National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for june-september daytime 0700-1800

  1. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 456, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, June-September 2005, pp. 63-78 STRUCTURAL DAMAGES ON THE COAST OF TAMIL NADU DUE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 456, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, June-September 2005, pp. 63-78 STRUCTURAL DAMAGES ON THE COAST OF TAMIL NADU DUE TO TSUNAMI CAUSED BY DECEMBER 26, 2004 SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE B.K. Maheshwari, M.L. Sharma and J.P. Narayan Department of Earthquake Engineering Indian Institute of Technology

  2. NEW ACQUISITIONS (JUNE-SEPTEMBER 2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of God who comes to mind BF 105 .H5 History of psychology in autobiography BF 201 .C642 200 Cognitive

  3. IET REPORT June-September 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ullrich, Paul

    News Web site at http://technews.ucdavis.edu/ includes information about computer virus and security alerts · Administrative Computing Highlights · Kudos and Awards To obtain a copy of this IET Report, go to http................................................................................ 8 COMPUTER AND NETWORK SECURITY

  4. 1JUNE -SEPTEMBER 2012 Sophomore Kelly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Greg

    Forest communication professor and film critic Mary Dalton and "Hoop Dreams" producer and documentary film professor Peter Gilbert were both interviewed for their Oscar- winner predictions. MARCH 9, 2015

  5. Ultrabroadband Photonic Structures To Achieve High-Performance Daytime Radiative Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Ultrabroadband Photonic Structures To Achieve High-Performance Daytime Radiative Cooling Eden designed, terrestrial structures can passively cool themselves through radiative emission of heat to outer space. For the first time, we present a metal-dielectric photonic structure capable of radiative cooling

  6. Pirate Tutoring Center SUMMER 2015 Daytime Offerings Appointments are offered for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, K.

    Pirate Tutoring Center SUMMER 2015 Daytime Offerings Appointments are offered for: Summer Session 1, 2173, 2228, 2283 PHYS 1250, 1260, 2360 SPAN 1001-1004 Blackboard Tutoring Tutorial Videos offered-737-3009 for a tutoring appointment. PTC location: 2300 Old Cafeteria Complex Find the PTC on the second floor. PTC offers

  7. Statistical analysis of the overnight and daytime return Fengzhong Wang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    are of great importance for economics and econophysics research 1­21 . A key topic of the market studies of the financial markets. Practically, this study can help traders to improve trading strategies at the market open, there is still lack of a comprehen- sive analysis of the overnight and daytime price change for a leading market

  8. Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for three different mountain/plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active and Atmospheric Dynamics: Boundary layer processes; KEYWORDS: CO2 flux, absorbed PAR, carbon cycle, remote sensing Change: Biogeochemical processes (4805); 1640 Global Change: Remote sensing; 3307 Meteorology

  9. Property:Building/FloorAreaHealthServicesDaytime | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975)Energy TechnologyFloorAreaHealthServicesDaytime Jump to:

  10. Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLANIs gravityIntellectualInteractions Between the Daytime

  11. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Paul E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future.

  12. Conjugacy of daytime ELF-VLF emission activities in the auroral zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Natsuo (National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo (Japan)); Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Maezawa, Kiyoshi (Yamagata Univ. (Japan)); Saemundsson, T. (Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland))

    1990-06-01

    Statistical characteristics of emission occurrence are examined, using 1 year of digital data of 750-Hz, 2-kHz, and 4-kHz intensity records. These waves were measured simultaneously at a conjugate pair of stations, namely Syowa Station in Antarctica and Husafell in Iceland. The following notable diurnal and seasonal variation and Kp dependence was found for the daytime emissions (04-14 MLT): (1) The 750-Hz emissions were mostly observed during the daytime around noon in both conjugate regions. The emission occurrence reached a maximum 1-3 hours earlier at Syowa than at Husafell during the equinox season. The seasonal variation of 750-Hz emission occurrence showed a maximum during local summer and a minimum during local winter at both stations. The ratio of the emission enhancement in summer to that at the equinox is higher at Husafell than at Syowa. The emissions mostly occurred during moderately disturbed conditions of Kp {approximately} 2-4 at both stations. (2) The 2-kHz emission occurrence reached a maximum around 13 MLT at Syowa and around 11 MLT at Husafell. Peaks of the emission occurrence during summer shifted to the afternoonside at Syowa and to the morningside at Husafell. The occurrences at Syowa reached a maximum during local summer and a minimum during winter. (3) The occurrence of 4-kHz emissions was much more frequent at Husafell than at Syowa. The emissions at Husafell occurred mostly in the morning ({approximately}08 MLT) and in local winter, and the occurrences became more frequent with increasing magnetic activity. On the bases of these statistical characteristics, the authors discuss the effects of sunlight and geomagnetic activity which cause an asymmetry of wave propagation from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere in the two hemispheres.

  13. The Effect of Local Atmospheric Circulations on Daytime Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurements over a Pinus elliottii Canopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    The Effect of Local Atmospheric Circulations on Daytime Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurements over canopy, have been used to provide estimates of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) (Black et" transported from the below-canopy environment associated with cold-air drainage. Since then, advection has

  14. A study of the daytime E-F sub 1 region ionosphere at mid-latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buonsanto, M.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Westford (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A photochemical equilibrium daytime model is used to study the ionosphere between 110 and 180 km at mid-latitudes. The model includes the latest photoionization and photoabsorption cross sections, extreme untraviolet (EUV) fluxes in 37 wavelength bands, and all reactions believed to be important in this region. Model results are compared with (1) noon-time E layer critical frequency (foE) at Boulder and Wallops Island over a full solar cycle; (2) Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar observations of electron density at 180 km (N{sub 180}) for a wide variety of seasons and solar geophysical conditions; (3) selected Millstone Hill incoherent scatter profiles of electron density between 110 and 180 km which included E-F{sub 1} valley minima; and (4) the ratio of the molecular ion concentration to the total ion concentration at 180 km for noon throughout the solar cycle as given by both the IRI-86 ion composition model and the semiempirical ion composition model of Oliver. Best agreement between the photochemical model documented in this paper and the observations and ion composition models is generally obtained if (1) the EUV fluxes in the photochemical model are increased by 25-30% above values derived from published reference spectra; (2) neutral densities used in the photochemical model are decreased by 25% below those given by MSIS-86 at equinox, with larger decreases in winter, and smaller or no decreases in summer. The results show that this region of the ionosphere can be modeled with reasonable success given the current state of knowledge. Modeling this region of the ionosphere is important for resolving ambiguities in true height analysis of ionograms and reduction of incoherent scatter spectra. Improved modeling requires more accurate values of aeronomical parameters, i.e., ionizing fluxes, cross sections, reaction rates, composition and temperature.

  15. Vol. 41 No. 3 June -September 2013 Blasting off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    goats in sustainability effort to clear vegetation 9 Beware of bears Encountering different species may Design section 14 Tall ships transit McNary Two tall ships made their way through McNary's Navigation a little fun in the sun 25 Sustainability T-shirts The District's latest shirts are 50 percent recycled

  16. Day/Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2 DOENERSC Overview * Na#onal E

  17. Spatial variability of regional model simulated JuneSeptember mean precipitation over West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    made with the CCSR/GISS RM3, driven by synchronous data from NCEP reanalysis. A five-member ensemble for a single season was generated by staggering the initial conditions of each member by 36 hr within] Regional climate model (RCM) simulations are driven by synchronous lateral boundary conditions (LBC

  18. LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pera, C.J.; Moyer, C.B.

    1993-01-06

    The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

  19. Einstein and the Daytime Sky - A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear Profile 2010MesoscopyStaffEfficiencyIndustry BringEijc p . _ TIC

  20. Einstein and the Daytime Sky - B

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear Profile 2010MesoscopyStaffEfficiencyIndustry BringEijc p . _

  1. Einstein and the Daytime Sky - C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear Profile 2010MesoscopyStaffEfficiencyIndustry BringEijc p . _C.

  2. Einstein and the Daytime Sky - D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear Profile 2010MesoscopyStaffEfficiencyIndustry BringEijc p . _C.D.

  3. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 454, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, June-September 2005, pp. 21-46 SEISMIC RETROFITTING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    , Italy ABSTRACT The seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete buildings not designed to withstand seismic action is considered. After briefly introducing how seismic action is described for design-46 SEISMIC RETROFITTING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS USING TRADITIONALAND INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES Giuseppe

  4. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  5. Surface daytime net radiation estimation using artificial neural networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-11

    Net all-wave surface radiation (Rn) is one of the most important fundamental parameters in various applications. However, conventional Rn measurements are difficult to collect because of the high cost and ongoing maintenance of recording instruments. Therefore, various empirical Rn estimation models have been developed. This study presents the results of two artificial neural network (ANN) models (general regression neural networks (GRNN) and Neuroet) to estimate Rn globally from multi-source data, including remotely sensed products, surface measurements, and meteorological reanalysis products. Rn estimates provided by the two ANNs were tested against in-situ radiation measurements obtained from 251 global sites between 1991–2010more »both in global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and in conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets and the models were fitted separately). Based on the results obtained from extensive experiments, it has been proved that the two ANNs were superior to linear-based empirical models in both global and conditional modes and that the GRNN performed better and was more stable than Neuroet. The GRNN estimates had a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.92, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.27 W·m–2 , and a bias of –0.61 W·m–2 in global mode based on the validation dataset. In conclusion, ANN methods are a potentially powerful tool for global Rn estimation.« less

  6. Surface daytime net radiation estimation using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-11

    Net all-wave surface radiation (Rn) is one of the most important fundamental parameters in various applications. However, conventional Rn measurements are difficult to collect because of the high cost and ongoing maintenance of recording instruments. Therefore, various empirical Rn estimation models have been developed. This study presents the results of two artificial neural network (ANN) models (general regression neural networks (GRNN) and Neuroet) to estimate Rn globally from multi-source data, including remotely sensed products, surface measurements, and meteorological reanalysis products. Rn estimates provided by the two ANNs were tested against in-situ radiation measurements obtained from 251 global sites between 1991–2010 both in global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and in conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets and the models were fitted separately). Based on the results obtained from extensive experiments, it has been proved that the two ANNs were superior to linear-based empirical models in both global and conditional modes and that the GRNN performed better and was more stable than Neuroet. The GRNN estimates had a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.92, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.27 W·m–2 , and a bias of –0.61 W·m–2 in global mode based on the validation dataset. In conclusion, ANN methods are a potentially powerful tool for global Rn estimation.

  7. Daytime turbulent exchange between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Moore, K.E. ); Cabral, M.R. ); Scolar, J. ); Manzi, A.O.; de Abreau Sa, L.D. )

    1990-09-20

    Detailed observations of turbulence just above and below the crown of the Amazon rain forest during the wet season are presented. The forest canopy is shown to remove high-frequency turbulent fluctuations while passing lower frequencies. Filter characteristics of turbulent transfer into the Amazon rain forest canopy are quantified. In spite of the ubiquitous presence of clouds and frequent rain during this season, the average horizontal wind speed spectrum and the relationship between the horizontal wind speed and its standard deviation are well described by dry convective boundary layer similarity hypotheses originally found to apply in flat terrain. Diurnal changes in the sign of the vertical velocity skewness observed above and inside the canopy are shown to be plausibly explained by considering the skewness budget. Simple empirical formulas that relate observed turbulent heat fluxes to horizontal wind speed and variance are presented. Changes in the amount of turbulent coupling between the forest and the boundary layer associated with deep convective clouds are presented in three case studies. Even small raining clouds are capable of evacuating the canopy of substances normally trapped by persistent static stability near the forest floor. Recovery from these events can take more than an hour, even during midday.

  8. Observed 1970-2005 cooling of summer daytime temperatures in coastal California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebassi, B.

    2009-01-01

    sources and their use in heat island research. LBNL Tech.for California urban heat islands. Bulletin Amer. Meteor.Observations of the urban heat island effect in New York

  9. Daytime Arctic Cloud Detection based on Multi-angle Satellite Data with Case Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bin

    that the strongest dependences of surface air temperatures on increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will occur of the similar remote sensing characteristics of clouds, ice- and snow-covered surfaces. This paper proposes two

  10. MODELING DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME POPULATION DISTRIBUTIONS IN PORTUGAL USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freire, Sergio Carneiro

    2007-12-20

    for two municipalities of Metropolitan Lisbon in Portugal, Cascais and Oeiras. Their combined population was 332,811 in 2001. The most recent census enumeration figures iv and mobility statistics (2001) are combined with physiographic data, using... and Organization of Variables .......................................................36 3.3.1 Street Centerlines ...................................................................................37 3.3.2 Land Use and Land Cover...

  11. Human color vision and the unsaturated blue color of the daytime sky Glenn S. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallin, David O.

    Emission Spectra with Handheld and Cellphone Cameras Phys. Teach. 50, 524 (2012) Additional information at visible wavelengths is shown in Fig. 1 a ,3­5 where the measured spectral irradiance power per unit area

  12. Daytime location: 695 Park Avenue; East Building Room E1022; NY, NY 10065

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    Introduction to Translation (TSINTTRA) Tue. & Thu. 5:40-7:30pm; Starts 6/3 (10 sess.) Spanish Editing (TSSPAEDI) Mon. & Wed. 7:40-9:30pm; Starts 6/2 (10 sess.) Spanish Composition (TSSPACOM) Not available/3(10 sess.) Note Taking for Interpreters (TSNOTTAK) Mon. & Wed. 5:40-7:30pm; Starts 6/2 (10 sess.) Spanish

  13. Deriving Daytime Variables From the AmeriFlux Standard Eddy Covariance Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Ingen, Catharine; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Humphrey, Marty; Li, Jie

    2008-12-06

    A gap-filled, quality assessed eddy covariance dataset has recently become available for the AmeriFluxnetwork. This dataset uses standard processing and produces commonly used science variables. This shared dataset enables robust comparisons across different analyses. Of course, there are many remaining questions. One of those is how to define 'during the day' which is an important concept for many analyses. Some studies have used local time — for example 9am to 5pm; others have used thresholds on photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). A related question is how to derive quantities such as the Bowen ratio. Most studies compute the ratio of the averages of the latent heat (LE) and sensible heat (H). In this study, we use different methods of defining 'during the day' for GPP, LE, and H. We evaluate the differences between methods in two ways. First, we look at a number of statistics of GPP. Second, we look at differences in the derived Bowen ratio. Our goal is not science per se, but rather informatics in support of the science.

  14. Absorption of MARSIS radar signals: Solar energetic particles and the daytime ionosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Charles W.

    to investigate the causes of the radar signal ``blackout'' periods when ground reflections from the subsurface magnetic fields, diurnal cycles of ionization, and solar activity. We find that the shorter blackout periods are well correlated with solar activity and that the longest period of blackouts was likely

  15. A Simple Parameterization Coupling the Convective Daytime Boundary Layer and Fair-Weather Cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Stull, Roland B.

    2005-06-15

    A new parameterization for boundary-layer cumulus clouds, called the Cumulus Potential (CuP) scheme is introduced. This scheme uses Joint Probability Density Functions (JPDFs) of virtual potential temperature and water-vapor mixing ratio, as well as the mean vertical profiles of virtual potential temperature to predict the amount and size distribution of boundary-layer cloud cover. This model considers the diversity of air parcels over a heterogeneous surface, and recognizes that some parcels rise above their lifting condensation level to become cumulus, while other parcels might rise as non-cloud updrafts. This model has several unique features: (1) cloud cover is determined from the boundary-layer JPDF of virtual potential temperature vs. water-vapor mixing ratio , (2) clear and cloudy thermals are allowed to coexist at the same altitude, and (3) a range of cloud-base heights, cloud-top heights, and cloud thicknesses are predicted within any one cloud field, as observed. Using data from Boundary Layer Experiment 1996, and a model intercomparsion study using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based on BOMEX, it is shown that the CuP model does a good job predicting cloud-base height and cloud-top height. The model also shows promise in predicting cloud cover, and is found to give better cloud-cover estimates than three other cumulus parameterizations: one based on relative humidity, a statistical scheme based on the saturation deficit, and a slab model.

  16. Observed 1970-2005 cooling of summer daytime temperatures in coastal California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.; Fabris, D.; Maurer, E.; Miller, N.; Milesi, C.; Bornstein, R.

    2009-05-15

    The study evaluated 1948-2004 summer (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures for two California air basins: SoCAB and SFBA. The study focuses on the more rapid post-1970 warming period, and its daily T{sub min} and T{sub max} values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of trends for each air basins. Additional analyses included T{sub D} values at two NWS sites, SSTs, NCEP reanalysis sea-level pressures, and GCM T{sub ave}-values. Results for all California COOP sites together showed increased JJA T{sub ave}-values; asymmetric warming, as T{sub min}-values increase faster than T{sub max}-values; and thus decreased DTR values. The spatial distribution of observed SoCAB and SFBA T{sub max} values exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling in low-elevation coastal-areas open to marine air penetration and warming at inland areas. Results also showed that decreased DTR values in the valleys arose from small increases at 'inland' sites combined with large decreases at 'coastal' sites. Previous studies suggest that cooling JJA T{sub max}-values in coastal California were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover, while the current hypothesis is that they arises from GHG-induced global-warming of 'inland' areas, which results in increased sea breeze flow activity. Sea level pressure trends showed increases in the oceanic Pacific High and decreases in the central-California Thermal Low. The corresponding gradient thus showed a trend of 0.02 hPa 100-km{sup -1} decade{sup -1}, supportive of the hypothesis of increased sea breeze activity. Trends in T{sub D} values showed a larger value at coastal SFO than at inland SEC, which indicative of increased sea breeze activity; calculated SST trends (0.15 C decade{sup -1}) could also have increase T{sub D}-values. GCM model Tave-values showed warming that decreases from 0.13 C decade{sup -1} at inland California to 0.08 C decade{sup -1} at coastal areas. Significant societal impacts may result from this observed 'reverse-reaction' to GHG-warming, i.e., the decreased JJA T{sub max}-values in coastal areas. Possible beneficial effects include decreased: maximum O{sub 3} levels, human thermal-stress, and energy requirements for cooling.

  17. Scaling the Daytime Urban Heat Island and Urban-Breeze Circulation JULIA HIDALGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that describe the shape of the urban heat island and the horizontal and vertical wind intensity and profiles. 1 an atmospheric numerical model coupled with an urban surface energy balance (SEB) model. For example, simulations atmospheric Nonhydrostatic Meso- scale (Meso-NH) model (Lafore et al. 1998) with a Town Energy Balance urban

  18. Massive disturbance of the daytime lower ionosphere by the giant g-ray flare from magnetar SGR 180620

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    . The perturbations of the 21.4 kHz NPM (Lualualei, Hawaii) signal observed at PA (Palmer Station, Antarctica

  19. Tropical Daytime Lower D-region Dependence on Sunspot Number Neil R. Thomson and Craig J. Rodger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    and then on to Kauai, Hawaii, ~10.6 Mm from NWC. Observations24 from the 8.1-Mm path NPM (21.4 kHz, Hawaii) to Dunedin

  20. INT. J. REMOTE SENSING, 2003, VOL. 24, NO. 8, 16691690 Comparative analysis of daytime fire detection algorithms using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    -threshold or contextual). CCRS performed best in detecting real forest fires, with the least omission error, while ESArd International Workshop of the Special Interest Group (SIG) on Forest Fires of the European

  1. Determining the extent and characteristics of overrepresentation of large truck crashes in daytime and nighttime work zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mokkapati, Naveen

    2009-05-15

    The growth of vehicle travel in the United States has accelerated wear on the interstate highway system leading to frequent pavement repair and rehabilitation projects. The presence of work zones not only causes traffic ...

  2. Evaluation of daytime vs. nighttime red-light-running using an advanced warning for end of green phase system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obeng-Boampong, Kwaku Oduro

    2005-11-01

    The problem of dilemma zone protection and red-light-running is especially important in certain rural intersections due to the higher speeds at these intersections and their isolated nature. In addition, the presence of ...

  3. Design and Simulation for Architectural Geometry Figure 1: Daytime and nighttime scenes of designed roof by using the developed computational tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    roof by using the developed computational tools 031.PDF Keywords: Architectural Geometry, Procedural an innovative computational design tool used to edit architectural geometry interactively and demonstrates the process of designing geometry using the developed tool. The background, related work, implementation

  4. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 138: 5671, January 2012 A Initiation of daytime local convection in a semi-arid region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guichard, Francoise

    ­71. DOI:10.1002/qj.903 1. Introduction Current climate and Earth system models exhibit large biases their representation in climate and Earth system models. Recent studies on the diurnal cycle and the transition from

  5. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved Representation of daytime moist convection over the semi-arid Tropics by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guichard, Francoise

    -eddy simulation (LES), Single Column Model (SCM) versions of four different Earth System Models that participated

  6. Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nighttime scenes are most useful, because of the significantly diminished effect of solar irradiation compared with daytime. However, daytime scenes are also used for...

  7. Energy Analysis, Baselining and Modeling of Prairie View A&M University 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.; Eggebrecht, J.; Carlson, K. A.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the available data found that electricity savings in the J.B. Coleman Library for June - September, 1998 were 298 MWh, or 38% of the baseline consumption during these months. Extrapolation of these savings to a full year leads would...

  8. Computational Study on Thermal Properties of HVAC System with Building Structure Thermal Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sato, Y.; Sagara, N.; Ryu, Y.; Maehara, K.; Nagai, T.

    2007-01-01

    Building structure thermal storage (BSTS) HVAC systems can store heat during nighttime thermal storage operation (nighttime operation hours) by using off-peak electricity and release it in the daytime air-conditioning operation (daytime operation...

  9. Simulated diurnal rainfall physics in a multi-scale global climate model with embedded explicit convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pritchard, Michael Stephen

    2011-01-01

    waves, compensating subsidence and detrainment aroundunrealistic deep barotropic subsidence wave that otherwisethrough continuity) daytime subsidence over adjacent ocean.

  10. Fall 2012 Doing Political Ecology Boykoff ENVS 5909 `Doing Political Ecology' seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    ' seminar instructor: Max Boykoff boykoff@colorado.edu Day/time: Wednesdays 11­11:50am location: IBS 5

  11. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    2014-01-10

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  12. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  13. ASC eNews Quarterly Newsletter

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReporteeo | National Nuclear Securityhr |oft I s s uJuneSeptember

  14. Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    erdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    sun charts freeze probability ground temperature sunshine hours wind direction distributionsun as a function of time). Suggested Nonsolar Data Frequency distributions of daytime temperature,

  15. Microsoft Word - winter.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    temperatures last week. The four cities monitored for this report (Chicago, Kansas City, New York, and Pittsburgh) all reported daytime highs near 70 degrees on Friday, although an...

  16. weekly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    week in the four metropolitan areas monitored by this report (Chicago, Kansas City, New York City, and Pittsburgh). Friday, the first full day of spring, saw daytime temperatures...

  17. EIA Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average temperatures in the four cities monitored by this report (Chicago, Kansas City, New York, and Pittsburgh) were generally moderate last week with daytime temperatures in...

  18. Anticipating PHEV Energy Impacts in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, John; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    contribute to peak electricity demand (depending on a givenadditions to daytime electricity demand from PHEVs. However,Their higher peak electricity demand estimate is due to

  19. Discharge/Home Care Plan for Childhood Asthma Children's Medical Center, University of Virginia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    : ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________, ___________ puffs nebs as needed for cough or wheezing and of _______________. Increased runny nose or daytime cough Medication requirement more often than every 4 hrs. Night-time cough

  20. 2015 Middle School "Exploring your Dream Job"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Cate Schlobohm 9:00 a.m. Icebreaker Daytime Counselors 9:15 a.m. Murder Mystery Project (Detective/Forensic Examiner/FBI Agent) Daytime Counselors 12:00 p.m. Lunch MRB Atrium 12:30 p.m. Murder Mystery Continued

  1. Proto Algic VI: Conditioned Yurok Reflexes of Proto Algic Vowels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proulx, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Wiyot kaiMfy 'daytime'; Wiyot B k^ihitw 'I sleep in the daytime'. Compare grade 3 PA *ke?y- 'be hot', as if from "keisy-. Infixed, there is also the durative iterative root *keyei-, in *k?yei?khw.- 'shine (the sun), be day': grade 1 Wiyot kitskwli...

  2. Middle School "Exploration" Engineering Challenge Camp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Middle School "Exploration" Engineering Challenge Camp Hosted by the West Virginia University ESB Lunabotics Team 1:00 p.m. Kerbal Space Program MRB 243 Daytime Counselors 2:00 p.m. Build a Camera 107 MRB Daytime Counselors 9:30 a.m. Biometrics Activity Stations ESB Atrium Biometric Research Team

  3. Supplementary Material for: A Comparison of the chemical sinks of atmospheric organics in the gas and aqueous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    panel: daytime OH conditions with LWC = 0.5 g m-3 . Upper right panel: nighttime OH conditions with LWC = 0.5 g m-3 . Lower left panel: daytime OH conditions with LWC = 0.001 g m-3 . Upper right panel photolysis, Y, as a function of solar zenith angle and altitude for compounds where the absorption cross

  4. Surface temperatures at the nearside of the Moon as a record of the radiation budget of Earth's climate system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Shaopeng

    for a focus on the solar radiation during its daytime, and on terrestrial radiation during its nighttime terrestrial radiation in nighttime than the strong solar radiation in daytime. Indeed, the long-term lunar, governed respectively by solar and terrestrial radiation. Ó 2007 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 51615186, 2008 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/5161/2008/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    , as well as strong sources, of light absorbing carbon (LAC). The ratio of LAC to CO concentration regulated truck traffic). The daytime average mid-visible single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears

  6. Subsistence Halibut Special Permits Application Page 1 of 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (CHP) PERMIT NOTE: Attach any previously issued CHP harvest logs 1. Name of Alaska Native Tribe of Tribal Representative 5. Name of CHP Coordinator (First, Middle, Last) 6. Daytime Telephone Number 7. E

  7. Project no. 004089 Instrument : IP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guichard, Francoise

    Project no. 004089 AMMA Instrument : IP D.2.1.A.e The impacts of contrasting atmospheric convective available potential energy (CAPE). This finding is consistent with observations that daytime

  8. Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel David

    2012-01-01

    Air cooled power plants experience significant performance fluctuations as plant cooling capacity reduces due to higher daytime temperature than nighttime temperature. The purpose of this thesis is to simulate the detailed ...

  9. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2004, pp. 456463 Growing-Season Carbon Dioxide Flux in a Dry Subarctic Heath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    ecosystem production (NEP). Diurnal NEP through a day with clear skies at peak growing season was consistently negative through all treatments the first year of measurement, and day-time NEP varied around zero

  10. Determining Nighttime Atmospheric Optical Depth Using Mars Exploration Rover Images 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bean, Keri Marie

    2013-07-22

    was compared to the expected flux to give nighttime optical depth values. The observed nighttime optical depth was consistently similar to the daytime optical depth values on both an individual image and sol-averaged basis. Recommendations are made going...

  11. Seasonal variations of high-latitude field-aligned currents inferred from rsted and Magsat observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michigan, University of

    equinox. The decrease in the size of the summer polar cap is caused by a shift of both daytime the pairs of downward/upward currents for all seasons as well as between hemispheres during equinox. We were

  12. Travel directions to "Lingezicht" 't Oosteneind 9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    the westernmost platform. In the daytime they run at quarter-hour intervals; less frequently in the late evening Deil starts just beyond it. By car Deil is close to Geldermalsen, about 25 km south of Utrecht. Driving

  13. Microsoft Word - summer.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to be generally moderate with daytime highs in Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York City staying in the mid 80s most days. Forecasters are calling for the high...

  14. Microsoft Word - summer.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    other areas of the country remained moderate with the daytime highs in Chicago and New York City ranging between 71 and 85 degrees. Forecasts are calling for the hot weather to...

  15. Microsoft Word - summer.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    half of the week and into to the past week-end. Daytime high temperatures in Chicago, Baltimore, and Philadelphia in the 90s each day during the period between Thursday and Sunday....

  16. EIA Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the norm in many parts of the country at the end of last week with daytime highs in Baltimore, Chicago, Denver, Kansas City, Washington, DC, and other cities in the mid to upper...

  17. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowe, D.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Morgan, W.; Allan, J.; Utembe, S.; Ouyang, B.; Aruffo, E.; Le Breton, M.; Zaveri, R. A.; Di Carlo, P.; Percival, C.; Coe, H.; Jones, R.; McFiggans, G.

    2015-02-09

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) dominates the oxidative control of the composition of the troposphere, primarily through its established role as a daytime oxidant. However, night-time chemistry, driven primarily by the nitrate radical (NO3), has been increasingly...

  18. Prodovdeck fakulta Univerzity Karlovy v Praze Katedra botaniky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Summary Vertical migration has been observed in different taxonomic groups of benthic microalgae microalgae stay on the surface during daytime and migrate below the surface before dusk. The migratory rhythm

  19. As the world turns in a convergence culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Samuel Earl

    2007-01-01

    The American daytime serial drama is among the oldest television genres and remains a vital part of the television lineup for ABC and CBS as what this thesis calls an immersive story world. However, many within the television ...

  20. ngwu0908

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    the Midwest and the Northeast where daytime temperatures in Chicago, Indianapolis, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC were only in the mid 60s to low 70s during this time. The spot...

  1. Ventilative cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

  2. Lessons Learned from Microgrid Demonstrations Worldwide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2014-01-01

    e.g. by providing demand response and ancillary services,the need for daytime demand response and possibly solar PVand will often provide demand response or ancillary services

  3. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    DWR Bulletin 194. Hydroelectric Energy Potential inmore than 6 bil- of hydroelectric poweL of view of energyfrom peak demand Daytime hydroelectric Two wate:r age) would

  4. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 841855, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/841/2011/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    , water vapour and CO2. HONO mixing ratios at both heights showed typical diel cycles with low daytime al., 1978) where HONO acts as the nitrosat- ing agent, especially in indoor environments, e.g., so

  5. The Precipitation Characteristics of ISCCP Tropical Weather States DONGMIN LEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, In-Sik

    The Precipitation Characteristics of ISCCP Tropical Weather States DONGMIN LEE GESTAR, University The authors examine the daytime precipitation characteristics of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology precipitation dataset used is the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation

  6. A map of the universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    Boeke, K. , Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps, John DayTime Travel in Einstein’s Universe, p 175, Houghton Mi?in,Fig. 7. — Pocket map of the universe Fig. 8a. — Map of the

  7. Overestimation of physical activity level is associated with lower BMI: a cross-sectional analysis.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkinson, Clare; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Sutton, Stephen; Hardeman, Wendy; Corder, Kirsten; Griffin, Simon J.

    2010-09-20

    Watkinson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction... energy expenditure, daytime physical activity ratio (DayPar - the ratio of daytime energy expenditure to resting energy expenditure) was also measured using heart rate monitoring with individual calibration for the heart rate-energy expenditure...

  8. A reduced-order modeling approach to represent subgrid-scale hydrological dynamics for land-surface simulations: application in a polygonal tundra landscape

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pau, G. S. H.; Bisht, G.; Riley, W. J.

    2014-09-17

    Existing land surface models (LSMs) describe physical and biological processes that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, biogeochemical and hydrological processes responsible for carbon (CO2, CH4) exchanges with the atmosphere range from the molecular scale (pore-scale O2 consumption) to tens of kilometers (vegetation distribution, river networks). Additionally, many processes within LSMs are nonlinearly coupled (e.g., methane production and soil moisture dynamics), and therefore simple linear upscaling techniques can result in large prediction error. In this paper we applied a reduced-order modeling (ROM) technique known as "proper orthogonal decomposition mapping method" that reconstructs temporally resolvedmore »fine-resolution solutions based on coarse-resolution solutions. We developed four different methods and applied them to four study sites in a polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska. Coupled surface–subsurface isothermal simulations were performed for summer months (June–September) at fine (0.25 m) and coarse (8 m) horizontal resolutions. We used simulation results from three summer seasons (1998–2000) to build ROMs of the 4-D soil moisture field for the study sites individually (single-site) and aggregated (multi-site). The results indicate that the ROM produced a significant computational speedup (> 103) with very small relative approximation error (« less

  9. A reduced order modeling approach to represent subgrid-scale hydrological dynamics for regional- and climate-scale land-surface simulations: application in a polygonal tundra landscape

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pau, G. S. H.; Bisht, G.; Riley, W. J.

    2014-04-04

    Existing land surface models (LSMs) describe physical and biological processes that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, biogeochemical and hydrological processes responsible for carbon (CO2, CH4) exchanges with the atmosphere range from molecular scale (pore-scale O2 consumption) to tens of kilometer scale (vegetation distribution, river networks). Additionally, many processes within LSMs are nonlinearly coupled (e.g., methane production and soil moisture dynamics), and therefore simple linear upscaling techniques can result in large prediction error. In this paper we applied a particular reduced-order modeling (ROM) technique known as "Proper Orthogonal Decomposition mapping method" that reconstructs temporally-resolvedmore »fine-resolution solutions based on coarse-resolution solutions. We applied this technique to four study sites in a polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska. Coupled surface-subsurface isothermal simulations were performed for summer months (June–September) at fine (0.25 m) and coarse (8 m) horizontal resolutions. We used simulation results from three summer seasons (1998–2000) to build ROMs of the 4-D soil moisture field for the four study sites individually (single-site) and aggregated (multi-site). The results indicate that the ROM produced a significant computational speedup (> 103) with very small relative approximation error (« less

  10. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  11. Conference on Family History and Genealogy July 29August 1, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Conference on Family History and Genealogy July 29­August 1, 2008 Theme: Strengthening Ties and Genealogy will be held over four days, from July 29 through August 1, 2008, in the BYU Conference Center through genealogy and family history. Evening Classes Eighteen popular daytime classes will be offered

  12. Climatic Change (2013) 116:679692 DOI 10.1007/s10584-012-0521-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    and suburbs due to the soil dryness. As a result, a substantial decrease of the strong urban heat islands is noted at nighttime, and numerous events with negative urban heat islands appear at daytime. Finally such as urban heat islands (UHIs). Moreover, several studies already displayed a significant urban signal

  13. Mineral dust emission from the Bodele Depression, northern Chad, during BoDEx 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington, Richard

    distribution of this diatomite dust estimated from sun photometer data, using a modified Aeronet retrieval loadings results in a reduction in surface daytime maximum temperature of around 7°C in the Bode´le´ region-blown terrestrial mineral dust. The distribution, properties of mineral dust and its climate impact are poorly

  14. The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in 2-to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in 2- to 4-Year-Old Children: Effects of Acute Nighttime Sleep Restriction, Wake Time, and Daytime Napping ABSTRACT: The cortisol awakening response (CAR suggest the CAR is smaller in children than adults, well- controlled research in early childhood is scarce

  15. Fall 2013 (Revised 10.10.13) 1 of 5 Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Final Exam Day/Time Thursday, December 12, 08:00-09:50, Room EB102 Course Website D2L Instructor Dr Building Room 200 Required Text: Mannering, Fred L. and Kilareski, Walter P. Principles of Highway 2 R 27-Sep Human Factors and Traffic Control Lecture Notes 3 T 8-Oct Measuring System Performance

  16. Meteorol Atmos Phys 102, 223241 (2008) DOI 10.1007/s00703-008-0329-0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    are studied for urban and rural sites. The vertical and horizontal structure of the urban heat island are analysed from both surface stations and aircraft data. The nocturnal urban heat island reaches 5 C evaporation and strong sensible heat flux in the city. The daytime heat island is also present in altitude

  17. Indoor Landscaping with Living Foliage Plants. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWerth, A. F.

    1972-01-01

    periotls of tirnc if a daytime temperature of 70 to 75 degrees Faliren. i heit, and a night temperature of 60 to 65 t1egrcc.q Fahrenheit can be maintained. In general, plants in ' high light intensities will thrive in the upper limit( 1...

  18. Depths, migration rates and environmental associations of acoustic scattering layers in the Gulf of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

    Depths, migration rates and environmental associations of acoustic scattering layers in the Gulf-surface layer with mean daytime bottom depth of 43740 m (night: 61738 m), and a main migrating layer with mean bottom depth of 333776 m (night: 54727 m). Diel vertical migration rates for dusk ascents reached

  19. Applied Sustainability Political Science 319

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Paul Thomas

    1 Applied Sustainability Political Science 319 College of Charleston Spring 2013 Day/Time: TH 1 Address: fisherb@cofc.edu Office: 284 King Street, #206 (Office of Sustainability) Office Hours: by appt sustainability. It will focus on the development of semester-long sustainability projects, from conception

  20. Security & Sustainability College of Charleston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Paul Thomas

    Security & Sustainability POLI 399 College of Charleston Fall 2013 Day/Time: T/H; 10@cofc.edu Office: 284 King Street, #206 (Office of Sustainability) Office Hours: by appt or virtual apt Instructor is that if sustained well-being and prosperity of human and ecological systems is the goal of sustainability

  1. Effects of the Hawaiian Islands on the Vertical1 Structure of Low-level Clouds from CALIPSO Lidar2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    -top elevation over the windward slopes of the islands of Kauai and Oahu due32 to orographic lifting and daytime island heating. In the nighttime near-island wake of33 Kauai, CALIPSO captures a striking cloud eddy of the mechanical wake behind35 the island of Hawaii favors the formation of low-level clouds

  2. Busch Gardens IRS Tax Forms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    changes. Day/Time Activity Location/Cost Monday 7pm - 10pm Monday Mixer (Nicole) Meet at the Starbucks 7pm - 10pm Coffee Talk (Luis) Meet at the Starbucks on Archer Rd. Bring $3 - $5 for coffee or food

  3. List of OTC Products (Items subject to change without notice)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    List of OTC Products (Items subject to change without notice) Allergy/Cough/Cold/Flu Symptoms * Requires Valid ID for purchase/18 yo Cough Drops Cherry 30ct Cold Eeze tablets 18ct Allergy Tablets 24ct Loratidine D* 10ct Comtrex Cold and Cough* Daytime* Softgels 12 & 20ct Nighttime* Softgels 12ct Banophen Tabs

  4. 38-kHz ADCP investigation of deep scattering layers in sperm whale habitat in the northern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaltenberg, Amanda May

    2005-02-17

    of operation (150-300 kHz) of the transducers. In addition to measuring deep water current velocities, the 38-kHz phased-array ADCP can measure Relative Acoustic Backscatter Intensity (RABI) as deep as 1000 meters. The daytime depth of the main deep scattering...

  5. Control of equatorial ionospheric morphology by atmospheric tides T. J. Immel,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mende, Stephen B.

    diffusion down magnetic field lines. The uplifting process is driven by eastward dynamo electric fields are a result of the uplift of ionospheric plasma at the equator to altitudes >800 km and the subsequent by changing the daytime electric field (Figure 2 highlight (1)), can therefore affect the growth of the EIA

  6. Effect of atmospheric tides on the morphology of the quiet time, postsunset equatorial ionospheric anomaly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mende, Stephen B.

    ), this feature is created in a process known as the ``fountain effect,'' which consists of the uplift of plasma at the magnetic equator by eastward electric fields [Martyn, 1947, 1953] and subsequent redistribution of along, the principal source of these electric fields during the daytime is tidal wind motions in the dayside E

  7. Passive Microwave Systems (Rees Chapter 7)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandwell, David T.

    Passive Microwave Systems (Rees Chapter 7) At wavelengths greater than about 2 cm and less than 10 radiation from the Earth dominates". Microwaves penetrate clouds and since the signal is from thermal emissions, passive microwave measurements can be made in all weather and in daytime or nighttime

  8. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 42374248, 2007 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/4237/2007/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    , Germany 4National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt 5Institut f¨ur Chemie und Dynamik der Geosph¨are 2 into nitrous acid (HONO), which is released from the aerosol and can be detected in the gas phase during daytime, which is in- consistent with known gas phase formation mechanisms, di- rect emissions

  9. The Probability Distribution of Land Surface Wind Speeds ADAM H. MONAHAN AND YANPING HE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yanping

    , the Netherlands, and Los Alamos, New Mexico, demonstrate that lower-tropospheric wind speeds become moreThe Probability Distribution of Land Surface Wind Speeds ADAM H. MONAHAN AND YANPING HE School surface wind speeds is characterized using a global network of observations. Daytime surface wind speeds

  10. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature Shu-Shi Penga , Shilong Piaoa,b,1) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on aver- age. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapo- transpiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease

  11. Studies of Nearby Blazars with Milagro D. A. Williams for the Milagro Collaboration1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Milagro on new unidentified sources [2], gamma-ray bursts [3], galactic plane emission [4], and a search tubes (PMTs) to monitor the northern sky for astrophysical gamma-ray emission near 1 TeV. It is locatedV flaring behavior associated with AGN, even during daytime transits. The incident direction of gamma-ray

  12. National University Of Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    of the celestial sphere to northern half) and the autumnal equinox (where the Sun crosses the equator from perpendicular to the Sun ­ the autumnal equinox. The Sun's rays hit directly on the equator and the daytimeNational University Of Singapore DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS EQUINOXES AND SOLSTICES GEM 1506K

  13. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 84578470, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/8457/2013/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Daytime PM2.5 sam- ples were collected during summer 2010 using conditional sampling approaches based on pre-defined high and low SO2 or NH3 thresholds/EI-MS) and ultra perfor- mance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ion- ization high

  14. Module No: 420150Human RightsModule Title: Pre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420150Human RightsModule Title: Pre-requisite: Module Type: university elective requirementModule level: First Year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Lecture Time-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator jo.edu.idabbah@philadelphia310397Assistant professor

  15. Module No: 420171Penal law (general part)Module Title: Co-requisite: crimes against

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420171Penal law (general part)Module Title: Co-requisite: crimes against property and persons, crimes against state national security Introduction to LawPre-requisite: Module Type: department requirementModule level: First year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Lecture Time

  16. Module No: 410318Social Security LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Labor LawPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410318Social Security LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Labor LawPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization required electiveModule level: Third year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator S

  17. Module No: 410494Judicial ApplicationsModule Title: Co-requisite:Law of Civil ProceduresPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410494Judicial ApplicationsModule Title: Co-requisite:Law of Civil ProceduresPre-requisite: Module Type: Specialization requirementModule level: Fourth year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator S

  18. Module No: 420475Forensic MedicineModule Title: Co-requisite:Law of Criminal ProcedurePre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420475Forensic MedicineModule Title: Co-requisite:Law of Criminal ProcedurePre-requisite: Module Type: specialization elective requirementModule level: fourth year Evening StudyDaytime Study Office Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module

  19. Module No: 420476Crimes Against State SecurityModule Title: Criminal law (general part)Pre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420476Crimes Against State SecurityModule Title: Criminal law (general part)Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization required electiveModule level: fourth year Evening StudyDaytime Study Office Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module

  20. Module No: 410111Introduction to LawModule Title: Co-requisite: Sources of obligation, intro to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410111Introduction to LawModule Title: Co-requisite: Sources of obligation, intro (general part)m history of Law, environmental protection law, nationality Pre-requisite: Module Type: department requirementModule level: First year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Lecture

  1. Module No: 410237History of LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Introduction to LawPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410237History of LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Introduction to LawPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization required electiveModule level: Second year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator

  2. Module No: 410331International Trade LawModule Title: Pre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410331International Trade LawModule Title: Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Third year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Lecture Time-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator b-tarawneh@philadelphia.edu.jo313375Assistant

  3. Module No: 420464Local Administration LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Administration Law (2)Pre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420464Local Administration LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Administration Law (2)Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization elective requirementModule level: Fourth year Evening StudyDaytime Study Office Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module

  4. Module No: 420272Crimes against personsModule Title: Law of criminal proceduresPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420272Crimes against personsModule Title: Law of criminal proceduresPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Second Year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator

  5. Module No: 420335Expression and legal draftingModule Title: Co-requisite:Pre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420335Expression and legal draftingModule Title: Co-requisite:Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirement electiveModule level: Third level Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator F

  6. Module No: 420281Finance and TaxationModule Title: Co-requisite:Pre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420281Finance and TaxationModule Title: Co-requisite:Pre-requisite: Module Type: department requirementModule level: First Year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Lecture Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator O

  7. Module No: 420493Law of criminal proceduresModule Title: Co-requisite:crimes against propertyPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420493Law of criminal proceduresModule Title: Co-requisite:crimes against propertyPre-requisite: Module Type: Specialization requirementModule level: Fourth year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator s

  8. Module No: 410232legal terminology in EnglishModule Title: Co-requisite:Introduction to LawPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410232legal terminology in EnglishModule Title: Co-requisite:Introduction to LawPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization elective requirementModule level: Second year Evening StudyDaytime StudyInstructorMuhammad Altal E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator mtal

  9. Module No: 410121Introduction to Commercial Module Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410121Introduction to Commercial Law Module Title: Co-requisite: Commercial Papers/ Companies and Bankruptcy/International Trade Law- Maritime Law Introduction to LawPre-requisite: Module Type: department prerequisiteModule level: First year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours

  10. Module No: 410330Commercial and Industrial PropertyModule Title: Pre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410330Commercial and Industrial PropertyModule Title: Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: First year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Lecture Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator b

  11. Module No: 410417Private International LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominated ContractsPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410417Private International LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominated ContractsPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Fourth Year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator

  12. Module No: 410325Insurance ContractsModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominated ContractsPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410325Insurance ContractsModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominated ContractsPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Third Year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module

  13. Module No: 410236Environmental protectionModule Title: Introduction to LawPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410236Environmental protectionModule Title: Introduction to LawPre-requisite: Module Type: elective specialization requirementModule level: Second year Evening StudyDaytime Study Office Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module

  14. Module No: 420151Political systems and constitutional lawModule Title: Constitutional lawPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420151Political systems and constitutional lawModule Title: Constitutional lawPre-requisite: Module Type: department requirementModule level: First Year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator jo

  15. Module No: 410320Electronic Transactions LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Sources of ObligationsPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410320Electronic Transactions LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Sources of ObligationsPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization elective requirementModule level: Third year Evening StudyDaytime Study Office Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module

  16. Module No: 410233An introduction to Islamic Jurisprudence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410233An introduction to Islamic Jurisprudence Module Title: Co-requisite: Personal status (1),(2), Principles of Jurisprudence, Personal Statutes of Non-Muslims Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization supportive requirement Module level: Second year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit

  17. Module No: 420242Public International Law 2Module Title: Co-requisite:public international law 1Pre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420242Public International Law 2Module Title: Co-requisite:public international law 1Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Second year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator

  18. Module No: 410492Evidence and Procedural LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Law of Civil ProceduresPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410492Evidence and Procedural LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Law of Civil ProceduresPre-requisite: Module Type: Department prerequisiteModule level: Fourth year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator E

  19. Module No: 410213Effects of ObligationsModule Title: Co-requisite: nominal contracts,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410213Effects of ObligationsModule Title: Co-requisite: nominal contracts, Law of civil procedures, copyright and neighboring rights Sources of ObligationsPre-requisite: Module Type: Specialization prerequisiteModule level: Second year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Lecture Time

  20. Module No: 420253NationalityModule Title: Introduction to LawPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420253NationalityModule Title: Introduction to LawPre-requisite: Module Type: elective specialization requirementModule level: Second year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator jo

  1. Module No: 410416Real RightsModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominal ContractPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410416Real RightsModule Title: Co-requisite:Nominal ContractPre-requisite: Module Type: department prerequisiteModule level: Fourth year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator Assistant Professor Dr

  2. Module No: 410424Maritime LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Introduction to Commercial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410424Maritime LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Introduction to Commercial Law Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Fourth Year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator B

  3. Module No: 410315Labor LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Sources of ObligationPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410315Labor LawModule Title: Co-requisite:Sources of ObligationPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization prerequisiteModule level: Third year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator Assistant

  4. Module No: 420474Criminology and PunishmentModule Title: Co-requisite:Crimes against personsPre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 420474Criminology and PunishmentModule Title: Co-requisite:Crimes against personsPre-requisite: Module Type: specialization elective prerequisiteModule level: Fourth year Evening StudyDaytime Study Office Phone Academic rank Instructor Name E-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module

  5. Module No: 410222Companies and BankruptcyModule Title: Pre-requisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Module No: 410222Companies and BankruptcyModule Title: Pre-requisite: Module Type: specialization requirementModule level: Second Year Evening StudyDaytime StudyCredit Hours: 3 Credit Hours Lecture Time-mailOffice Number Office Phone Academic rank Module coordinator Bassam-taraeneh@yahoo.com313375Assistant professor

  6. The GeorGe WashinGTon UniversiTy | WashinGTon DC The Elliott School's M.A. program in International Affairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larsen, Mike

    The GeorGe WashinGTon UniversiTy | WashinGTon DC Overview The Elliott School's M.A. program affairs. Students can take advantage of numerous internship opportunities in the Washington, DC, area to pursue daytime internships in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Master of arts in international

  7. M-Eng in Electronic Systems 2013 Abstract--This paper presents a car recognition system by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whelan, Paul F.

    M-Eng in Electronic Systems 2013 1 Abstract-- This paper presents a car recognition system by locating and segmenting tail lights in the night-time road environment. Numerous approaches towards car recognition during day time have been implemented in the past. However, the features of cars during daytime

  8. Chemical characterization of ozone formation in the Houston-Galveston area: A chemical transport model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the basis of the current emission inventory. Doubling AVOC emissions leads to the NOx sensitive chemistryŔ1 for the daytime ground NOx levels of 5­30 ppb. The NOx turnaround value (i.e., the NOx) and the coexistence of abundant AVOCs and NOx in this area are responsible for the high O3 production rates

  9. 250 REPORTS FROM THE MBL GENERAL SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Reference: Biol. BUN 189: 250-25 I. (October/November, 1995)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    production (NDP), dark respiration (NR), gross production (GP), and net community production (NCP) were and incubated in situ at light levels corresponding to O%, 54'70, 90%, and 100% light extinction. Net daytime (conductivities greater than 45 mS cm-`). NCP levels indicate that the water column is net autotrophic until

  10. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility: Part I: Low-Level Cloud Macrophysical, Microphysical, and Radiative Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility: Part I: Low Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains Central Facility (SCF). The cloud properties include liquid- phase.563 for daytime (nighttime). A new conceptual model of midlatitude continental low clouds at the ARM SGP site has

  11. A Science _Service Feature 7 WHY TEWEATmR 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the quality as W e l l as qua. Light of short wave lengths, such as blue and ultra-violet Tne smoke cloud of the solar radiation dl' Cloudiness frequently reduses the daytime illumination t With a completely overcast of sunlight. suffers more loss i n passing through a hazy atmosphere than does light of long mv(+ '.@ngths

  12. Asymmetric response of maximum and minimum temperatures to soil emissivity change over the Northern African Sahel in a GCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Liming

    Asymmetric response of maximum and minimum temperatures to soil emissivity change over the Northern in the Sahel could lead to reduced land surface emissivity and thus might have an asymmetric impact on daytime balance to changes in soil emissivity over the Sahel using the recently developed Community Land Model

  13. Comparisons of emissivity observations from satellites and the ground at the CRCS Dunhuang Gobi site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Comparisons of emissivity observations from satellites and the ground at the CRCS Dunhuang Gobi resolution infrared (IR) emissivity spectra were taken from the China Radiometric Calibration Sites (CRCS of the two sets show that the daytime emissivity is smaller than the nighttime emissivity in almost

  14. secondary purpose was to alert people to the relative size of the different resources avail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the price (12 ˘/kWh) California utilities are willing to pay for any daytime electricity ­ and the rest. Driven by rising carbon dioxide and oil prices, these are big changes in the handful of years since like those being made by First Solar, 16 ˘/kWh PV (Figure 1) and CSP right now in the US Southwestern

  15. Sensitivity of Building Energy Simulation with Building Occupancy for a University Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chhajed, Shreyans

    2014-08-01

    during breaks to very high during peak daytime hours in the middle of the semester. This paper presents how an energy simulation model was built and validated and then used to explore the effect of occupancy for a classroom/studio building on the campus...

  16. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1218112194, 2014 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/12181/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    measured thermal-desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometer (TDCIMS) showed a higher mass frac- tion and ammonia also imply reversible processes of evaporation of these nitrogen-containing compounds from soil surfaces in daytime and deposition to soil surfaces at nighttime. During the transported biomass burning

  17. A&A 542, A2 (2012) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201218844

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    sensor was installed behind the NST. The variation of the wavefront distortions with angular direction between 1­7 km comprises 30­40% of the turbulent energy, 3. and the remaining 5% are generated) in Big Bear Lake, California, is located on the lake, which is characterized by a daytime westerly wind

  18. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high resolution and low noise level, but they cannot reflect information about the temperature the properties of low resolution and high noise level, but IR images can reflect information about temperature variation of objects in the daytime via high-resolution EO images. The proposed novel framework

  19. A Three-Dimensional Model of Residential Energy Consumer Archetypes for Local Energy Policy Design in the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    of household behaviour of using energy, and the duration of property daytime occupancy. With the proposed model for 26% of overall UK CO2 emission (Swan et al, 2010). As the UK is a heavily urbanised industrial a 2020 national target of cutting CO2 emission by 34% from 1990 levels. Designing energy policy at local

  20. INTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunderle, Stefan

    , scattering, and absorbing solar electromagnetic radiation and by modifying cloud properties due to their roleINTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation budget by reflecting to maximum cover a region once in the daytime. In contrary, up-to-date geostationary instruments like

  1. Note on the NDVI-LST relationship and the use of temperature-related drought indices over North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Donglian

    NDVI and the brightness temperature. Therefore using daytime LST for drought monitoring should be more proposed vegetation and temperature condition indices for drought monitoring are based on the strongNote on the NDVI-LST relationship and the use of temperature-related drought indices over North

  2. Land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite observations for an all-weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aires, Filipe

    Land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. In the absence all the expected variations with solar flux, soil characteristics, and cloudiness. During daytime

  3. The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heeter, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    facility in Hawaii. It supplies almost 10% of KIUC’s daytimeKIUC pays 20 ˘/kWh for solar power. In 2008, the HawaiiHawaii Electric Light Maui Division Maui Electric Company Lanai Division Molokai Division Source: HECO 2012 Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC)

  4. Indian Journal of Radio & Space Physics Vol 43, August -October 2014, pp 274-283

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    at Trivandrum in India in 1841. A standard magnetic observatory recording all the three components at 13°S latitude with a ratio of 2. Chapman6 interpreted this as being due to a band of intense current over the magnetic equator, the daytime eastward electric field and northward geomagnetic field give

  5. BICYCLE THEFTS Date: May 18, 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    BICYCLE THEFTS Date: May 18, 2015 Incident / Location: Multiple Bike Thefts / UCI Medical Center Details: UCI Police Department has received six reports of bicycle thefts at the UCI Medical Center that have occurred over the past several months. These bicycle thefts have occurred during daytime hours

  6. Summary In July 1993, we measured leaf conductance, carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation, and transpiration in a Larix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summary In July 1993, we measured leaf conductance, carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation to the value of 1.45 mm day-1 calculated from the energy balance and soil evaporation, and less than the value of 2.1mmday-1 measured by xylem flux. Daytime canopy carbon assimilation, expressed on a ground area

  7. The Authors (2009) www.newphytologist.org 1 Journal compilation New Phytologist (2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    2009-01-01

    whether leaves at the age of their mean life-span have carbon balances that are positive, zero or negative age sequences on all branches. We used YPLANT to estimate light interception and to model carbon. · At the age of their mean life-span, almost all leaves had positive daytime carbon balances. These per leaf

  8. Moffitt Library Renovation: The Vision Moffitt Library is a five-story center for learning in the center of the UC Berkeley campus, serving undergraduate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Moffitt Library Renovation: The Vision Moffitt Library is a five-story center for learning and reduces daytime energy consumption · Fixtures, equipment, and design elements will be energy-efficient and optimal for occupant health and comfort · Leadership in Environmental and Energy Design (LEED

  9. ICT powered by Energy Research, Trends and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frean, Marcus

    energy from wind, solar, vibration, etc. · Daytime ­ harvest & store enough energy for high user traffic energy like solar, wind, vibration, heat, and even radio waves ­Convert the energy into a form that canICT powered by Energy Harvesting Research, Trends and Challenges Winston Seah School of Engineering

  10. Petra Klein, Xiao-Ming Hu, Alan Shapiro, Ming Xue. School of Meteorology and Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, University of Oklahoma,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    data sets collected across the14 Oklahoma City metropolitan area during the Joint Urban field (WRF) model. The strength of the LLJs and turbulent mixing in the NBL17 both increase in LLJ speed relative to20 the mixed layer wind speed in the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL)21

  11. Atmospheric Environment ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bornstein, Robert

    Mesoscale Model (CSUMM) to simulate summertime flows in SoCAB. Simulated daytime onshore, upslope winds were-consistent wind model of Douglas and Kessler (1991) used SCCCAMP data to analyze SoCAB mesoscale flow patterns input into the photochemical Urban Airshed Model (UAM). Results showed that an increased albedo lowered

  12. Observational and Numerical of the Adriatic Bora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    and radiosoundings) 2. Mesoscale numerical model RAMS: · 5 or 6 nested grids · Horizontal mesh size as low as 800 m RAMS domain 5 #12;The event ­ 28 March 2002: · Deep bora: deep NE flow, no critical level field: · The bora flow weakens and separates during daytime. RAMS vertical transects across Vratnik Pass

  13. NIST Special Publication 432, 2002 Edition NIST Time and Frequency Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10 Chapter 2 Synchronizing the Nation's Clocks: NIST Radio Station WWVB 13 History of WWVB 13 WWVB History and Site Description of WWV 29 History and Site Description of WWVH 32 Station Specifications 33 Services 57 Internet Time Service (ITS) 57 ITS Servers 57 ITS Time Code Formats 58 Daytime Protocol (RFC

  14. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band GALINA WIND,*,1 spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower

  15. Cloud Monitoring for Large Cosmic Ray Sites R.W. Clay, B.R. Dawson, R.T. Pace, D.S. Riordan, A.G.K. Smith, N.R. Wild

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OG 4.5.23 Cloud Monitoring for Large Cosmic Ray Sites R.W. Clay, B.R. Dawson, R.T. Pace, D monitoring of the cloud distribution in the night sky within the experimental fiducial volume. We have developed infra-red detectors which are capa- ble of responding to cloud in daytime or night-time. We

  16. Sustainability Focused Engineering Challenge Camp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    .m. Solar Power Introduction 211 ESB Day Time Counselors 9:30 a.m. Solar Tracker Build 211 ESB Dakota Kirby:00 p.m. Lunch Towers Cafeteria 1:00 p.m. Solar Oven Design and Build G-84 ESB Daytime Counselors 2:30 p.m. Presentation from Solar House Team G-84 ESB Solar House Team 3:00 p.m. Passive Solar Heater Build Courtyard

  17. Radar Nowcasting of Total Lightning over the Kennedy Space Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seroka, Gregory Nicholas

    2011-08-08

    intracloud (IC) and/or total (IC + CG) lightning. In addition to CG lightning, IC flashes are of great concern to KSC launch operations. Four years (2006-2009) of summer (June, July, August) daytime (about 14-00 Z) Weather Surveillance Radar ? 1988... Page 1 Florida flash density from 1986-95. ......................................................... 3 2 LDAR-I and LDAR-II site locations ........................................................ 13 3 Various estimates of LDAR-I flash...

  18. An analysis of accident experience at entrance ramps within construction work zones at long-term freeway reconstruction projects in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casteel, David Bryan

    1991-01-01

    , severe accidents, daytime accidents, and multi-vehicle accidents (other than rear-end accidents) increased disproportionately in entrance ramp areas during construction. Conversely, accident frequencies did not increase significantly (a =0. 05... in Virginia, found that accidents in construction zones during 1977 were less severe than normal highway accidents. A reported 35 percent of work zone accidents were rear-end collisions. This may have contributed to the decrease in severity of reported work...

  19. Property:Building/FloorAreaHeatedGarages | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975)Energy TechnologyFloorAreaHealthServicesDaytime Jump

  20. Property:Building/FloorAreaHotels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975)Energy TechnologyFloorAreaHealthServicesDaytime

  1. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Application of radiant barriers and low-emittance surface coatings in residential building attics can significantly reduce conditioning loads from heat flow through attic floors. The roofing industry has been developing and using various radiant barrier systems and low-emittance surface coatings to increase energy efficiency in buildings; however, minimal data are available that quantifies the effectiveness of these technologies. This study evaluates performance of various attic radiant barrier systems under simulated summer daytime conditions and nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions using the large scale climate simulator (LSCS). The four attic configurations that were evaluated are 1) no radiant barrier (control), 2) perforated low-e foil laminated oriented strand board (OSB) deck, 3) low-e foil stapled on rafters, and 4) liquid applied low-emittance coating on roof deck and rafters. All test attics used nominal RUS 13 h-ft2- F/Btu (RSI 2.29 m2-K/W) fiberglass batt insulation on attic floor. Results indicate that the three systems with radiant barriers had heat flows through the attic floor during summer daytime condition that were 33%, 50%, and 19% lower than the control, respectively.

  2. Observations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux-gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-Fir canopy in very weak wind conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vickers, D.; Thomas, C.

    2014-05-13

    Observations of the scale-dependent turbulent fluxes and variances above, within and beneath a tall closed Douglas-Fir canopy in very weak winds are examined. The daytime subcanopy vertical velocity spectra exhibit a double-peak structure with peaks at time scales of 0.8 s and 51.2 s. A double-peak structure is also observed in the daytime subcanopy heat flux cospectra. The daytime momentum flux cospectra inside the canopy and in the subcanopy are characterized by a relatively large cross-wind component, likely due to the extremely light and variable winds, such that the definition of a mean wind direction, and subsequent partitioning of themore »momentum flux into along- and cross-wind components, has little physical meaning. Positive values of both momentum flux components in the subcanopy contribute to upward transfer of momentum, consistent with the observed mean wind speed profile. In the canopy at night at the smallest resolved scales, we find relatively large momentum fluxes (compared to at larger scales), and increasing vertical velocity variance with decreasing time scale, consistent with very small eddies likely generated by wake shedding from the canopy elements that transport momentum but not heat. We find unusually large values of the velocity aspect ratio within the canopy, consistent with enhanced suppression of the horizontal wind components compared to the vertical by the canopy. The flux-gradient approach for sensible heat flux is found to be valid for the subcanopy and above-canopy layers when considered separately; however, single source approaches that ignore the canopy fail because they make the heat flux appear to be counter-gradient when in fact it is aligned with the local temperature gradient in both the subcanopy and above-canopy layers. Modeled sensible heat fluxes above dark warm closed canopies are likely underestimated using typical values of the Stanton number.« less

  3. Solar cycle and seasonal variations in F region electrodynamics at Millstone Hill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buonsanto, M.J.; Hagan, M.E.; Salah, J.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Westford, MA (United States); Fejer, B.G. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Incoherent scatter radar observations of ion drifts taken at Millstone Hill (42.6{degrees}N, 288.5{degrees}E) during 73 experiments in the period February 1984 to February 1992 are used to construct, for the first time at this station, average quiet-time ExB drift patterns for both solar cycle maximum and minimum, for the summer, winter, and equinox seasons. The daily variation of V{sub {perpendicular}N} shows a reversal from northward to southward drifts near noon, and a return to northward drifts in the premidnight hours. The weaker southward drift in the afternoon in summer noted by Wand and Evans is shown to occur only at sunspot minimum. The daily variation of V{sub {perpendicular}E} shows daytime eastward drifts and nighttime westward drifts, except in summer when the usual daytime eastward maximum near 1200 LT is suppressed. The daily mean drift is westward for all seasons, and is largest in summer. The daytime eastward drift and nighttime westward drift tend to be stronger at solar maximum than at solar minimum. Average drift patterns are also constructed for equinox for both extremely quiet and geomagnetically disturbed periods. V{sub {perpendicular}N} is appreciably more northward under extremely quiet than under disturbed conditions in the postmidnight and morning periods. During extremely quiet periods, V{sub {perpendicular}E} turns slightly eastward in the evening hours, while it is strongly westward for disturbed conditions. This result contrasts with the strong eastward drifts in the evening in summer reported for extremely quiet conditions at Millstone Hill by Gonzalez et al. A strong anticorrelation is seen at Millstone Hill between V{sub {perpendicular}N} and V{sub {parallel}}, as is found at lower latitude stations. The quiet-time patterns are discussed in terms of the causative E and F region dynamo mechanisms. 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Top-down estimate of anthropogenic emission inventories and their interannual variability in Houston using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brioude, J.; Kim, S. W.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S. H.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, Michael; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Williams, E. J.; Petron, Gabrielle; Fast, Jerome D.

    2011-10-31

    The 2000 and 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000 and 2006) field campaigns took place in eastern Texas in August-October of 2000 and 2006. Several flights of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) research aircraft were dedicated to characterizing anthropogenic emissions over Houston. Houston is known for having serious problems with non-attainment of air quality standards. We present a method that uses three models and aircraft observations to assess and improve existing emission inventories using an inverse modeling technique. We used 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional variational (3D-VAR and 4D-VAR) inverse modeling techniques based on a least-squares method to improve the spatial and temporal distribution of CO, NOy (sum of all reactive nitrogen compounds), and SO2 emissions predicted by the 4-km-resolution U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Inventory (NEI) for 2005. Differences between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed in detail. We found that in 2006 the prior daytime emissions in the urban area of Houston have to be reduced by 40% {+-} 12% for CO and 7% {+-} 13% for NOy. Over the Houston Ship Channel, where industrial emissions are predominant, the prior emissions have to be reduced by 41% {+-} 15% for CO and 51% {+-} 9% for NOy. Major ports around Houston have their NOy emissions reduced as well, probably due to uncertainties in near-shore ship emissions in the EPA NEI inventory. Using the measurements from the two field campaigns, we assessed the interannual emission variability between 2000 and 2006. Daytime CO emissions from the Houston urban area have been reduced by 8% {+-} 20%, while the NOy emissions have increased by 20% {+-} 12% from 2000 to 2006. In the Houston Ship Channel, the daytime NOy emissions have increased by 13% {+-} 17%. Our results show qualitative consistencies with known changes in Houston emissions sources.

  5. FYI: January 7, 1980 - June 25, 1981

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1981-01-01

    and Tuesday, 1/5-6 were to have been the days when the big ducts of the second floor east duct chase were to be connected, cutting off day-time heat to the Slavic Department, SPLAT, the Bib Alcove and room 202. What with all the reindeer roping of late... Indep endence Day; Friday, July 3, 1981 Labor Day, Monday; September 7, 1981 Veterans' Day; Wednesday, November II, 1981 Thanksgiving Day; Thursday and Friday, November 26 & 27, 1981 Christmas Day; Thursday and Friday, December 24 & 25, 1981 New...

  6. Advanced Thermal Energy Storage: Novel Tuning of Critical Fluctuations for Advanced Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: NAVITASMAX is developing a novel thermal energy storage solution. This innovative technology is based on simple and complex supercritical fluids— substances where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist, and tuning the properties of these fluid systems to increase their ability to store more heat. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system during the day and released at night—when the sun is not shining—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours.

  7. Cooling Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities with Chilled Water Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    2). Recovery of this facility's very large fixed costs caused the high voltage demand charge to increase by 135% (from $5.20/kW to $ 12.20/kW) making daytime electric water chilling a much more! expensive practice than previously. DPIIDMOS5... and pumping horsepower. And, if necessary, valves in the secondary pump suction header permit the "warm" pump to substitute for either of the two "cold" pumps. CHILLED WATER STORAGE Storage Type Stratified chilled water storage was the most cost...

  8. Thermal Plasticity of Photosynthesis: the Role of Acclimation in Forest Responses to a Warming Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; O'Hara, Keiran H [ORNL; Campion, Christina M [ORNL; Walker, Ashley V [ORNL; Edwards, Nelson T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The increasing air temperatures central to climate change predictions have the potential to alter forest ecosystem function and structure by exceeding temperatures optimal for carbon gain. Such changes are projected to threaten survival of sensitive species, leading to local extinctions, range migrations, and altered forest composition. This study investigated photosynthetic sensitivity to temperature and the potential for acclimation in relation to the climatic provenance of five species of deciduous trees, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus rubra, Quercus falcata, Betula alleghaniensis, and Populus grandidentata. Open-top chambers supplied three levels of warming (+0, +2, and +4 C above ambient) over 3 years, tracking natural temperature variability. Optimal temperature for CO2 assimilation was strongly correlated with daytime temperature in all treatments, but assimilation rates at those optima were comparable. Adjustment of thermal optima was confirmed in all species, whether temperatures varied with season or treatment, and regardless of climate in the species' range or provenance of the plant material. Temperature optima from 17 to 34 were observed. Across species, acclimation potentials varied from 0.55 C to 1.07 C per degree change in daytime temperature. Responses to the temperature manipulation were not different from the seasonal acclimation observed in mature indigenous trees, suggesting that photosynthetic responses should not be modeled using static temperature functions, but should incorporate an adjustment to account for acclimation. The high degree of homeostasis observed indicates that direct impacts of climatic warming on forest productivity, species survival, and range limits may be less than predicted by existing models.

  9. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annette Rohr

    2006-03-31

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2005 through February 28, 2006. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the performance and analysis of field experiments at the first TERESA plant, located in the Upper Midwest and henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. During this reporting period, data processing and analyses were completed for exposure and toxicological data collected during the field campaign at Plant 1, located in the Southeast. To recap from the previous progress report, Stage I toxicological assessments were carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats, and Stage II assessments were carried out in a compromised model (myocardial infarction-MI-model). Normal rats were exposed to the following atmospheric scenarios: (1) primary particles; (2) oxidized emissions; (3) oxidized emissions + SOA--this scenario was repeated; and (4) oxidized emissions + ammonia + SOA. Compromised animals were exposed to oxidized emissions + SOA (this scenario was also conducted in replicate). Mass concentrations in exposure atmospheres ranged from 13.9 {micro}g/m{sup 3} for the primary particle scenario (P) to 385 {micro}g/m{sup 3} for one of the oxidized emissions + SOA scenarios (POS). There was a fair amount of day-to-day variation in mass concentration, even within a given exposure round; this is likely due to the inherent variation in the power plant operation. Concentrations of ozone, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, and carbonyls were below 50 ppb. Total sulfate concentration ranged from 82 to 175 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Elemental data suggest substantial day-to-day variations which again provide insight about the inherent variations attributed to plant operation. All elements were present at low concentrations except for sulfur. Other prominent elements were: Si, Br, Ca, K, La and Cu. SOA was speciated using GC-MS, with typical {alpha}-pinene oxidation products being observed. Toxicological results obtained to date from Plant 1 indicate some biological responses to some exposure scenarios. We observed pulmonary function changes, increased oxidative stress, and increases in cardiac arrhythmias in response to certain scenarios. For the oxidative stress endpoint, an increase in chemiluminescence occurred only in those scenarios including SOA. More detailed statistical modeling also points to the importance of organic material in these scenarios; additional analyses are currently underway to better understand this finding. Fieldwork for Plant 2, located in the Midwest, is scheduled for June-September 2006, and logistical planning is now underway. During the next reporting period, we will complete fieldwork at Plant 2. A draft topical report for Plant 0 was submitted to DOE-NETL in December 2005, with the final report to be submitted in April, 2006. We will also complete a topical report for Plant 1 by June 30, 2006.

  10. Observations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux–gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak wind conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vickers, D.; Thomas, C. K.

    2014-09-16

    Observations of the scale-dependent turbulent fluxes, variances, and the bulk transfer parameterization for sensible heat above, within, and beneath a tall closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak winds are examined. The daytime sub-canopy vertical velocity spectra exhibit a double-peak structure with peaks at timescales of 0.8 s and 51.2 s. A double-peak structure is also observed in the daytime sub-canopy heat flux co-spectra. The daytime momentum flux co-spectra in the upper bole space and in the sub-canopy are characterized by a relatively large cross-wind component, likely due to the extremely light and variable winds, such that the definition of amore »mean wind direction, and subsequent partitioning of the momentum flux into along- and cross-wind components, has little physical meaning. Positive values of both momentum flux components in the sub-canopy contribute to upward transfer of momentum, consistent with the observed sub-canopy secondary wind speed maximum. For the smallest resolved scales in the canopy at nighttime, we find increasing vertical velocity variance with decreasing timescale, consistent with very small eddies possibly generated by wake shedding from the canopy elements that transport momentum, but not heat. Unusually large values of the velocity aspect ratio within the canopy were observed, consistent with enhanced suppression of the horizontal wind components compared to the vertical by the very dense canopy. The flux–gradient approach for sensible heat flux is found to be valid for the sub-canopy and above-canopy layers when considered separately in spite of the very small fluxes on the order of a few W m?2 in the sub-canopy. However, single-source approaches that ignore the canopy fail because they make the heat flux appear to be counter-gradient when in fact it is aligned with the local temperature gradient in both the sub-canopy and above-canopy layers. While sub-canopy Stanton numbers agreed well with values typically reported in the literature, our estimates for the above-canopy Stanton number were much larger, which likely leads to underestimated modeled sensible heat fluxes above dark warm closed canopies.« less

  11. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Wiemann, Dora K.; Choi, Junoh; Howell, Stephen W.

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  12. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Rose, Amy N; Liu, Cheng; Urban, Marie L; Stewart, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  13. Average vertical and zonal F region plasma drifts over Jicamarca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fejer, B.G.; Gonzalez, S.A. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); de Paula, E.R. (Inst. de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Sao Paulo (Brazil) Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); Woodman, R.F. (Inst. Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru))

    1991-08-01

    The seasonal averages of the equatorial F region vertical and zonal plasma drifts are determined using extensive incoherent scatter radar observations from Jicamarca during 1968-1988. The late afternoon and nighttime vertical and zonal drifts are strongly dependent on the 10.7-cm solar flux. The authors show that the evening prereversal enhancement of vertical drifts increases linearly with solar flux during equinox but tends to saturate for large fluxes during southern hemisphere winter. They examine in detail, for the first time, the seasonal variation of the zonal plasma drifts and their dependence on solar flux and magnetic activity. The seasonal effects on the zonal drifts are most pronounced in the midnight-morning sector. The nighttime eastward drifts increase with solar flux for all seasons but decrease slightly with magnetic activity. The daytime westward drifts are essentially independent of season, solar cycle, and magnetic activity.

  14. Survey Simulations of an New Near-Earth Asteroid Detection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mainzer, A; Bauer, J; Conrow, T; Cutri, R M; Dailey, J; Fowler, J; Giorgini, J; Jarrett, T; Masiero, J; Spahr, T; Statler, T; Wright, E L

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out simulations to predict the performance of a new space-based telescopic survey operating at thermal infrared wavelengths that seeks to discover and characterize a large fraction of the potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. Two potential architectures for the survey were considered: one located at the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point, and one in a Venus-trailing orbit. A sample cadence was formulated and tested, allowing for the self-follow-up necessary for objects discovered in the daytime sky on Earth. Synthetic populations of NEAs with sizes >=140 m in effective spherical diameter were simulated using recent determinations of their physical and orbital properties. Estimates of the instrumental sensitivity, integration times, and slew speeds were included for both architectures assuming the properties of new large-format 10 um detector arrays capable of operating at ~35 K. Our simulation included the creation of a preliminary version of a moving object processing pipeline ...

  15. Heat flows and energetic behavior of a telecommunication radio base station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petraglia, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows a study on energetic consumption of BTSs (Base Transceiver Stations) for mobile communication, related to conditioning functions. An energetic "thermal model" of a telecommunication station is proposed and studied. The results have been validated with a BTS in central Italy, showing good agreement. Findings show a substantial high internal-external temperature difference in the containing shelter, particularly during daytime and warm months, due to sources of heat (equipment, external temperature and sun radiation) and to the difficulty in spread the warmth out. The necessity to keep the operating temperatures within a given range for the correct functioning of the electronic equipment requires the use of conditioning setups, and this significantly increases the energetic demand of the whole system. The analysis of thermal flows across the shelter can help to gather further data on its temperature behavior and to devise practical measures to lower the power demand, while keeping the operating...

  16. Rocky Flats 1990--91 winter validation tracer study: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, K.J.

    1991-10-01

    During the winter of 1990--91, North American Weather Consultants (NAWC) and its subcontractor, ABB Environmental Services (ABBES), conducted a Winter Validation Study (WVS) for EG&G Rocky Flats involving 12 separate tracer experiments conducted between February 3 and February 19, 1991. Six experiments were conducted during nighttime hours and four experiments were conducted during daytime hours. In addition, there was one day/night and one night/day transitional experiment conducted. The primary purpose of the WVS was to gather data to further the approval process for the Terrain Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC). TRAC is an atmospheric dispersion model developed and operated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) north of Denver, Colorado. A secondary objective was to gather data that will serve to validate the TRAC model physics.

  17. Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River, September 1992. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.C.; Bixby, R.; Engman, J.; Ross, L.; Stocker, L. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1993-03-01

    At the end of summer in 1992 the fishery of the Great Miami River took an unexpected deviation from the stasis of past years as an intense suspended algal bloom decreased the compositional diversity found at the lower GMR stations. Daytime supersaturation of oxygen and elevated pHs, reaching 9 by midday during the month of August, undoubtedly caused severe deficits of oxygen at night. Despite the aeration at every riffle, the intensities of the biological processes in the water were sufficient to cause very high positive and negative excursions of oxygen over the day and night cycle. This report documents a fish harvest that was conducted as part of the oxygen excess/deficit study.

  18. Electron-density comparisons between radar observations and 3-D ionospheric model calculations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of electron densities calculated from the Utah State University First-Principals Ionospheric Model with simultaneous observations taken at Sondrestrom, Millstone, and Arecibo incoherent-scatter radars was undertaken to better understanding the response of the ionosphere at these longitudinally similar yet latitudinally separated locations. The comparison included over 50 days distributed over 3 1/2 years roughly symmetrical about the last solar-minimum in 1986. The overall trend of the comparison was that to first-order the model reproduces electron densities responding to diurnal, seasonal, geomagnetic, and solar-cycle variations for all three radars. However, some model-observation discrepancies were found. These include, failure of the model to correctly produce an evening peak at Millstone, fall-spring equinox differences at Sondrestrom, tidal structure at Arecibo, and daytime NmF2 values at Arecibo.

  19. Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. E Girish; S Aranya

    2010-12-03

    Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

  20. Development of the table of initial isolation distances and protective action distances for the 2004 emergency response guidebook.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. F.; Freeman, W. A.; Carhart, R. A.; Krumpolc, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2005-09-23

    This report provides technical documentation for values in the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances (PADs) in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG2004). The objective for choosing the PADs specified in the ERG2004 is to balance the need to adequately protect the public from exposure to potentially harmful substances against the risks and expenses that could result from overreacting to a spill. To quantify this balance, a statistical approach is adopted, whereby the best available information is used to conduct an accident scenario analysis and develop a set of up to 1,000,000 hypothetical incidents. The set accounts for differences in containers types, incident types, accident severity (i.e., amounts released), locations, times of day, times of year, and meteorological conditions. Each scenario is analyzed using detailed emission rate and atmospheric dispersion models to calculate the downwind chemical concentrations from which a 'safe distance' is determined. The safe distance is defined as the distance downwind from the source at which the chemical concentration falls below health protection criteria. The American Industrial Hygiene Association's Emergency Response Planning Guideline Level 2 (ERPG-2) or equivalent is the health criteria used. The statistical sample of safe distance values for all incidents considered in the analysis are separated into four categories: small spill/daytime release, small spill/nighttime release, large spill/daytime release, and large spill/nighttime release. The 90th-percentile safe distance values for each of these groups became the PADs that appear in the ERG2004.

  1. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2014-12-02

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12 month, 12 km horizontal resolution air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a Volatility Basis Set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary models used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12% and anmore »annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of ?1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations, and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations, with better performance at predicting average daytime and daily peak O3 concentrations. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 65%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = ?110%) and organic carbon (MFB = ?65%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  2. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-04-07

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a volatility basis set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12%more »and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of ?1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = ?110%) and organic carbon (MFB = ?29%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  3. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  4. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropocentrically impacted regions. Interspecies correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources for the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropocentrically impacted regions.

  5. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2015-10-21

    Observed and projected trends in large scale wind speed over the oceans prompt the question: how might marine stratocumulus clouds and their radiative properties respond to future changes in large scale wind speed? Wind speed drives the surface fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and momentum, and thereby acts on cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud radiative properties. We present an investigation of the dynamical response of non-precipitating, overcast marine stratocumulus clouds to different wind speeds, all else equal. In cloud-system resolving simulations, we find that higher wind speed leads to faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment. The dynamicalmore »driver is enhanced buoyant production of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) from latent heat release in cloud updrafts. LWP is enhanced during the night and in the morning at higher wind speed, and more strongly suppressed later in the day. Wind speed hence accentuates the diurnal LWP cycle by expanding the morning – afternoon contrast. The higher LWP at higher wind speed does not, however, enhance cloud top cooling because in clouds with LWP ⪆ 50 g m?2, long wave emissions are very insensitive to LWP. This leads to the more general conclusion that in sufficiently thick stratocumulus clouds, additional boundary layer growth and entrainment due to a boundary layer moistening arises by stronger production of TKE from latent heat release in cloud updrafts, rather than from enhanced longwave cooling. We find furthermore that large scale wind modulates boundary layer decoupling. At nighttime and at low wind speed during daytime, it enhances decoupling in part by faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment, and in part because circulation driven by shear from large scale wind in the sub-cloud layer hinders vertical moisture transport between the surface and cloud base. With increasing wind speed, however, in decoupled daytime conditions, shear-driven circulation due to large scale wind takes over from buoyancy-driven circulation in transporting moisture from the surface to cloud base, and thereby reduces decoupling and helps maintain LWP. The cloud radiative effect (CRE) responds to changes in LWP and cloud fraction, and higher wind speed translates to a stronger diurnally averaged CRE. However, the sensitivity of the diurnally averaged CRE to wind speed decreases with increasing wind speed.« less

  6. Solar Physics and the Solar-Stellar Connection at Dome C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Denker; K. G. Strassmeier

    2007-12-10

    Solar magnetic fields evolve on many time-scales, e.g., the generation, migration, and dissipation of magnetic flux during the 22-year magnetic cycle of the Sun. Active regions develop and decay over periods of weeks. The build-up of magnetic shear in active regions can occur within less than a day. At the shortest time-scales, the magnetic field topology can change rapidly within a few minutes as the result of eruptive events such as flares, filament eruptions, and coronal mass ejections. The unique daytime seeing characteristics at Dome C, i.e., continuous periods of very good to excellent seeing during almost the entire Antarctic summer, allow us to address many of the top science cases related to the evolution of solar magnetic fields. We introduce the Advanced Solar Photometric Imager and Radiation Experiment and present the science cases for synoptic solar observations at Dome C. Furthermore, common science cases concerning the solar-stellar connection are discussed in the context of the proposed International Concordia Explorer Telescope.

  7. Conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nezammahalleh, H.; Farhadi, F.; Tanhaemami, M.

    2010-09-15

    Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough collectors causes an increase to competitiveness of solar thermal power plants (STPP) by substitution of oil with direct steam generation that results in lower investment and operating costs. In this study the integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology is introduced and techno-economic assessment of this plant is reported compared with two conventional cases. Three considered cases are: an integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology (ISCCS-DSG), a solar electric generating system (SEGS), and an integrated solar combined cycle system with HTF (heat transfer fluid) technology (ISCCS-HTF). This study shows that levelized energy cost (LEC) for the ISCCS-DSG is lower than the two other cases due to reducing O and M costs and also due to increasing the heat to electricity net efficiency of the power plant. Among the three STPPs, SEGS has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, but it will operate during daytime only. (author)

  8. Idaho field experiment 1981. Volume 2: measurement data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Start, G E; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R; Cate, J H; Hukari, N F; Dickson, C R

    1984-04-01

    The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in southeastern Idaho over the upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were conducted between July 15 and 30, 1981. Releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made for 8-hour periods from 46m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24km square. Also, a single total integrated sample of about 30 hours duration was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72km square (using 6km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plume releases were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were collected. Volume II lists the data in tabular form or cites the special supplemental reports by other participating contractors. While the primary user file and the data archive are maintained on 9 track/1600 cpi magnetic tapes, listings of the individual values are provided for the user who either cannot utilize the tapes or wishes to preview the data. The accuracies and quality of these data are described.

  9. Demonstration of an advanced solar garden with a water ceiling. Final technical report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maes, R.; Riseng, C.; Thomas, G.; Mandeville, M.

    1980-09-01

    A history of the solar garden with the addition of the transparent water ceiling is presented, and a statement of the overall goals of the program is given. The objectives of the water ceiling grant are detailed. The rationale of the transparent water ceiling is developed and its implementation in the solar garden is described. The experimental procedures for evaluating the water ceiling as an integral part of an ongoing garden agricultural experiment are discussed and the results presented. The water ceiling has proven useful in providing extra thermal capacity to the solar garden. It provides heat at night after the water has been warmed during the day and retards overheating in the daytime by absorbing infrared energy into the water. In growing non-flowering plants, such as lettuce and Chinese cabbage, the water ceiling showed no noticeable degradation in yield or maturation rate. In flowering plants, such as tomatoes, the reduced light levels delayed yields by a couple of weeks but the total yield was only slightly diminished. In geographic areas where there is less cloud cover than in Michigan the water ceiling could be much more effective.

  10. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E.; Moriconi, M. L.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-06-20

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  11. Pigmented foils for radiative cooling and condensation irrigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsson, T.M.J.; Vargas, W.E.; Niklasson, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports on the development of pigmented polyethylene foils for radiative cooling. The optical properties of the foils were optimized for applications in day-time radiative cooling and water condensation. The authors first study highly scattering foils used as convection shields. These cover foils combine a high solar reflectance and a high transmittance in the atmospheric window region in the infrared. Different pigment materials were studied and ZnS was the only one that could prevent heating of an underlying blackbody at noon, with the sun in its zenith. A 400 {micro}m thick ZnS pigmented polyethylene foil with a pigment volume fraction of 0.15 was tested in Tanzania. At noon the observed temperature of the covered blackbody was only 1.5 K above the ambient. Secondly, they study the potential for condensation of water in an arid region. Pigmented foils for this purpose should combine a high solar reflectance and a high infrared emittance, in order to promote condensation by the radiative cooling effect. Titanium dioxide is a fairly good infrared emitter, but the emittance can be improved by using a mixture of TiO{sub 2} and BaSO{sub 4} pigments or only employing a composite SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}. Field tests with a 390 {micro}m thick polyethylene foil with TiO{sub 2} and BaSO{sub 4} pigments gave encouraging results.

  12. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Sulc; Konstantin Turitsyn; Scott Backhaus; Michael Chertkov

    2010-08-04

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e. local). In general, we find that local control schemes are capable for maintaining voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for nighttime operation.

  13. Receptor modeling assessment of particle total exposure assessment methodology data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, E.; Hopke, P.K.; Wallace, L.

    1999-10-15

    Data from the 1991 Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) study in Riverside, CA, were analyzed using a new receptor modeling method. In this study, ambient (outdoor), indoor, and personal particulate matter (PM) concentrations and elemental concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} were measured for a number of participants. These measurements made is possible to relate the pollution to which people were exposed throughout their daily activities with the outdoor air conditions. Personal daytime concentrations of the PM{sub 10} and majority of elements were significantly higher than outdoor or indoor concentrations, suggesting that a significant part of personal aerosol exposure is the result of personal daily activities. Possible sources of additional particulate mass include resuspension of particles that penetrate from the outdoors and formation of new particles during cooking, smoking, etc. Positive matrix factorization analysis was performed to describe the sources of personal exposure. To identify relative contribution of different sources, regression of the particulate matter mass against the factor contributions was performed. Major sources of PM{sub 2.5} were oil combustion, nonferrous metal operations, and motor vehicles. The mass contributions of particles from these sources were similar for outdoor air and personal exposure. Personal exposure to particles from these sources can be controlled by changing outdoor sources. The primary source of PM{sub 10} was soil.

  14. Latitudinal variation of the charge exchange induced atomic hydrogen escape flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maher, L.J. Jr.

    1980-09-01

    Using plasma data from the Isis 2 spacecraft and Arecibo radar, diffusive equilibrium models of the ionosphere were constructed for equinox conditions. These plasmaspheric models were combined with models of the neutral atmosphere ot calculate the atomic hydrogen escape flux due to charge exchange between thermal protons and to calculate cooler hydrogen and oxygen atoms as a function of dipole latitude and local time. These calculations showed that the daytime escape flux increases as the absolute value of the dipole latitude decreases, reaching its maximum value at the magnetic equator. At 15 hours local time (LT) on March 23, 1972, the calculated escape flux varied from an insignificant amount at 55/sup 0/ dipole latitude, to 3 x 10/sup 8/ atoms cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ at the magnetic equator. In addition, the relative importance to the total charge-exchange escape flux of the component due to charge exchange between protons and atomic oxygen is discussed. The contribution to the escape flux of plasma at high L values, and the effect of newly produced hot hydrogen upon the neutral temperature are also discussed.

  15. Semi-empirical low-latitude ionospheric model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D.N.; Mendillo, M.; Herniter, B.

    1987-04-01

    Since current empirical models specifying low-latitude electron-density profiles severely underestimate the daytime plasma scale height and total electron content (TEC) values, a semiempirical low-latitude ionospheric model (SLIM) was developed that is not only computationally fast, but also more realistic. Electron-density profiles (180-1800 km) are theoretically calculated as a function of latitude (every 2 deg between 24 N and 24 S dip latitude) and local time (every half hour, over 24 hours LT) by solving the time-dependent plasma-continuity equation. Using simple exponential functions, sets of coefficients themselves are easily stored. quickly retrieved and form the basis for a fast, portable, semi-empirical computer code. This paper describes briefly the input parameters used to theoretically calculate the profiles and the procedures used to generate the coefficients. The SLIM profiles are compared with the Chiu and Bent empirical models for equinox, solar maximum conditions, while calculated at 6300 A airglow intensities and TEC values are compared with available observations. The SLIM profiles, their coefficients, TEC and 6300 A airglow intensities are available in tabular and computer formats.

  16. Seasonal ozone variations in the upper mesosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, R.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1990-05-20

    The global daytime ozone was measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite (SME) for 5 years. The measurements extend through the mesosphere, covering from 50 km to over 90 km. The ozone in the upper mesosphere varies annually by up to a factor of 3. The observed seasonal variations may be summarized in several different ways. From year to year there is a great deal of repeatability of these variations. This repeatability occurs in most of the upper mesosphere outside the tropics. Near 0.01 mbar (80 km) the mid- and high-latitude mixing ratio peaks each year in mid-April. A secondary maximum in the altitude profile of ozone density usually occurs near 85 km. Changes in this structure are directly related to the April maximum and other seasonal changes seen at 0.01 mbar. The changing seasonal structure produces a bump at the ozone mixing ratio minimum that is largest just after spring equinox. This perturbation to the mixing ratio profile seems to move upward during the first half of the year. The seasonal changes of ozone were analyzed in terms of annual and semiannual structure. The variations generally have both an annual and semiannual component depending on altitude and latitude. The phases of the variations change quickly with both altitude and latitude. The semiannual component peaks in April, over most of the upper mesosphere.

  17. Semi-empirical low-latitude ionospheric model. Environmental research papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D.N.; Mendillo; Herniter

    1985-10-10

    Since current empirical models specifying low-latitude electron density profiles severely underestimate the daytime plasma density scale-height and total electron content (TEC), a Semi-empirical, Low-latitude, Ionospheric Model (SLIM) was developed that is not only more realistic but is also computationally fast. Electron-density profiles (180 to 1800 km) are theoretically calculated as a function of latitude (every 2/sup 0/ between 24 N and 24 S dip latitude) and local time (every half-hour over 24 hours LT) by solving the time-dependent plasma-continuity equation. Assuming a Chapman-like profile, sets coefficients are then generated that reproduce these individual profiles. The coefficients themselves are easily stored, quickly retrieved, and form the basis for a fast, portable, semi-empirical computer code. This report describes briefly the input parameters used to theoretically calculate profiles and the procedures used to generate the coefficients. The SLIM profiles are compared with the Chiu and Bent empirical models for Equinox, solar-maximum conditions. Finally, electron densities, the coefficients, TEC and 6300 A airglow intensities are listed in tabular form for three seasons (Equinox, June solstice, and December solstice) and two solar-cycle periods (solar maximum and solar minimum).

  18. Ion composition of the topside equatorial ionosphere during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, S.A.; Fejer, B.G. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); Heelis, R.A.; Hanson, W.B. (Univ. of Texas, Richardson (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The authors have used observations from both the Bennett ion mass spectrometer and the retarding potential analyzer on board the Atmosphere Explorer E satellite to study the longitudinally averaged O{sup +}, H{sup +}, and He{sup +} concentrations from 150 to 1,100 km in the equatorial ionosphere during the 1975-1976 solar minimum. The results suggest that the ion mass spectrometer measurements need to be increased by a factor of 2.15 to agree with the densities from the retarding potential analyzer and with ground-based measurements. The peak H{sup +} concentrations are about 2.5 {times} 10{sup 4} cm{sup {minus}3} during the day and 10{sup 4} cm{sup {minus}3} at night and vary little with season. The O{sup +}/H{sup +} transition altitude lies between 750 and 825 km during the day and between 550 and 600 km at night. He{sup +} is a minor species at all altitudes; its concentration is highly variable with a maximum value of about 10{sup 3} cm{sup {minus}3} during equinox daytime.

  19. Using Mesoscale Weather Model Output as Boundary Conditions for Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulations and Wind-Plant Aerodynamic Simulations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Michalakes, J.; Vanderwende, B.; Lee, S.; Sprague, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    Wind plant aerodynamics are directly affected by the microscale weather, which is directly influenced by the mesoscale weather. Microscale weather refers to processes that occur within the atmospheric boundary layer with the largest scales being a few hundred meters to a few kilometers depending on the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer. Mesoscale weather refers to large weather patterns, such as weather fronts, with the largest scales being hundreds of kilometers wide. Sometimes microscale simulations that capture mesoscale-driven variations (changes in wind speed and direction over time or across the spatial extent of a wind plant) are important in wind plant analysis. In this paper, we present our preliminary work in coupling a mesoscale weather model with a microscale atmospheric large-eddy simulation model. The coupling is one-way beginning with the weather model and ending with a computational fluid dynamics solver using the weather model in coarse large-eddy simulation mode as an intermediary. We simulate one hour of daytime moderately convective microscale development driven by the mesoscale data, which are applied as initial and boundary conditions to the microscale domain, at a site in Iowa. We analyze the time and distance necessary for the smallest resolvable microscales to develop.

  20. Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberbauer, S. F.

    2004-01-16

    The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

  1. Shortwave Spectroradiometer (SWS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilewskie, P; Pommier, J

    2006-11-01

    The Shortwave Spectroradiometer (SWS), measures the absolute visible and near infrared spectralradiance (units of watts per meter square per nanometer per steradian) of the zenith directly above the instrument. The SWS is a moderate resolution sensor comprised of two Zeiss spectrometers (MMS 1 NIR enhanced and NIR-PGS 2.2) for visible and near-infrared detection in the wavelength range 350 – 2170 nm. The sampling frequency is 1 Hz. The spectral resolution is 8 nm for the MMS 1 NIR and 12 nm for the NIR-PGS 2.2. The light collector is a narrow field of view (1.4°) collimator at the front end of a high-grade custom-made fiber optic bundle. The SWS does daily daytime measurements. The SWS is located in a darkroom, constructed by Southern Great Plains (SGP) site personnel within the optical trailer, to permit calibrations to be conducted without the necessity of moving the instrument to a different location. Calibrations are performed at regularly scheduled times using the ARM 12” integrating sphere.

  2. Idaho Field Experiment 1981. Volume 1. Experimental design and measurement systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Start, G E; Cate, J H; Dickson, C R; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R

    1983-10-01

    The Idaho Field Experiment is reported in three volumes and supplemented by special contractor reports. Volume I describes the design and goals of the measurement program and the measurement systems utilized during the field program. The measurement systems layouts are described as well. The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in South East Idaho over the Upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were measured between July 15 and 30, 1981. Eight-hour releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made from 46 m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24 km square. Also, a single total integrated sample, of about 30 hours duration, was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72 km (using 6 km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plumes were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High-altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were also collected. 10 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  5. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

    2014-09-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  6. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 2. Large-eddy simulations of cumulus clouds and evaluation with in-situ and ground-based observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Endo, Satoshi; Fridlind, Ann M.; Lin, Wuyin; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Toto, Tami; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Jackson, Robert C.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Liu, Yangang

    2015-06-19

    A 60-hour case study of continental boundary layer cumulus clouds is examined using two large-eddy simulation (LES) models. The case is based on observations obtained during the RACORO Campaign (Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [ARM] Aerial Facility [AAF] Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths [CLOWD] Optical Radiative Observations) at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains site. The LES models are driven by continuous large-scale and surface forcings, and are constrained by multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles derived from aircraft observations. We compare simulated cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties with ground-based remote sensing and aircraft observations.more »The LES simulations capture the observed transitions of the evolving cumulus-topped boundary layers during the three daytime periods, and generally reproduce variations of droplet number concentration with liquid water content (LWC), corresponding to the gradient between the cloud centers and cloud edges at given heights. The observed LWC values fall within the range of simulated values; the observed droplet number concentrations are commonly higher than simulated, but differences remain on par with potential estimation errors in the aircraft measurements. Sensitivity studies examine the influences of bin microphysics versus bulk microphysics, aerosol advection, supersaturation treatment, and aerosol hygroscopicity. Simulated macrophysical cloud properties are found to be insensitive in this non-precipitating case, but microphysical properties are especially sensitive to bulk microphysics supersaturation treatment and aerosol hygroscopicity.« less

  7. Contribution from biogenic organic compounds to particle growth during the 2010 BEACHON-ROCS campaign in a Colorado temperate needleleaf forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, L.; Gierens, R.; Sogachev, A.; Mogensen, D.; Ortega, J.; Smith, J. N.; Harley, P. C.; Prenni, A. J.; Levin, E. J. T.; Turnipseed, A.; et al

    2015-08-06

    New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric phenomenon. During an NPF event, particles first form by nucleation and then grow further in size. The growth step is crucial because it controls the number of particles that can become cloud condensation nuclei. Among various physical and chemical processes contributing to particle growth, condensation by organic vapors has been suggested as important. In order to better understand the influence of biogenic emissions on particle growth, we carried out modeling studies of NPF events during the BEACHON-ROCS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosol, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Organic Carbonmore »Study) campaign at Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory in Colorado, USA. The site is representative of the semi-arid western USA. With the latest Criegee intermediate reaction rates implemented in the chemistry scheme, the model underestimates sulfuric acid concentration by 50 %, suggesting either missing sources of atmospheric sulfuric acid or an overestimated sink term. The results emphasize the contribution from biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to particle growth by demonstrating the effects of the oxidation products of monoterpenes and 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO). Monoterpene oxidation products are shown to influence the nighttime particle loadings significantly, while their concentrations are insufficient to grow the particles during the day. The growth of ultrafine particles in the daytime appears to be closely related to the OH oxidation products of MBO.« less

  8. Evidence of Reactive Aromatics As a Major Source of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate over China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yuhang; Gu, Dasa; Zhao, Chun; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, Robert; Liao, Jin; Shao, Min; Zhu, T.; Zeng, Limin; Liu, Shaw C.; Chang, Chih-Chung; Amoroso, Antonio; Costabile, Francesa

    2010-09-15

    We analyze the observations of near-surface peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) and its precursors in Beijing, China in August of 2007. The levels of PAN are remarkably high (up to 14 ppbv), surpassing those measured over other urban regions in recent years. Analyses employing a 1-D version of a chemical transport model (Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model, REAM) indicate that aromatic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are the dominant (55-75%) PAN source. The major oxidation product of aromatics that produces acetyl peroxy radicals is methylglyoxal (MGLY). PAN and O3 in the observations are correlated at daytime; aromatic NMHCs appear to play an important role in O3 photochemistry. Previous NMHC measurements indicate the presence of reactive aromatics at high levels over broad polluted regions of China. Aromatics are often ignored in global and (to a lesser degree) regional 3D photochemical transport models; their emissions over China as well as photochemistry are quite uncertain.Our findings suggest that critical assessments of aromatics emissions and chemistry (such as the yields of MGLY) are necessary to understand and assess ozone photochemistry and regional pollution export in China.

  9. University of South Florida- Phase Change Materials (PCM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Yogi; Stefanakos, Lee

    2014-03-07

    USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night--when the sun is not out--to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF's PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  10. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  11. Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

  12. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  13. High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

    2013-01-01

    Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

  14. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1992-06-01

    Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

  15. The PHEV Charging Infrastructure Planning (PCIP) Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dashora, Yogesh [University of Texas, Austin; Barnes, J. Wesley [University of Texas, Austin; Pillai, Rekha S [ORNL; Combs, Todd E [ORNL; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Increasing debates over a gasoline independent future and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has led to a surge in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) being developed around the world. The majority of PHEV related research has been directed at improving engine and battery operations, studying future PHEV impacts on the grid, and projecting future PHEV charging infrastructure requirements. Due to the limited all-electric range of PHEVs, a daytime PHEV charging infrastructure will be required for most PHEV daily usage. In this paper, for the first time, we present a mixed integer mathematical programming model to solve the PHEV charging infrastructure planning (PCIP) problem for organizations with thousands of people working within a defined geographic location and parking lots well suited to charging station installations. Our case study, based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) campus, produced encouraging results, indicates the viability of the modeling approach and substantiates the importance of considering both employee convenience and appropriate grid connections in the PCIP problem.

  16. Day, night and all-weather security surveillance automation synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morellas, Vassilios; Johnson, Andrew [Honeywell Labs, 3660, Technology Drive, Minneapolis MN 5518 (United States); Johnston, Chris [Honeywell ACS, 1985 Douglas Drive North, Golden Valley MN 55422 (United States); Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L. [L-3 Communications Infrared Products, 13532 N. Central Expressway, Dallas TX 75243 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, night-time and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics. (authors)

  17. Impact of land use change on the local climate over the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, J.; Lu, S.; Li, S.; Miller, N.L.

    2010-04-01

    Observational data show that the remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) has a significant downward trend over the east Tibetan Plateau (TP), while a warming trend is found in the same area. Further analysis indicates that this warming trend mainly results from the nighttime warming. The Single-Column Atmosphere Model (SCAM) version 3.1 developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is used to investigate the role of land use change in the TP local climate system and isolate the contribution of land use change to the warming. Two sets of SCAM simulations were performed at the Xinghai station that is located near the center of the TP Sanjiang (three rivers) Nature Reserve where the downward LAI trend is largest. These simulations were forced with the high and low LAIs. The modeling results indicate that, when the LAI changes from high to low, the daytime temperature has a slight decrease, while the nighttime temperature increases significantly, which is consistent with the observations. The modeling results further show that the lower surface roughness length plays a significant role in affecting the nighttime temperature increase.

  18. Quality-Controlled Upper-Air Sounding Dataset for DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE: Development and Corrections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciesielski, Paul; Yu, Hungjui; Johnson, Richard; Yoneyama, Kunio; Katsumata, Masaki; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Junhong; Loehrer, Scot; Young, Kate; Williams, S.; Brown, William; Braun, John; Van Hove, Terese

    2014-04-01

    The upper-air sounding network for DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation or MJO) has provided an unprecedented set of observations for studying the MJO over the Indian Ocean (IO) where coupling of this oscillation with deep convection first occurs. With 72 sounding sites and dropsonde data from 13 aircraft mission, the sonde network covers the tropics from Eastern African to the West Pacific. In total nearly 26,000 sondes were collected from this network during the experiment’s 6-month extended observing period (from October 2011 to March 2012). Slightly more than half of the sondes, collected from 33 sites, are at high vertical resolution. Rigorous post-field phase processing of the sonde data included several levels of quality checks and a variety of corrections which address a number of issues (e.g., daytime dry bias, baseline surface data errors, ship deck-heating effects, artificial dry spikes in slow ascent sondes). Because of the importance of an accurate description of the moisture field in meeting the scientific goals of the experiments, particular attention is given to humidity correction and its validation. The humidity corrections, though small relative to some previous field campaigns, produced high fidelity moisture analyses in which sonde precipitable water compared well with independent estimates. An assessment of model operational analyses moisture using corrected sonde data shows an overall good agreement with the exception at upper-levels where model moisture and clouds are more abundant than the sounding data would indicate.

  19. Estimating Traveler Populations at Airport and Cruise Terminals for Population Distribution and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jochem, Warren C; Sims, Kelly M; Bright, Eddie A; Urban, Marie L; Rose, Amy N; Coleman, Phil R; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, uses of high-resolution population distribution databases are increasing steadily for environmental, socioeconomic, public health, and disaster-related research and operations. With the development of daytime population distribution, temporal resolution of such databases has been improved. However, the lack of incorporation of transitional population, namely business and leisure travelers, leaves a significant population unaccounted for within the critical infrastructure networks, such as at transportation hubs. This paper presents two general methodologies for estimating passenger populations in airport and cruise port terminals at a high temporal resolution which can be incorporated into existing population distribution models. The methodologies are geographically scalable and are based on, and demonstrate how, two different transportation hubs with disparate temporal population dynamics can be modeled utilizing publicly available databases including novel data sources of flight activity from the Internet which are updated in near-real time. The airport population estimation model shows great potential for rapid implementation for a large collection of airports on a national scale, and the results suggest reasonable accuracy in the estimated passenger traffic. By incorporating population dynamics at high temporal resolutions into population distribution models, we hope to improve the estimates of populations exposed to or at risk to disasters, thereby improving emergency planning and response, and leading to more informed policy decisions.

  20. STRONG DEPENDENCE OF THE INNER EDGE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE ON PLANETARY ROTATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C., E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    Planetary rotation rate is a key parameter in determining atmospheric circulation and hence the spatial pattern of clouds. Since clouds can exert a dominant control on planetary radiation balance, rotation rate could be critical for determining the mean planetary climate. Here we investigate this idea using a three-dimensional general circulation model with a sophisticated cloud scheme. We find that slowly rotating planets (like Venus) can maintain an Earth-like climate at nearly twice the stellar flux as rapidly rotating planets (like Earth). This suggests that many exoplanets previously believed to be too hot may actually be habitable, depending on their rotation rate. The explanation for this behavior is that slowly rotating planets have a weak Coriolis force and long daytime illumination, which promotes strong convergence and convection in the substellar region. This produces a large area of optically thick clouds, which greatly increases the planetary albedo. In contrast, on rapidly rotating planets a much narrower belt of clouds form in the deep tropics, leading to a relatively low albedo. A particularly striking example of the importance of rotation rate suggested by our simulations is that a planet with modern Earth's atmosphere, in Venus' orbit, and with modern Venus' (slow) rotation rate would be habitable. This would imply that if Venus went through a runaway greenhouse, it had a higher rotation rate at that time.

  1. Multi-Spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouse, J.H.; Shaw, J.A.; Lawrence, R.L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Dobeck, L.M.; Repasky, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.

    2010-06-01

    Practical geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration will require long-term monitoring for detection of possible leakage back into the atmosphere. One potential monitoring method is multi-spectral imaging of vegetation reflectance to detect leakage through CO{sub 2}-induced plant stress. A multi-spectral imaging system was used to simultaneously record green, red, and near-infrared (NIR) images with a real-time reflectance calibration from a 3-m tall platform, viewing vegetation near shallow subsurface CO{sub 2} releases during summers 2007 and 2008 at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology field site in Bozeman, Montana. Regression analysis of the band reflectances and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index with time shows significant correlation with distance from the CO{sub 2} well, indicating the viability of this method to monitor for CO{sub 2} leakage. The 2007 data show rapid plant vigor degradation at high CO{sub 2} levels next to the well and slight nourishment at lower, but above-background CO{sub 2} concentrations. Results from the second year also show that the stress response of vegetation is strongly linked to the CO{sub 2} sink-source relationship and vegetation density. The data also show short-term effects of rain and hail. The real-time calibrated imaging system successfully obtained data in an autonomous mode during all sky and daytime illumination conditions.

  2. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  3. Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USF’s PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000°C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  4. Study of mid-latitude 5577A CI dayglow emissions. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The green line (5577angstroms) is a bright, persistent component of the visible airglow. It is produced by an electric quadruple transition from the metastable second excited state (1So) to the first excited state (1D2) of atomic oxygen. These two excited states all lie in the same electron shell of the atom and have the same electron configuration as the ground state of 1s22s22p4, which is the 3P2,1,0. This emission is present in both the daytime and night airglow and in the aurora, and despite a long history of study it is still not fully understood. The emission in the dayglow and the nightglow is relatively homogeneous spatially and global in coverage. In the aurora, the emission is much brighter than the airglow, high structured and very localized being restricted to higher latitudes. The structure of the 5577angstroms emission with altitude and the chemistry responsible for the production of the emission are complex. The vertical structure for the emission has two distinct layers in the airglow each with its own set of production and loss mechanisms. the chemistry for either of these layers is not completely known. The auroral emission is not understood either since it overlaps the upper and lower layer altitudes and it tends to contain some parts of the chemistry of both layers as sources and losses.

  5. Experiments and theory on parametric instabilities excited in HF heating experiments at HAARP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Lee, M. C.

    2014-06-15

    Parametric instabilities excited by O-mode HF heater and the induced ionospheric modification were explored via HAARP digisonde operated in a fast mode. The impact of excited Langmuir waves and upper hybrid waves on the ionosphere are manifested by bumps in the virtual spread, which expand the ionogram echoes upward as much as 140?km and the downward range spread of the sounding echoes, which exceeds 50?km over a significant frequency range. The theory of parametric instabilities is presented. The theory identifies the ionogram bump located between the 3.2?MHz heater frequency and the upper hybrid resonance frequency and the bump below the upper hybrid resonance frequency to be associated with the Langmuir and upper hybrid instabilities, respectively. The Langmuir bump is located close to the upper hybrid resonance frequency, rather than to the heater frequency, consistent with the theory. Each bump in the virtual height spread of the ionogram is similar to the cusp occurring in daytime ionograms at the E-F2 layer transition, indicating that there is a small ledge in the density profile similar to E-F2 layer transitions. The experimental results also show that the strong impact of the upper hybrid instability on the ionosphere can suppress the Langmuir instability.

  6. Aerodynamic pressure and flow-visualization measurement from a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C.P.

    1988-11-01

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements have been made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor was used to record nighttime and daytime video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted at every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure measurements were made at 80% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions, revealing pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. One objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. To this end, flow patterns are presented here that reveal the dynamic and steady behavior of flow conditions on the blade. Pressure distributions are compared to flow patterns and two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Separation boundary locations are shown that change as a function of spanwise location, pitch angle, and wind speed. 6 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Sturrock; Gideon Steinitz; Ephraim Fischbach; Daniel Javorsek, II; Jere H. Jenkins

    2012-05-01

    This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year$^{-1}$ and 12.5 year$^{-1}$. We have previously found these oscillations in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and we have suggested that these oscillations are attributable to some form of solar radiation that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. This may be a systematic effect but, if it is not, this property should help narrow the theoretical options for the mechanism responsible for decay-rate variability.

  8. Summertime photochemistry during CAREBeijing-2007: ROx budgets and O3 formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Y.; Gu, Dasa; Zhao, Chun; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, Robert; Liao, Jin; Shao, Min; Zhu, T.; Zeng, Limin; Amoroso, Antonio; Costabile, Francesa; Chang, Chih-Chung; Liu, Shaw C.

    2012-08-28

    We analyze summertime photochemistry near the surface in Beijing, China, using a 1-D photochemical model (Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model, REAM-1D) constrained by in situ observations, focusing on the budgets of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals and O3 formation. While the modeling analysis focuses on near-surface photochemical budgets, the implications for the budget of O3 in the planetary boundary layer are also discussed. In terms of daytime average, the total ROx primary production rate near the surface in Beijing is 6.6 ppbv per hour (ppbv h{sup 1}, among the highest found in urban atmospheres. The largest primary ROx source in Beijing is photolysis of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), which produces HO2 and RO2 at 2.5 ppbv h{sup 1}1 and 1.7 ppbv h{sup 1}, respectively. Photolysis of excess HONO from an unknown heterogeneous source is the predominant primary OH source at 2.2 ppbv h{sup 1}, much larger than that of O1D+H2O (0.4 ppbv h{sup 1}). The largest ROx sink is via OH + NO2 reaction (1.6 ppbv h{sup 1}), followed by formation of RO2NO2 (1.0 ppbv h{sup 1}) and RONO2 (0.7 ppbv h{sup 1}). Due to the large aerosol surface area, aerosol uptake of HO2 appears to be another important radical sink, although the estimate of its magnitude is highly variable depending on the uptake coefficient value used. The daytime average O3 production and loss rates near the surface are 32 ppbv h{sup 1} and 6.2 ppbv h{sup 1}, respectively. Assuming NO2 to be the source of excess HONO, the NO2 to HONO transformation leads to considerable O3 loss and reduction of its lifetime. Our observation-constrained modeling analysis suggests that oxidation of VOCs (especially aromatics) and heterogeneous reactions (e.g. HONO formation and aerosol uptake HO2) play potentially critical roles in the primary radical budget and O3 formation in Beijing. One important ramification is that O3 production is neither NOx nor VOC limited, but in a transition regime where reduction of either NOx or VOCs could result in reduction of O3 production. The transition regime implies more flexibility in the O3 control strategies than a binary system of either NOx or VOC limited regime. The co-benefit of concurrent reduction of both NOx and VOCs in reducing column O3 production integrated in the planetary boundary layer is significant. Further research on the spatial extent of the transition regime over the polluted eastern China is critically important for controlling regional O3 pollution.

  9. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; Percival, Carl; Coe, H.; Jones, Roderic L.; McFiggans, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlations with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 ?g kg?1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 ?g kg?1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH) (60–70%), the other with high RH (80–90%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles.

    The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100–300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes (× 80) and comparable for dimethylsulfide (DMS). However the suppression of NO3 mixing ratios across the domain by N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has only a very slight, negative, influence on this oxidative capacity. The influence on regional particulate nitrate mass loadings is stronger. Night-time N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry maintains the production of particulate nitrate within polluted regions: when this process is taken into consideration, the daytime peak (for the 95th percentile) of PM10 nitrate mass loadings remains around 5.6 ?g kg?1air, but the night-time minimum increases from 3.5 to 4.6 ?g kg?1air. The sustaining of higher particulate mass loadings through the night by this process improves model skill at matching measured aerosol nitrate diurnal cycles and will negatively impact on regional air quality, requiring this process to be included in regional models.

  10. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; et al

    2015-02-09

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlationsmore »with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 ?g kg?1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 ?g kg?1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH) (60–70%), the other with high RH (80–90%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100–300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes (× 80) and comparable for dimethylsulfide (DMS). However the suppression of NO3 mixing ratios across the domain by N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has only a very slight, negative, influence on this oxidative capacity. The influence on regional particulate nitrate mass loadings is stronger. Night-time N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry maintains the production of particulate nitrate within polluted regions: when this process is taken into consideration, the daytime peak (for the 95th percentile) of PM10 nitrate mass loadings remains around 5.6 ?g kg?1air, but the night-time minimum increases from 3.5 to 4.6 ?g kg?1air. The sustaining of higher particulate mass loadings through the night by this process improves model skill at matching measured aerosol nitrate diurnal cycles and will negatively impact on regional air quality, requiring this process to be included in regional models.« less

  11. SCENARIOS FOR DEEP CARBON EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM ELECTRICITY BY 2050 IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA USING THE SWITCH ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR PLANNING MODEL California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was installed on some gas plants by 2050.

  12. Results from the northern New Mexico satellite-beacon radio interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos, R.; Jacobson, A.; Massey, R.; Wu, G.

    1994-09-01

    An interferometer described in the Boston, 1992, meeting of the Beacon Satellite Symposium has been in full operation for over a year now. It consists of four autonomous stations; three are in a triangle 70 km on a side and one is in the center. The stations receive the VHF beacons from two geosynchronous satellites, GOES-2 and ATS-3. The phases of the beacons are tracked at each station by referring them to an extremely stable rubidium oscillator. The studies of the two satellites are virtually separate experiments. The received phase of the beacon is retarded by the increased Total-Electron-Content of the dense regions of waves in the ionosphere. By comparing the phase history at four spatially separated stations, the authors can determine the two-dimensional propagation vector of the waves. This array is optimal for wavelengths of 70--300 km (periods of 300--3,000 seconds). Since the measurement is of the phase of the signal rather than the difference between the O-mode and X-mode phases, and since the beacons are in the VHF rather than in the L-band of GPS beacons, the array is very sensitive. It has a noise level of 10{sup 13} electrons/m{sup 2}, or 10{sup {minus}4} of the normal daytime TEC. This has been verified by operating two stations in the same location, so that they saw the same ionosphere. The first interesting results from a year`s study is that the authors do not see the same TID`s when looking at the two satellites. One conclusion they draw is that they do not see evidence of ionospheric winds.

  13. An analysis on the mid-latitude scintillation and coherence frequency bandwidth using transionospheric VHF signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juang, Zhen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel-dupre, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    An analysis was perfonned on the mid-latitude scintillation and coherence frequency bandwidth (Fcoh) using transionospheric VHF signal data. The data include 1062 events spanning from November 1997 to June 2002. Each event records FORTE satellite received VHF signals from LAPP located at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Fcohs were derived to study scintillation characteristics on diurnal and seasonal variations, as well as changes due to solar and geomagnetic activities. Comparisons to the VHFIUHF coherence frequency bandwidth studies previously reported at equatorial and mid-latitude regions are made using a 4th power frequency dependence relationship. Furthennore, a wideband ionospheric scintillation model, WBMOD, was used to estimate Fcohs and compared with our VHF Fcoh values. Our analysis indicates mid-latitude scintillation characteristics that are not previously revealed. At the VHF bottom frequency range (3035 MHz), distinguished smaller Fcohs are found in time period from sunset to midnight, in wann season from May to August, and in low solar activity years. The effects of geomagnetic storm activity on Fcoh are characterized by a sudden transition at a Kp index of 50-60. Comparisons with median Fcohs estimated from other studies validated our VHF Fcohs for daytime while an order of magnitude larger Fcohs are found for nighttime, implying a time-dependent issue in applying the 4th order power relationship. Furthermore, comparisons with WBMOD-estimated Fcohs indicated generally matched median scintillation level estimates while differences do exist for those events undergoing high geomagnetic stonn activity which may imply underestimates of scintillation level by the WBMOD in the mid-latitude regions.

  14. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  15. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, Kolby; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J.; Martin, Scot T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  16. Baker-Barry Tunnel Lighting: Evaluation of a Potential GATEWAY Demonstrations Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-06-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the Baker-Barry Tunnel as a potential GATEWAY Demonstrations project for deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The National Park Service views this project as a possible proving ground and template for implementation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires in other tunnels, thereby expanding the estimated 40% energy savings from 132 MWh/yr to a much larger figure nationally. Most of the energy savings in this application is attributable to the instant-restrike capability of LED products and to their high tolerance for frequent on/off switching, used here to separately control either end of the tunnel during daytime hours. Some LED luminaires rival or outperform their high-intensity discharge (HID) counterparts in terms of efficacy, but options are limited, and smaller lumen packages preclude true one-for-one equivalence. However, LED products continue to improve in efficacy and affordability at a rate unmatched by other light source technologies; the estimated simple payback period of eight years (excluding installation costs and maintenance savings) can be expected to improve with time. The proposed revisions to the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting system would require slightly increased controls complexity and significantly increased luminaire types and quantities. In exchange, substantial annual savings (from reduced maintenance and energy use) would be complemented by improved quantity and quality of illumination. Although advanced lighting controls could offer additional savings, it is unclear whether such a system would prove cost-effective; this topic may be explored in future work.

  17. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest: DMS in the Amazon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jardine, K.; Yańez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; et al

    2015-01-08

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within themore »51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63« less

  18. Meso-scale cooling effects of high albedo surfaces: Analysis of meteorological data from White Sands National Monument and White Sands Missile Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishman, B.; Taha, H.; Akbari, H.

    1994-05-20

    Urban summer daytime temperatures often exceed those of the surrounding rural areas. Summer ``urban heat islands`` are caused by dark roofs and paved surfaces as well as the lack of vegetation. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are interested in studying the effects of increasing the albedo of roof tops and paved surfaces in order to reduce the impacts of summer urban heat islands. Increasing the albedo of urban surfaces may reduce this heat island effect in two ways, directly and indirectly. The direct effect involves reducing surface temperature and, therefore, heat conduction through the building envelope. This effect of surface albedo on surface temperatures is better understood and has been quantified in several studies. The indirect effect is the impact of high albedo surfaces on the near surface air temperatures. Although the indirect effect has been modeled for the Los Angeles basin by Sailor, direct field observations are required. The objective of this report is to investigate the meso-scale climate of a large high albedo area and identify the effects of albedo on the near surface air temperature. To accomplish this task, data from several surface weather stations at White Sands, New Mexico were analyzed. This report is organized into six sections in addition to this introduction. The first gives the general geological, topographic, and meteorological background of White Sands. The second is a discussion of the basic surface meteorology of the White Sands region. This section is followed by a general discussion of the instrumentation and available data. The fourth section is a description of the method used for data analyis. The fifth section which presents the results of this analysis. Finally, the last section is the summary and conclusion, where a discussion of the results is presented.

  19. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest: DMS in the Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, K.; Yańez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-08

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  20. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alas, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T. [ETSC Government Services, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1995-02-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia`s Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste.

  1. District cooling engineering & design program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Phoenix, Arizona is located in the Sonoran desert. Daytime temperatures typically rise to over 100 F during the three summer months. Average and peak temperatures have tended to rise over recent decades. This is generally attributed to what is known as the heat island effect, due to an increase in heat absorbing concrete and a decrease in irrigated farmland in the area. Phoenix is the eighth largest city in the US with a population of just over one million (1,000,000). The metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing in the nation. Over the last ten years its population has increased by over 40%. It is not an exaggeration to say the general availability of refrigerated air conditioning, both for buildings and automobiles has been an important factor enabling growth. The cost of operating public buildings has risen significantly in the last decade. In fiscal year 92/93 the City of Phoenix had energy expenses of over thirty four million dollars ($34,000,000). Because the City was planning a major new construction project, a new high-rise City Hall, it was decided to study and then optimize the design and selection of building systems to minimize long term owning and operating costs. The City Hall was to be constructed in downtown Phoenix. Phoenix presently owns other buildings in the area. A number of large cooling systems serving groups of buildings are currently operating in the Phoenix area. The City requested that the design consultants analyze the available options and present recommendations to the City`s engineering staff.

  2. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: Controls by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harley, P.; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex B.; Monson, Russell K.

    2014-07-14

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in ?-3-carene.

  3. The influence of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Hu, J.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-12-15

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year data set from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction ?c). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle)more »to multi-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found the following: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 50–70 % to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 90 and 110 %, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10 %), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m?2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m?2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6 % in dry conditions and between 15 and 25 % in partially wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, even though precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced the magnitude of Rnet, LE increased from ≈ 10 to over 20 W m?2 due to increased evaporation. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above-canopy mean ?c during wet conditions was found to be about 2–3 ?mol mol?1 larger than ?c on dry days. This difference was fairly constant over the full diel cycle suggesting that it was due to synoptic weather patterns (different air masses and/or effects of barometric pressure). Finally, the effect of clouds on the timing and magnitude of daytime ecosystem fluxes is described.« less

  4. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH reactivity in the downwind plume. The model results generally showed good agreement with experimental results for the total VOC OH reactivity downwind and gave insight into the distributions of VOC chemical classes downwind. A box model with detailed gas phase chemistry (NCAR Master Mechanism), initialized with concentrations observed at one of the ground sites in the MCMA, was used to examine the expected evolution of specific VOCs over a 1-2 day period. The models clearly supported the experimental evidence for NMHC oxidation leading to the formation of OVOCs downwind, which then become the primary fuel for ozone production far away from the MCMA.

  5. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH reactivity in the downwind plume. The model results generally showed good agreement with experimental results for the total VOC OH reactivity downwind and gave insight into the distributions of VOC chemical classes downwind. A box model with detailed gas phase chemistry (NCAR Master Mechanism), initialized with concentrations observed at one of the ground sites in the MCMA, was used to examine the expected evolution of specific VOCs over a 1-2 day period. The models clearly supported the experimental evidence for NMHC oxidation leading to the formation of OVOCs downwind, which then become the primary fuel for ozone production far away from the MCMA.

  6. Observing the next galactic supernova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Scott M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Beacom, John F.; Stanek, K. Z. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vagins, Mark R. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    No supernova (SN) in the Milky Way has been observed since the invention of the optical telescope, instruments for other wavelengths, neutrino detectors, or gravitational wave observatories. It would be a tragedy to miss the opportunity to fully characterize the next one. To aid preparations for its observations, we model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions of a successful Galactic core-collapse supernova (ccSN), its shock breakout radiation, and its massive star progenitor. We find, at very high probability (? 100%), that the next Galactic SN will easily be detectable in the near-IR and that near-IR photometry of the progenitor star very likely (? 92%) already exists in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Most ccSNe (98%) will be easily observed in the optical, but a significant fraction (43%) will lack observations of the progenitor due to a combination of survey sensitivity and confusion. If neutrino detection experiments can quickly disseminate a likely position (?3°), we show that a modestly priced IR camera system can probably detect the shock breakout radiation pulse even in daytime (64% for the cheapest design). Neutrino experiments should seriously consider adding such systems, both for their scientific return and as an added and internal layer of protection against false triggers. We find that shock breakouts from failed ccSNe of red supergiants may be more observable than those of successful SNe due to their lower radiation temperatures. We review the process by which neutrinos from a Galactic ccSN would be detected and announced. We provide new information on the EGADS system and its potential for providing instant neutrino alerts. We also discuss the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for the next Galactic Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Based on our modeled observability, we find a Galactic ccSN rate of 3.2{sub ?2.6}{sup +7.3} per century and a Galactic SN Ia rate of 1.4{sub ?0.8}{sup +1.4} per century for a total Galactic SN rate of 4.6{sub ?2.7}{sup +7.4} per century is needed to account for the SNe observed over the last millennium, which implies a Galactic star formation rate of 3.6{sub ?3.0}{sup +8.3} M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}.

  7. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-01

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimes to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too little heavy rain events. With longer timescales one can improve the distribution, particularly for the extreme rain rates. Ultimately, without changing other aspects of the physics, one must choose between accurate diurnal timing and rain amount when choosing an appropriate convective timescale.

  8. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Ortega, A. M.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Jud, W.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Hunter, J. F.; Cross, E. S.; et al

    2015-11-04

    Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. Moremore »SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 ?g m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 1 ?g m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH oxidation than could be explained by the VOCs measured in ambient air. Several recently-developed instruments quantified ambient semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) that were not detected by a PTR-TOF-MS. An SOA yield of 24–80 % from those compounds can explain the observed SOA, suggesting that these typically unmeasured S/IVOCs play a substantial role in ambient SOA formation. Our results allow ruling out condensation sticking coefficients much lower than 1. Our measurements help clarify the magnitude of SOA formation in forested environments, and demonstrate methods for interpretation of ambient OFR measurements.« less

  9. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-17

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimes to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too little heavy rain events. With longer timescales one can improve the distribution, particularly for the extreme rain rates. Ultimately, without changing other aspects of the physics, one must choose between accurate diurnal timing and rain amount when choosing an appropriate convective timescale.

  10. Comparison of Mixed Layer Heights from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar, Ground-based Measurements, and the WRP-Chem Model during CalNex and CARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarino, Amy Jo; Obland, Michael; Fast, Jerome D.; Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Berg, Larry K.; Lefer, Barry; Haman, C.; Hair, John; Rogers, Ray; Butler, Carolyn; Cook, A. L.; Harper, David

    2014-06-05

    The California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) and Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) field campaigns during May and June 2010 provided a data set appropriate for studying characteristics of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed to California onboard the NASA LaRC B-200 aircraft to aid incharacterizing aerosol properties during these two field campaigns. Measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm) profiles during 31 flights, many in coordination with other research aircraft and ground sites, constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, as well as the depth and variability of the daytime mixed layer (ML), which is a subset within the PBL. This work illustrates the temporal and spatial variability of the ML in the vicinity of Los Angeles and Sacramento, CA. ML heights derived from HSRL measurements are compared to PBL heights derived from radiosonde profiles, ML heights measured from ceilometers, and simulated PBL heights from the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) community model. Comparisons between the HSRL ML heights and the radiosonde profiles in Sacramento result in a correlation coefficient value (R) of 0.93 (root7 mean-square (RMS) difference of 157 m and bias difference (HSRL radiosonde) of 5 m). HSRL ML heights compare well with those from the ceilometer in the LA Basin with an R of 0.89 (RMS difference of 108 m and bias difference (HSRL Ceilometer) of -9.7 m) for distances of up to 30 km between the B-200 flight track and the ceilometer site. Simulated PBL heights from WRF-Chem were compared with those obtained from all flights for each campaign, producing an R of 0.58 (RMS difference of 604 m and a bias difference (WRF-Chem HSRL) of -157 m) for CalNex and 0.59 (RMS difference of 689 m and a bias difference (WRF-Chem HSRL) of 220 m) for CARES. Aerosol backscatter simulations are also available from WRF15 Chem and are compared to those from HSRL to examine differences among the methods used to derive ML heights.

  11. The effect of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-06-16

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year dataset from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction ?c). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle) tomore »multi-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 50–70% to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 70–80%, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10%), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m-2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m-2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6% in dry conditions and 20% in wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced Rnet and increased LE. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above-canopy mean ?c during wet conditions was found to be about 2–3 ?mol mol-1 larger than ?c on dry days. This difference was fairly constant over the full diel cycle suggesting that it was due to synoptic weather patterns (different air masses and/or effects of barometric pressure). In the evening hours during wet conditions, weakly stable conditions resulted in smaller vertical ?c differences compared to those in dry conditions. Finally, the effect of clouds on the timing and magnitude of daytime ecosystem fluxes is described.« less

  12. Impact of a Revised Convective Triggering Mechanism on CAM2 Model Simulations: Results from Short-Range Weather Forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, S; Boyle, J S; Cederwall, R T; Potter, G L; Zhang, M; Lin, W

    2004-02-19

    This study implements a revised convective triggering condition in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM2) model to reduce its excessive warm season daytime precipitation over land. The new triggering mechanism introduces a simple dynamic constraint on the initiation of convection that emulates the collective effects of lower level moistening and upward motion of the large-scale circulation. It requires a positive contribution from the large-scale advection of temperature and moisture to the existing positive Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) for model convection to start. In contrast, the original convection triggering function in CAM2 assumes that convection is triggered whenever there is positive CAPE, which results in too frequent warm season convection over land arising from strong diurnal variation of solar radiation. We examine the impact of the new trigger on CAM2 simulations by running the climate model in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) mode so that more available observations and high-frequency NWP analysis data can be used to evaluate model performance. We show that the modified triggering mechanism has led to considerable improvements in the simulation of precipitation, temperature, moisture, clouds, radiations, surface temperature, and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes when compared to the data collected from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at its South Great Plains (SGP) site. Similar improvements are also seen over other parts of the globe. In particular, the surface precipitation simulation has been significantly improved over both the continental United States and around the globe; the overestimation of high clouds in the equatorial tropics has been substantially reduced; and the temperature, moisture, and zonal wind are more realistically simulated. Results from this study also show that some systematic errors in the CAM2 climate simulations can be detected in the early stage of model integration. Examples are the extremely overestimated high clouds in the tropics in the vicinity of ITCZ and the spurious precipitation maximum in the east of the Rockies. This has important implications in studies of these model errors since running the climate model in NWP mode allows us to perform a more in-depth analysis during a short time period where more observations are available and different model errors from various processes have not compensated for the systematic errors.

  13. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-17

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimesmore »to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too little heavy rain events. With longer timescales one can improve the distribution, particularly for the extreme rain rates. Ultimately, without changing other aspects of the physics, one must choose between accurate diurnal timing and rain amount when choosing an appropriate convective timescale.« less

  14. Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly E. Law , Christoph K. Thomas

    2011-09-20

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

  15. Consequences of Urban Stability Conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Urban Dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Chan, S T

    2005-11-30

    The validity of omitting stability considerations when simulating transport and dispersion in the urban environment is explored using observations from the Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulations of that experiment. Four releases of sulfur hexafluoride, during two daytime and two nighttime intensive observing periods, are simulated using the building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model, FEM3MP to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with two options of turbulence parameterizations. One option omits stability effects but has a superior turbulence parameterization using a non-linear eddy viscosity (NEV) approach, while the other considers buoyancy effects with a simple linear eddy viscosity (LEV) approach for turbulence parameterization. Model performance metrics are calculated by comparison with observed winds and tracer data in the downtown area, and with observed winds and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) profiles at a location immediately downwind of the central business district (CBD) in the area we label as the urban shadow. Model predictions of winds, concentrations, profiles of wind speed, wind direction, and friction velocity are generally consistent with and compare reasonably well with the field observations. Simulations using the NEV turbulence parameterization generally exhibit better agreement with observations. To further explore this assumption of a neutrally-stable atmosphere within the urban area, TKE budget profiles slightly downwind of the urban wake region in the 'urban shadow' are examined. Dissipation and shear production are the largest terms which may be calculated directly. The advection of TKE is calculated as a residual; as would be expected downwind of an urban area, the advection of TKE produced within the urban area is a very large term. Buoyancy effects may be neglected in favor of advection, shear production, and dissipation. For three of the IOPs, buoyancy production may be neglected entirely, and for one IOP, buoyancy production contributes approximately 25% of the total TKE at this location. For both nighttime releases, the contribution of buoyancy to the total TKE budget is always negligible though positive. Results from the simulations provide estimates of the average TKE values in the upwind, downtown, downtown shadow, and urban wake zones of the computational domain. These values suggest that building-induced turbulence can cause the average turbulence intensity in the urban area to increase by as much as much as seven times average 'upwind' values, explaining the minimal role of buoyant forcing in the downtown region. The downtown shadow exhibits an exponential decay in average TKE, while the distant downwind wake region approaches the average upwind values. For long-duration releases in downtown and downtown shadow areas, the assumption of neutral stability is valid because building-induced turbulence dominates the budget. However, further downwind in the urban wake region, which we find to be approximately 1500 m beyond the perimeter of downtown Oklahoma City, the levels of building-induced turbulence greatly subside, and therefore the assumption of neutral stability is less valid.

  16. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This experiment relied heavily on our experiences of the 1999 experiment. Particular attention was paid to issues of radiometric calibration and radiosonde intercomparisons. Our theoretical and experimental work also supplements efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) to develop sub-millimeter radiometers for ARM deployment. In addition to quantitative improvement of water vapor measurements at cold temperature, the impact of adding millimeter-wave window channels to improve the sensitivity to arctic clouds was studied. We also deployed an Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) during this experiment, both for measuring continuous day-night statistics of the study of cloud coverage and identifying conditions suitable for tipcal analysis. This system provided the first capability of determining spatial cloud statistics continuously in both day and night at the NSA site and has been used to demonstrate that biases exist in inferring cloud statistics from either zenith-pointing active sensors (lidars or radars) or sky imagers that rely on scattered sunlight in daytime and star maps at night [6].

  17. Analysis of Doppler Lidar Data Acquired During the Pentagon Shield Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, Rob K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-04-14

    Observations from two coherent Doppler lidars deployed during the Pentagon Shield field campaign are analyzed in conjunction with other sensors to characterize the overall boundary-layer structure, and identify the dominant flow characteristics during the entire two-week field campaign. Convective boundary layer (CBL) heights and cloud base heights (CBH) are estimated from an analysis of the lidar signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and mean wind profiles are computed using a modified velocity-azimuth-display (VAD) algorithm. Three-dimensional wind field retrievals are computed from coordinated overlapping volume scans, and the results are analyzed by visualizing the flow in horizontal and vertical cross sections. The VAD winds show that southerly flows dominate during the two-week field campaign. Low-level jets (LLJ) were evident on all but two of the nights during the field campaign. The LLJs tended to form a couple hours after sunset and reach maximum strength between 03 and 07 UTC. The surface friction velocities show distinct local maxima during four nights when strong LLJs formed. Estimates of the convective boundary layer height and residual layer height are obtained through an analysis of the vertical gradient of the lidar signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). Strong minimum in the SNR gradient often develops just above the surface after sunrise. This minimum is associated with the developing CBL, and increases rapidly during the early portion of the daytime period. On several days, this minimum continues to increase until about sunset. Secondary minima in the SNR gradient were also observed at higher altitudes, and are believed to be remnants of the CBL height from previous days, i.e. the residual layer height. The dual-Doppler analysis technique used in this study makes use of hourly averaged radial velocity data to produce three-dimensional grids of the horizontal velocity components, and the horizontal velocity variance. Visualization of horizontal and vertical cross sections of the dual-Doppler wind retrievals often indicated a jet-like flow feature over the Potomac River under southerly flow conditions. This linear flow feature is roughly aligned with the Potomac River corridor to the south of the confluence with the Anatostia River, and is most apparent at low levels (i.e. below ~150 m MSL). It is believed that this flow arises due to reduced drag over the water surface and when the large scale flow aligns with the Potomac River corridor. A so-called area-constrained VAD analysis generally confirmed the observations from the dual-Doppler analysis. When the large scale flow is southerly, wind speeds over the Potomac River are consistently larger than the at a site just to the west of the river for altitudes less than 100 m MSL. Above this level, the trend is somewhat less obvious. The data suggest that the depth of the wind speed maximum may be reduced by strong directional shear aloft.

  18. Characterization of submicron particles influenced by mixed biogenic and anthropogenic emissions using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: results from CARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setyan, Ari; Zhang, Qi; Merkel, M.; Knighton, Walter B.; Sun, Y.; Song, Chen; Shilling, John E.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Herndon, Scott C.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berg, Larry K.; Wiedensohler, A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Subramanian, R.

    2012-09-11

    The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) took place in the Sacramento Valley of California in summer 2010. We present results obtained at Cool, CA, the T1 site of the project ({approx}40 km downwind of urban emissions from Sacramento), where we deployed an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) in parallel with complementary instrumentation to characterize the sources and processes of submicron particles (PM1). Cool is located at the foothill of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, where intense biogenic emissions are periodically mixed with urban outflow transported by daytime southwesterly winds from the Sacramento metropolitan area. The particle mass loading was low (3.0 {micro}gm{sup -3} on average) and dominated by organics (80% of the PM1 mass) followed by sulfate (9.9 %). Organics and sulfate appeared to be externally mixed, as suggested by their different time series (r2 = 0.13) and size distributions. Sulfate showed a bimodal distribution with a droplet mode peaking at {approx}400nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter (Dva), and a condensation mode at {approx}150 nm, while organics generally displayed a broad distribution in 60-600nm (Dva). New particle formation and growth events were observed almost every day, emphasizing the roles of organics and sulfate in new particle growth, especially that of organics. The organic aerosol (OA) had a nominal formula of C{sub 1}H{sub 1.38}N{sub 0.004}O{sub 0.44}, thus an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM/OC) ratio of 1.70. Two different oxygenated OA (OOA, 90% of total OA mass) and a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 10 %) were identified by Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high resolution mass spectra. The more oxidized MO-OOA (O/C = 0.54) corresponded to secondary OA (SOA) primarily influenced by biogenic emissions, while the less oxidized LO-OOA (O/C = 0.42) corresponded to SOA associated with urban transport. The HOA factor corresponded to primary emissions mainly due to local traffic. Twenty three periods of urban plumes from T0 (Sacramento) to T1 (Cool) were identified using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). The average PM1 mass loading was much higher in urban plumes (3.9 {micro}gm{sup -3}) than in air masses dominated by biogenic SOA (1.8 {micro}gm{sup -3}). The change in OA mass relative to CO ({Delta}OA/{Delta}CO) varied in the range of 5-196 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1}, reflecting large variability in SOA production. The highest {Delta}OA/{Delta}CO were reached when urban plumes arrived at Cool in the presence of a high concentration of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs=isoprene+monoterpenes+2-methyl-3-buten-2- ol [MBO]+methyl chavicol). This ratio, which was 77 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1} on average when BVOCs > 2 ppb, is much higher than when urban plumes arrived in a low biogenic VOCs environment (28 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1} when BVOCs < 0.7 ppb) or during other periods dominated by biogenic SOA (40 {micro}gm{sup -3} ppm{sup -1}). The results from this study demon10 strate that SOA formation is enhanced when anthropogenic emissions interact with biogenic precursors.

  19. Validation of the BERT Point Source Inversion Scheme Using the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Experiment Dataset - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brambilla, Sara [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    A terrorist attack in a U.S. city utilizing biological weapons could have severe consequences. A biological agent could be aerosolized and emitted into the air in the middle of a city, invisibly traveling with the winds, and dosing an unknowing populace. The magnitude of the problem would only be revealed as sick people started arriving several days later at hospitals with symptoms, many already too ill to be saved. A national program has deployed a network of biological agent collectors in U.S. cities to provide early detection of a bio-weapon attack, thereby hastening medical intervention and potentially saving many thousands of lives. In fact, the most effective treatment takes place prior to infection or in its early stages and early warning might reduce the disease progression and, consequently, the possibility of an outbreak. If a biological attack were to occur in a city, one or more collectors may register hits with specific dosages and the city would be alerted that an attack had taken place. This piece of information alone, however, would not be enough to determine how serious the attack was, i.e., how much biological agent was released into the air and where the bio-plume traveled. The first responders and public health communities will want to know what regions were impacted, how many persons might get sick, which people most need medical supplies, and where to clean up. The law enforcement community will want to look for forensic evidence at the release location. The Bio-Agent Event Reconstruction Tool (BERT) has been developed in order to recreate what might have happened during an airborne biological agent attack based on biological agent collector measurements and wind collectors mounted around a city. The tool can be used to estimate possible release areas while eliminating other areas, and can estimate bounds on the amount of material released. The tool can then be used to project forward from the possible source areas to estimate potential hazard zones. Due to a unique source inversion technique - called the upwind collector footprint approach - the tool runs fast and the source regions can be determined in a few minutes. In this report, we provide an overview of the BERT framework, followed by a description of the source inversion technique. The Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment held in Oklahoma City that was used to validate BERT is then described. Subsequent sections describe the metrics used for evaluation, the comparison of the experimental data and BERT output, and under what conditions the BERT tool succeeds and performs poorly. Results are aggregated in different ways (e.g., daytime vs. nighttime releases, 1 vs. 2 vs. 3 hit collectors) to determine if BERT shows any systematic errors. Finally, recommendations are given for how to improve the code and procedures for optimizing performance in operational mode.

  20. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10{sup -10} m{sup -1} and agrees very well with the values between 10{sup -10} m{sup -1} and 10{sup -9} m{sup -1} previously reported. We observed a mean Pu/Am ratio of 7.1 with a relative variation of 30%, which compares well with a mean value of 6.5 for nearby plot 2-2. The resuspension rate (R) was in the middle of the range, 10{sup -11} s{sup -1} to 10{sup -12} s{sup -1} as observed in other stable sites, and indicates low potential for Pu redistribution.

  1. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific riverbed elevation and providing minimum spawning flows that have the greatest chance of being maintained through egg incubation and fry emergence. However, managing the lower Columbia River for a stable tailwater elevation does not provide much operational flexibility at Bonneville Dam, which has little storage capacity. When river discharges increase due to rain events, the traditional approach has been to pass excess water at night to maintain stable tailwater elevations during the daytime. The underlying assumption of this strategy, referred to as reverse load following, is that fish do not spawn at night. However, Tiffan et al. (2005) showed that this assumption is false by documenting nighttime spawning by chum salmon in the Ives Island area. Similarly, McMichael et al. (2005) reported nighttime spawning by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Columbia River, indicating that diel spawning may be a common occurrence in Pacific salmon. During the latter portion of the chum spawning period in December 2003 and 2004, discharges from Bonneville Dam increased from an average of 3,398 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 3.5 m above mean sea level) during the day to over 5,664 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 5.1 m) at night, with peak discharges of 7,080 m{sup 3}/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 6.1 m). This caused concern among fishery managers regarding the potential effects of these high discharges on this population of spawning chum salmon, which is listed under the Endangered Species Act (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1999). We hypothesized that increased water velocities associated with elevated tailwaters might alter chum salmon spawning behavior if water velocities at redd locations increased beyond the range of suitability (>0.8 m/s; Salo 1991). In 2005, we investigated the movement and behavioral responses of spawning chum salmon at Ives Island to increased tailwater elevations at Bonneville Dam. We used acoustic telemetry to determine if the higher velocities associated with increased tailwater elevations caused fish to leave their re

  2. Enumeration of Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Underwater Video, Performance Period: October 2005 (Project Inception) - 31 December 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.; Nass, Bryan L.; Arterburn, John E.

    2007-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Tribes) identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of adult salmonids in the Okanogan River Basin in order to determine basin and tributary-specific spawner distributions, evaluate the status and trends of natural salmonid production in the basin, document local fish populations, and augment existing fishery data. This report documents the design, installation, operation and evaluation of mainstem and tributary video systems in the Okanogan River Basin. The species-specific data collected by these fish enumeration systems are presented along with an evaluation of the operation of a facility that provides a count of fish using an automated method. Information collected by the Colville Tribes Fish & Wildlife Department, specifically the Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP), is intended to provide a relative abundance indicator for anadromous fish runs migrating past Zosel Dam and is not intended as an absolute census count. Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected fish passage data between October 2005 and December 2006. Video counting stations were deployed and data were collected at two locations in the basin: on the mainstem Okanogan River at Zosel Dam near Oroville, Washington, and on Bonaparte Creek, a tributary to the Okanogan River, in the town of Tonasket, Washington. Counts at Zosel Dam between 10 October 2005 and 28 February 2006 are considered partial, pilot year data as they were obtained from the operation of a single video array on the west bank fishway, and covered only a portion of the steelhead migration. A complete description of the apparatus and methodology can be found in 'Fish Enumeration Using Underwater Video Imagery - Operational Protocol' (Nass 2007). At Zosel Dam, totals of 57 and 481 adult Chinook salmon were observed with the video monitoring system in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Run timing for Chinook in 2006 indicated that peak passage occurred in early October and daily peak passage was noted on 5 October when 52 fish passed the dam. Hourly passage estimates of Chinook salmon counts for 2005 and 2006 at Zosel Dam revealed a slight diel pattern as Chinook passage events tended to remain low from 1900 hours to 0600 hours relative to other hours of the day. Chinook salmon showed a slight preference for passing the dam through the video chutes on the east bank (52%) relative to the west bank (48%). A total of 48 adult sockeye salmon in 2005 and 19,245 in 2006 were counted passing through the video chutes at Zosel Dam. The 2006 run timing pattern was characterized by a large peak in passage from 3 August through 10 August when 17,698 fish (92% of total run observed for the year) were observed passing through the video chutes. The daily peak of 5,853 fish occurred on 4 August. Hourly passage estimates of sockeye salmon counts for 2005 and 2006 at the dam showed a strong diel pattern with increased passage during nighttime hours relative to daytime hours. Sockeye showed a strong preference for passing Zosel Dam on the east bank (72%) relative to the west bank (28%). A total of 298 adult upstream-migrating steelhead were counted at Zosel Dam in 2005 and 2006, representing the 2006 cohort based on passage data from 5 October 2005 through 15 July 2006. Eighty-seven percent (87%) of the total steelhead observed passed the dam between 23 March and 25 April with a peak passage occurring on 6 April when 31 fish were observed. Steelhead passage at Zosel Dam exhibited no diel pattern. In contrast to both Chinook and sockeye salmon, steelhead were shown to have a preference for passing the dam on the west bank (71%) relative to the east bank (29%). Both Chinook and sockeye passage at Zosel Dam were influenced by Okanogan River water temperature. When water temperatures peaked in late July (daily mean exceeded 24 C and daily maximum exceeded 26.5 C), Chinook and sockeye counts went to zero. A subsequent decrease in water temperature resulted in sharp increases in both C