that may enable better retrievals of aerosol optical and physical properties. Theoretical study suggests that the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer's infrared aerosol signal is strong enough to overcome instrument noise constraints and uncertainties in the water vapor, especially in the 3-4 ÎĽm band where scattering dominates the observed signal during the daytime. Unlike other aerosol

320

Selecting effective fluorescent lamp and ballast for retrofit in the continental United States. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Electrical lighting is a major contributor to daytime peak energy demand, accounting for about 30 percent of total electricity consumption in most Army facilities. Some of this energy may be wasted because many existing lighting systems at Army Installations use outmoded technologies. While recent technology has improved the energy efficiency of all lighting systems, fluorescent lighting-the most widely used interior building lighting-has shown the greatest efficiency gains. Retrofits using high-efficiency fluorescent lamps and ballasts can yield significant operating cost savings. High-efficiency fluorescent lighting systems are widely available, but current information on their performance characteristics is highly technical and not easily accessible to Army facility managers considering retrofit options. This report provides a single, accessible source that summarizes fluorescent lamp and ballast performance characteristics and outlines selection procedures. Fluorescent lamp, Retrofit, Ballast, Lighting. Energy conservation.

Taylor, W.R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

an Improved Convective Triggering Mechanism in the NCAR CAM2 an Improved Convective Triggering Mechanism in the NCAR CAM2 under the CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT) Framework Xie, S.C.(a), Cederwall, R.T.(a), Potter, G.L.(a), Boyle, J.S.(a), Yio, J.J.(a), Zhang, M.H.(b), and Lin, W.Y.(b), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (a), State University of New York at Stony Brook (b) Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting In this study, we implement an improved convective triggering mechanism, which was developed by Xie and Zhang [2000] based on the ARM observations and Single-Column Model (SCM) tests, in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM2) in order to reduce the problem that the model produces excessive warm season daytime precipitation over land. This problem is closely

322

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

REVIEW Review of oral appliances for treatment of sleep-disordered breathing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

publications dealing with oral appliance therapy involving a total of 3,027 patients, which reported results of sleep studies performed with and without the appliance. These studies, which constitute a very heterogeneous group in terms of methodology and patient population, are reviewed and the results summarized. This review focused on the following outcomes: sleep apnea (i.e. reduction in the apnea/hypopnea index or respiratory disturbance index), ability of oral appliances to reduce snoring, effect of oral appliances on daytime function, comparison of oral appliances with other treatments (continuous positive airway pressure and surgery), side effects, dental changes (overbite and overjet), and long-term compliance. We found that the success rate, defined as the ability of the oral appliances to reduce apnea/hypopnea index to less than 10, is 54%. The response rate, defined as at least 50 % reduction in the initial apnea/ hypopnea index (although it still remained above 10), is 21%. When only the results of randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled studies are considered, the success and response rates are 50 % and 14%, respectively. Snoring was reduced by 45%. In the studies comparing oral appliances to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), an appliance reduced initial AHI by 42%, CPAP reduced it by 75%, and UPPP by 30%. The majority of patients prefer using oral appliance than CPAP. Use of oral appliances improves daytime function somewhat; the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS) dropped from 11.2 to 7.8 in 854 patients. A summary of the follow-up

Victor Hoffstein; V. Hoffstein

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

38-kHz ADCP investigation of deep scattering layers in sperm whale habitat in the northern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hull-mounted 38-kHz phased-array acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was used to acoustically survey the continental margin of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) during 6 cruises in 2002-2003. This is the first backscatter survey with a 38-kHz ADCP in the Gulf of Mexico. ADCPs have been used as a proxy to measure the volume backscatter return from plankton in the water column, however previous studies were restricted to the upper 200 to 300 meters due to the relatively high frequency of operation (150-300 kHz) of the transducers. In addition to measuring deep water current velocities, the 38-kHz phased-array ADCP can measure Relative Acoustic Backscatter Intensity (RABI) as deep as 1000 meters. The daytime depth of the main deep scattering layer at 400 to 500 meters was resolved, and locally high backscatter intensity can be seen down to 800 meters. The objectives were to determine how to analyze RABI from the instrument to resolve scattering layers, and then to seek secondary deep scattering layers of potential prey species below the main deep scattering layer, from 600 to 800 meters in the feeding range for Gulf of Mexico sperm whales. Based on RABI from the 38-kHz ADCP, secondary DSLs in sperm whale diving range were more commonly recorded over the continental shelf than in the deep basin region of the Gulf of Mexico. The daytime depths of migrating plankton showed variation depending on physical circulation features (cyclone, anticyclone, proximity to Mississippi river, and Loop Current) present. Vertical migrations compared between concurrently running 38 and 153-kHz ADCPs showed an overlap of acoustic scatterers recorded by the two instruments, however the 153-kHz instrument has much finer vertical resolution. Vertical migration rates were calculated and simultaneous net tow samples from one of the cruises was used to compare abundance estimates by the two methods.

Kaltenberg, Amanda May

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Evaluation of a sulfur oxide chemical heat storage process for a steam solar electric plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate technically feasible process configurations for the use of the sulfur oxide system, 2 SO/sub 3/ reversible 2 SO/sub 2/ + O/sub 2/, in energy storage. The storage system is coupled with a conventional steam-cycle power plant. Heat for both the power plant and the storage system is supplied during sunlit hours by a field of heliostats focussed on a central solar receiver. When sunlight is not available, the storage system supplies the heat to operate the power plant. A technically feasible, relatively efficient configuration is proposed for incorporating this type of energy storage system into a solar power plant. Complete material and energy balances are presented for a base case that represents a middle range of expected operating conditions. Equipment sizes and costs were estimated for the base case to obtain an approximate value for the cost of the electricity that would be produced from such an installation. In addition, the sensitivity of the efficiency of the system to variations in design and operating conditions was determined for the most important parameters and design details. In the base case the solar tower receives heat at a net rate of 230 MW(t) for a period of eight hours. Daytime electricity is about 30 MW(e). Nighttime generation is at a rate of about 15 MW(e) for a period of sixteen hours. The overall efficiency of converting heat into electricity is about 26%. The total capital cost for the base case is estimated at about $68 million, of which about 67% is for the tower and heliostats, 11% is for the daytime power plant, and 22% is for the storage system. The average cost of the electricity produced for the base case is estimated to be about 11 cents/kW(e)-hr.

Dayan, J.; Lynn, S.; Foss, A.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

The importance of aerosol mixing state and size-resolved composition on CCN concentration and the variation of the importance with atmospheric aging of aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and local photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. CCN concentrations (N{sub CCN}) are derived using Kohler theory from the measured aerosol size distribution and various simplified aerosol mixing state and chemical composition, and are compared to concurrent measurements at five supersaturations ranging from 0.11% to 0.35%. The influence of assumed mixing state on calculated N{sub CCN} is examined using both aerosols observed during MILAGRO and representative aerosol types. The results indicate that while ambient aerosols often consist of particles with a wide range of compositions at a given size, N{sub CCN} may be derived within {approx}20% assuming an internal mixture (i.e., particles at a given size are mixtures of all participating species, and have the identical composition) if great majority of particles has an overall {kappa} (hygroscopicity parameter) value greater than 0.1. For a non-hygroscopic particle with a diameter of 100 nm, a 3 nm coating of sulfate or nitrate is sufficient to increase its {kappa} from 0 to 0.1. The measurements during MILAGRO suggest that the mixing of non-hygroscopic primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) particles with photochemically produced hygroscopic species and thereby the increase of their {kappa} to 0.1 take place in a few hours during daytime. This rapid process suggests that during daytime, a few tens of kilometers away for POA and BC sources, N{sub CCN} may be derived with sufficient accuracy by assuming an internal mixture, and using bulk chemical composition. The rapid mixing also indicates that, at least for very active photochemical environments such as Mexico City, a substantially shorter timescale during daytime for the conversion of hydrophobic POA and BC to hydrophilic particles than the 1-2 days used in some global models. The conversion time scale is substantially longer during night. Most POA and BC particles emitted during evening hours likely remain non-hygroscopic until efficiently internally mixed with secondary species in the next morning. The results also suggest that the assumed mixing state strongly impacts calculated N{sub CCN} only when POA and BC represent a large fraction of the total aerosol volume. One of the implications is that while physically unrealistic, external mixtures, which are used in many global models, may also sufficiently predict N{sub CCN} for aged aerosol, as the contribution of non-hygroscopic POA and BC to overall aerosol volume is often substantially reduced due to the condensation of secondary species.

Wang, J.; Cubison, M. J.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Collins, D. R.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Data:Af3b1397-f479-491a-868a-c7767a15b987 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Af3b1397-f479-491a-868a-c7767a15b987 Af3b1397-f479-491a-868a-c7767a15b987 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W High Pressure Sodium -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

328

Data:B907a47a-2ebd-4252-a342-e22c259b938b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7a47a-2ebd-4252-a342-e22c259b938b 7a47a-2ebd-4252-a342-e22c259b938b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W Metal Halide, Flood -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

329

Data:1cab31fd-2325-43b6-a85b-617baee6ff66 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cab31fd-2325-43b6-a85b-617baee6ff66 cab31fd-2325-43b6-a85b-617baee6ff66 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W Metal Halide, Flood -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

330

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monday, January 28, 2002 Monday, January 28, 2002 Natural gas prices generally declined last week as mild temperatures continued in most of the country and working gas storage stocks remain at very high levels. Spot prices at most major markets that serve the eastern two-thirds of the country ended the week down from the previous Friday with weather forecasts for the past weekend calling for daytime temperatures to be in the mid 50s to the low 60s in an area stretching from Chicago to Boston. At the Henry Hub prices moved down 9 cents on Friday to end at $2.04 per MMBtu--$0.25 below the previous Friday. The National Weather Service's (NWS) latest 6- to 10-day forecast is calling for above normal temperatures to continue through this week in most areas east of the Mississippi River. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) At the NYMEX futures market, the February contract continued to trend down as it ended the week trading at $2.037 per MMBtu-off almost $0.20 from previous Friday. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil gained almost $1.80 per barrel reaching $19.80 on Friday or about $3.40 per MMBtu.

331

Data:9a164f94-b9bb-4654-bc28-435c307feeca | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4f94-b9bb-4654-bc28-435c307feeca 4f94-b9bb-4654-bc28-435c307feeca No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 100W High Pressure Sodium -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

332

Data:3bf8d2f5-7573-4b55-9b97-6996759ffaef | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

d2f5-7573-4b55-9b97-6996759ffaef d2f5-7573-4b55-9b97-6996759ffaef No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W High Pressure Sodium, Flood -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

333

Bullfrog Care  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bullfrog Care Bullfrog Care Name: Susan Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: My son Noah, 9, has a bullfrog that he acquired from a catfish pond just outside of Cape Girardeau, MO. He brought it back to SD after a trip to relatives in Oct., 1999. The frog lives in an acquarium in Noah's bedroom. We feed him crickets (dozen at a time) 1 to 2 times per week. We change his water weekly (about 1 inch.) He has a foam pad and a couple smooth big rocks he sits on. We keep the acquarium light on him during the daytime, for warmth. Two days ago, he did not eat his crickets in his usual gobble em up fashion. This evening, we noticed brown spots on his otherwise greenish brown skin. Noah is wondering if he has "frog pox." His father and I are wondering if he is sick. What do you recommend? We can't let him go in the winter. Noah is devoted to keeping him as a pet, so we have a commitment here. Thank you for any help you might give us.

334

Sleeping Birds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sleeping Birds Sleeping Birds Nature Bulletin No. 445-A February 19, 1972 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation SLEEPING BIRDS Each winter, a few years ago, several thousand crows, roosted in the big woods near our house. In daytime they spread out over the countryside to find food but each evening, about sundown, they came streaming back in a continuous parade that took almost an hour to pass. In flocks of dozens or hundreds with scattered birds between, they flew the same route every day. In downstate Illinois, similar flocks roost in overgrown hedgerows of osage orange, isolated groves of timber, or on willow grown islands in large rivers. A much smaller flock still roosts the year-round in our woods. Ordinarily they slip in a little before dusk and settle down quietly but occasionally there is a hullabaloo as if they were squabbling over a favorite perch occupied by some newcomers. Just before dawn, one old bird we call "the bugler" caws three times. A minute or two later he repeats it. Then, one by one, drowsy voices of other crows are heard -- much like human sleepyheads in the morning. Sometimes an alarm call is heard during the night followed by a general clamor as if the flock had been disturbed by a marauding owl, weasel or raccoon. Crows are very wary and, like most birds, light sleepers.

335

Data:98de151b-1d5d-4884-9580-551cb0d2045c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

51b-1d5d-4884-9580-551cb0d2045c 51b-1d5d-4884-9580-551cb0d2045c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W Metal Halide, Flood -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

336

Data:208f7ef3-cfb5-4748-a8d8-d569f0491c16 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

f7ef3-cfb5-4748-a8d8-d569f0491c16 f7ef3-cfb5-4748-a8d8-d569f0491c16 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W Mercury Vapor -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

337

Data:Eb0ca68b-e5bc-4c3b-8301-737584d9ca18 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ca68b-e5bc-4c3b-8301-737584d9ca18 ca68b-e5bc-4c3b-8301-737584d9ca18 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W High Pressure Sodium -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

338

Data:2e1b1e4c-522d-4ba1-9ec3-c0d78cb0b47e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b1e4c-522d-4ba1-9ec3-c0d78cb0b47e b1e4c-522d-4ba1-9ec3-c0d78cb0b47e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 100W High Pressure Sodium -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

339

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Wednesday, January 02, 2002 Wednesday, January 02, 2002 Spot prices in the Midwest and the East moved up most days during the holiday period as cold weather blanketed much of the area. .(See Temperature Map) (See Deviation Map) (Temperature map) (Temperature Deviation Map). Prices in Chicago moved close to $3.00 per MMBtu last week, while prices in the New York City area approached $5.00 on the last day of the year. Daytime temperatures early this week in the Northeast remained in the 20s and 30s from Washington, DC to Boston. The National Weather Service is calling for the wintry temperatures to continue through the end of the week in most areas in the eastern two thirds of the country. On the NYMEX, the daily settlement price for the futures contract for February delivery has declined in recent trading as the higher-than-average storage levels continue to be the main contributor to the current strong natural gas supply situation. An estimated 2,992 Bcf remains in storage as of December 21, 2001. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil moved down in last week's trading and ended the year at $19.96 per barrel or $3.44 per MMBtu on Monday.

340

Data:A4986fcc-f75a-404f-9fdc-614db53a03f7 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fcc-f75a-404f-9fdc-614db53a03f7 fcc-f75a-404f-9fdc-614db53a03f7 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W Metal Halide, Flood -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

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341

Data:888bfe95-0df0-448d-9acb-571d263e39c2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bfe95-0df0-448d-9acb-571d263e39c2 bfe95-0df0-448d-9acb-571d263e39c2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W High Pressure Sodium, Flood -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

342

Owls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Owls Owls Nature Bulletin No. 267-A April 29, 1967 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation OWLS The owls, of all our native birds, are least understood. Most kinds remain hidden, motionless and silent during the day and hunt only at night or in the dim twilight of morning and evening. Only a few, like our common Short-eared Owl and those big owls of the far north -- the Snowy Owl, the Great Gray Owl and the Hawk Owl -- habitually hunt in daytime. Because an owl' s feathers are peculiarly soft and fluffy, it flies as silently as a passing shadow, swoops upon its prey unheard, and its Indian name was "hush-wing". Since ancient times there have been many superstitions and legends about these birds. They have been regarded as the companions of sorcerers, witches, ghosts, hobgoblins and Satan himself. Their weird nocturnal hootings, gobblings and screams were and are believed to predict death, illness or disaster. Even today, in our southern states, the plaintive quavering cry of the Little Screech Owl -- which they call the "Shivering" Owl -- will cause some people to get out of bed and turn over their left shoe; others to throw a nail or other iron object into the fire. To the Greeks and Romans, the owl was a symbol of wisdom and was the companion of their goddess of wisdom.

343

Data:D2feacd8-36c3-4655-b59c-579941a8eee4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

feacd8-36c3-4655-b59c-579941a8eee4 feacd8-36c3-4655-b59c-579941a8eee4 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 250W High Pressure Sodium, Flood -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

344

Data:90d8a14a-f202-49a6-9479-1b4082c4c939 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a14a-f202-49a6-9479-1b4082c4c939 a14a-f202-49a6-9479-1b4082c4c939 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W High Pressure Sodium, Flood -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

345

Data:7db38318-eb0e-4353-a5ba-5bf16d3e63e4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

db38318-eb0e-4353-a5ba-5bf16d3e63e4 db38318-eb0e-4353-a5ba-5bf16d3e63e4 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 175W Mercury Vapor -With Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

346

Data:4ed3157d-7ba5-4c44-afbe-dbfad0390461 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

157d-7ba5-4c44-afbe-dbfad0390461 157d-7ba5-4c44-afbe-dbfad0390461 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 400W Mercury Vapor -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

347

Assessment of MTI Water Temperature Thermal Discharge Retrievals with Ground Truth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface water temperatures calculated from Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) brightness temperatures and the robust retrieval algorithm, developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are compared with ground truth measurements at a mid-latitude cold-water site along the Atlantic coast near Plymouth, MA. In contrast to the relative uniformity of the sea-surface temperature in the open ocean the water temperature near Pilgrim exhibits strong spatial gradients and temporal variability. This made it critical that all images be accurately registered in order to extract temperature values at the six buoy locations. Sixteen images during a one-year period from August 2000 to July 2001 were selected for the study. The RMS error of Pilgrim water temperature is about 3.5 C for the 4 buoys located in open water. The RMS error of the combined temperatures from 3 of the open-water buoys is 2.8 C. The RMS error includes errors in the ground truth. The magnitude of this error is estimated to range between 0.8 and 2.3 C. The two main components of this error are warm-layer effect and spatial variability. The actual error in the MTI retrievals for Pilgrim daytime conditions is estimated to be between 2.7 and 3.4 C for individual buoys and between 1.7 and 2.7 C for the combined open-water buoys.

Kurzeja, R.J.

2002-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

348

ETRANS: an energy transport system optimization code for distributed networks of solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The optimization code ETRANS was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to design and estimate the costs associated with energy transport systems for distributed fields of solar collectors. The code uses frequently cited layouts for dish and trough collectors and optimizes them on a section-by-section basis. The optimal section design is that combination of pipe diameter and insulation thickness that yields the minimum annualized system-resultant cost. Among the quantities included in the costing algorithm are (1) labor and materials costs associated with initial plant construction, (2) operating expenses due to daytime and nighttime heat losses, and (3) operating expenses due to pumping power requirements. Two preliminary series of simulations were conducted to exercise the code. The results indicate that transport system costs for both dish and trough collector fields increase with field size and receiver exit temperature. Furthermore, dish collector transport systems were found to be much more expensive to build and operate than trough transport systems. ETRANS itself is stable and fast-running and shows promise of being a highly effective tool for the analysis of distributed solar thermal systems.

Barnhart, J.S.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Diurnal temperature range for a doubled carbon dioxide concentration experiment: Analysis of possible physical mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the results of a climate simulation for a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration over the European region is reported. Physical mechanisms are sought which could explain possible changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) under conditions of increased atmospheric greenhouse gas content. We show that an important contribution to changes in DTR is given by soil mositure. In areas where soil moisture increases due to an increase in precipitation there is a positive change in latent heat flux and a decrease in sensible heat flux. As a result, in areas with increasing soil moisture, the increase in maximum daytime temperature will be smaller than that in minimum temperature, thereby causing a decrease in the DTR. The opposite occurs for areas which undergo soil drying. This process amplifies the effect of cloud changes on surface solar and infrared radiation and dominates the direct effect of downward infrared radiation associated with increasing greenhouse gas concentration. Because the soil water content is largely controlled by precipitation, our results are consistent with early observational findings of negative correlation between changes in precipitation and in diurnal temperature range.

Verdecchia, M.; Visconti, G.; Giorgi, F.; Marinucci, M.R. [Universita`degli Studi, L`Aquila (Italy)]|[National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD  

SciTech Connect

Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

Kurzeja, R.

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

351

Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Estimating Traveler Populations at Airport and Cruise Terminals for Population Distribution and Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, uses of high-resolution population distribution databases are increasing steadily for environmental, socioeconomic, public health, and disaster-related research and operations. With the development of daytime population distribution, temporal resolution of such databases has been improved. However, the lack of incorporation of transitional population, namely business and leisure travelers, leaves a significant population unaccounted for within the critical infrastructure networks, such as at transportation hubs. This paper presents two general methodologies for estimating passenger populations in airport and cruise port terminals at a high temporal resolution which can be incorporated into existing population distribution models. The methodologies are geographically scalable and are based on, and demonstrate how, two different transportation hubs with disparate temporal population dynamics can be modeled utilizing publicly available databases including novel data sources of flight activity from the Internet which are updated in near-real time. The airport population estimation model shows great potential for rapid implementation for a large collection of airports on a national scale, and the results suggest reasonable accuracy in the estimated passenger traffic. By incorporating population dynamics at high temporal resolutions into population distribution models, we hope to improve the estimates of populations exposed to or at risk to disasters, thereby improving emergency planning and response, and leading to more informed policy decisions.

Jochem, Warren C [ORNL; Sims, Kelly M [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Urban, Marie L [ORNL; Rose, Amy N [ORNL; Coleman, Phil R [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Interplanetary Radio Transmission Through Serial Ionospheric and Material Barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A usual first principle in planning radio astronomy observations from the earth is that monitoring must be carried out well above the ionospheric plasma cutoff frequency (~5 MHz). Before space probes existed, radio astronomy was almost entirely done above 6 MHz, and this value is considered a practical lower limit by most radio astronomers. Furthermore, daytime ionization (especially D-layer formation) places additional constraints on wave propagation, and waves of frequency below 10-20 MHz suffer significant attenuation. More careful calculations of wave propagation through the earth s ionosphere suggest that for certain conditions (primarily the presence of a magnetic field) there may be a transmission window well below this assumed limit. Indeed, for receiving extraterrestrial radiation below the ionospheric plasma cutoff frequency, a choice of VLF frequency appears optimal to minimize loss. The calculation, experimental validation, and conclusions are presented here. This work demonstrates the possibility of VLF transmission through the ionosphere and various subsequent material barriers. Implications include development of a new robust communications channel, communications with submerged or subterranean receivers / instruments on or offworld, and a new approach to SETI.

Fields, David [ORNL; Kennedy, Robert G [ORNL; Roy, Kenneth I [ORNL; Vacaliuc, Bogdan [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

Oberbauer, S. F.

2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

355

Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year$^{-1}$ and 12.5 year$^{-1}$. We have previously found these oscillations in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and we have suggested that these oscillations are attributable to some form of solar radiation that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. This may be a systematic effect but, if it is not, this property should help narrow the theoretical options for the mechanism responsible for decay-rate variability.

Peter A. Sturrock; Gideon Steinitz; Ephraim Fischbach; Daniel Javorsek, II; Jere H. Jenkins

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection in Trombe Wall Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, experiments with a passive solar building with Trombe wall in the north cold climate are carried out and discussed, and the natural convection heat transfer process has been investigated. The relativity of the factors affecting indoor air temperature is analyzed with the stepwise regression method. The results indicate that thermo-circulation induced by the stack effect is the dominant factor. The natural convection in the channel is fairly complex; it changes from the laminar flow to the turbulent flow and the turbulent flow covers at least half the height of massive wall during the normal circulation. The flow in the channel is considered as natural convection between vertical plates. Analyzing the natural convection heat transfer process with the Rayleigh number and the mean Nusselt number, the thermo-circulation can be divided into three periods in the daytime: coast up, maintenance and weaken. During the maintenance period, the changes of the solar radiation intensity and surface temperatures have little effect on Nu number.

Chen, B.; Zhao, J.; Chen, C.; Zhuang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Pathways for the Oxidation of Sarin in Urban Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Terrorists have threatened and carried out chemicalhiological agent attacks on targets in major cities. The nerve agent sarin figured prominently in one well-publicized incident. Vapors disseminating from open containers in a Tokyo subway caused thousands of casualties. High-resolution tracer transport modeling of agent dispersion is at hand and will be enhanced by data on reactions with components of the urban atmosphere. As a sample of the level of complexity currently attainable, we elaborate the mechanisms by which sarin can decompose in polluted air. A release scenario is outlined involving the passage of a gas-phase agent through a city locale in the daytime. The atmospheric chemistry database on related organophosphorus pesticides is mined for rate and product information. The hydroxyl,radical and fine-mode particles are identified as major reactants. A review of urban air chernistry/rnicrophysics generates concentration tables for major oxidant and aerosol types in both clean and dirty environments. Organic structure-reactivity relationships yield an upper limit of 10-1' cm3 molecule-' S-* for hydrogen abstraction by hydroxyl. The associated midday loss time scale could be as little as one hour. Product distributions are difficult to define but may include nontoxic organic oxygenates, inorganic phosphorus acids, sarin-like aldehydes, and nitrates preserving cholinergic capabilities. Agent molecules will contact aerosol surfaces in on the order of minutes, with hydrolysis and side-chain oxidation as likely reaction channels.

Gerald E. Streit; James E. Bossert; Jeffrey S. Gaffney; Jon Reisner; Laurie A. McNair; Michael Brown; Scott Elliott

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

None

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

360

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

362

Superconductive Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) System Studies for Electrical Utility at Wisconsin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-layer low aspect ratio rippled and non-rippled solenoids mounted in surface trenches are described for superconductive magnetic energy storage utility applications. Open pool cooling in superfluid helium provides extended time cryogenic stability. Axial structure also functions as a protective heat absorbing secondary during emergency discharge. The cost of the conductor, trench, dewar, struts, radial structure, plus others are proportional to E^ 2/3 where E= stored energy; the cost of the axial structure is approximately E; and the cost of refrigeration is a constant plus an E^2/3 term. Costs scale approximately from E^0.58 (low E) to E^0.71 (100 - 3000 MWh) to E ^0.78 (3000 to 10,000 MWh). The cost of the ac-dc conversion system is about $60/kW. The electrical usage is best for load-leveling units that charge 8 h at night and discharge 15 h during the daytime. 98% storage efficiency and rapid power reversal are the two primary benefits of SMES. The potential impact of high Tc oxide superconductors is a 10%-20% cost reduction for large SMES units (above 3000 MWh). The operational storage efficiency of smaller units would improve to better than 95% for E > 10 MWh.

Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Abdelsalem, M. K.; Huang, X.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Downscaling Aerosols and the Impact of Neglected Subgrid Processes on Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing for a Representative Global Climate Model Grid Spacing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent improvements to many global climate models include detailed, prognostic aerosol calculations intended to better reproduce the observed climate. However, the trace gas and aerosol fields are treated at the grid-cell scale with no attempt to account for sub-grid impacts on the aerosol fields. This paper begins to quantify the error introduced by the neglected sub-grid variability for the shortwave aerosol radiative forcing for a representative climate model grid spacing of 75 km. An analysis of the value added in downscaling aerosol fields is also presented to give context to the WRF-Chem simulations used for the sub-grid analysis. We found that 1) the impact of neglected sub-grid variability on the aerosol radiative forcing is strongest in regions of complex topography and complicated flow patterns, and 2) scale-induced differences in emissions contribute strongly to the impact of neglected sub-grid processes on the aerosol radiative forcing. The two of these effects together, when simulated at 75 km vs. 3 km in WRF-Chem, result in an average daytime mean bias of over 30% error in top-of-atmosphere shortwave aerosol radiative forcing for a large percentage of central Mexico during the MILAGRO field campaign.

Gustafson, William I.; Qian, Yun; Fast, Jerome D.

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

364

High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1993 Final Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to evaluate the feasibility of using video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss. A video system was to produced video images during salmon passage periods. A technician identified and counted fish images from the video record. Fish ladder passage estimates of target species made from the video record were similar to estimates made by on-site counters during daytime periods, indicating that the two methods were relatively precise. We also found that a significant percentage (6.4% and 8.3%) of target salmonids migrated during nighttime periods when on-site counts were not typically made during the two years of study. Analysis of the video record permitted verification of individual sockeye salmon identified and counted by on-site count personnel, and provided data useful to managers of this ESA-listed stock. Analysis of the video record also permitted collection of additional data such as length measurements of individual specimens, which was used to regulate a fishery located upstream.

Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Fryer, Jeffrey

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Comparison Between Modeled and Measured Clear-Sky Radiative Shortwave Fluxes in Arctic Environments, with Special Emphasis on Diffuse Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the SBDART radiative transfer model to predict clear-sky diffuse and direct normal broadband shortwave irradiances is investigated. Model calculations of these quantities are compared with data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. The model tends to consistently underestimate the direct normal irradiances at both sites by about 1%. In regards to clear-sky diffuse irradiance, the model overestimates this quantity at the SGP site in a manner similar to what has been observed in other studies (Halthore and Schwartz, 2000). The difference between the diffuse SBDART calculations and Halthore and Schwartz’s MODTRAN calculations is very small, thus demonstrating that SBDART performs similarly to MODTRAN. SBDART is then applied to the NSA site, and here it is found that the discrepancy between the model calculations and corrected diffuse measurements (corrected for daytime offsets, Dutton et al., 2001) is 0.4 W/m2 when averaged over the 12 cases considered here. Two cases of diffuse measurements from a shaded “black and white” pyranometer are also compared with the calculations and the discrepancy is again minimal. Thus, it appears as if the “diffuse discrepancy” that exists at the SGP site does not exist at the NSA sites. We cannot yet explain why the model predicts diffuse radiation well at one site but not at the other.

Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Donna M.

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

367

Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Uncertainty: Pyrgeometers Compared to an Absolute Sky-Scanning Radiometer, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, and Radiative Transfer Model Calculations  

SciTech Connect

Because atmospheric longwave radiation is one of the most fundamental elements of an expected climate change, there has been a strong interest in improving measurements and model calculations in recent years. Important questions are how reliable and consistent are atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations and what are the uncertainties? The First International Pyrgeometer and Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer Comparison, which was held at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Souther Great Plains site in Oklahoma, answers these questions at least for midlatitude summer conditions and reflects the state of the art for atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations. The 15 participating pyrgeometers were all calibration-traced standard instruments chosen from a broad international community. Two new chopped pyrgeometers also took part in the comparison. And absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR), which includes a pyroelectric detector and a reference blackbody source, was used for the first time as a reference standard instrument to field calibrate pyrgeometers during clear-sky nighttime measurements. Owner-provided and uniformly determined blackbody calibration factors were compared. Remarkable improvements and higher pyrgeometer precision were achieved with field calibration factors. Results of nighttime and daytime pyrgeometer precision and absolute uncertainty are presented for eight consecutive days of measurements, during which period downward longwave irradiance varied between 260 and 420 W m-2. Comparisons between pyrgeometers and the absolute ASR, the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer models LBLRTM and MODTRAN show a surprisingly good agreement of <2 W m-2 for nighttime atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements and calculations.

Philipona, J. R.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Stoffel, T.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Reda, I.; Stifter, Armin; Wendling, Peter; Wood, Norm; Clough, Shepard A.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Anderson, Gail; Revercomb, Henry E.; Shippert, Timothy R.

2001-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

368

Edge effects, not connectivity, determine the incidence and development of a foliar fungal plant disease.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a model plant-pathogen system in a large-scale habitat corridor experiment, we found that corridors do not facilitate the movement of wind-dispersed plant pathogens, that connectivity of patches does not enhance levels of foliar fungal plant disease, and that edge effects are the key drivers of plant disease dynamics. Increased spread of infectious disease is often cited as a potential negative effect of habitat corridors used in conservation, but the impacts of corridors on pathogen movement have never been tested empirically. Using sweet corn (Zea mays) and southern corn leaf blight (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) as a model plant-pathogen system, we tested the impacts of connectivity and habitat fragmentation on pathogen movement and disease development at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. Over time, less edgy patches had higher proportions of diseased plants, and distance of host plants to habitat edges was the greatest determinant of disease development. Variation in average daytime temperatures provided a possible mechanism for these disease patterns. Our results show that worries over the potentially harmful effects of conservation corridors on disease dynamics are misplaced, and that, in a conservation context, many diseases can be better managed by mitigating edge effects.

Johnson, Brenda, L.; Haddad, Nick, M.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Geothermal feasibility study for Idaho State School and Hospital, Nampa, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Apparently it is possible to obtain a geothermal source of water at about 3000 ft depth that should produce 500+ GPM at 160{sup 0}F. The present steam and condensate lines are poorly insulated which adds to the heating costs and, in addition, the condensate lines are in poor condition. If this system is retained, it will cost upwards of $100,000 to replace these condensate lines. This cost should be considered as an off-set against the cost of the geothermal system. This was not included in the economic analysis simply because the cost for these repairs is next to impossible to predict with any accuracy. Changing over to geothermal hot water system will reduce the gas consumption by 75%. Most of the remaining gas use (steam) would be in the laundry and kitchen. In preparing this study, the assumption was made that most buildings that are presently using hot water could be heated with 155{sup 0}F water. It is recommended that during the ensuing year the maintenance department be instructed to change the controls on several buildings to reduce the temperature of the hot water down to 155{sup 0}F to see if comfort can be maintained at the lower setting. When this is done, the buildings should be maintained on a 24 hour basis at the daytime setting, that is, no night set back.

Balzhiser, J.K.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Solar photo-thermal catalytic reactions to produce high value chemicals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the research work accomplished to date on the utilization of solar photo-thermal energy to convert low cost chemical feedstocks into high $-value chemical products. The rationale is that the solar IR-VIS-UV spectrum is unique, supplying endothermic reaction energy as well as VIS-UV for photochemical activation. Chemical market analysis and product price distribution focused attention on speciality chemicals with prices >$1.00/lb, and a synthesis sequence of n-paraffins to aromatics to partial oxidized products. The experimental work has demonstrated that enhanced reaction effects result from VIS-UV irradiation of catalytically active V2O5/SiO2. Experiments of the past year have been on dehydrogenation and dehydrocyclization of n-paraffins to olefins and aromatics with preference for the latter. Recent results using n-hexane produced 95% conversion with 56% benzene; it is speculated that aromatic yield should reach {approximately}70% by further optimization. Pilot- and commercial-scale reactor configurations have been examined; the odds-on-favorite being a shallow fluid-bed of catalyst with incident radiation from the top. Sequencing for maximum cost effectiveness would be day-time endothermic followed by night-time exothermic reactions to produce the products.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Wentworth, W.E. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Solar Irradiance Variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

Solanki, Sami K

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Application of solar energy to industrial drying of soybeans: Phase III, performance evaluation. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 15-month performance evaluation was conducted on a solar system designed and constructed to augment the industrial drying of soybeans at the Gold Kist, Inc., extraction plant in Decatur, Alabama. The plant employs three oil-fired, continuous-flow dryers of 3,000 bu/hr each. The solar system consists of 672 Solaron air collectors that temper the airflow into the existing dryers. Since the requirement for energy exceeds the peak solar system capacity, no storage is provided. The interface with the existing facility is simply accomplished by three ducts that release the solar heated air directly adjacent to the dryer air intakes, and no mechanical coupling is needed. The solar system was operated for 1,752 hr on 290 days during the 15-month period without a single failure sufficient to cause shutdown. No interference with normal plant operations was experienced. Maintenance of the solar system, consisting of service to the air handling unit, cleaning of collector glazing, and minor duct repair, totaled $1,564. System utilization was only 46.3%. This was primarily due to daytime routine maintenance performed on the conventional drying and processing equipment. The solar fraction was not large enough to justify maintenance shift changes. An average collector efficiency of 26.2% was experienced. Contamination caused by the local plant environment reduced the average collector efficiency by 9.3 percentage points. A prototype of an automatic cleaning system was constructed and tested.

Hall, B.R.

1979-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

A Review of Street Lighting Evaluations: Crime Reduction Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Consideration of the literature concerning street lighting effects on crime yields the following conclusions: (1) Precisely targeted increases in street lighting generally have crime reduction effects. (2) More general increases in street lighting seem to have crime prevention effects, but this outcome is not universal Older and U.S. research yield fewer positive results than more recent U.K. research. (3) Even untargeted increases in crime prevention generally make residents less fearful of crime or more confident of their own safety at night. (4) In the most recent and sophisticated studies, street lighting improvements are associated with crime reductions in the daytime as well as during the hours of darkness. (5) The debate about lighting effects has served to preclude a more refined analysis of the means by and circumstances in which lighting might reduce crime. Our aim should now be to use context-appropriate lighting schemes as part of a full repertoire of crime reduction tactics. Recommendations based upon a strategic view of current crime reduction policy are made about how lighting effects could be clarified and elaborated. The provisions of the British Crime and Disorder Act 1998 constitute a potential vehicle for lighting programmes operating within crime reduction schemes generally.

Ken Pease

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e. local). In general, we find that local control schemes are capable for maintaining voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for nighttime operation.

Petr Sulc; Konstantin Turitsyn; Scott Backhaus; Michael Chertkov

2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

375

Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.  

SciTech Connect

Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

Lee, Jack M.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system by injecting pulses of variable amplitude and length directly into the photomultiplier preamplifiers. A brief description of the full VERITAS focal plane instrument is given in this paper.

VERITAS Collaboration; T. Nagai; R. McKay; G. Sleege; D. Petry

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

378

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's National Solar Data Program established solar energy systems in residential and commercial buildings across the United States. These solar sites are linked to Vitro Laboratories Division's computer in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Vitro collects and analyzes data from this network to determine the thermal performance of each of the solar systems. The environmental data for the NSDN are presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The solar sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The solar energy sites are in alphabetical sequence within each zone. The tables provide available meteorological data for reporting sites in the NSDN as follows: the insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extra-terrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total extra-terrestrial radiation, as a percent; the temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. Additional tables are presented for some of these NSDN sites, supplying either wind or relative humidity data, or both. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

An Evaluation of Thermal Storage at Two Industrial Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal storage offers substantial energy cost savings potential in situations with favorable electrical rates and significant cooling demand. Full storage is usually restricted to facilities occupied only part of the day, but two industrial plants were recently encountered which offered the potential for full storage. The first plant, a textile weaving operation, has over 5,000 tons of installed chiller capacity used for strict control of temperature and humidity. Measurements of peak load indicated the units were less than 50 percent loaded. Because of the excess chiller capacity, summer demand can be met by operating the units fully loaded during off-peak hours and storing unneeded chilled water in a storage tank for daytime usage. The second plant is a single shift poultry processing operation that uses large amounts of ice to preserve the product during shipping. In this case, ice making during off-peak times for use during production was analyzed. Despite the fact that both options offered significant savings, the paybacks were higher than acceptable due to the significant investment required. While the projects are not economically feasible at the present time, the analysis verifies the technical feasibility of thermal storage. Future changes in electricity cost could make the concept more attractive economically.

Brown, M. L.; Gurta, M. E.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Application of an atmospheric dispersion model to simulated pollutant releases in the Colorado Front range  

SciTech Connect

The 1991 ASCOT (Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain) field study in the vicinity of the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado, was conducted to study the local and regional circulations and their interactions with synoptic flows over the complex terrain of the Rocky Mountains Colorado Front range. The study was combined with the Rocky Flats Winter validation Study (WVS) which had similar objectives. Tracer plumes were released as part of this field campaign over the period of February 3--19, 1991 from the Rocky Flats Plant. Twelve intensive experiments, centered around eleven-hour long surface releases of sulfur hexafloride (SF{sub 6})tracer material, were conducted by teams from a number of national laboratories, government agencies and private contractors. One-hourly averaged tracer concentrations were collected from approximately 170 surface samplers deployed along two concentric circles at a radius of 8 km and 16 km from the release location. The concentration patterns resulting from the transport and turbulent diffusion of the SF{sub 6} traces plumes within the atmospheric boundary layer during two night-time, one morning transition, and one day-time period were simulated for this paper. The scenarios selected represent the first-choice of all twelve experiments to be addressed, based on the quality and completeness of the collected data base and the presence of the desired meteorological conditions.

Lange, R.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Effectiveness of Shading Air-Cooled Condensers of Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In air-conditioning (A/C) systems with air-cooled condensers, the condensing unit has to be kept in the open for easy access to outdoor air in order to efficiently dissipate heat. During daytime, the solar radiation falling on the surfaces of the condenser and the high ambient temperatures can be detrimental for the energy performance. The effectiveness of shading the condensing unit to mitigate this adverse impact is investigated in this paper. A limiting analysis compares the performance of several A/C systems with ideal shade to those with ideal solar heat gain. The comparison is based on a theoretical model and data from equipment catalogs. The theoretical increase in the coefficient of performance (COP) due to shading is found to be within 2.5%. Furthermore, this small improvement in ideal efficiency decreases at higher ambient temperatures, when enhancements to efficiency are more needed. The actual efficiency improvement due to shading is not expected to exceed 1%, and the daily energy savings will be lower.

ElSherbini, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (-0.15 to -0.25 C.decade{sup -1}), which corresponds to a cooling estimated at -2.0 - -3.3 C since the introduction of irrigation practice. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (-0.06 to -0.19 C.decade{sup -1}). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for most irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broadscale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide roughly 40% of global food production.

Bonfils, C; Lobell, D

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

383

Conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology  

SciTech Connect

Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough collectors causes an increase to competitiveness of solar thermal power plants (STPP) by substitution of oil with direct steam generation that results in lower investment and operating costs. In this study the integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology is introduced and techno-economic assessment of this plant is reported compared with two conventional cases. Three considered cases are: an integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology (ISCCS-DSG), a solar electric generating system (SEGS), and an integrated solar combined cycle system with HTF (heat transfer fluid) technology (ISCCS-HTF). This study shows that levelized energy cost (LEC) for the ISCCS-DSG is lower than the two other cases due to reducing O and M costs and also due to increasing the heat to electricity net efficiency of the power plant. Among the three STPPs, SEGS has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, but it will operate during daytime only. (author)

Nezammahalleh, H.; Farhadi, F.; Tanhaemami, M. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, No 593 Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Zero energy homes: Combining energy efficiency and solar energy technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a typical Florida house, air-conditioning accounts for about 35% of all the electricity the home uses. As the largest single source of energy consumption in Florida, a home's air-conditioning load represents the biggest energy challenge facing Florida residents. The Florida Solar Energy Center designed a project to meet this challenge. Two homes were built with the same floor plan on near-by lots. The difference was that one (the control home) conformed to local residential building practices, and the other (the Zero Energy home) was designed with energy efficiency in mind and a solar technology system on the roof. The homes were then monitored carefully for energy use. The projects designers were looked to answer two questions: (1) could a home in a climate such as central Florida be engineered and built so efficiently that a relatively small PV system would serve the majority of its cooling needs--and even some of its daytime electrical needs; and (2) would that home be as comfortable and appealing as the conventional model built alongside it? The answer was yes, even though it was conducted in the summer of 1998--one of the hottest summers on record in Florida.

NREL

2000-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

385

Atmospheric mercury in Changbai Mountain area, northeastern China I. The seasonal distribution pattern of total gaseous mercury and its potential sources  

SciTech Connect

An intensive field campaign for the measurement of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in ambient air was conducted in Changbai Mountain area from 5 August 2005 to 5 July 2006 using an automatic atmospheric mercury analyzer (Tekran 2537A), which was the first time TGM was monitored at a remote area in northeastern China. 99% of the hourly TGM concentrations fell between 1.28 and 9.49 ng m{sup -3} with an annual arithmetic mean of 3.58{+-}1.78 ng m{sup -3}, which was significantly elevated compared to values obtained in remote areas of Europe and North America. Seasonal mean TGM concentrations displayed a descending trend as follows: winter, spring, fall, and summer. Compared to spring/winter, TGM concentrations were lower in the summer/fall but the standard deviation (SD) of TGM levels was higher and indicated a correlation with anthropogenic emissions. TGM concentrations showed seasonal differences with respect to meteorological parameters: TGM levels in spring/winter were most correlated with wind speed, and correlated with solar radiation only in the winter, while TGM levels in summer/fall periods were most correlated with air temperature. There was a strong diurnal variation of seasonal TGM with significantly higher concentrations in daytime/nighttime compared to the early morning. The seasonal diel TGM pattern indicated regional biofuel and coal combustion were the primary mercury sources.

Wan Qi [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Xinbin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)], E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn; Lu, Julia [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ont., M5B 2K3 (Canada)], E-mail: Julialu@ryerson.ca; Zheng Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Song Xinjie [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ont., M5B 2K3 (Canada); Han Shijie; Xu Hao [Open Research Station of Changbai Mountain Forest Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yanbian 133613 (China)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Multi-Spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration will require long-term monitoring for detection of possible leakage back into the atmosphere. One potential monitoring method is multi-spectral imaging of vegetation reflectance to detect leakage through CO{sub 2}-induced plant stress. A multi-spectral imaging system was used to simultaneously record green, red, and near-infrared (NIR) images with a real-time reflectance calibration from a 3-m tall platform, viewing vegetation near shallow subsurface CO{sub 2} releases during summers 2007 and 2008 at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology field site in Bozeman, Montana. Regression analysis of the band reflectances and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index with time shows significant correlation with distance from the CO{sub 2} well, indicating the viability of this method to monitor for CO{sub 2} leakage. The 2007 data show rapid plant vigor degradation at high CO{sub 2} levels next to the well and slight nourishment at lower, but above-background CO{sub 2} concentrations. Results from the second year also show that the stress response of vegetation is strongly linked to the CO{sub 2} sink-source relationship and vegetation density. The data also show short-term effects of rain and hail. The real-time calibrated imaging system successfully obtained data in an autonomous mode during all sky and daytime illumination conditions.

Rouse, J.H.; Shaw, J.A.; Lawrence, R.L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Dobeck, L.M.; Repasky, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Flywheel energy storage using superconducting magnetic bearings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Storage of electrical energy on a utility scale is currently not practicable for most utilities, preventing the full utilization of existing base-load capacity. A potential solution to this problem is Flywheel Energy Storage (FES), made possible by technological developments in high-temperature superconducting materials. Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC), the research arm of Commonwealth Edison Company, and Argonne National Laboratory are implementing a demonstration project to advance the state of the art in high temperature superconductor (HTS) bearing performance and the overall demonstration of efficient Flywheel Energy Storage. Currently, electricity must be used simultaneously with its generation as electrical energy storage is not available for most utilities. Existing storage methods either are dependent on special geography, are too expensive, or are too inefficient. Without energy storage, electric utilities, such as Commonwealth Edison Company, are forced to cycle base load power plants to meet load swings in hourly customer demand. Demand can change by as much as 30% over a 12-hour period and result in significant costs to utilities as power plant output is adjusted to meet these changes. HTS FES systems can reduce demand-based power plant cycling by storing unused nighttime capacity until it is needed to meet daytime demand.

Abboud, R.G. [Commonwealth Research Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Uherka, K.; Hull, J.; Mulcahy, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Using remotely sensed planetary boundary layer variables as estimates of areally averaged heat flux  

SciTech Connect

Homogeneity across the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is an issue of importance to all facets of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. The degree to which measurements at the central facility can be used to verify, improve, or develop relationships in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in Global Circulation Models (GCMs), for example, is tied directly to the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole. The relative variation of surface energy budget terms over a 350- km X 400km domain such as the SGP CART site can be extremely large. The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) develops as a result of energy inputs from widely varying surfaces. The lower atmosphere effectively integrates the local inputs; measurements of PBL structure can potentially be used for estimates of surface heat flux over scales on the order of tens of kilometers. This project is focusing on two PBL quantities that are intimately tied to the surface heat flux: (1) the height of the mixed layer, z, that grows during daytime due to sensible heat flux input from the surface; and (2) the convective velocity scale, normally a scaling parameter defined by the product of the sensible heat flux and z, but in this case defined by coherent structures that connect the surface layer and the capping inversion that defines z.

Coulter, R.L.; Martin, T.J.; Holdridge, D.J.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Surface energy and radiation budgets in a steppe ecosystem in the Upper Columbia River Gorge  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of radiation and surface energy budget components are presented for a semiarid grassland-steppe ecosystem in the Upper Columbia River Gorge (45{degrees}45`25.6 inches N, 120{degrees}01`39.3 inches W, 190 m) for June 2-27, 1991. Over this period, the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux (the Bowen ratio) averaged 5.0, and mean daily surface energy balance totals were: net radiation, 9.23; ground heat flux, 1.25; latent heat flux, 1.32; and sensible heat flux, 6.66 MJ m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}, where the mean daily nonradiative fluxes were directed away from the surface, and the mean daily radiative flux was directed toward the surface. On clear days, the site received from 0.71 to 0.76 of the theoretical extraterrestrial solar radiation. Albedo over the 26-d period varied from 0.17 to 0.21. Daily and daytime average values of the components are summarized, and a plot is presented of the 30-min average values of all components for the entire period.

Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.; Bian, X.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Bats  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bats Bats Nature Bulletin No. 147 March 20, 1948 Forest Preserve District of Cook County William N. Erickson, President Roberts Mann, Supt of Conservation BATS Flying squirrels only glide. Bats are the only fur bearing animals that truly fly, and they've been doing it for at least 50 million years Twisting, looping and zig-zagging through the air, at dusk and dawn, they catch flying insects more skillfully than the swallow or the chimney swift. Each twist and turn means another insect caught, A bat can consume one-half its weight in insects in a single twilight. Harmful? No, We have one in Trailside Museum that likes to be handled and fed mealworms. They do not get in women's hair. They do not distribute our kind of bed bugs. They are not blind; even in daytime they see fairly well. But they can fly through timber or the narrow twisting passages of caves in total darkness because they have radar, Bats have large specialized ears, Their squeak is pitched so high that few people can hear it, As they fly they also make a supersonic squeak about 30 times per second and are guided by the echoes bouncing back from obstacles.

391

High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Data:54fbf39f-9e57-4398-9fef-4ed99efe41e8 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Data Data Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Data:54fbf39f-9e57-4398-9fef-4ed99efe41e8 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Pee Dee Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2008/03/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule 7: Security Light Service, 200-Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamps Sector: Lighting Description: Service under this schedule is available in all territory served by the Cooperative, subject to the Cooperative's established Service Rules and Regulations. This schedule is applicable to any consumer of the Cooperative. All facilities necessary for service under this Schedule, including fixtures, lamps, controls, poles, hardware, transformers, conductors, power, and other necessary materials shall be owned and maintained by the Cooperative. Equipment other than that supplied by the Cooperative as standard is not available under this Schedule. The consumer may designate the lamp(s) location, provided it is within a distance that can be reached by a secondary extension from the Cooperative's nearest distribution facilities. Lamps will burn from approximately one-half hour after sunset until approximately one-half hour before sunrise. The Cooperative will replace burned out lamps and otherwise maintain the fixture during regular daytime working hours as soon as possible following notification by the consumer.

393

Data:A720c823-97ef-4e50-8ed2-e8187e45df59 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c823-97ef-4e50-8ed2-e8187e45df59 c823-97ef-4e50-8ed2-e8187e45df59 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Foley Board of Utilities Effective date: 1990/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Unmetered Outdoor Lighting- 175W Mercury Vapor -Without Pole Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk to dawn unmetered service is covered by charges set forth below which also cover initial installation of overhead lines, poles (where applicable), fixture assembly including four foot mounting hardware for standard luminaries and two foot mounting hardware for flood lights, and maintenance including lamp replacements due to burn outs. Such charges do not cover replacement of lamps, luminaries, brackets or overhead lines which are damaged or destroyed due to vandalism or any other cause beyond the Utility's control, such facilities damaged or destroyed under such circumstances to be replaced by the Utility at the Consumer's expense. Lamp renewals and required maintenance will be performed only during regular daytime working hours as soon as practical after notification by the Consumer of the necessity.

394

Summertime photochemistry during CAREBeijing-2007: ROx budgets and O3 formation  

SciTech Connect

We analyze summertime photochemistry near the surface in Beijing, China, using a 1-D photochemical model (Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model, REAM-1D) constrained by in situ observations, focusing on the budgets of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals and O3 formation. While the modeling analysis focuses on near-surface photochemical budgets, the implications for the budget of O3 in the planetary boundary layer are also discussed. In terms of daytime average, the total ROx primary production rate near the surface in Beijing is 6.6 ppbv per hour (ppbv h{sup 1}, among the highest found in urban atmospheres. The largest primary ROx source in Beijing is photolysis of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), which produces HO2 and RO2 at 2.5 ppbv h{sup 1}1 and 1.7 ppbv h{sup 1}, respectively. Photolysis of excess HONO from an unknown heterogeneous source is the predominant primary OH source at 2.2 ppbv h{sup 1}, much larger than that of O1D+H2O (0.4 ppbv h{sup 1}). The largest ROx sink is via OH + NO2 reaction (1.6 ppbv h{sup 1}), followed by formation of RO2NO2 (1.0 ppbv h{sup 1}) and RONO2 (0.7 ppbv h{sup 1}). Due to the large aerosol surface area, aerosol uptake of HO2 appears to be another important radical sink, although the estimate of its magnitude is highly variable depending on the uptake coefficient value used. The daytime average O3 production and loss rates near the surface are 32 ppbv h{sup 1} and 6.2 ppbv h{sup 1}, respectively. Assuming NO2 to be the source of excess HONO, the NO2 to HONO transformation leads to considerable O3 loss and reduction of its lifetime. Our observation-constrained modeling analysis suggests that oxidation of VOCs (especially aromatics) and heterogeneous reactions (e.g. HONO formation and aerosol uptake HO2) play potentially critical roles in the primary radical budget and O3 formation in Beijing. One important ramification is that O3 production is neither NOx nor VOC limited, but in a transition regime where reduction of either NOx or VOCs could result in reduction of O3 production. The transition regime implies more flexibility in the O3 control strategies than a binary system of either NOx or VOC limited regime. The co-benefit of concurrent reduction of both NOx and VOCs in reducing column O3 production integrated in the planetary boundary layer is significant. Further research on the spatial extent of the transition regime over the polluted eastern China is critically important for controlling regional O3 pollution.

Liu, Zhen; Wang, Y.; Gu, Dasa; Zhao, Chun; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, Robert; Liao, Jin; Shao, Min; Zhu, T.; Zeng, Limin; Amoroso, Antonio; Costabile, Francesa; Chang, Chih-Chung; Liu, Shaw C.

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

395

Cloud properties derived from two lidars over the ARM SGP site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

[1] Active remote sensors such as lidars or radars can be used with other data to quantify the cloud properties at regional scale and at global scale (Dupont et al., 2009). Relative to radar, lidar remote sensing is sensitive to very thin and high clouds but has a significant limitation due to signal attenuation in the ability to precisely quantify the properties of clouds with a 20 cloud optical thickness larger than 3. In this study, 10-years of backscatter lidar signal data are analysed by a unique algorithm called STRucture of ATmosphere (STRAT, Morille et al., 2007). We apply the STRAT algorithm to data from both the collocated Micropulse lidar (MPL) and a Raman lidar (RL) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site between 1998 and 2009. Raw backscatter lidar signal is processed and 25 corrections for detector deadtime, afterpulse, and overlap are applied. (Campbell et al.) The cloud properties for all levels of clouds are derived and distributions of cloud base height (CBH), top height (CTH), physical cloud thickness (CT), and optical thickness (COT) from local statistics are compared. The goal of this study is (1) to establish a climatology of macrophysical and optical properties for all levels of clouds observed over the ARM SGP site 30 and (2) to estimate the discrepancies induced by the two remote sensing systems (pulse energy, sampling, resolution, etc.). Our first results tend to show that the MPLs, which are the primary ARM lidars, have a distinctly limited range where all of these cloud properties are detectable, especially cloud top and cloud thickness, but even actual cloud base especially during summer daytime period. According to the comparisons between RL and MPL, almost 50% of situations show a signal to noise ratio too low (smaller than 3) for the MPL in order to detect clouds higher than 7km during daytime period in summer. Consequently, the MPLderived annual cycle of cirrus cloud base (top) altitude is biased low, especially for daylight periods, compared with those derived from the RL data, which detects 5 cloud base ranging from 7.5 km in winter to 9.5 km in summer (and tops ranging from 8.6 to 10.5 km). The optically thickest cirrus clouds (COT>0.3) reach 50% of the total population for the Raman lidar and only 20% for the Micropulse lidar due to the difference of pulse energy and the effect of solar irradiance contamination. A complementary study using the cloud fraction 10 derived from the Micropulse lidar for clouds below 5 km and from the Raman lidar for cloud above 5 km allows for better estimation of the total cloud fraction between the ground and the top of the atmosphere. This study presents the diurnal cycle of cloud fraction for each season in comparisons with the Long et al. (2006) cloud fraction calculation derived from radiative flux analysis.

Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Morille, Y.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Newsom, Rob K.

2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

396

Data:158847a9-e149-4803-8d41-b98678d1c062 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a9-e149-4803-8d41-b98678d1c062 a9-e149-4803-8d41-b98678d1c062 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Waverly Municipal Elec Utility Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Commercial and Municipal time of Use Service Sector: Commercial Description: Available to small commercial customers and City departmental operations within the service area for service delivered through one meter at one location for normal lighting, power, and supplemental heating purposes. Service requirements cannot exceed 50 kW on this rate. Whenever monthly consumption exceeds 15,000 kWh, a demand meter will be installed to determine whether the customer should be transferred to the General and Municipal Time of Use rate. The customer will be moved to the General and Municipal Time of Use rate if their demand exceeds 50 kW four or more times in any 12 month period. Service is subject to applicable terms and conditions of Waverly Light and Power's electric service Rules of Operation. The rate is designed for customers who can readily switch a substantial portion of their service from daytime operation to nighttime operation, thereby contributing to a reduction of system peak. The service is available on an optional basis to any customer for a minimum of one year.

397

Data:23ad04af-0efa-4232-97c6-83c049b50ea8 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ad04af-0efa-4232-97c6-83c049b50ea8 ad04af-0efa-4232-97c6-83c049b50ea8 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Pee Dee Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2008/03/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule 7: Security Light Service, 100-Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamps Sector: Lighting Description: Service under this schedule is available in all territory served by the Cooperative, subject to the Cooperative's established Service Rules and Regulations. This schedule is applicable to any consumer of the Cooperative. All facilities necessary for service under this Schedule, including fixtures, lamps, controls, poles, hardware, transformers, conductors, power, and other necessary materials shall be owned and maintained by the Cooperative. Equipment other than that supplied by the Cooperative as standard is not available under this Schedule. The consumer may designate the lamp(s) location, provided it is within a distance that can be reached by a secondary extension from the Cooperative's nearest distribution facilities. Lamps will burn from approximately one-half hour after sunset until approximately one-half hour before sunrise. The Cooperative will replace burned out lamps and otherwise maintain the fixture during regular daytime working hours as soon as possible following notification by the consumer.

398

Interaction of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets with Urban Geometries as seen in Joint URBAN 2003 Data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) is a well-documented phenomenon world-wide, especially in the southern Great Plains of the United States (Bonner 1968, Whiteman et al. 1997, Banta et al., 2002) where it contributes to severe weather. In the canonical rural case, the nocturnal LLJ forms as the release of daytime convective turbulent stresses allow nighttime winds above a stable boundary layer to accelerate to supergeostrophic wind speeds. In situations with surface winds of less than 5 m/s, wind speeds at altitudes of 100m due to the nocturnal LLJ can be greater than 20 m/s. The turbulence generated by this wind shear can induce nocturnal mixing events and control surface-atmosphere exchange, thereby affecting atmospheric transport and dispersion. The Joint URBAN 2003 urban dispersion dataset, collected in Oklahoma City in July, 2003, includes several occurrences of strong LLJs, thereby providing a unique opportunity to document how the LLJ interacts with the complexity of urban geometries and to explore the significance of LLJs for transport and dispersion in urban environments. Based on this dataset, we will answer the following questions: (1) How often do LLJs occur during the experiment? (2) How does the increase in surface roughness represented by the city center, as compared to the rural environment, affect the altitude and speed of the jet, based on data from upwind and downwind wind profiles? (3) How often do LLJs contribute to nocturnal mixing events within the Oklahoma City urban area, as observed in profiles of turbulence quantities at an 80m pseudo-tower located 750m downwind of Oklahoma City center? (4) Can the effect of these LLJ-induced mixing events be identified in the dispersion datasets?

Lundquist, J K

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

399

A degree-day method for residential heating load calculations specifically incorporating the utilization of solar gains  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple and well known method of estimating residential heating loads is the variable base degree-day method, in which the steady-state heat loss rate (UA) is multiplied by the degree-days based from the balance temperature of the structure. The balance temperature is a function of the UA as well as the average rate of internal heat gains, reflecting the displacement of the heating requirements by these gains. Currently, the heat gains from solar energy are lumped with those from appliances to estimate an average rate over the day. This ignores the effects of the timing of the gains from solar energy, which are more highly concentrated during daytime hours, hence more frequently exceeding the required space heat and less utilizable than the gains from appliances. Simulations or specialized passive solar energy calculation methods have previously been required to account for this effect. This paper presents curves of the fraction of the absorbed solar energy utilized for displacement of space heat, developed by comparing heating loads calculated using a variable base degree-day method (ignoring solar gains) to heating loads from a large number of detailed DOE-2 simulations. The difference in the loads predicted by the two methods can be interpreted as the utilized solar gains. The solar utilization decreases as the thermal integrity increases, as expected, and the solar utilizations are similar across climates. They can be used to estimate the utilized fraction of the absorbed solar energy and, with the load predicted by the variable base degree-day calculation, form a modified degree-day method that closely reproduces the loads predicted by the DOE-2 simulation model and is simple enough for hand calculations. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Lucas, R.G.; Pratt, R.G.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Radar-Derived Forecasts of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Over Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ten years (1997 - 2006) of summer (June, July, August) daytime (14 - 00 Z) Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler data for Houston, TX were examined to determine the best radar-derived lightning forecasting predictors. Convective cells were tracked using a modified version of the Storm Cell Identification and Tracking (SCIT) algorithm and then correlated to cloud-to-ground lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Combinations of three radar reflectivity values (30, 35, and 40 dBZ) at four isothermal levels (-10, -15, -20, and updraft -10 degrees C) and a new radar-derived product, vertically integrated ice (VII), were used to optimize a radar-based lightning forecast algorithm. Forecasts were also delineated by range and the number of times a cell was identified and tracked by the modified SCIT algorithm. This study objectively analyzed 65,399 unique cells, and 1,028,510 to find the best lightning forecast criteria. Results show that using 30 dBZ at the -20 degrees C isotherm on cells within 75 km of the radar that have been tracked for at least 2 consecutive scan produces the best forecasts with a critical success index (CSI) of 0.71. The best VII predictor was 0.734 kg m-2 on cells within 75 km of the radar that have been tracked for at least 2 consecutive scans producing a CSI of 0.68. Results of this study further suggest that combining the radar reflectivity and VII methods can result in a more accurate lightning forecast than either method alone.

Mosier, Richard Matthew

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Treatment Outcome of Medium-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Comparison With Low-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of medium-dose-rate (MDR) and low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 419 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated by radical radiotherapy with curative intent at Tokyo Women's Medical University from 1969 to 1999. LDR was used from 1969 to 1986, and MDR has been used since July 1987. When compared with LDR, fraction dose was decreased and fraction size was increased (1 or 2 fractions) for MDR to make the total dose of MDR equal to that of LDR. In general, the patients received a total dose of 60 to 70 Gy at Point A with external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage. In the LDR group, 32 patients had Stage I disease, 81 had Stage II, 182 had Stage III, and 29 had Stage IVA; in the MDR group, 9 patients had Stage I disease, 19 had Stage II, 55 had Stage III, and 12 had Stage IVA. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates for Stages I, II, III, and IVA in the LDR group were 78%, 72%, 55%, and 34%, respectively. In the MDR group, the 5-year overall survival rates were 100%, 68%, 52%, and 42%, respectively. No significant statistical differences were seen between the two groups. The actuarial rates of late complications Grade 2 or greater at 5 years for the rectum, bladder, and small intestine in the LDR group were 11.1%, 5.8%, and 2.0%, respectively. The rates for the MDR group were 11.7%, 4.2%, and 2.6%, respectively, all of which were without statistical differences. Conclusion: These data suggest that MDR ICBT is effective, useful, and equally as good as LDR ICBT in daytime (about 5 hours) treatments of patients with cervical cancer.

Kaneyasu, Yuko, E-mail: kaneyasu@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Kita, Midori [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Clinical Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Okawa, Tomohiko [Evaluation and Promotion Center, Utsunomiya Memorial Hospital, Tochigi (Japan)] [Evaluation and Promotion Center, Utsunomiya Memorial Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Maebayashi, Katsuya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Kohno, Mari [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Sonoda, Tatsuo; Hirabayashi, Hisae [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Norio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Energy Consumption Estimation for Room Air-conditioners Using Room Temperature Simulation with One-Minute Intervals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the purpose of developing optimized control algorithm for room air-conditioners to ensure their energy efficiency, a short time interval (i.e., one minute) simulation of building thermal performance is necessary because the sampling time interval for room air-conditioner control is one minute in general. This paper studies the short-time interval room air temperature simulation method using the response factor method. Using the simulated room air temperature, an air-conditioner's running time can be known so that its energy consumption can be estimated accurately. In order to verify the simulation accuracy, an actual room equipped with a gas-engine heat pump (GHP) air-conditioning system is studied by both simulation and measurement. The cooling amount produced by the GHP is calculated using measured refrigerant pressure and temperature at condenser and evaporator respectively. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between measured cooling amount and simulated cooling load is 18.9 percent of the average measured value. The profile of simulated room air temperature in both air-conditioned daytime and nighttime without air-conditioning can match the measured room air temperature. With respect to the estimated energy consumption, the profile of simulated energy consumption can match the measured data. The simulation accuracy of room air temperature and energy consumption during the air-conditioner start-up period is not good and needs to be improved in future research. But in general, the verification shows that this energy consumption simulation method is acceptable for evaluating the energy performance of a room air-conditioner, and can also be a useful tool for commissioning room air-conditioners.

Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Matsumoto, K.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

An analysis on the mid-latitude scintillation and coherence frequency bandwidth using transionospheric VHF signals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis was perfonned on the mid-latitude scintillation and coherence frequency bandwidth (Fcoh) using transionospheric VHF signal data. The data include 1062 events spanning from November 1997 to June 2002. Each event records FORTE satellite received VHF signals from LAPP located at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Fcohs were derived to study scintillation characteristics on diurnal and seasonal variations, as well as changes due to solar and geomagnetic activities. Comparisons to the VHFIUHF coherence frequency bandwidth studies previously reported at equatorial and mid-latitude regions are made using a 4th power frequency dependence relationship. Furthennore, a wideband ionospheric scintillation model, WBMOD, was used to estimate Fcohs and compared with our VHF Fcoh values. Our analysis indicates mid-latitude scintillation characteristics that are not previously revealed. At the VHF bottom frequency range (3035 MHz), distinguished smaller Fcohs are found in time period from sunset to midnight, in wann season from May to August, and in low solar activity years. The effects of geomagnetic storm activity on Fcoh are characterized by a sudden transition at a Kp index of 50-60. Comparisons with median Fcohs estimated from other studies validated our VHF Fcohs for daytime while an order of magnitude larger Fcohs are found for nighttime, implying a time-dependent issue in applying the 4th order power relationship. Furthermore, comparisons with WBMOD-estimated Fcohs indicated generally matched median scintillation level estimates while differences do exist for those events undergoing high geomagnetic stonn activity which may imply underestimates of scintillation level by the WBMOD in the mid-latitude regions.

Juang, Zhen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel-dupre, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Retrieval of Cloud Phase Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Improving climate model predictions over Earth's polar regions requires a comprehensive knowledge of polar cloud microphysics. Over the Arctic, there is minimal contrast between the clouds and background snow surface, making it difficult to detect clouds and retrieve their phase from space. Snow and ice cover, temperature inversions, and the predominance of mixed-phase clouds make it even more difficult to determine cloud phase. Also, since determining cloud phase is the first step toward analyzing cloud optical depth, particle size, and water content, it is vital that the phase be correct in order to obtain accurate microphysical and bulk properties. Changes in these cloud properties will, in turn, affect the Arctic climate since clouds are expected to play a critical role in the sea ice albedo feedback. In this paper, the IR trispectral technique (IRTST) is used as a starting point for a WV and 11-{micro}m brightness temperature (T11) parameterization (WVT11P) of cloud phase using MODIS data. In addition to its ability to detect mixed-phase clouds, the WVT11P also has the capability to identify thin cirrus clouds overlying mixed or liquid phase clouds (multiphase ice). Results from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) MODIS phase model (AMPHM) are compared to the surface-based cloud phase retrievals over the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site and to in-situ data taken from University of North Dakota Citation (CIT) aircraft which flew during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE). It will be shown that the IRTST and WVT11P combined to form the AMPHM can achieve a relative high accuracy of phase discrimination compared to the surface-based retrievals. Since it only uses MODIS WV and IR channels, the AMPHM is robust in the sense that it can be applied to daytime, twilight, and nighttime scenes with no discontinuities in the output phase.

Spangenberg, D.; Minnis, P.; Shupe, M.; Uttal, T.; Poellot, M.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

405

Electrical load management for the California water system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To meet its water needs California has developed an extensive system for transporting water from areas with high water runoff to areas with high water demand. This system annually consumes more than 6 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity for pumping water and produces more than 12 billion kWh/year of hydroelectric power. From the point of view of energy conservation, the optimum operation of the California water supply system would require that pumping be done at night and generation be done during the day. Night pumping would reduce electric power peak load demand and permit the pumps to be supplied with electricity from ''base load'' generating plants. Daytime hydro power generation would augment peak load power generation by fossil-fuel power plants and save fuel. The technical and institutional aspects of this type of electric power load management for water projects are examined for the purpose of explaining some of the actions which might be pursued and to develop recommendations for the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (ERCDC). The California water supply system is described. A brief description is given of various energy conservation methods, other than load management, that can be used in the management of water resources. An analysis of load management is presented. Three actions for the ERCDC are recommended: the Commission should monitor upcoming power contract negotiations between the utilities and the water projects; it should determine the applicability of the power-pooling provisions of the proposed National Energy Act to water systems; and it should encourage and support detailed studies of load management methods for specific water projects.

Krieg, B.; Lasater, I.; Blumstein, C.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Bonnyrigg solar village: An analysis of annual energy use and comfort  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, 12 solar-efficient houses and 3 standard houses were designed and built for the New South Wales Housing commission near Sydney, Australia. Recently, a pilot study was done to evaluate the energy use and comfort levels in these 15 houses over a two-year period. Heavyweight, well insulated houses, as a group, used the least energy annually, averaging 19,235 MJ in 1983-1984. They are least likely to require winter space heating, which typically contributes 31% of the total energy bill. A trade-off of a well insulated house is less comfort in the summer unless active measures are taken by the residents to open windows in the evenings and close shades in the day for effective cooling. Even so, the four houses with heavyweight wall construction remained in the daytime comfort zone an average of 76% of the time in 1983. The annual energy use in the houses was compared to other studies done in Australia. The average energy consumption of the 12 passive solar homes was 22,687 MJ/year in the two-year period 1983-1984. Bartels (1985) found the average household consumption in New South Wales to be 28,000 MJ. The three control houses used 30,059 MJ/year on average, though the sample size was considerably smaller, and thus more likely to be affected by atypical user behavior. This study provides clear evidence of the effectiveness of solar efficient design in significantly reducing winter heating loads.

Ballinger, J.A.; Di Franco, T.L.; Prasad, D.K. (Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration Experiment. Final report for Phase-I system design, 6 June 1978-28 February 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentrating Experiment is the design of a 200 kWe peak photovoltaic concentrating system applied to deep well irrigation in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. The site selected is typical of deep well irrigation in arid regions of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The existing well utilizes a 200 horse power, three phase, 480 volt induction motor to lift water 540 feet to irrigate 380 acres. The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration (PVC) system employs a two axis (azimuth-elevation) tracking parabolic concentrator module that focuses sunlight at 38X concentration on two strings of actively cooled silicon solar cells. The direct current from a field of 102 collector modules is converted by a maximum power point electric power conditioning system to three phase alternating current. The power from the power conditioning system is connected through appropriate switchgear in parallel with the utility grid to the well's induction motor. The operational philosophy of the experiment is to displace daytime utility power with solar generated electric power. The solar system is sized to provide approximately 50 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor. This requires an energy exchange with the utility since peak solar power (200 kWe) generated exceeds the peak motor demand (149.2 kWe). The annual energy production is projected to be 511 Mwh using El Paso, Texas solar TMY data. System electrical power production efficiency is projected to be 7.4 percent at the design point, and 7.0 percent on an annual electrical energy production basis. The system is projected to provide 37.8 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10, excluding energy delivered to the grid in excess of motor demand. The total energy produced is projected to be 39.0 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10.

Marcy, W.M.; Dudek, R.A.

1979-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

408

Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

Hammond, J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Environmental data for sites in the national solar data network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's National Solar Data Program established solar energy systems in residential and commercial buildings across the United States. These solar sites are linked to Vitro Laboratories Division's computer in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Vitro collects and analyzes data from this network to determine the thermal performance of each of the solar systems. The network consists of: (1) sensors which measure key performance parameters at a selected site; (2) a Site Data Acquisition Subsystem (SDAS); (3) telephone transmission circuits; and (4) a Central Data Processing System (CDPS). For the majority of parameters, raw data is collected approximately every five minutes. Solar insolation and certain other parameters, which are subject to rapid variance, are sampled every 32 seconds. Environmental information collected at the sites for the reporting month are presented. The environmental data for the NSDN are presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The solar sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states (as shown in Figure 1). The solar energy sites are in alphabetical sequence within each zone. The tables provide available meteorological data for reporting sites in the NSDN as follows: (1) the insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extra-terrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total extra-terrestrial radiation, as a percent. (2) The temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum and inlet-water temperatures for the solar site. Additional tables are presented for some of the sites, supplying either wind or relative humidity data or both. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Environmental data for sites in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Detartment of Energy's National Solar Data Program established solar energy systems in residential and commercial buildings across the United States. These solar sites are linked to Vitro Laboratories Division's computer in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Vitro collects and analyzes data from this network to determine the thermal performance of each of the solar systems. Environmental information collected at the sites for the month of August 1980 is presented. The environmental data for the NSDN are presented in the form of tables for each solar site. The solar sites are grouped into 12 zones, each of which consists of several adjacent states. The solar energy sites are in alphabetical sequence within each zone. The tables provide available meteorological data for reporting sites in the NSDN as follows: (1) Insolation: the insolation table presents the total, diffuse, direct, maximum, and extra-terrestrial radiation for the solar site. It also shows the ratio of total extra-terrestrial radiation, as a percent; (2) Temperature: the temperature table gives the average, daytime, nighttime, maximum, minimum, and lnlet-water temperatures for the solar site. Additional tables are presented for some of these NSDN sites, supplying either wind or relative humidity data, or both. All of the passive and some of the active solar sites are equipped with wind sensors. These provide information for two wind tables. The first furnishes wind speed and direction. The second table correlates wind speed with time (hours for a range of speeds) for each day. The humidity table provides relative humidity values for day and night. It also gives values for the maximum and minimum humidity for each day. A technical discussion of the instruments and measurements used to obtain these data tables is given. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Evaluation of control strategies for different smart window combinations using computer simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several studies have shown that the use of switchable windows could lower the energy consumption of buildings. Since the main function of windows is to provide daylight and visual contact with the external world, high visible transmittance is needed. From an energy perspective it is always best to have the windows in their low-transparent state whenever there are cooling needs, but this is generally not preferable from a daylight and visual contact point of view. Therefore a control system, which can be based on user presence, is needed in connection with switchable windows. In this study the heating and cooling needs of the building, using different control mechanisms were evaluated. This was done for different locations and for different combinations of switchable windows, using electrochromic glazing in combination with either low-e or solar control glazing. Four control mechanisms were investigated; one that only optimizes the window to lower the need for heating and cooling, one that assumes that the office is in use during the daytime, one based on user presence and one limiting the perpendicular component of the incident solar irradiation to avoid glare and too strong daylight. The control mechanisms were compared using computer simulations. A simplified approach based on the balance temperature concept was used instead of performing complete building simulations. The results show that an occupancy-based control system is clearly beneficial and also that the best way to combine the panes in the switchable window differs depending on the balance temperature of the building and on the climate. It is also shown that it can be beneficial to have different window combinations for different orientations. (author)

Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

The conversion of biomass to ethanol using geothermal energy derived from hot dry rock to supply both the thermal and electrical power requirements  

SciTech Connect

The potential synergism between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion of biomass to fuel ethanol is considerable. In addition, combining these two renewable energy resources to produce transportation fuel has very positive environmental implications. One of the distinct advantages of wedding an HDR geothermal power source to a biomass conversion process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating conditions. The latter obtains since an HDR system is an injection conditions of flow rate, pressure, temperature, and water chemistry are under the control of the operator. The former obtains since, unlike a naturally occurring geothermal resource, the HDR resource is very widespread, particularly in the western US, and can be developed near transportation and plentiful supplies of biomass. Conceptually, the pressurized geofluid from the HDR reservoir would be produced at a temperature in the range of 200{degrees} to 220{degrees}c. The higher enthalpy portion of the geofluid thermal energy would be used to produce a lower-temperature steam supply in a countercurrent feedwater-heater/boiler. The steam, following a superheating stage fueled by the noncellulosic waste fraction of the biomass, would be expanded through a turbine to produce electrical power. Depending on the lignin fraction of the biomass, there would probably be excess electrical power generated over and above plant requirements (for slurry pumping, stirring, solids separation, etc.) which would be available for sale to the local power grid. In fact, if the hybrid HDR/biomass system were creatively configured, the power plant could be designed to produce daytime peaking power as well as a lower level of baseload power during off-peak hours.

Brown, D.W.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr to a much larger figure nationally. Most of the energy savings in this application is attributable to the instant-restrike capability of LED products and to their high tolerance for frequent on/off switching, used here to separately control either end of the tunnel during daytime hours. Some LED luminaires rival or outperform their high-intensity discharge (HID) counterparts in terms of efficacy, but options are limited, and smaller lumen packages preclude true one-for-one equivalence. However, LED products continue to improve in efficacy and affordability at a rate unmatched by other light source technologies; the estimated simple payback period of eight years (excluding installation costs and maintenance savings) can be expected to improve with time. The proposed revisions to the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting system would require slightly increased controls complexity and significantly increased luminaire types and quantities. In exchange, substantial annual savings (from reduced maintenance and energy use) would be complemented by improved quantity and quality of illumination. Although advanced lighting controls could offer additional savings, it is unclear whether such a system would prove cost-effective; this topic may be explored in future work.

Tuenge, Jason R.

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

414

A Numerical Study of the Influence of a Clearcut on Eddy-Covariance Fluxes of CO2 Measured Above a Forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compare the contributions of unit source fluxes over a clear-cutting area in a forest and over the contiguous forested area to the eddy-covariance (EC) flux of CO2 measured at a tower standing in the center of the clearcut under daytime convective conditions. The large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is used to simulate the dispersion and transport of two conservative and passive tracers that are released from the clearcut and from the forested area, respectively. The time series of the LES-generated vertical velocity and the mixing ratios of both tracers on all the levels at the tower location are recorded every model time step during the last hour of each LES run; this somewhat mimics real EC flux measurements at the tower. The contribution of the unit surface flux over the clearcut relative to that over the forested area decreases exponentially with increasing measurement height, decreasing convective boundary layer depth, increasing atmospheric stability, and decreasing size of the clearcut. LES-derived results are fitted to an empirical relation and applied to flux measurements at the 447-m tall tower in Wisconsin, USA. The contribution of the unit flux over the clearcut on the EC flux measured at the 30-m level of the tower is larger than 50% of that over the forested area under most unstable conditions, while smaller than 2.5% at the 396-m level. Existing analytical footprint models are inappropriate to address the clearcut influence due to clearcut-induced heterogeneity of the turbulent flow in the tower area.

Wang, Weiguo; Davis, Kenneth J.

2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

415

Daylighting: Measuring the Performance of Light Shelves and Occupant-Controlled Blinds on a Dimmed Lighting Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The design of a day lighted space is both an art and a science. The biggest challenge facing the lighting designer is to admit only as much light as necessary and distribute it evenly throughout the space without introducing glare or heat. In warm climates such as Florida, it has become common practice in windowed spaces to specify blinds and glazing with high shading coefficients to control glare and minimize heat gain. However, this practice reduces the effectiveness of lighting systems that dim automatically. Improved systems are needed to capture natural daylight and distribute it uniformly throughout a space while controlling heat gain and glare. One such system is the light shelf. Light shelves shade the space from direct sunlight and reflect this sunlight onto the ceiling for a deeper and more uniform distribution. While this is not a new idea, little unbiased empirical data has been collected, outside the laboratory, that compares the performance (energy savings, uniformity, and level) of an automatic daylighting system. This study measures the effectiveness of light shelves and manually controlled horizontal blinds in an automatic daylighting system. Power consumption and interior work-plane lighting levels were compared in four essentially identical private offices. Two offices were configured with an interior light shelf, one with a white diffuse top surface and the other with a specular surface. The third office had no window treatment and the fourth office had horizontal blinds, which were manually adjusted by the user. All offices had two lamp fluorescent luminaires with dimming ballasts (min. 20%) controlled by a ceiling mounted photosensor. The study showed that daytime savings ranged from 29% to 46%, with the largest savings from the office with the light shelves. The office with horizontal blinds showed the poor savings (32%) and also the poorest light uniformity and level.

Floyd, D. B.; Parker, D. S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

District cooling engineering & design program. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Phoenix, Arizona is located in the Sonoran desert. Daytime temperatures typically rise to over 100 F during the three summer months. Average and peak temperatures have tended to rise over recent decades. This is generally attributed to what is known as the heat island effect, due to an increase in heat absorbing concrete and a decrease in irrigated farmland in the area. Phoenix is the eighth largest city in the US with a population of just over one million (1,000,000). The metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing in the nation. Over the last ten years its population has increased by over 40%. It is not an exaggeration to say the general availability of refrigerated air conditioning, both for buildings and automobiles has been an important factor enabling growth. The cost of operating public buildings has risen significantly in the last decade. In fiscal year 92/93 the City of Phoenix had energy expenses of over thirty four million dollars ($34,000,000). Because the City was planning a major new construction project, a new high-rise City Hall, it was decided to study and then optimize the design and selection of building systems to minimize long term owning and operating costs. The City Hall was to be constructed in downtown Phoenix. Phoenix presently owns other buildings in the area. A number of large cooling systems serving groups of buildings are currently operating in the Phoenix area. The City requested that the design consultants analyze the available options and present recommendations to the City`s engineering staff.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

On the Path to Zero Energy Homes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Just imagine living in Florida and your fantasies might turn to swaying palms, fresh orange juice and lots of air-conditioning. For most people, a summer spent in Florida's heat and humidity would be unbearable without it. So air-conditioning is a necessity. But it's also a big energy drain, accounting for about 35% of all electricity used in a typical Florida house. As the largest single source of energy consumption in Florida, a home's air-conditioning load represents the biggest energy challenge. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) designed a project to answer this challenge. Two homes were built with the same floor plan on near-by lots. The difference was that one (the ''control home'') conformed to local residential building practices, and the other (the ''Zero Energy home'') was designed with energy efficiency in mind and solar technology systems on the roof. The homes were then monitored carefully for energy use. The project's designers were looking to answer two important questions: Could a home in a climate such as central Florida's be engineered and built so efficiently that a relatively small PV system would serve the majority of its cooling needs--and even some of its daytime electrical needs? And, would that home be as comfortable and appealing as the conventional model built alongside it? The answer to both questions turned out to be a resounding yes. And the test was especially rigorous, because it was conducted in the summer of 1998--one of the hottest summers on record in Florida. This news is important for city planners, architects, builders, and homeowners not only in the Sunshine State, but elsewhere, too. The solar/energy efficiency combo worked so well in Florida that it can--and should--be tried in other parts of the country. This brochure describes the Zero Energy Homes concept using a case study.

Merrigan, T.

2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

418

Comparison of the CALIPSO satellite and ground-based observations of cirrus clouds at the ARM TWP sites  

SciTech Connect

Statistics of ice cloud macrophysical and optical properties from the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite are compared with those from ground-based lidar observations over a 31 month period. Ground-based lidar observations are taken from the micropulse lidars (MPL) at the three Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) tropical western pacific (TWP) sites: Manus, Nauru and Darwin. CALIPSO observations show a larger cloud fraction at high altitudes while the ground-based MPLs show a larger cloud fraction at low altitudes. The difference in mean ice cloud top and base heights at the Manus and Nauru sites are all within 0.51 km, although differences are statistically significant. Mean ice cloud geometrical thickness agree to within 0.05 km at the Manus and Nauru sites. Larger differences exist at Darwin due to excessive degradation of the MPL output power during our sampling period. Both sets of observations show thicker clouds during the nighttime which may be real but could also be partially an artifact of the decreased signal-to-noise ratio during the daytime. The number of ice cloud layers per profile are also shown to be consistent after accounting for the difference in spatial resolution. For cloud optical depths, four different retrieval methods are compared, two for each set of observations. All products show that the majority of ice cloud optical depths ({approx}60%) fall below an optical depth of 0.2. For most comparisons all four retrievals agree to within the uncertainty intervals. We find that both CALIPSO retrievals agree best to ground-based optical depths when the lidar ratio in the latter is retrieved instead of set to a fixed value. Also thoroughly compared is the cloud properties for the subset of ice clouds which reside in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Q.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

419

Annual daylighting performance of a passive optical light shelf in sidelit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annual daylighting performance of a passive optical light shelf in sidelit Annual daylighting performance of a passive optical light shelf in sidelit perimeter zones of commercial buildings Title Annual daylighting performance of a passive optical light shelf in sidelit perimeter zones of commercial buildings Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2013 Authors McNeil, Andrew, and Eleanor S. Lee Keywords bidirectional scattering distribution functions, building energy efficiency, daylighting, Radiance simulations Abstract Sunlight redirecting systems have the potential to significantly offset electric lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones of buildings where the windows are subject to high daylight availability. New Radiance modeling tools have recently been developed and validated, enabling accurate and timely simulation analysis of the annual energy and comfort performance of these optically-complex, anisotropic systems. A parametric study was conducted using these tools to evaluate the performance of a commercially-available passive optical light shelf (OLS) in a 17.4 m deep (57 ft), south-facing open plan office zone in three climates. Daylighting efficiency, discomfort glare, and lighting energy savings with continuous dimming and bi-level switching controls were determined at varying depths within the zone. The OLS decreased lighting energy use significantly throughout the depth of the space and achieved these savings with minimal discomfort glare in the area near the window. Annual lighting energy use intensity was reduced to 1.71-1.82 kWh/ft2-yr (22-27%) over the full depth of the perimeter zone across the three climates modeled (Phoenix, Washington DC, and Minneapolis) compared to a non-daylit zone at 2.34 kWh/ft2-yr. There was a greater occurrence of discomfort glare (3-7% during daytime work hours) if the occupant was in a seated view position looking at the window from the back of the room. The system is passive, needing no adjustment during the day and over the seasons and can be used as a retrofit measure in existing buildings. These results are encouraging and demonstrate how the primary daylit sidelit area can be extended well beyond the defined limits provided by the newly adopted ASHRAE 90.1-2010 code (i.e., 1.0 times the head height of the window).

420

Characterizing the winter movements and diving behavior of subadult Steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus) in the north-central Gulf of Alaska  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent studies indicate a 70% decrease in the Alaskan Steller sea lion (SSL) population (ca. 5% per year) since the early 1980's. In accordance with a 1997 status classification of the Western Steller sea lion (WSSL) stock as endangered, the "critical habitat" for the species was to be defined. This habitat has now been designated to include 10-20 nautical mile buffer zones around most rookeries and haulouts in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and Aleutian Islands. However, these zones were based on limited, summer, foraging data. The primary objective of this study was to characterize juvenile SSL diving behavior and habitat use along the Kenai Peninsula and Prince William Sound (PWS) from winter to spring. Fifteen free ranging, subadult SSL of both sexes were captured and equipped with satellite telemeters at five haulout sites in PWS and Resurrection Bay, Alaska. Telemeters transmitted for an average of 122 days (range 38-181 days). A total of 11,692 locations were received and 217,419 dives recorded. All sea lions exhibited localized movements parallel or close to shore (3-15 km offshore). Young of the year (YOY) exhibited high site fidelity. Older juvenile sea lion lions were less restricted in their movements and traveled greater distances (200-400km) visiting a variety of islands, buoys, and other locations in PWS. Most dives were short (mean duration = 1.1 min) and shallow (mean depth = 10.8 m), with animals diving to an average maximum depth of 193 m. During winter (January and February), many dives (>40%) occurred during the daytime (0900-1500 LT). However, by April and May this pattern shifted and the animals made most of their dives (>40%) during the night (2100-0300 LT). This relationship was more pronounced for dives deeper than 20 m and coincided with the seasonal increase in photoperiod. Subadult SSL, especially YOY, remained within the 20 nautical mile coastal zone during winter and spring. Shallow, nearshore waters provide important habitat during this critical period of transition to nutritional independence. However, more conclusive data on SSL foraging ecology is necessary to better understand locations and depths preferred by the species.

Briggs, Holly Beth

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

The control of ice storage systems  

SciTech Connect

The tradeoffs between chiller and tank capacity for different load profiles and two storage strategies are evaluated in this article. Air-conditioning systems that employ ice storage incorporate equipment that produces ice during one period and melts it in another period to provide cooling for the building. In designing such systems, there are two basic strategies to consider: full-load and partial-load. In a full-load strategy, the entire daytime cooling energy is met using only cooling supplied by the ice storage tank. In a partial-load strategy, the chiller and the storage are used simultaneously to meet the load. With a full-load strategy, the tank capacity must be sufficient to meet the entire energy requirement, and the chiller capacity must be sufficient to recharge the tank during the night-time. In a partial-load strategy, a smaller chiller and tank than that for a full-load strategy are required, and there are many combinations of the two that will meet a given building load. The design and sizing of the components of an ice storage system depend not only on the desired strategy and total daily cooling energy but also on other factors. The maximum load dictates the amount of cooling required at any time. The cooling rate provided by an ice filled tank is not constant, but decreases as the ice inventory drops, and the time that the maximum load occurs is important. Thus, there is an interaction between the building load profile and tank size. In addition, the flow rate of the circulating fluid through the tank and the cooling coil may limit the supply air temperatures that may be reached. Thus, the circulating fluid flow rate must be sufficient to provide the desired rates of cooling to the building. The challenge to the design engineer is to size the components to meet the building load at all times at the lowest system cost. Effective designs must acknowledge the dynamic performance of the ice storage system.

Carey, C.W. [Amana Corp., IA (United States); Mitchell, J.W.; Beckman, W.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Turbulence Considerations for Comparing Ecosystem Exchange over Old-Growth and Clear-Cut Stands For Limited Fetch and Complex Canopy Flow Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy fluxes were measured using eddy covariance (EC) methodology over three adjacent forests in southern Washington State to identify stand-level age-effects on ecosystem exchange. The sites represent Douglas-fir forest ecosystems at two contrasting successional stages: old-growth (OG) and early seral (ES). Here we present eddy flux and meteorological data from two early seral stands and the Wind River AmeriFlux old-growth forest during the growing season (March-October) in 2006 and 2007. We show an alternative approach to the usual friction velocity (u*) method for determining periods of adequate atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) mixing based on the ratio of mean horizontal ({bar u}) and vertical ({bar w}) wind flow to a modified turbulent kinetic energy scale (uTKE). This new parameter in addition to footprint modeling showed that daytime CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE}) in small clear-cuts (< 10 hectares) can be measured accurately with EC if micrometeorological conditions are carefully evaluated. Peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -14.0 to -12.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) at OG were measured in April in both 2006 and 2007 before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit were relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels were favorable for photosynthesis. At the early seral stands, peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -11.0 to -8.7 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were measured in June and July while spring-time CO{sub 2} fluxes were much smaller (F{sub NEE} = -3.8 to -3.6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Overall, we measured lower evapotranspiration (OG = 230 mm; ES = 297 mm) higher midday F{sub NEE} (OG F{sub NEE} = -9.0 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}; ES F{sub NEE} = -7.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and higher Bowen ratios (OG {beta} = 2.0. ES {beta} = 1.2) at the old-growth forest than at the ES sites during the summer months (May-August). Eddy covariance studies such as ours add critical land-atmosphere exchange data for an abundant, but rarely studied Douglas-fir age class.

Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Paw U, K T; Falk, M; Bible, K

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

423

Coupling Aerosol-Cloud-Radiative Processes in the WRF-Chem Model: Investigating the Radiative Impact of Elevated Point Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The local and regional influence of elevated point sources on summertime aerosol forcing and cloud-aerosol interactions in northeastern North America was investigated using the WRF-Chem community model. The direct effects of aerosols on incoming solar radiation were simulated using existing modules to relate aerosol sizes and chemical composition to aerosol optical properties. Indirect effects were simulated by adding a prognostic treatment of cloud droplet number and adding modules that activate aerosol particles to form cloud droplets, simulate aqueous phase chemistry, and tie a two-moment treatment of cloud water (cloud water mass and cloud droplet number) to an existing radiation scheme. Fully interactive feedbacks thus were created within the modified model, with aerosols affecting cloud droplet number and cloud radiative properties, and clouds altering aerosol size and composition via aqueous processes, wet scavenging, and gas-phase-related photolytic processes. Comparisons of a baseline simulation with observations show that the model captured the general temporal cycle of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and produced clouds of comparable thickness to observations at approximately the proper times and places. The model slightly overpredicted SO2 mixing ratios and PM2.5 mass, but reproduced the range of observed SO2 to sulfate aerosol ratios, suggesting that atmospheric oxidation processes leading to aerosol sulfate formation are captured in the model. The baseline simulation was compared to a sensitivity simulation in which all emissions at model levels above the surface layer were set to zero, thus removing stack emissions. Instantaneous, site-specific differences for aerosol and cloud related properties between the two simulations could be quite large, as removing above-surface emission sources influenced when and where clouds formed within the modeling domain. When summed spatially over the finest resolution model domain (the extent of which corresponds to the typical size of a single GCM grid cell) and temporally over a three day analysis period, total rainfall in the sensitivity simulation increased by 31% over that in the baseline simulation. Fewer optically thin clouds, arbitrarily defined as a cloud exhibiting an optical depth less than 1, formed in the sensitivity simulation. Domain-averaged AODs dropped from 0.46 in the baseline simulation to 0.38 in the sensitivity simulation. The overall net effect of additional aerosols attributable to primary particulates and aerosol precursors from point source emissions above the surface was a domain-averaged reduction of 5 W m-2 in mean daytime downwelling shortwave radiation.

Chapman, Elaine G.; Gustafson, William I.; Easter, Richard C.; Barnard, James C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Fast, Jerome D.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

ARAC dispersion modeling of the August 1998 Tracy, California tire fire  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At about 4:30 pm PDT on Friday, August 7, 1998 a fire ignited the large tire disposal pit of Royster Tire Co. on Macarthur Drive about 5 km (3 miles) south of downtown Tracy, California. While providing on-scene mutual aid late Friday night, the LLNL Fire Department called and requested that the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) make a plume forecast for Saturday. The response team in the field was interested in the forecasted location as well as an estimate of potential health effects on the following day. Not having any previous experience with tire fire source terms, ARAC assessors used a constant unit source rate (1 g/s) of particulate and produced plots showing only the location of the ground-level normalized time-integrated air concentrations from the smoke plume. Very early Saturday morning the assessors faxed plots of ground-level smoke air concentrations forecasted for Saturday from 6 am through 6 pm PDT to the Tracy Fire Emergency Operations Center. (As a part of standard procedure, before delivering the plots, the assessors notified ARAC's DOE sponsor.) Fortunately due to the intense heat from the fire, the dense black smoke immediately lofted into the air preventing high ground-level concentrations close to the tire dump. Later on Saturday morning ARAC forecasted a second set of plume integrated air concentrations for Sunday. By Monday the intensity of the fire lessened, and ARAC's support was no longer requested. Following ARAC's response, we made a third calculation on a large scale of the continuous smoke dispersion for 3 days after the fire. A newspaper photograph showed the plume initially rising toward the northeast and the upper part of the smoke cloud turning counterclockwise toward the north. Winds from ARAC's mesoscale prognostic model reproduced this plume structure, while data from the Friday afternoon sounding from Oakland did not. On the 250 km scale, using gridded wind outputs from our mesoscale forecast model to initialize the dispersion model produced more realistic results than interpolating between the sparse surface and upper air wind observations available from airports. Dispersion model results showed that some of the smoke eventually mixed down to the ground to the east and south of the fire Friday night. News articles also indicated smoke extending over Manteca, Lathrop, and Modesto Friday night. More elevated smoke was brought to the ground due to the extensive daytime vertical mixing on Saturday and Sunday. The model results reflected these observations showing wide patterns of diffuse ground-level smoke extended along the San Joaquin Valley from Sacramento to Fresno on Saturday and Sunday.

Aluzzi, F J; Baskett, R L; Bowen, B M; Foster, C S; Pace, J C; Pobanz, B; Vogt, P J

1998-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

425

Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report outlines the detailed design and system analysis of a solar industrial process steam system for the Lone Star Brewery. The industrial plant has an average natural gas usage of 12.7 MMcf per month. The majority of this energy goes to producing process steam of 125 psi and 353/sup 0/F at about 50,000 lb/h, with this load dropping to about 6000 lb/h on the weekends. The maximum steam production of the solar energy system is about 1700 lb/h. The climatic conditions at the industrial site give 50% of the possible amount of sunshine during the winter months and more than 70% during the summer months. The long-term yearly average daily total radiation on a horizontal surface is 1574 Btu/day-ft/sup 2/, the long-term yearly average daytime ambient temperature is 72/sup 0/F, and the percentage of clear day insolation received on the average day of the year is 62%. The solar steam system will consist of 9450 ft/sup 2/ of Solar Kinetics T-700 collectors arranged in fifteen 90-ft long rows through which 67.5 gpm of Therminol T-55 is pumped. This hot Therminol then transfers the heat collected to a Patterson-Kelley Series 380 unfired steam boiler. The solar-produced steam is then metered to the industrial process via a standard check valve. The thermal performance of this system is projected to produce about 3 million lbs of steam during an average weather year, which is approximately 3 billion Btu's. As with any prototype system, this steam system cannot be justified for purely economic reasons. It is estimated, however, that if the cost of the collectors can be reduced to a mass production level of $3 per lb then this type of system would be cost effective in about six years with the current government incentives and a fuel escalation rate of 10%. This period can be shortened by a combination of an increased investment tax credit and an accelerated depreciation.

Deffenbaugh, D.M.; Watkins, P.V.; Hugg, S.B.; Kulesz, J.J.; Decker, H.E.; Powell, R.C.

1979-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

426

On the Path to Zero Energy Homes  

SciTech Connect

Just imagine living in Florida and your fantasies might turn to swaying palms, fresh orange juice and lots of air-conditioning. For most people, a summer spent in Florida's heat and humidity would be unbearable without it. So air-conditioning is a necessity. But it's also a big energy drain, accounting for about 35% of all electricity used in a typical Florida house. As the largest single source of energy consumption in Florida, a home's air-conditioning load represents the biggest energy challenge. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) designed a project to answer this challenge. Two homes were built with the same floor plan on near-by lots. The difference was that one (the ''control home'') conformed to local residential building practices, and the other (the ''Zero Energy home'') was designed with energy efficiency in mind and solar technology systems on the roof. The homes were then monitored carefully for energy use. The project's designers were looking to answer two important questions: Could a home in a climate such as central Florida's be engineered and built so efficiently that a relatively small PV system would serve the majority of its cooling needs--and even some of its daytime electrical needs? And, would that home be as comfortable and appealing as the conventional model built alongside it? The answer to both questions turned out to be a resounding yes. And the test was especially rigorous, because it was conducted in the summer of 1998--one of the hottest summers on record in Florida. This news is important for city planners, architects, builders, and homeowners not only in the Sunshine State, but elsewhere, too. The solar/energy efficiency combo worked so well in Florida that it can--and should--be tried in other parts of the country. This brochure describes the Zero Energy Homes concept using a case study.

Merrigan, T.

2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

427

Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the Golden Gate Bridge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subsequent to preliminary investigations by the Golden Gate Bridge Highway & Transportation District (GGB), in coordination with Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the GATEWAY Demonstration program was asked to evaluate the technical feasibility of replacing existing roadway lighting on the bridge with products utilizing LED technology. GGB and PG&E also indicated interest in induction (i.e., electrodeless fluorescent) technology, since both light source types feature rated lifetimes significantly exceeding those of the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) and low-pressure sodium (LPS) products. The goal of the study was to identify any solutions which would reduce energy use and maintenance without compromising the quantity or quality of existing illumination. Products used for roadway lighting on the historic bridge must be installed within the existing amber-lensed shoebox-style luminaire housings. It was determined that induction technology does not appear to represent a viable alternative for the roadway luminaires in this application; any energy savings would be attributable to a reduction in light levels. Although no suitable LED retrofit kits were identified for installation within existing luminaire housings, several complete LED luminaires were found to offer energy savings of 6-18%, suggesting custom LED retrofit kits could be developed to match or exceed the performance of the existing shoeboxes. Luminaires utilizing ceramic metal halide (CMH) were also evaluated, and some were found to offer 28% energy savings, but these products might actually increase maintenance due to the shorter rated lamp life. Plasma technology was evaluated, as well, but no suitable products were identified. Analysis provided in this report was completed in May 2012. Although LED technologies are expected to become increasingly viable over time, and product mock-ups may reveal near-term solutions, some options not currently considered by GGB may ultimately merit evaluation. For example, it would be preferable in terms of performance to simply replace existing luminaires (some of which may already be nearing end of life) with fully-integrated LED or CMH luminaires rather than replacing internal components. Among other benefits, this would allow reputable manufacturers to offer standard warranties for their products. Similarly, the amber lenses might be reformulated such that they do not render white light sources in a greenish cast, thereby allowing the use of off-the-shelf LED or CMH products. Last, it should be noted that the existing amber-lensed shoeboxes bear no daytime resemblance to the LPS luminaires originally used to light the roadway.

Tuenge, Jason R.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Effects of aerosols on deep convective cumulus clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work investigates the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on deep convective clouds and the associated radiative forcing in the Houston area. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) coupled with a spectral-bin microphysics is employed to investigate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation. First, aerosol indirect effects on clouds are separately investigated under different aerosol compositions, concentrations and size distributions. Then, an updated GCE model coupled with the radiative transfer and land surface processes is employed to investigate the aerosol radiative effects on deep convective clouds. The cloud microphysical and macrophysical properties change considerably with the aerosol properties. With varying the aerosol composition from only (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2SO4 with soluble organics, to (NH4)2SO4 with slightly soluble organics, the number of activated aerosols decreases gradually, leading to a decrease in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and an increase in the droplet size. Ice processes are more sensitive to the changes of aerosol chemical properties than the warm rain processes. The most noticeable effect of increasing aerosol number concentrations is an increase of CDNC and cloud water content but a decrease in droplet size. It is indicated that the aerosol indirect effect on deep convection is more pronounced in relatively clean air than in heavily polluted air. The aerosol effects on clouds are strongly dependent on RH: the effect is very significant in humid air. Aerosol radiative effects (ARE) on clouds are very pronounced for mid-visible single-scattering albedo (SSA) of 0.85. Relative to the case without the ARE, cloud fraction and optical depth decrease by about 18% and 20%, respectively. The daytime-mean direct forcing is about 2.2 W m-2 at the TOA and -17.4 W m-2 at the surface. The semi-direct forcing is positive, about 10 and 11.2 W m-2 at the TOA and surface, respectively. Aerosol direct and semi-direct effects are very sensitive to SSA. The cloud fraction, optical depth, convective strength, and precipitation decrease with the increase of absorption, resulting from a more stable atmosphere due to enhanced surface cooling and atmospheric heating.

Fan, Jiwen

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

Beverly E. Law (PI), Christoph K. Thomas (CoI)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

430

Source- and Age-Resolved Mechanistic Air Quality Models: Model Development and Application in Southeast Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM) existing in the atmosphere have adverse effects to human and environment. Southeast Texas experiences high O3 and PM events due to special meteorological conditions and high emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Quantitative knowledge of the contributions of different emissions sources to O3 and PM is helpful to better understand their formation mechanisms and develop effective control strategies. Tagged reactive tracer techniques are developed and coupled into two chemical transport models (UCD/CIT model and CMAQ) to conduct source apportionment of O3, primary PM, secondary inorganic PM, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and aging distribution of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM) existing in the atmosphere have adverse effects to human and environment. Southeast Texas experiences high O3 and PM events due to special meteorological conditions and high emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Quantitative knowledge of the contributions of different emissions sources to O3 and PM is helpful to better understand their formation mechanisms and develop effective control strategies. Tagged reactive tracer techniques are developed and coupled into two chemical transport models (UCD/CIT model and CMAQ) to conduct source apportionment of O3, primary PM, secondary inorganic PM, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and aging distribution of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Models successfully reproduce the concentrations of gas phase and PM phase species. Vehicles, natural gas, industries, and coal combustion are important O3 sources. Upwind sources have non-negligible influences (20-50%) on daytime O3, indicating that regional NOx emission controls are necessary to reduce O3 in Southeast Texas. EC is mainly from diesel engines while majority of primary OC is from internal combustion engines and industrial sources. Open burning, road dust, internal combustion engines and industries are the major sources of primary PM2.5. Wildfire dominates primary PM near fire locations. Over 80% of sulfate is produced in upwind areas and coal combustion contributes most. Ammonium ion is mainly from agriculture sources. The SOA peak values can be better predicted when the emissions are adjusted by a factor of 2. 20% of the total SOA is due to anthropogenic sources. Solvent and gasoline engines are the major sources. Oligomers from biogenic SOA account for 30-58% of the total SOA, indicating that long range transport is important. PAHs from anthropogenic sources can produce 4% of total anthropogenic SOA. Wild fire, vehicles, solvent and industries are the major sources. EC and OC emitted within 0-3 hours contribute approximately 70-90% in urban Houston and about 20-40% in rural areas. Significant diurnal variations in the relative contributions to EC are predicted. Fresh particles concentrations are high at morning and early evening. The concentrations of EC and OC that spend more than 9 hours in the air are low over land but almost accounts for 100% of the total EC and OC over the ocean.

Zhang, Hongliang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

An investigation of methods for reducing the use of non-renewable energy resources for housing in Thailand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to develop methods that reduce energy consumption in a residential building in a hot and humid climate region (Thailand) using efficient architectural building components and renewable energy (solar energy) to produce electricity, domestic hot water, and supplemental cooling by night sky radiation. Improving the architectural building components, including building materials, is an option to reduce energy consumption in a building. Using renewable energy sources is another option to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy. In residential buildings, solar energy has been utilized for space heating and domestic hot water using active solar collector systems and for generating electricity using photovoltaic (PV) systems. One photovoltaic system, the hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) collector system, has been developed by several researchers over the last 20 years. The hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) collector system is a combination photovoltaic (for producing electricity) and solar thermal collector (for producing hot water). Theoretical and experimental studies of this collector have highlighted the advantages of the hybrid PV-T collector system over separate systems of PV and solar collector in term of system efficiency and economics. Unfortunately, very little experimental data exists that demonstrates the advantages of a combined system. Therefore, one of the objectives of this study conducted was an experimental study of this system as an auxiliary energy source for a residential building. Night sky radiation has also been studied as a cooling strategy. However, no attempt so far could be found to integrate it to a hybrid PV-T collector system. The night sky radiation strategy could be operated with the hybrid PV/T collector system by using existing resources that are already present in the solar system. The integration of the night sky radiation into the hybrid PV-T collector system should yield more productivity of the system than the operation of the Hybrid PVT system alone. The research methods used in this work included instrumentation of a case-study house in Thailand, an experimental PV-T collector system, and a calibrated building thermal simulation. A typical contemporary Thai residential building was selected as a case-study house. Its energy use and local weather data were measured and analyzed. Published energy use of Thai residential buildings was also analyzed as well to determine average energy consumption. A calibrated computer model of the case-study building was constructed using the DOE-2 program. A field experiment of the thermal PV system was constructed to test its ability to simultaneously produce electricity and hot water in the daytime, and shed heat at night as a cooling strategy (i.e., night sky radiation). The resultant electricity and hot water produced by the hybrid PV-T collector system helped to reduce the use of non-renewable energy. The cooling produced by the night sky radiation also has to potential to reduce the cooling load. The evaluation of the case-study house and results of the field experiment helped to quantify the potential reduction of energy use in Thai residential buildings. This research provided the following benefits: 1) experimental results of a hybrid PV-T solar collector system that demonstrates its performance compared to typical system of separate photovoltaic and solar collector, 2) results of night sky radiation experiments using a photovoltaic panel as a radiator to demonstrate the performance of this new space cooling strategy, and 3) useful data from the case-study house simulation results and guidelines to assist others in transferring the results to other projects.

Rasisuttha, Sakkara

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Ground Motion Studies at NuMI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground motion can cause significant deterioration in the luminosity of a linear collider. Vibration of numerous focusing magnets causes continuous misalignments, which makes the beam emittance grow. For this reason, understanding the seismic vibration of all potential LC sites is essential and related efforts in many sites are ongoing. In this document we summarize the results from the studies specific to Fermilab grounds as requested by the LC project leader at FNAL, Shekhar Mishra in FY04-FY06. The Northwestern group focused on how the ground motion effects vary with depth. Knowledge of depth dependence of the seismic activity is needed in order to decide how deep the LC tunnel should be at sites like Fermilab. The measurements were made in the NuMI tunnel, see Figure 1. We take advantage of the fact that from the beginning to the end of the tunnel there is a height difference of about 350 ft and that there are about five different types of dolomite layers. The support received allowed to pay for three months of salary of Michal Szleper. During this period he worked a 100% of his time in this project. That include one week of preparation: 2.5 months of data taking and data analysis during the full period of the project in order to guarantee that we were recording high quality data. We extended our previous work and made more systematic measurements, which included detailed studies on stability of the vibration amplitudes at different depths over long periods of time. As a consequence, a better control and more efficient averaging out of the daytime variation effects were possible, and a better study of other time dependences before the actual depth dependence was obtained. Those initial measurements were made at the surface and are summarized in Figure 2. All measurements are made with equipment that we already had (two broadband seismometers KS200 from GEOTECH and DL-24 portable data recorder). The offline data analysis took advantage of the full Fourier spectra information and the noise was properly subtracted. The basic formalism is summarized if Figure 3. The second objective was to make a measurement deeper under ground (Target hall, Absorber hall and Minos hall - 150 ft to 350 ft), which previous studies did not cover. All results are summarized in Figure 3 and 4. The measurements were covering a frequency range between 0.1 to 50 Hz. The data was taken continuously for at least a period of two weeks in each of the locations. We concluded that the dependence on depth is weak, if any, for frequencies above 1 Hz and not visible at all at lower frequencies. Most of the attenuation (factor of about 2-3) and damping of ground motion that is due to cultural activity at the surface is not detectable once we are below 150 ft underground. Therefore, accelerator currently under consideration can be build at the depth and there is no need to go deeper underground is built at Fermi National Laboratory.

Mayda M. Velasco; Michal Szleper

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

433

Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific riverbed elevation and providing minimum spawning flows that have the greatest chance of being maintained through egg incubation and fry emergence. However, managing the lower Columbia River for a stable tailwater elevation does not provide much operational flexibility at Bonneville Dam, which has little storage capacity. When river discharges increase due to rain events, the traditional approach has been to pass excess water at night to maintain stable tailwater elevations during the daytime. The underlying assumption of this strategy, referred to as reverse load following, is that fish do not spawn at night. However, Tiffan et al. (2005) showed that this assumption is false by documenting nighttime spawning by chum salmon in the Ives Island area. Similarly, McMichael et al. (2005) reported nighttime spawning by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Columbia River, indicating that diel spawning may be a common occurrence in Pacific salmon. During the latter portion of the chum spawning period in December 2003 and 2004, discharges from Bonneville Dam increased from an average of 3,398 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 3.5 m above mean sea level) during the day to over 5,664 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 5.1 m) at night, with peak discharges of 7,080 m{sup 3}/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 6.1 m). This caused concern among fishery managers regarding the potential effects of these high discharges on this population of spawning chum salmon, which is listed under the Endangered Species Act (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1999). We hypothesized that increased water velocities associated with elevated tailwaters might alter chum salmon spawning behavior if water velocities at redd locations increased beyond the range of suitability (>0.8 m/s; Salo 1991). In 2005, we investigated the movement and behavioral responses of spawning chum salmon at Ives Island to increased tailwater elevations at Bonneville Dam. We used acoustic telemetry to determine if the higher velocities associated with increased tailwater elevations caused fish to leave their re

Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.  

SciTech Connect

Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and mortality due to coyote predation was documented and disease was a major mortality source for foxes. The declining relative abundance of gray fox in Illinois is likely a result of a combination of factors. Assessment of habitat associations indicated that urban mesopredators, particularly coyotes and foxes, perceived the landscape as relatively homogeneous and that urban mesopredators interacted with the environment at scales larger than that accommodated by remnant habitat patches. Coyote and fox presence was found to be associated with a high degree of urban development at large and intermediate spatial scales. However, at a small spatial scale fox presence was associated with high density urban land cover whereas coyote presence was associated with urban development with increased forest cover. Urban habitats can offer a diversity of prey items and anthropogenic resources and natural land cover could offer coyotes daytime resting opportunities in urban areas where they may not be as tolerated as smaller foxes. Raccoons and opossums were found to utilize moderately developed landscapes with interspersed natural and semi-natural land covers at a large spatial scale, which may facilitate dispersal movements. At intermediate and small spatial scales, both species were found to utilize areas that were moderately developed and included forested land cover. These results indicated that raccoons and opossums used natural areas in proximity to anthropogenic resources. At a large spatial scale, skunk presence was associated with highly developed landscapes with interspersed natural and semi-natural land covers. This may indicate that skunks perceived the urban matrix as more homogeneous than raccoons or opossums. At an intermediate spatial scale skunks were associated with moderate levels of development and increased forest cover, which indicated that they might utilize natural land cover in proximity to human-dominated land cover. At the smallest spatial scale skunk presence was associated with forested land cover surrounded by a suburban matrix. Compared to raccoon

Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2000 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The year 2000 hydrosystem operations illustrated two main points: (1) that the NMFS Biological Opinion on the operations of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) fish migration measures could not be met in a slightly below average water year, and; (2) the impacts and relationships of energy deregulation and volatile wholesale energy prices on the ability of the FCRPS to provide the Biological Opinion fish migration measures. In 2000, a slightly below average water year, the flow targets were not met and, when energy ''emergencies'' were declared, salmon protection measures were reduced. The 2000 migration year was a below average runoff volume year with an actual run off volume of 61.1 MAF or 96% of average. This year illustrated the ability of the hydro system to meet the migration protection measures established by the NMFS Biological Opinion. The winter operation of storage reservoirs was based upon inaccurate runoff volume forecasts which predicted a January-July runoff volume forecast at The Dalles of 102 to 105% of average, from January through June. Reservoir flood control drafts during the winter months occurred according to these forecasts. This caused an over-draft of reservoirs that resulted in less volume of water available for fish flow augmentation in the spring and the summer. The season Biological Opinion flow targets for spring and summer migrants at Lower Granite and McNary dams were not met. Several power emergencies were declared by BPA in the summer of 2000. The first in June was caused by loss of resources (WNP2 went off-line). The second and third emergencies were declared in August as a result of power emergencies in California and in the Northwest. The unanticipated effects of energy deregulation, power market volatility and rising wholesale electricity prices, and Californian energy deregulation reduced the ability of the FCRPS to implement fish protection measures. A Spill Plan Agreement was implemented in the FCRPS. Under this plan, spill hours were increased at Lower Monumental Dam. Spill volume at The Dalles was reduced and daytime spill tests were conducted at John Day and Bonneville Dams. Although provided for fish, most spill that occurred in 2000 was either in excess of project hydraulic capacity or excess generation. This effectively reduced the actual cost of the spill program. For the most part, spill in 2000 was managed to the waiver limits for total dissolved gas levels and the NMFS action criteria for dissolved gas signs were not exceeded. Hatchery spring chinook returns comprised an estimated 81.4% of the total spring chinook adult return to Lower Granite Dam. Smolt travel time and survival were similar to past years for most Smolt Monitoring Program groups. The notable exceptions were Snake River hatchery steelhead groups and mid-Columbia hatchery sub-yearling groups from Wells and Ringold hatcheries, which had significantly lower survival than previous years. Yearling chinook travel time showed variation from past years, reflecting the atypical flow shape in 2000 which had high flows in April, declining through May.

DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Ice storage rooftop retrofit for rooftop air conditioning  

SciTech Connect

A significant fraction of the floor space in commercial and federal buildings is cooled by single-package rooftop air conditioning units. These units are located on flat roofs and usually operate during the day under hot conditions. They are usually less energy efficient than a chiller system for building cooling. Several U.S. companies are developing systems that employ ice storage in conjunction with chillers to replace older, inefficient rooftop units for improved performance and minimal use of on-peak electricity. Although the low evaporator temperatures needed for ice making tend to reduce the efficiency of the chiller, the overall operating costs of the ice storage system may be lower than that of a packaged, conventional rooftop installation. One version of this concept, the Roofberg{reg_sign} System developed by the Calmac Corporation, was evaluated on a small building at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Roofberg system consists of a chiller, an ice storage tank, and one or more rooftop units whose evaporator coils have been adapted to use a glycol solution for cooling. The ice storage component decouples the cooling demand of the building from the operation of the chiller. Therefore, the chiller can operate at night (cooler, more efficient condensing temperatures) to meet a daytime cooling demand. This flexibility permits a smaller chiller to satisfy a larger peak cooling load. Further, the system can be operated to shift the cooling demand to off-peak hours when electricity from the utility is generated more efficiently and at lower cost. This Roofberg system was successfully installed last year on a small one-story office building in Oak Ridge and is currently being operated to cool the building. The building and system were sufficiently instrumented to allow a determination of the performance and efficiency of the Roofberg system. Although the energy efficiency of a simulated Roofberg storage/chiller concept operating in the full storage mode was about equal to what could be expected through a simple rooftop efficiency upgrade, the operating costs for the Roofberg system could be much more favorable depending on the utility rate structure. The ability of Roofberg to move much of the cooling load to off-peak periods enables it to take advantage of on-peak demand charges and time-of-use electricity rates. The Roofberg system, as installed, was able to reduce the on-peak energy use of the cooling system to 35% of the on-peak energy consumption of the baseline system. A comparative analysis of a rooftop replacement and Roofberg indicated that the Roofberg system on Building 2518 would be the better economic choice over a range of demand charges and on-off peak energy prices which are typical of utility rate tariffs for commercial buildings.

Tomlinson, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jennings, L.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the ARM SGP Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project focused on: 1) evaluating the performance of the DOE ARM SGP Raman lidar system in measuring profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and 2) the use of the Raman lidar measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles for assessing the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor simulated by global transport models and examining diurnal variability of aerosols and water vapor. The highest aerosol extinction was generally observed close to the surface during the nighttime just prior to sunrise. The high values of aerosol extinction are most likely associated with increased scattering by hygroscopic aerosols, since the corresponding average relative humidity values were above 70%. After sunrise, relative humidity and aerosol extinction below 500 m decreased with the growth in the daytime convective boundary layer. The largest aerosol extinction for altitudes above 1 km occurred during the early afternoon most likely as a result of the increase in relative humidity. The water vapor mixing ratio profiles generally showed smaller variations with altitude between day and night. We also compared simultaneous measurements of relative humidity, aerosol extinction, and aerosol optical thickness derived from the ARM SGP Raman lidar and in situ instruments on board a small aircraft flown routinely over the ARM SGP site. In contrast, the differences between the CARL and IAP aerosol extinction measurements are considerably larger. Aerosol extinction derived from the IAP measurements is, on average, about 30-40% less than values derived from the Raman lidar. The reasons for this difference are not clear, but may be related to the corrections for supermicron scattering and relative humidity that were applied to the IAP data. The investigators on this project helped to set up a major field mission (2003 Aerosol IOP) over the DOE ARM SGP site. One of the goals of the mission was to further evaluate the aerosol and water vapor retrievals from this lidar system. Analysis of the aerosol and water vapor data collected by the Raman lidar during the 2003 Aerosol IOP indicated that the sensitivity of the lidar was significantly lower than when the lidar was initially deployed. A detailed analysis after the IOP of the long-term dataset demonstrated that the lidar began degrading in early 2002, and that it lost approximately a factor of 4 in sensitivity between 2002 and 2004. We participated in the development of the remediation plan for the system to restore its initial performance. We conducted this refurbishment and upgrade from May- September 2004. This remediation lead to an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of 10 and 30 for the Raman lidar's water vapor mixing ratio and aerosol backscatter coefficient data, respectively as compared to the signal strengths when the system was first deployed. The DOE ARM Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE), which was conducted during September 2005, evaluated the impact of these modifications and upgrades on the SGP Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and optical thickness. The CARL modifications significantly improved the accuracy and temporal resolution of the aerosol measurements. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by the Raman lidar were also used to evaluate aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) simulated by aerosol models as part of the Aerosol module inter-Comparison in global models (AEROCOM) (http://nansen.ipsl.jussieu.fr/AEROCOM/aerocomhome.html) project. There was a wide range in how the models represent the aerosol extinction profiles over the ARM SGP site, even though the average annual AOT represented by the various models and measured by CARL and the Sun photometer were in general agreement, at least within the standard deviations of the averages. There were considerable differences in the average vertical distributions among the models, even among models that had similar average aerosol optical thickness. Deviations between mean aerosol extinction profiles were generally small (~20-30%) for altitudes above 2 km, and grew consider

Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, David Turner

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

438

Bio-Climatic Analysis and Thermal Performance of Upper Egypt A Case Study Kharga Region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a result of the change and development of Egyptian society, Egyptian government has focused its attention of comprehensive development to various directions. One of these attentions is housing, construction and land reclamation in desert and Upper Egypt. In the recent century the most attentions of the government is the creation of new wadi parallel to Nile wadi in the west desert. Kharga Oasis is 25 degrees 26'56?North latitude and 30 degrees 32'24?East longitude. This oasis, is the largest of the oases in the westren desert of Egypt. It required the capital of the new wadi (Al Wadi Al Gadeed Government). The climate of this oasis is caricaturized by; aridity, high summer daytime temperature, large diurnal temperature variation, low relative humidity and high solar radiation. In such conditions, man losses his ability to work and to contribute effectively in the development planning due to the high thermal stress affected on him. In designing and planning in this region, it is necessary not only to understand the needs of the people but to create an indoor environment which is suitable for healthy, pleasant, and comfortable to live and work in it. So, efforts have been motivated towards the development of new concepts for building design and urban planning to moderate the rate, direction and magnitudes of heat flow. Also, reduce or if possible eliminate the energy expenditure for environmental control. In order to achieve this, attention has to be focused on building design to improve its thermal performance, which is a function of building form, orientation, location, and materials used and produce comfortable environmental conditions without increasing of energy consumed. This can be valid in three stage, the first one by using the bio-climatic analysis, the 2nd one by the handle and simplified calculation methods (Uvalue, Thermal time constant, and Degree day), and the 3rd one is by the simulation method. The admittance procedure is a technique for estimating cooling/heating load and temperature changes under cyclic conditions by using the thermal characteristics (Y-value, lambda, phi, Sf) of the building structure. It dependent on determining the daily means value and the swing about the mean. The admittance method is used and a computer program is developed to predict the heating and cooling load as well as the environmental air temperature by the author. This study deals with the bio-climatic analysis and thermal performance of building in Kharga Oasis. The results show that, the air catcher, court and Passive cooling systems (evaporative cooling), maintained the indoor climate in the thermal human comfort zone during the hottest period under the effect of climatic conditions of Kharga. Also shading devices, and suitable orientation achieve a harmony building with environment. Using insulating materials in exposed walls and roof save energy by about 60%. The Thermal insulation thicknesses between 0.03-0.05m for exposed walls and 0.05m for exposed roofs are suitable to valid the required thermal resistance in Kharga Oasis according to the Egyptian Residential Buildings Energy Code, ECP 306-2005.

Khalil, M. H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Validation of the BERT Point Source Inversion Scheme Using the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Experiment Dataset - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A terrorist attack in a U.S. city utilizing biological weapons could have severe consequences. A biological agent could be aerosolized and emitted into the air in the middle of a city, invisibly traveling with the winds, and dosing an unknowing populace. The magnitude of the problem would only be revealed as sick people started arriving several days later at hospitals with symptoms, many already too ill to be saved. A national program has deployed a network of biological agent collectors in U.S. cities to provide early detection of a bio-weapon attack, thereby hastening medical intervention and potentially saving many thousands of lives. In fact, the most effective treatment takes place prior to infection or in its early stages and early warning might reduce the disease progression and, consequently, the possibility of an outbreak. If a biological attack were to occur in a city, one or more collectors may register hits with specific dosages and the city would be alerted that an attack had taken place. This piece of information alone, however, would not be enough to determine how serious the attack was, i.e., how much biological agent was released into the air and where the bio-plume traveled. The first responders and public health communities will want to know what regions were impacted, how many persons might get sick, which people most need medical supplies, and where to clean up. The law enforcement community will want to look for forensic evidence at the release location. The Bio-Agent Event Reconstruction Tool (BERT) has been developed in order to recreate what might have happened during an airborne biological agent attack based on biological agent collector measurements and wind collectors mounted around a city. The tool can be used to estimate possible release areas while eliminating other areas, and can estimate bounds on the amount of material released. The tool can then be used to project forward from the possible source areas to estimate potential hazard zones. Due to a unique source inversion technique - called the upwind collector footprint approach - the tool runs fast and the source regions can be determined in a few minutes. In this report, we provide an overview of the BERT framework, followed by a description of the source inversion technique. The Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment held in Oklahoma City that was used to validate BERT is then described. Subsequent sections describe the metrics used for evaluation, the comparison of the experimental data and BERT output, and under what conditions the BERT tool succeeds and performs poorly. Results are aggregated in different ways (e.g., daytime vs. nighttime releases, 1 vs. 2 vs. 3 hit collectors) to determine if BERT shows any systematic errors. Finally, recommendations are given for how to improve the code and procedures for optimizing performance in operational mode.

Brambilla, Sara [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

440

Enumeration of Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Underwater Video, Performance Period: October 2005 (Project Inception) - 31 December 2006.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes) identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Okanogan River Basin in order to determine basin and tributary-specific spawner distributions, evaluate the status and trends of natural salmonid production in the basin, document local fish populations, and augment existing fishery data. This report documents the design, installation, operation and evaluation of mainstem and tributary video systems in the Okanogan River Basin. The species-specific data collected by these fish enumeration systems are presented along with an evaluation of the operation of a facility that provides a count of fish using an automated method. Information collected by the Colville Tribes Fish & Wildlife Department, specifically the Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP), is intended to provide a relative abundance indicator for anadromous fish runs migrating past Zosel Dam and is not intended as an absolute census count. Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected fish passage data between October 2005 and December 2006. Video counting stations were deployed and data were collected at two locations in the basin: on the mainstem Okanogan River at Zosel Dam near Oroville, Washington, and on Bonaparte Creek, a tributary to the Okanogan River, in the town of Tonasket, Washington. Counts at Zosel Dam between 10 October 2005 and 28 February 2006 are considered partial, pilot year data as they were obtained from the operation of a single video array on the west bank fishway, and covered only a portion of the steelhead migration. A complete description of the apparatus and methodology can be found in 'Fish Enumeration Using Underwater Video Imagery - Operational Protocol' (Nass 2007). At Zosel Dam, totals of 57 and 481 adult Chinook salmon were observed with the video monitoring system in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Run timing for Chinook in 2006 indicated that peak passage occurred in early October and daily peak passage was noted on 5 October when 52 fish passed the dam. Hourly passage estimates of Chinook salmon counts for 2005 and 2006 at Zosel Dam revealed a slight diel pattern as Chinook passage events tended to remain low from 1900 hours to 0600 hours relative to other hours of the day. Chinook salmon showed a slight preference for passing the dam through the video chutes on the east bank (52%) relative to the west bank (48%). A total of 48 adult sockeye salmon in 2005 and 19,245 in 2006 were counted passing through the video chutes at Zosel Dam. The 2006 run timing pattern was characterized by a large peak in passage from 3 August through 10 August when 17,698 fish (92% of total run observed for the year) were observed passing through the video chutes. The daily peak of 5,853 fish occurred on 4 August. Hourly passage estimates of sockeye salmon counts for 2005 and 2006 at the dam showed a strong diel pattern with increased passage during nighttime hours relative to daytime hours. Sockeye showed a strong preference for passing Zosel Dam on the east bank (72%) relative to the west bank (28%). A total of 298 adult upstream-migrating steelhead were counted at Zosel Dam in 2005 and 2006, representing the 2006 cohort based on passage data from 5 October 2005 through 15 July 2006. Eighty-seven percent (87%) of the total steelhead observed passed the dam between 23 March and 25 April with a peak passage occurring on 6 April when 31 fish were observed. Steelhead passage at Zosel Dam exhibited no diel pattern. In contrast to both Chinook and sockeye salmon, steelhead were shown to have a preference for passing the dam on the west bank (71%) relative to the east bank (29%). Both Chinook and sockeye passage at Zosel Dam were influenced by Okanogan River water temperature. When water temperatures peaked in late July (daily mean exceeded 24 C and daily maximum exceeded 26.5 C), Chinook and sockeye counts went to zero. A subsequent decrease in water temperature resulted in sharp increases in both C

Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.; Nass, Bryan L.; Arterburn, John E.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "june-september daytime 0700-1800" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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441

Enumeration of Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Underwater Video, Performance Period: October 2005 (Project Inception) - 31 December 2006.  

SciTech Connect

The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes) identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Okanogan River Basin in order to determine basin and tributary-specific spawner distributions, evaluate the status and trends of natural salmonid production in the basin, document local fish populations, and augment existing fishery data. This report documents the design, installation, operation and evaluation of mainstem and tributary video systems in the Okanogan River Basin. The species-specific data collected by these fish enumeration systems are presented along with an evaluation of the operation of a facility that provides a count of fish using an automated method. Information collected by the Colville Tribes Fish & Wildlife Department, specifically the Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP), is intended to provide a relative abundance indicator for anadromous fish runs migrating past Zosel Dam and is not intended as an absolute census count. Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected fish passage data between October 2005 and December 2006. Video counting stations were deployed and data were collected at two locations in the basin: on the mainstem Okanogan River at Zosel Dam near Oroville, Washington, and on Bonaparte Creek, a tributary to the Okanogan River, in the town of Tonasket, Washington. Counts at Zosel Dam between 10 October 2005 and 28 February 2006 are considered partial, pilot year data as they were obtained from the operation of a single video array on the west bank fishway, and covered only a portion of the steelhead migration. A complete description of the apparatus and methodology can be found in 'Fish Enumeration Using Underwater Video Imagery - Operational Protocol' (Nass 2007). At Zosel Dam, totals of 57 and 481 adult Chinook salmon were observed with the video monitoring system in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Run timing for Chinook in 2006 indicated that peak passage occurred in early October and daily peak passage was noted on 5 October when 52 fish passed the dam. Hourly passage estimates of Chinook salmon counts for 2005 and 2006 at Zosel Dam revealed a slight diel pattern as Chinook passage events tended to remain low from 1900 hours to 0600 hours relative to other hours of the day. Chinook salmon showed a slight preference for passing the dam through the video chutes on the east bank (52%) relative to the west bank (48%). A total of 48 adult sockeye salmon in 2005 and 19,245 in 2006 were counted passing through the video chutes at Zosel Dam. The 2006 run timing pattern was characterized by a large peak in passage from 3 August through 10 August when 17,698 fish (92% of total run observed for the year) were observed passing through the video chutes. The daily peak of 5,853 fish occurred on 4 August. Hourly passage estimates of sockeye salmon counts for 2005 and 2006 at the dam showed a strong diel pattern with increased passage during nighttime hours relative to daytime hours. Sockeye showed a strong preference for passing Zosel Dam on the east bank (72%) relative to the west bank (28%). A total of 298 adult upstream-migrating steelhead were counted at Zosel Dam in 2005 and 2006, representing the 2006 cohort based on passage data from 5 October 2005 through 15 July 2006. Eighty-seven percent (87%) of the total steelhead observed passed the dam between 23 March and 25 April with a peak passage occurring on 6 April when 31 fish were observed. Steelhead passage at Zosel Dam exhibited no diel pattern. In contrast to both Chinook and sockeye salmon, steelhead were shown to have a preference for passing the dam on the west bank (71%) relative to the east bank (29%). Both Chinook and sockeye passage at Zosel Dam were influenced by Okanogan River water temperature. When water temperatures peaked in late July (daily mean exceeded 24 C and daily maximum exceeded 26.5 C), Chinook and sockeye counts went to zero. A subsequent decrease in water temperature resulted in sharp increases

Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.; Nass, Bryan L.; Arterburn, John E.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z