Sample records for journal indoor air

  1. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  2. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Health Hazards in Indoor Air. In Proceedings of the 2010for VOCs from post-1990 indoor air concentration studies inUnion project on indoor air pollutants. Allergy, 2008. 63(

  3. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air 2008, August 17-perception of indoor air quality during immediate and longeraddressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting

  4. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976. Geometand appliances and air pollution levels in the indoorAnnual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,

  5. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976. GeometNovakov, T. : Formation of Pollution Particulate NitrogenGENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Dr. C. D. Hollowell, Dr. R.

  6. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  7. Indoor Air Quality Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead to having

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Air Quality Fact Sheet Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead Indoor Air Pollutants · Molds · Pollen · Dander from pet fur · Secondhand smoke · Formaldehyde · Carbon such as cleaners and pesticides How to Improve Indoor Air Quality · Open windows when you can to let in fresh air

  8. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Japanese Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations,The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976, GeometAnnual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,

  9. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality M. H.have a method for determining equivalence in terms of eitherwe need to establish an equivalence principle that allows

  10. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  11. Indoor airPLUS Construction Specifications Version 1 (Rev. 02...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Specifications Version 1 (Rev. 02) Indoor airPLUS Construction Specifications Version 1 (Rev. 02) Indoor airPLUS Construction Specifications Version 1 (Rev. 02), November 2013,...

  12. assessing indoor air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sheet Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead, and charcoal Household products such as cleaners and pesticides How to Improve Indoor Air Quality Open...

  13. inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

  14. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    x A Emission Characteristics in Two Stage Combustion. PaperInternational) on Combustion, Tokyo (August, 1974). Chang,fll , J I ___F J "J LBL-S9lS COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR

  15. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    residences: acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1,3-butadiene,with the addition of acrolein, which was not included inlarge contributors to acrolein and NO 2 respectively indoors

  16. Classification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification of indoor air pollution determinant factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of indoor air pollution determinant factors Jean-Baptiste Masson1,2 * , Gérard Govaert2 , Corinne Mandin1 representing different types of indoor air pollution. We restrain to the 20 variables corresponding to indoorClassification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification

  17. Arnold Schwarzenegger INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR LEAKAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;#12;Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage in Apartments and Commercial Buildings Appendix A Air Infiltration Model for Large Buildings Appendix B Analysis of Commercial Building Data Appendix C Commercial Building Data contains data and discussion of the leakage parameter in commercial buildings. The leakage parameter

  18. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    incorporating energy efficient designs. Indoor air qualityincorporating energy efficient designs. In the future, theenergy efficient ventilation standards and ventilation designs

  19. Indoor air quality in French dwellings Sverine Kirchner1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    on Indoor Air Quality (OQAI) aims at collecting data on population exposure to indoor pollutants in various INTRODUCTION Our lack of understanding of the health risks related to air pollutants exposure in buildingsIndoor air quality in French dwellings Séverine Kirchner1,* , Mickael Derbez1 , Cédric Duboudin2

  20. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  1. Factors Analysis on Safety of Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xiong, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Handbook on Review and Detection of Indoor Environment [M]. Beijing: Mechanical Industry Press, 2003: 1-5.(In Chinese) [2] Pan Xiaochuan. Review on Indoor Air Pollution and Its Harmfulness to Health [J]. Chin. Prev. Med., 2002,3(3):167-169 (in... of Urban Construction, Nanhua University, Hengyang, P.R.China hunanluoqinghai@163.com Abstract: Influence factors on safety of indoor air quality (IAQ) were analyzed in this paper. Some regeneration compositions resulting from potential indoor...

  2. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Swainson, M. (2009). Indoor air quality in highly energyClayton, R. (2001). Indoor air quality: Residential cookingSacramento, CA: California Air Resources Board. Fugler, D. ,

  3. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  4. Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone Heather L. Papinchak1 , E for their species effectiveness in reducing ozone concentrations in a simulated indoor environment. Continuously supply system were used to simulate an indoor environment in which ozone concentrations could be measured

  5. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes ABSTRACT Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important

  6. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  7. Commissioning to avoid indoor air quality problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, E.M.; Collett, C.W. (Theodore D. Sterling and Associates, Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)); Turner, S. (Healthy Buildings International Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)); Downing, C.C. (Environmental Science and Technology Lab., Georgia Technology Research Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on indoor air quality (IAQ) which has become a pervasive problem plaguing the building industry worldwide. Poor IAQ in commercial and office buildings is primarily related to new building technology, new materials and equipment and energy management operating systems. Occupants of buildings with air quality problems suffer from a common series of symptoms. As early as 1982, ASHRAE, realizing the significance of the problem, produced an IAQ position statement that identified strategies for solving IAQ problems. Many of those strategies have now been implemented, including Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality; Standard 90.1, Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings; the 100 series of energy standards; and Guideline 1, Guideline for Commissioning of HVAC Systems.

  8. Air quality and thermal comfort in office buildings: Results of a large indoor environmental quality survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizenga, C; Abbaszadeh, S.; Zagreus, Leah; Arens, Edward A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based Indoor Environmental Quality Survey. Indoor Air 2004;L. Zagreus. 2005. Acoustic Quality in Office Workstations asare you with the air quality in your workspace? very

  9. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation J.M.Logue1,P Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation LBNL-4945E Disclaimer This document.H. Sherman, B.C. Singer, Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

  10. STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION CEC- CF-6R-MECH-05 (Revised 08 Ventilation (Page 1 of 7) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality (IAQ): All dwelling units shall meet the requirements

  11. Residential HVAC Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential HVAC && Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2) Tav Commins #12;Contact Information · Energy construction, Additions /Alterations · Nonresidential and Residential #12;Residential HVAC && Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2) ·HVAC EfficiencyHVAC Efficiency ·Quality Installation (HERS Measures) S li b HERS R t

  12. Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 OZONE REMOVAL BY RESIDENTIAL HVAC FILTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 2366 OZONE REMOVAL BY RESIDENTIAL HVAC FILTERS P Zhao1,2 , JA Siegel1, Austin, Texas 78758, USA ABSTRACT HVAC filters have a significant influence on indoor air quality% for Filter #2 at a face velocity of 0.81 cm/s. The potential for HVAC filters to affect ozone concentrations

  13. air pollution indoor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone Heather L. Papinchak1 , E ndoor air pollution is ranked as one of the world's greatest public health risks (Wolverton,...

  14. Indoor air quality: multivariate analyses of the relationship between indoor and outdoor aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, S.M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique multivariate data set incorporating simultaneous indoor and outdoor measurements of sixteen air contaminants at ten homes has been used to investigate the contribution of outdoor concentrations to indoor aerosol variability, and to characterize indoor source contribution to the indoor concentrations. The data were available from an earlier field study of particle and gas concentrations outside and inside five homes in each of two cities: Portage, Wisconsin, and Steubenville, Ohio. Three distinct multivariate statistical techniques were used sequentially in the research, successively building on the results and interpretations as they developed. Cluster analysis was selected as the initial method for partitioning the variables into subgroups comprised of highly intercorrelated variables. Significant site-to-site variability was evident in both cities, however within sites, indoor clusters had similarities to the outdoor clusters. Principal component analysis was next performed on the Portage data, reduced in dimension to avoid problems of singularity in the data matrix. The principal component analyses results were used to attribute predominant indoor and outdoor sources, including cigarette smoke, wood stove, road dust, and urban combustion sources. Finally, multiple regression analysis was performed to relate outdoor pollutant concentrations to a composite index of the indoor aerosol as represented by the orthogonal rotations of the indoor principal components. The research indicates that this multivariate analysis framework is preferable to single univariate analysis in evaluating the influence of outdoor aerosols and indoor sources on indoor air quality data.

  15. Comparison of dust from HVAC filters, indoor surfaces, and indoor air Federico Noris*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Comparison of dust from HVAC filters, indoor surfaces, and indoor air Federico Noris* , Kerry A and Environmental Engineering * Corresponding email: Fedenoris@mail.utexas.edu SUMMARY HVAC filters are long heavy metal (Pb, Cd and As) concentrations. HVAC filter microbial concentrations appear to be consistent

  16. Reaching agreements on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, S.M.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The phrases sick building syndrome and indoor air quality (IAQ) are in common use today because of a heightened public awareness of various environmental issues. IAQ complaints must be diplomatically resolved because employers and building owners and managers now face a potential impact on their bottom-lines. The office's IAQ was first questioned when 12 of the 47 employees reported complaints particular to the time they spent in the office building. Three employees were so severely affected, they developed respective cases of rhinitis, conjunctivitis and sinus infection. When the tenant presented this information to the building owner, he was told that there was not an IAQ problem within the building. This article summarizes an unfortunate, yet typical, aspect of IAQ problems. It also offers a more efficient method for evaluating and resolving all IAQ problems.

  17. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

  18. Impacts of Contaminant Storage on Indoor Air Quality: Model Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development. Atmospheric Environment. LBNL the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment to the time scale of depletion of the compound from the storage medium, however, the total exposure

  19. Building Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality - You Can Have Both

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kettler, G. J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Providing ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality per ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 does not require large increases in utility costs. Building efficiency does not have to be sacrificed for a healthy building. The ASHRAE 62- 1989 requirement...

  20. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants from Indoor Combustion Sources: I. Field Measure-Characteristics in Two Stage Combustion, paper presented atInternational) on Combustion, August, 1974, Tokyo, Japan. 8

  1. Indoor Air Quality and Health in FEMA Temporary Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Air Quality and Health in FEMA Temporary Housing For Healthcare Providers Background formaldehyde and air quality in FEMA trailers. This fact sheet provides basic information on formaldehyde expo sure, other air quality concerns, risk factors and tips to give to trailer residents so they can

  2. Optimal Indoor Air Temperature Considering Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort in the Shanghai Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y.; Lian, Z.; Hou, Z.; Liu, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    influence on the optimal indoor air temperature than other influential factors. (2) The optimal indoor air temperature is nonlinear with the air velocity, and be linear with the air humidity and the clothes thermo-resistance. 25 25.5 26 26.5 27 27.5 28...) Optimal indoor air temperature in summer () ? Fig. 3 Influence of clothes thermo-resistance on the optimal indoor air temperature 3. OPTIMAL INDOOR AIR TEMPERATURE Known from the above analysis, when the indoor air velocity is below 0.3m...

  3. DRAFT 11/09/2010 PLEASE DO NOT CITE OR QUOTE Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    )......................................................................................................... 2 gARAgE AIR POLLUTANTSDRAFT 11/09/2010 PLEASE DO NOT CITE OR QUOTE Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) HeAlTHy InDooR env

  4. DOE ZERH Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indoor airPLUS qualification, a prerequisite for Zero Energy Ready Homes, offers an important platform to improve the indoor air quality (IAQ) in high-performance homes.  A critical aspect of...

  5. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; Hult, Erin L.

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A first-order, lumped capacitance model is used to describe the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment. The model is applied to describe the interaction between formaldehyde in building materials and the concentration of the species in the indoor air. Storage buffering can decrease the effect of ventilation on the indoor concentration, compared to the inverse dependence of indoor concentration on the air exchange rate that is consistent with a constant emission rate source. If the exposure time of an occupant is long relative to the time scale of depletion of the compound from the storage medium, however, the total exposure will depend inversely on the air exchange rate. This lumped capacitance model is also applied to moisture buffering in the indoor environment, which occurs over much shorter depletion timescales of the order of days. This model provides a framework to interpret the impact of storage buffering on time-varying concentrations of chemical species and resulting occupant exposure. Pseudo-steady state behavior is validated using field measurements. Model behavior over longer times is consistent with formaldehyde and moisture concentration measurements in previous studies.

  6. Model Reduction for Indoor-Air Behavior in Control Design for Energy-Efficient Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gugercin, Serkan

    Model Reduction for Indoor-Air Behavior in Control Design for Energy-Efficient Buildings Jeff models for the indoor-air environment in control design for energy efficient buildings. In one method by a desire to incorporate models of the indoor-air environment in the design of energy efficient buildings

  7. Health Hazards in Indoor Air J.M. Logue, M. H. Sherman, B.C. Singer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Health Hazards in Indoor Air J.M. Logue, M. H. Sherman, B.C. Singer.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control through5250E #12;Logue et al, Health Hazards in Indoor air LBNL5250E Health Hazards in Indoor Air J

  8. Investigative Tools and Techniques for Indoor Air Quality Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, S. R.; Quinn, C. B.; Henderson, J. E.; Vickery, R. G.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATIVE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR INDOOR AIR QUALITY STUDIES Steven R. Kennedy, C.E.P., REM, project Manager I C. Brandon ~uinn, P.E., C.P.G., Project Manager James E. Henderson, Ph. D., Director of ~nalytical services ' Robert G. ~ickery...

  9. Maintaining Indoor Air Quality During Construction and Renovation Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    and pollutants that can impact the indoor air quality (IAQ) of a building. These contaminants may be transported of pollutants. While there are currently no enforceable IAQ standards, workers are certain to consider exposure, they are reported to be irritants to the eyes, nose and throat. Specification of low VOC emitting products is always

  10. Modeling VOC sorption of building materials and its impact on indoor air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinsong, 1975-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by building materials can have significant effect on the indoor VOC concentration levels and indoor air quality in buildings. The objective of this study was to investigate ...

  11. Indoor air and human health revisited: A recent IAQ symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gammage, R.B.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor Air and Human Health Revisited was a speciality symposium examining the scientific underpinnings of sensory and sensitivity effects, allergy and respiratory disease, neurotoxicity and cancer. An organizing committee selected four persons to chain the sessions and invite experts to give state-of-the-art presentations that will be published as a book. A summary of the presentations is made and some critical issues identified.

  12. Indoor Air Quality Observations in Public Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /wall irrterfaoe to prorent water flaw to the cabinert irRerior and behind cabinets. . Seal windows to significantly minimize infiltration of Wd air. . Clean the mildew appearing euhetanoe. DIy out space hide and b&hd cabinets. School G ie a moc... roam. School officials m hunediately natified, and the boiler was imdiately shutdawn. me burners wen= mwved for inspectian ard they had deteriorated significantly. The faur inch high coxmte pad supporting the boiler was cracked frrm appearance...

  13. Field Study of Exhaust Fans for Mitigating Indoor Air Quality Problems: Final Report to Bonneville Power Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, David T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution to ventilation problem in some situations [TurielIndoor Air Quality Problem. - BPA Ventilation - Air Qualityventilation on indoor air Quality and to develop energy conserving strategies to mitigate potential problems

  14. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing already, but that new, high-performance homes may require additional mixing. Also our results suggest that some differentiation should be made in policies and standards for systems that provide continuous exhaust, thereby reducing relative dose for occupants overall.

  15. Ventilation and Air Quality in Indoor Ice Skating Arenas Chunxin Yang, Ph.D.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Ventilation and Air Quality in Indoor Ice Skating Arenas Chunxin Yang, Ph.D.1 Philip Demokritou, and the operation strategy of the ventilation system are significant contributing factors to the indoor air quality exchange rate, air distribution method, and ventilation control strategies on the IAQ in an arena. With CFD

  16. Quantification of Ozone Levels in Indoor Environments Generated by Ionization and Ozonolysis Air Purifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Quantification of Ozone Levels in Indoor Environments Generated by Ionization and Ozonolysis Air ozone (O3) during operation, either in- tentionally or as a byproduct of air ionization standards. Sev- eral types of air purifiers were tested for their ability to produce ozone in various indoor

  17. Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 REACTIONS BETWEEN OZONE AND BUILDING PRODUCTS: IMPACT ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    indoor sources such as photocopiers, laser printers or air purifiers, outdoor ozone is the main source generated using pure oxygen (Air Liquide, 99.999 % O2) through an UV light generator (Pen Ray, model SOG 1Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 2118 REACTIONS BETWEEN OZONE AND BUILDING PRODUCTS: IMPACT ON PRIMARY

  18. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation KEMA-XENERGY.2004.Offermann, F. J.2009. Ventilation and indoor air quality intowards meeting residential ventilation needs. Berkeley, CA,

  19. ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low- Rise Residential Buildings - Building America Top Innovation ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and...

  20. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, M.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, AbraOF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, Abrareporting indoor air contamination (6,7). Estimation of

  1. EIS-0127: New Energy-Efficient Homes Programs, Assessing Indoor Air Quality Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bonneville Power Administration developed this EIS to explore whether different building techniques will control indoor air quality and still maintain cost-effective energy savings.

  2. Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  3. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of the San Francisco Federal Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael; Bennett, Deborah H.; Faulkner, David; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P; Trout, Amber L.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the San Francisco Federal Building (SFFB) was conducted on May 12 and 14, 2009 at the request of the General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the assessment was for a general screening of IAQ parameters typically indicative of well functioning building systems. One naturally ventilated space and one mechanically ventilated space were studied. In both zones, the levels of indoor air contaminants, including CO2, CO, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes, were low, relative to reference exposure levels and air quality standards for comparable office buildings. We found slightly elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including two compounds often found in"green" cleaning products. In addition, we found two industrial solvents at levels higher than typically seen in office buildings, but the levels were not sufficient to be of a health concern. The ventilation rates in the two study spaces were high by any standard. Ventilation rates in the building should be further investigated and adjusted to be in line with the building design. Based on our measurements, we conclude that the IAQ is satisfactory in the zone we tested, but IAQ may need to be re-checked after the ventilation rates have been lowered.

  4. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  5. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AT AN OHIO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berk, J.V.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENERGY-EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AT AN OHIOENERGY~EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AT AN OHIOenergy conservation opportunities i.n ten elementary schools. 1 Fairmoor Elementary School in Columbus • Ohio

  7. Improve Indoor Air Quality, Energy Consumption and Building Performance: Leveraging Technology to Improve All Three

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the most efficient way possible. However, maintaining optimum indoor air quality often seems to be in conflict with minimizing operating and energy costs. Conventional wisdom says the best IAQ strategy involves increasing ventilation rates. But outdoor air...

  8. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr--1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 ?g/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 ?g/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  9. Indoor and outdoor air pollution in the Himalayas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, C.I.; Lin, S.F.; Osborn, J.F.; Pandey, M.R.; Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air pollutant concentrations have been measured in residences in the Himalayas of Nepal where biomass fuels are used for cooking and heating. Levels of total suspended particles are in the range 3-42 mg/m/sup 3/, with respirable suspended particles in the range 1-14 mg/m/sup 3/ in the houses sampled. Limited data for gaseous species show appreciable levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and several non-methane hydrocarbons. A questionnaire concerning energy use administered in each household suggests that high per capita use of biomass fuels is responsible for excessive pollutant concentrations. Application of a one-compartment mass balance model to these houses shows only rough agreement between calculated and measured values, due to uncertainties in model input parameters as well as difficulties in estimating average pollutant concentrations throughout each house. High outdoor concentrations of potassium and methyl chloride, previously shown to be tracers of biomass combustion, indicate that the indoor biomass combustion also degrades the outdoor environment. Values of crustal enrichment factors for trace elements in the air and snow of the region suggest that the polluted air is generally confined to the populated villages, with more pristine air at higher elevations. 58 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  10. Energy Efficiency & Environmental News: Duct Cleaning and Indoor Air Quality 1 Florida Energy Extension Service and Gary Cook 2 DUCT CLEANING AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With concern about secondary smoke, dust mites, formaldehyde emissions and bioaerosols, the public has become more aware of indoor air quality problems. Heating, air conditioning and ventilation units as well as associated ductwork can be the sources of mold, fungi and other microbial pollutants as well as particulates of dust, secondary smoke and pieces of dead dust mites. Along with the public’s concern has been the development of businesses directly associated with indoor air quality. Some of these businesses are reputable and supply effective indoor air quality services; others, on the other hand, offer little more than technical jargon and will take advantage of the unwary consumer. Duct cleaning has been an area that has been attracted by both reputable and unscrupulous businesses.

  11. Efficient Probabilistic Localization for Autonomous Indoor Airships using Sonar, Air Flow, and IMU Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teschner, Matthias

    Efficient Probabilistic Localization for Autonomous Indoor Airships using Sonar, Air Flow, and IMU, {muellerj, burgard}@informatik.uni-freiburg.de Abstract In recent years, autonomous miniature airships have navigation, sonar, IMU 1 Introduction Miniature airships as autonomous mobile systems for indoor navigation

  12. Indoor air quality implications of using ion generators in residences Michael S. Waring*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    (IAQ). Positively, ion generators remove the charged particle contaminants to collector plates, Denmark - Paper ID: 598 #12;mortality and exposures to indoor ozone and its oxidation products. Ozone and Shields, 1999). Terpenes are common indoors and are emitted from consumer products such as air fresheners

  13. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

  15. Practical approaches for healthcare: Indoor air quality management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, A.R.; Poulakos, E.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The management of indoor air quality (IAQ) is of interest to building occupants, managers, owners, and regulators alike. Whether by poor design, improper attention, inadequate maintenance or the intent to save energy, many buildings today have significantly degraded IAQ levels. Considering the increase of facilities and occupants in the non-industrial sector of the nation`s workforce, the consequences of inadequate IAQ, as related to productivity, human wellness and healthcare costs in the commercial (healthcare) environment, have become increasingly urgent issues to design professionals, building owners and managers, safety and health professionals, interior product manufacturers, and HVAC control vendors. The first step of proper IAQ management is to fully understand the issue of IAQ and to a certain elemental degree, the extent of the problem(s), causes and possible solution applications. The second step is to conduct a performance review of the HVAC systems based on equipment design specifications and guidelines for acceptable IAQ. And the third step is to identify potential chemical, physical and biological sources that are known to contribute to adverse air quality.

  16. Improving Indoor Air Quality Improves the Performance of Office Work and School Work 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wargocki, P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies show that improving indoor air quality (IAQ) from the mediocre level prevalent in many buildings worldwide improves the performance of office work by adults and the performance of schoolwork by children. These results constitute a...

  17. Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 A PRELIMINARY FIELD STUDY OF INDOOR CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of ozone-initiated reactions products indoors. In particular, formaldehyde, hexanal and presumably occurring indoors (Weschler 2000). The ozone removal on building products has been experimentally-induced reaction products, including odorous compounds (Knudsen et al. 2003) but also airway irritants (Wolkoff et

  18. Heat Pipe Impact on Dehumidification, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, J. T.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT PIPE IMPACT ON DEHUMIDIFICATION, INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY SAVINGS by J. Thomas Cooper Heat Pipe Technology, Inc Alachua, Florida, USA TENTH SYMPOSIUM ON IMPROVING BUILDING SYSTEMS IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES MAY 13-14, 1996 FT....WORTH, TEXAS ABSTRACT Heat pipe impact on our ability to dehumidify, protect, and improve our indoor air quality and save energy in our building systems is tremendous. Projects all over the world in hot and humid climates are using heat pipes in both...

  19. administration indoor air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the investigations Mentifyhg indoor eflvironmental @leas were initiated in response to energy audit requests. One investigation was requested after parents cnplained to the school...

  20. acceptable indoor air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the investigations Mentifyhg indoor eflvironmental @leas were initiated in response to energy audit requests. One investigation was requested after parents cnplained to the school...

  1. Impact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    air pollution study (CITEPA), France * Corresponding email: Eva.Leoz@ineris.fr SUMMARY Data pollutants in ambient air. Consequently our study aims at describing both emission factors and inerisImpact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1 , Jacques Ribéron2

  2. Impact of ozone on indoor air quality: a preliminary field study M. Nicolas, O. Ramalho, F. Maupetit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    indoor air quality (IAQ) since they produce secondary pollutants, mainly aldehydes which are known to document the impact on IAQ of outdoor ozone during summer air pollution episodes. For this purpose, a oneImpact of ozone on indoor air quality: a preliminary field study M. Nicolas, O. Ramalho, F

  3. Field Study of Exhaust Fans for Mitigating Indoor Air Quality Problems: Final Report to Bonneville Power Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, David T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strategy, developed by Honeywell, Inc. , is describeda separate report. [Honeywell, 1986]. Ref erences ASHRAE (Atlanta, pp. 422-452. Honeywell (1986). "Indoor Air

  4. Study of building material emissions and indoor air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xudong, 1966-

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building materials and furnishings emit a wide variety of indoor pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). At present, no accurate models are available to characterize material emissions and sorption under ...

  5. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

  6. Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

  7. Energy efficient indoor VOC air cleaning with activated carbon fiber (ACF) filters Meera A. Sidheswaran a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to reduce the energy required for heating and cooling of ventilation air by 35% to almost 50%. Ó 2011 Keywords: Activated carbon fiberVolatile organic compoundIndoor pollutantEnergy efficient ventilation a b allow reduced rates and energy consumption for outdoor air ventilation. We evaluated the use of ACF

  8. Ris-M-2476 RELATIONSHIPS IN INDOOR/OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-M-2476 RELATIONSHIPS IN INDOOR/OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION Jørn Roed Abstract. Beryllium-7 a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed

  9. Indoor Air Quality Plan Page 1 of 5 Environmental Health and Safety Original: December 15, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    Air Quality (IAQ) Standard (N.J.A.C. 12:100-13)(2007), which was proposed on December 18, 2006's health and productivity. The College has established the following plan to promote good indoor air quality for employees in our buildings. This plan follows the requirements established by the PEOSH IAQ

  10. Regulation of indoor air quality: The last frontier of environmental regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, R.B. [Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) is ranked by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) among the top five environmental risks to human health. The World Health Organization estimates that nearly one in every six commercial buildings in the United States suffers from sick-building syndrome and that occupants of another one in twelve suffer from building-related illnesses. Indoor air quality (IAQ) problems cost American business $10 billion per year through lowered productivity, absenteeism, and medical costs. Yet despite the importance and high cost of IAQ problems, indoor air is not yet specifically addressed in any federal regulatory program. The reason probably is because indoor air is a quanitatively different environment in which traditional modes of regulation, based on pollutant-by pollutant risk assessments, are of limited utility. This paper covers the following topics: four factors influencing IAQ regulation; EPA regulation of indoor air; the role of the consumer product safety commission; OSHA and IAQ issues; state regulation and economic concerns; the pressure for legislation.

  11. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given

  12. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    environment. The model is applied to describe the interaction between formaldehyde in building materials to the timescale of depletion of the compound from the storage medium, however, the total exposure will depend in the indoor environment, which occurs over much shorter depletion timescales of the order of days. This model

  13. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation(UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk,William J.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680-780 m{sup 3}/h (400-460 cfm). A set of experiments was conducted with common VOCs introduced into the UVPCO device individually and in mixture. Compound conversion efficiencies and the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined by comparison of compound concentrations upstream and downstream of the reactor. There was general agreement between compound conversions efficiencies determined individually and in the mixture. This suggests that competition among compounds for active sites on the photocatalyst surface will not limit the performance of the UVPCO device when the total VOC concentration is low. A possible exception was the very volatile alcohols, for which there were some indications of competitive adsorption. The results also showed that formaldehyde was produced from many commonly encountered VOCs, while acetaldehyde was generated by specific VOCs, particularly ethanol. The implication is that formaldehyde concentrations are likely to increase when an effective UVPCO air cleaner is used in buildings containing typical VOC sources. The magnitude of the expected increase will depend upon a number of interrelated factors. Series of experiments were conducted to determine if the oxidizer, sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O), has sufficient reaction rates and capacity to counteract formaldehyde and acetaldehyde production and enable a 50 % reduction in building ventilation rate without net increases in indoor aldehyde concentrations. A commercially produced filter element and two laboratory-fabricated media beds containing NaMnO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O chemisorbent media were evaluated. The effectiveness of a device for removal of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other VOCs was determined by measurement of concentrations immediately upstream and downstream of the device. In some experiments, conversion efficiencies and byproduct generation by the UVPCO device also were determined. Six experiments were conducted with the commercial filter element installed downstream of the UVPCO reactor. Eleven experiments were conducted with a single panel media bed (30 cm by 61 cm by 2.5 cm deep) installed downstream of the UVPCO reactor; in these, the effects of temperature and air residence time on conversion efficiency were examined. Two experiments were conducted with a four-panel, folded, media bed (approximately four times the size of the single panel bed) installed downstream of the reactor. Because the commercial unit contained activated carbon as an additional component, it was effective at removing lower volatility compounds that typically have low oxidation rates in the UVPCO reactor. The filter element also met the minimum efficiency objective for formaldehyde. However, the removal of acetaldehyde was less than required. The air residence time in the single panel bed was not optimized as the removal efficiencies for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were strongly inversely related to the air flow rate through the device. In addition, the acetaldehyde removal efficiency decreased to less than 10% with extended use of the device. The fold

  14. Environmental Health Perspectives VOLUME 109 | NUMBER 5 | May 2001 481 Quantifying the Effects of Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    of Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Combustion on Acute Respiratory Infections in Developing to indoor air pollution, especially to particulate matter, from the combustion of biofuels (wood, charcoal to indoor air pollution high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations (10

  15. Environmental sensor technologies and procedures for detecting and identifying indoor air pollution. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, E.T.; Kermath, D.; Kemme, M.R.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public concern about environmental quality now encompasses the indoor environment-the buildings where people work and live. In recent years researchers have been discovering new links between indoor air quality (IAQ) and the occupants' comfort, health, and productivity. As the operator of many thousands of buildings, and the employer of the millions of people who use those buildings, the U.S. Army has a strong interest in maintaining and promoting good IAQ. This report presents a concise summary of the key IAQ parameters of interest to building managers, the most common indoor air contaminants, the variety of sensor technology currently available for detect and identifying those contaminants, and basic procedures for using that technology.

  16. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, P.; Roth, K.; Tiefenbeck, V.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  17. Indoor Air Quality in Retail Stores: A Review Joshua D. Rhodes1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    , and potential sales impacts associated with poor indoor air quality. In the U.S. alone, approximately 15 million environmental conditioning (ESource, 2006). The purpose of this extended abstract is to summarize the literature and a significant baseline concentration of textile particles. Hartmann et al. (2004) found acceptable SVOC

  18. Indoor Air Quality Factors in Designing a Healthy Building John D. Spengler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    , building materials and systems, ventilation models, design tools Shortened title: IAQ in Designing and regulations, rapid introduction of new building materials and commercial products, as well as the prevailing indoor air quality (IAQ) is an important determinant of healthy design, it is not the sole determinant

  19. Evaluation of the Indoor Air Quality Procedure for Use in Retail Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service). The IAQP determines minimum VRs based on objectively and subjectively evaluated indoor air quality (IAQ

  20. Field study of exhaust fans for mitigating indoor air quality problems: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Szydlowski, R.F.; Turk, B.H.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential ventilation in the United States housing stock is provided primarily by infiltration, the natural leakage of outdoor air into a building through cracks and holes in the building shell. Since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for control of indoor pollutant concentrations, low infiltration rates caused fluctuation in weather conditions may lead to high indoor pollutant concentrations. Supplemental mechanical ventilation can be used to eliminate these periods of low infiltration. This study examined effects of small continuously-operating exhaust fan on pollutant concentrations and energy use in residences.

  1. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    local mean ages of air in buildings for characterizing ventilationof local exhaust increases average whole-house ventilation

  2. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  3. Monitoring indoor air quality in French schools and day-care centres. Results from the first phase of a pilot survey.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . KEYWORDS Air pollution, air stuffiness, formaldehyde, benzene. 1 INTRODUCTION Indoor air quality to determine an air stuffiness index as an indirect mean to assess pollutants accumulation in a closed spaceMonitoring indoor air quality in French schools and day-care centres. Results from the first phase

  4. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels and respiratoryTuberculosis and Indoor Biomass and Kerosene Use in Nepal: AR.D. Retherford, and K.R. Smith, Biomass cooking fuels and

  5. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P.N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pathways other than a ventilation system. The term C in thepathways other than a ventilation system. Air flow acrossInfiltration and Ventilation Systems in High-Rise Apartment

  6. Indoor-air-quality management for operations and maintenance personnel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sliwinski, B.J.; Kermath, D.; Kemme, M.R.; Imel, M.R.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing body of information related to facility indoor air quality (IAQ) and its affect on the health and productivity of building occupants. Indoor air pollution can increase employee absenteeism and reduce productivity. Poor IAQ may be a result of poor building or ventilation design, improper maintenance, or inappropriate energy conservation strategies. To help ensure the health, welfare, and productivity of Army personnel and the performance of Army facilities, installation operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel need access to relevant and useful information about IAQ issues. This report includes background information for O and M managers and staff, an installation-level IAQ management plan, and practical O and M procedures for correcting the problems that most commonly lead to IAQ-related complaints.

  7. Resolving the ambiguities: An industrial hygiene Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gammage, R.B.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resolving the Ambiguities: An Industrial Hygiene (IAQ) Symposium was a one-day event designed to inform practicing industrial hygienists about highlight presentations made at Indoor Air `93. A broad range of topics was presented by invited speakers. Topics included were attempts to deal with guidelines and standards, questionnaires, odors and sensory irritation, respiratory allergies, neuroses, sick building syndrome (SBS), and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS).

  8. The Effects of Indoor Air Velocity on Occupant Thermal Comfort in Winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Chen, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity, and IAQ, Vol. I-2-5 The Effects of Indoor Air Velocity on Occupant Thermal Comfort in Winter Jiaolin Wang Lu Chen Postgrauate Master... surface temperature decline to reduce the body?s heat loss. Meanwhile shudder will promote the body?s heat production. So the temperature of organism doesn?t drop with decline of the environmental temperature. But if organism stays at cool environment...

  9. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  10. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation for Indoor AirApplications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Sullivan, D.P.; Fisk, W.J.

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acceptable indoor air quality in office buildings may be achieved with less energy by combining effective air cleaning systems for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with particle filtration then by relying solely on ventilation. For such applications, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) systems are being developed for VOC destruction. An experimental evaluation of a UVPCO system is reported. The evaluation was unique in that it employed complex mixtures of VOCs commonly found in office buildings at realistically low concentrations. VOC conversion efficiencies varied over a broad range, usually exceeded 20%, and were as high as {approx}80%. Conversion efficiency generally diminished with increased air flow rate. Significant amounts of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were produced due to incomplete mineralization. The results indicate that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde production rates may need to be reduced before such UVPCO systems can be deployed safely in occupied buildings.

  11. Gosselin, J.R. and Chen, Q. 2008. "A dual airflow window for indoor air quality improvement and energy conservation in buildings," HVAC&R Research, 14(3), 359-372.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    and energy conservation in buildings," HVAC&R Research, 14(3), 359-372. A Dual Airflow Window for Indoor Air with exhausted indoor air. The energy needed to condition outdoor air is reduced because of the counterflow heat, the dual airflow window has a great potential for conserving energy and improving indoor air quality

  12. Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, Spencer M.; Mendell, Mark J.; Chan, Wanyu R.

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimum outdoor air ventilation rates (VRs) for buildings are specified in standards, including California?s Title 24 standards. The ASHRAE ventilation standard includes two options for mechanically-ventilated buildings ? a prescriptive ventilation rate procedure (VRP) that specifies minimum VRs that vary among occupancy classes, and a performance-based indoor air quality procedure (IAQP) that may result in lower VRs than the VRP, with associated energy savings, if IAQ meeting specified criteria can be demonstrated. The California Energy Commission has been considering the addition of an IAQP to the Title 24 standards. This paper, based on a review of prior data and new analyses of the IAQP, evaluates four future options for Title 24: no IAQP; adding an alternate VRP, adding an equivalent indoor air quality procedure (EIAQP), and adding an improved ASHRAE-like IAQP. Criteria were established for selecting among options, and feedback was obtained in a workshop of stakeholders. Based on this review, the addition of an alternate VRP is recommended. This procedure would allow lower minimum VRs if a specified set of actions were taken to maintain acceptable IAQ. An alternate VRP could also be a valuable supplement to ASHRAE?s ventilation standard.

  13. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) indoor air quality in office buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallingford, K.M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 356 indoor-air-quality health-hazard evaluations were completed by NIOSH from 1971 through December of 1985. Most of these studies concerned government and private office buildings where there were worker complaints. Worker complaints resulted from contamination from inside the building (19% of the cases), contamination from outside (11 percent), contamination from the building fabric (4%), biological contamination (5%), inadequate ventilation (50%), and unknown causes (11%). Health complaints addressed by investigative efforts included eye irritation, dry throat, headache, fatigue, sinus congestion, skin irritation, shortness of breath, cough, dizziness, and nausea.

  14. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  15. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  16. United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) EPA 402-F-12-001 | September 2013 www.epa.gov/radiation/laws/190

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    discussion about whether to revise the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power and Indoor Air (6608J) EPA 402-F-12-001 | September 2013 www.epa.gov/radiation/laws/190 EPA and Nuclear PowerUnited States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6608J) EPA 402-F

  17. Integrating Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits in Apartments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ventilating, and air conditioning Indoor air quality IndoorRefrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE (Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE (

  18. inAir: A Longitudinal study of Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    pollutants are colorless and odorless, while many activities are inconspicuous and routine. We implemented inAir. Among those, air pollution and its effects on health have been researched extensively over past several decades [13]. In particular, the health effects of air pollution cover a wide variety of respiratory

  19. Mechanistic modeling of the interrelationships between indoor/outdoor air quality and human exposure in a GIS framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isukapalli, S.S.; Purushothaman, V.; Georgopoulos, P.G.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of human exposure to atmospheric contaminants such as ozone and particulate matter (PM) is often based on measured data from fixed ambient (outdoors) Air Monitoring Stations. This results in an artificial characterization of indoor exposures, as concentrations and physicochemical attributes of indoor pollutants vary significantly and are different from corresponding outdoor values. A mechanistically-based modeling approach is presented here that aims to improve estimates for the outdoor/indoor relationships of photochemical pollutants and of associated fine particles and, subsequently, of human exposure assessments. New approaches for refining the spatial, temporal, and indoor/outdoor patterns of gas phase photochemical contaminants and PM are currently being developed and tested. These approaches are combined with information from either ambient monitoring networks or from ambient air quality models that consider aerosol physics and chemistry coupled with gas phase photochemistry (e.g. UAM-AERO). This process utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Relational Database (RD) methods, to facilitate detailed exposure scenario construction (involving e.g. the geographic location of an individual considered in time) and to aid in the estimation of population exposure over selected geographic areas. The combination of monitor data or air quality modeling with microenvironmental modeling in a GIS framework can potentially provide a useful platform for more accurate assessments of human exposure to co-occurring gas and particulate phase air pollutants.

  20. Thermal environment in indoor spaces with under-floor air distribution systems: 2. Determination of design parameters (1522-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Thermal environment in indoor spaces with under-floor air distribution systems: 2. Determination of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA 2 Building Energy and Environment Engineering LLP, Lafayette, Indiana 47905, USA 3 School of Environmental Science and Engineering

  1. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk, William J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of semiconductor photocatalysis. Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 69-96.M.A. Evaluation of photocatalysis for gas-phase air

  2. Hvac systems as a tool in controlling indoor air quality: A literature review. Final report, May-August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samfield, M.M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). One conclusion of the review is that HVAC systems very often contribute to the indoor air pollution because of (1) poor system maintenance, (2) overcrowding or the introduction of new pollution-generating sources with buildings, and (3) the location of outdoor air near ambient pollution sources. Another conclusion is that failure to trade off between energy conservation and employee productivity may result in increased IAQ problems. The report contents are based on literature survey covering the years 1988 through 1993, involving 60 references, 32 of which are cited in the report.

  3. Indoor Chemical Exposures: Humans' Non-respiratory Interactions with Room Air

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Charles Weschler

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    March 18, 2010 Berkeley Lab Environmental Energy Technology Division distinguished lecture: The marked difference in pollutant concentrations between an occupied and un-occupied room are only partially explained by human bio-effluents. Humans alter levels of ozone and related oxidants such as nitrate and hydroxyl radicals in the rooms they inhabit; in effect, they change the oxidative capacity of room air. Ozone-initiated reactions on exposed skin, hair and clothing generate products, including potentially irritating chemicals whose concentrations are much higher in the occupant's breathing zone than in the core of the room. Charles J. Weschler is a Professor at the School of Public Health, the Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine and the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)/Robert Wood Johnson Medical School & Rutgers University (New Jersey). He is also a Visiting Professor at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU, Lyngby, Denmark).

  4. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas furnace Air-to-air heat pump Gas fireplace (primarywith their air-to-air heat pumps, such as nighttimeSystem Type None Air-to-air heat pump Night ventilative

  5. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in the building. The plants used in the rooftop greenhouse and on the floors were made up of a number of species selected for the following functions: daytime metabolic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption, nighttime metabolic CO{sub 2} absorption, and volatile organic compound (VOC) and inorganic gas absorption/removal for air cleaning. The building contains a reported 910 indoor plants. Daytime metabolic species reported by the PBC include Areca Palm, Oxycardium, Rubber Plant, and Ficus alii totaling 188 plants (21%). The single nighttime metabolic species is the Sansevieria with a total of 28 plants (3%). The 'air cleaning' plant species reported by the PBC include the Money Plant, Aglaonema, Dracaena Warneckii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm with a total of 694 plants (76%). The plants in the greenhouse (Areca Palm, Rubber Plant, Ficus alii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm) numbering 161 (18%) of those in the building are grown hydroponically, with the room air blown by fan across the plant root zones. The plants on the building floors are grown in pots and are located on floors 1-6. We conducted a one-day monitoring session in the PBC on January 1, 2010. The date of the study was based on availability of the measurement equipment that the researchers had shipped from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab in the U.S.A. The study date was not optimal because a large proportion of the regular building occupants were not present being New Year's Day. An estimated 40 people were present in the building all day during January 1. This being said, the building systems were in normal operations, including the air handlers and other HVAC components. The study was focused primarily on measurements in the Greenhouse and 3rd and 5th floor environments as well as rooftop outdoors. Measurements included a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes, with a more limited set of observations of indoor and outdoor particulate and carbon dioxide concentrations. Continuous measurements of Temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) were made selected indoor and outdoor locations.

  6. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction Human perception of air movement depends on airIntroduction Human perception of air movement depends on

  7. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Mullen, Nasim; Singer, Brett; Walker, Iain

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California. Although the mechanically vented homes were six times as airtight as non-mechanically ventilated homes (medians of 1.1 and 6.1 ACH50, n=11 and n=8, respectively), their use of mechanical ventilation systems and possibly window operation meant their median air exchange rates were almost the same (0.30 versus 0.32 hr-1, n=8 and n=8, respectively). Pollutant levels were also similar in vented and unvented homes. These similarities were achieved despite numerous observed faults in complex mechanical ventilation systems. More rigorous commissioning is still recommended. Cooking exhaust systems were used inconsistently and several suffered from design flaws. Failure to follow best practices led to IAQ problems in some cases. Ambient nitrogen dioxide standards were exceeded or nearly so in four homes that either used gas ranges with standing pilots, or in Passive House-style homes that used gas cooking burners without venting range hoods. Homes without active particle filtration had particle count concentrations approximately double those in homes with enhanced filtration. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials; consistent with this, formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional, new CA homes built before 2008. Emissions of ultrafine particles (with diameters <100 nm) were dramatically lower on induction electric cooktops, compared with either gas or resistance electric models. These results indicate that high performance homes can achieve acceptable and even exceptional IAQ by providing adequate general mechanical ventilation, using low-emitting materials, providing mechanical particle filtration, incorporating well-designed exhaust ventilation for kitchens and bathrooms, and educating occupants to use the kitchen and bath ventilation.

  8. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupants. The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (third of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (see Fig. 1) Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

  9. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bittencourt, L. S. (2010) Air movement acceptability limitsthermal acceptability and air movement assessments in a hot-e úmidos. (Applicability of air velocity limits for thermal

  10. Computed tomography and optical remote sensing: Development for the study of indoor air pollutant transport and dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, A.C.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the mixing and dispersion of indoor air pollutants under a variety of conditions using standard experimental methods. It also extensively tests and improves a novel technique for measuring contaminant concentrations that has the potential for more rapid, non-intrusive measurements with higher spatial resolution than previously possible. Experiments conducted in a sealed room support the hypothesis that the mixing time of an instantaneously released tracer gas is inversely proportional to the cube root of the mechanical power transferred to the room air. One table-top and several room-scale experiments are performed to test the concept of employing optical remote sensing (ORS) and computed tomography (CT) to measure steady-state gas concentrations in a horizontal plane. Various remote sensing instruments, scanning geometries and reconstruction algorithms are employed. Reconstructed concentration distributions based on existing iterative CT techniques contain a high degree of unrealistic spatial variability and do not agree well with simultaneously gathered point-sample data.

  11. Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide: relationship to indoor/outdoor air quality and activity patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Spengler, J.D.; Kanarek, M.S.; Letz, R.; Duffy, C.P.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Personal NO/sub 2/ exposures and indoor and outdoor concentrations were measured for nearly 350 individuals in the Portage, WI, area. Concentrations in homes with gas stoves averaged 18 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ higher in the summer (median indoor/outdoor ratio 2.4) and 36 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (median indoor/outdoor ratio 3.2) higher in the winter than outdoor levels. Personal exposures were closely related to indoor averages for households with gas stoves (r = 0.85 summer, r = 0.87 winter) and with electric stoves (r = 0.68 summer, r = 0.61 winter); more than 65% of the average day was spent at home while about 15% was spent outdoors in summer and less than 5% in winter. The association between personal exposure and outdoor levels of NO/sub 2/ was weakest during the winter for both gas (r = 0.20) and electric (r = 0.28) stove groups. The measures of exposure and time allocation indicate that there is a wide range of variability in personal exposures to NO/sub 2/ that may not be adequately accounted for by simple stratifications based on cooking fuel type. 46 references, 7 tables.

  12. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    buildings to climate change, concerns over the detrimental air quality impacts of high performance green

  13. A survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daisey, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Angell, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey and critical review were undertaken of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, including California schools. Over 450 relevant publications were obtained and reviewed, including papers published in the archival peer-reviewed scientific literature, proceedings of scientific meetings, government reports, 77 NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports (HHER) and 70 reports on investigations of problem schools in California. Most of the reviewed literature was for complaint or problem schools. The types of health symptoms reported in schools were very similar to those defined as sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, although this may be due, at least in part, to the type of health symptom questionnaires used. Some of the symptoms, e.g., wheezing, are indicative of asthma. In the studies in which complaint and noncomplaint buildings or areas were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms.

  14. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

  15. Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol ethers, and other individual compounds including d-limonene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. This result implies a reaction efficiency of about 30% per irradiated monolith face, which is in agreement with the maximum efficiency for the system predicted with a simulation model. In these and other experiments, the performance of the system for highly reactive VOCs appeared to be limited by mass transport of reactants to the catalyst surface rather than by photocatalytic activity. Increasing the air flow rate through the UVPCO device decreases the residence time of the air in the monoliths and improves mass transfer to the catalyst surface. The effect of gas velocity was examined in four pairs of experiments in which the air flow rate was varied from approximately 175 m{sup 3}/h to either 300 or 600 m{sup 3}/h. Increased gas velocity caused a decrease in reaction efficiency for nearly all reactive VOCs. For all of the more reactive VOCs, the decrease in performance was less, and often substantially less, than predicted based solely on residence time, again likely due to mass transfer limitations at the low flow rate. The results demonstrate that the UVPCO is capable of achieving high conversion efficiencies for reactive VOCs at air flow rates above the base experimental rate of 175 m{sup 3}/h. The effect of UV power was examined in a series of experiments with the building product mixture in which the number of lamps was varied between nine and three. For the most reactive VOCs in the mixture, the effects of UV power were surprisingly small. Thus, even with only one lamp in each section, there appears to be sufficient photocatalytic activity to decompose most of the mass of reactive VOCs that reach the catalyst surface. For some less reactive VOCs, the trend of decreasing efficiency with decreasing UV intensity was in general agreement with simulation model predictions.

  16. Heat Pipe Impact on Dehumidification, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, J. T.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . If a heat-pipe is used to transfer heat from the warm fresh air intake to the cold supply, not only is the reheat obtained free, but the fresh air gets substantial pre-cooling effect from the heat-pipe saving on the cooling energy required...

  17. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C Dry bulb. air inlet. indoor side ºC Wet bulb. air inlet.indoor side ºC Dry bulb. air outlet.indoor side ºC Wet bulb. air outlet. indoor side ºC

  18. MAQS: A Personalized Mobile Sensing System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dick, Robert

    quality (IAQ) influences human health, safety, productivity, and comfort. This paper describes MAQS, a personalized mobile sensing system for IAQ monitoring. In contrast with existing stationary or out- door air personalized IAQ information. To improve accuracy and energy efficiency, MAQS incorporates three novel

  19. Air movement preferences observed in office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Movement – Good or Bad? Indoor Air 14: 40-45. Toftum, J (Quality Survey. Indoor Air 14 (8): 65–74. Internationalon the Perception of Indoor Air Quality during Immediate and

  20. French permanent survey on indoor air quality--microenvironmental concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 90 French dwellings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    conducted in France on indoor pollution. The survey's design (sampling, analytical methods, questionnaire, temperature, humidity) and questionnaires on building characteristics, occupants' description and time (30 compounds including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, BTEX) were measured by passive samplers, during 7

  1. A scoping study on the costs of indoor air quality illnesses:an insurance loss reduction perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allan; Vine, Edward L.

    1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The incidence of commercial buildings with poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and the frequency of litigation over the effects of poor IAQ is increasing. If so, these increases have ramifications for insurance carriers, which pay for many of the costs of health care and general commercial liability. However, little is known about the actual costs to insurance companies from poor IAQ in buildings. This paper reports on the results of a literature search of buildings-related, business and legal databases, and interviews with insurance and risk management representatives aimed at finding information on the direct costs to the insurance industry of poor building IAQ, as well as the costs of litigation. The literature search and discussions with insurance and risk management professionals reported in this paper turned up little specific information about the costs of IAQ-related problems to insurance companies. However, those discussions and certain articles in the insurance industry press indicate that there is a strong awareness and growing concern over the "silent crisis" of IAQ and its potential to cause large industry losses, and that a few companies are taking steps to address this issue. The source of these losses include both direct costs to insurers from paying health insurance and professional liability claims, as weIl as the cost of litigation. In spite of the lack of data on how IAQ-related health problems affect their business, the insurance industry has taken the anecdotal evidence about their reality seriously enough to alter their policies in ways that have lessened their exposure. We conclude by briefly discussing four activities that need to be addressed in the near future: (1) quantifying IAQ-related insurance costs by sector, (2) educating the insurance industry about the importance of IAQ issues, (3) examining IAQ impacts on the insurance industry in the residential sector, and (4) evaluating the relationship between IAQ improvements and their impact on energy use.

  2. air management program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    studies rank indoor air pollution among the top five risks of environmental threats to public health. Guidance on achieving acceptable air quality and on preventing indoor air...

  3. Accepted on August 29, 2008 for publication in the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The accuracy of most air pollution modeling and the efficiency of emission standard reinforcement depend and might mislead the political discussions. The European MEET (Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant1 Accepted on August 29, 2008 for publication in the Journal of the Air & Waste Management

  4. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chamness, Michele A.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Singer, Brett C.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low-emitting and “conventional” materials as installed in newly constructed residential homes using both (1) highly controlled, short-term active samples to precisely characterize the building-related chemical emissions and building contents and (2) a week-long passive sample designed to capture the impact of occupant behavior and related activities on measured IAQ contaminant levels indoors. The combination of detailed short-term measurements with the home under controlled/consistent conditions during pre- and post-occupancy and the week-long passive sampling data provide the opportunity to begin to separate the different emission sources and help isolate and quantify variability in the monitored homes. Between April and August 2014, the research team performed pre-occupancy and post-occupancy sampling in one conventional home and two homes built with low-emitting materials that were generally consistent with EPA’s Indoor airPLUS guidelines. However, for a number of reasons, the full experimental plan was not implemented. The project was intended to continue for up to three years to asses long-term changes in IAQ but the project was limited to one calendar year. As a result, several of the primary research questions related to seasonal impacts and the long-term trends in IAQ could not be addressed. In addition, there were several unexpected issues related to recruiting, availability of home types, and difficulty coordinating with builders/realtors/homeowners. Several field monitoring issues also came up that provide “lessons learned” that led to improvements to the original monitoring plan. The project produced a good experimental plan that is expected to be be useful for future efforts collecting data to support answering these same or similar research questions.

  5. Impact of a task-ambient ventilation system on perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comfort, perceived air quality, and work performance in aperception of indoor air quality during immediate and longerassessments of indoor air-quality in five European

  6. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environments. Proceedings of Indoor Air 2005: 10 thInternational Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate,displacement ventilation hybrid air conditioning system-

  7. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    groups American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal,Exposures. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal,

  8. Simplified methodology for indoor environment designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srebric, Jelena, 1970-

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current design of the building indoor environment uses averaged single parameters such as air velocity, air temperature or contaminant concentration. This approach gives only general information about thermal comfort and ...

  9. Human Occupancy as a Source of Indoor Airborne Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hospodsky, Denina

    Exposure to specific airborne bacteria indoors is linked to infectious and noninfectious adverse health outcomes. However, the sources and origins of bacteria suspended in indoor air are not well understood. This study ...

  10. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) EPA 402/F-08/008 | September 2008 | www.epa.gov/iaq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and pests. Several sources of air pollution are in homes, schools, and offices. Some pollutants cause health. Some pollutants in the air are especially harmful for children, elderly people, and those with health on the carpet or floors. Other common asthma triggers include some foods and pollutants in the air. Asthma

  11. Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cold air distribution systems may reduce the operating energy consumption of air-conditioned air supply system and improve the outside air volume percentages and indoor air quality. However, indoor temperature patterns and velocity field are easily...

  12. Stevens, Lanning, Anderson, Jacoby, and Chornet Volume 48 October 1998 Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Lanning, Anderson, Jacoby, and Chornet Volume 48 October 1998 Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 979 ISSN 1047-3289 J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 48:979-984 Copyright 1998 Air & Waste such as potassium perman- ganate. Electronic air cleaners utilize high voltages to pro- duce ions or ozone to carry

  13. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, Joan M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is experiencing IAQ and ventilation problems, and relatedis experiencing IAQ and ventilation problems, and relatedof air quality and ventilation problems in California

  14. The Center for Indoor Environments and Health's specific mission is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    pollutants and materials Outdoor air contaminants (including diesel particulates) and materials brought for Indoor Environments and Health #12;Why are building communities struggling with managing indoor air air problems? Design Structures built slab on grade, and/or with flat roofs with poor drainage

  15. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  16. A Marked Point Process Model for the Source Proximity E ect in the Indoor Environment 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    indoor air quality monitors arise because of the source proximity e#11;ect, in which pollutant sources. McBride Abstract In indoor air quality studies, discrepancies between personal and station- ary Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship as well as the Center for Indoor Air Research. The author thanks

  17. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  18. The Center for Indoor Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    review of indoor air pollution in schools requested by the Environment Committee of the Connecticut risk 99 Industrial hygiene visit and walk- through assessment 99 Review of industrial hygiene interventions 99 Provide guidance on protecting occupants from exposures during construction 99 Coordinate

  19. air force journal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 16 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  20. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acetaldehyde, and acrolein in residential indoor air inM. Cahill (2009). "Indoor acrolein emission and decay ratesbe impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene;

  1. Analysis of Cold Air Distribution System in an Office Building by the Numerical Simulation Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian, Y.; Li, D.; Xu, H.; Ma, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulation is carried out in this paper to calculate indoor air patterns, which include angles of inlet direction and induced ratios in a typical official room. According to the simulation results, the indoor air distribution and indoor...

  2. Indoor environment program - 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  3. Indoor environment program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  4. Moving air for comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, “Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. “Air movement – good or bad? ”Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

  5. Toward Indoor Flying Robots Jean-D. Nicoud1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    air vehicles, MAVs [4-7]), or airships but most of them are outdoor machines, consequently requiring-than-air, flapping wings, rotary wings, and fixed wings. All of them are not convenient for indoor use. Airships

  6. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Energy Technologies Division  Lawrence Singer Environmental Energy Technologies Division OctoberLow Energy and Sustainable Ventilation Technologies for

  7. Mold: An Indoor Air Pollutant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Janie

    2002-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    spores, but it is estimated that about 10 per- cent of the population is severely allergic to mold. Symptoms include respiratory problems, nasal and sinus congestion, watery eyes, sore throat, coughing and skin irritations. Mold also can trigger asthma...

  8. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low Energy and Sustainable Ventilation Technologies for Green Buildings,Low Energy and Sustainable Ventilation Technologies for Green Buildings,Low Energy and Sustainable Ventilation Technologies for Green Buildings,

  9. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Review J. Indoor Air) 2007 LBNL-63193 Tarantola, Albert,Gas Measurement to Determine Air Movements in a House,Measurement Techniques”, Air Infiltration and Ventilation

  10. Flying over the Reality Gap: From Simulated to Real Indoor Airships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Flying over the Reality Gap: From Simulated to Real Indoor Airships Jean-Christophe Zufferey-Christophe.Zufferey@epfl.ch Abstract Because of their ability to naturally float in the air, indoor airships (often called blimps) con physics-based dynamic modelling of indoor airships including a pragmatic methodology for parameter

  11. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill, PA); Lackey, Robert S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fagan, Jr., Thomas J. (Penn HIlls, PA); Veyo, Stephen E. (Murrysville, PA); Humphrey, Joseph R. (Grand Rapids, MI)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module 10, an air mover module 12, and a resistance heat package module 14, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor 36 in a space adjacent the heat exchanger 28, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown in FIGS. 4-7 to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations.

  12. IMPACT OF THE URBAN POLLUTION ON THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT -EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A MECHANICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Bâtiment (CSTB), Nantes, France ABSTRACT This study aims to assess the transfer of outdoor air pollution and the relationships between outdoor and indoor urban air pollutant concentrations are more and more a subject indoor pollutant sources. At the initial state, the dwelling was naturally ventilated. Air renewal

  13. Indoor Environment Program 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Much of this energy can be saved by reducing buildings' air infiltration and ventilation, since the heat load associated with these processes is about 13 quads per year. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants that originate indoors, reducing ventilation can cause undesirable side effects such as lowering indoor air quality and adversely affecting the health, comfort and productivity of building occupants. The purpose of this research is to increase the energy efficiency of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The research explores energy use and efficiency of buildings; building ventilation and infiltration; the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and exposure and risk assessment for indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO[sub x]. The Program also conducts multidisciplinary studies on relationships between occupant health and comfort symptoms and factors within a building's environment. Air infiltration and ventilation rates are measured and modeled for residential and commercial buildings in order to understand energy transport and thermal losses from various components of building shells and ventilation systems. Methods for reducing energy losses are based on these studies. The effectiveness of various ventilation systems for pollutant removal is also investigated. Methods for characterizing ventilation and building energy use are developed for experimental and applied uses.

  14. Indoor Environment Program 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Much of this energy can be saved by reducing buildings` air infiltration and ventilation, since the heat load associated with these processes is about 13 quads per year. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants that originate indoors, reducing ventilation can cause undesirable side effects such as lowering indoor air quality and adversely affecting the health, comfort and productivity of building occupants. The purpose of this research is to increase the energy efficiency of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The research explores energy use and efficiency of buildings; building ventilation and infiltration; the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and exposure and risk assessment for indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}. The Program also conducts multidisciplinary studies on relationships between occupant health and comfort symptoms and factors within a building`s environment. Air infiltration and ventilation rates are measured and modeled for residential and commercial buildings in order to understand energy transport and thermal losses from various components of building shells and ventilation systems. Methods for reducing energy losses are based on these studies. The effectiveness of various ventilation systems for pollutant removal is also investigated. Methods for characterizing ventilation and building energy use are developed for experimental and applied uses.

  15. Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang, L.; Li, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

  16. Exposure assessment of particulate matter air pollution before, during, and after the 2003 Southern California wildfires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, J; Winer, A M; Delfino, R J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ostra, B. , 1997. Air pollution and emergency room visitsJ. , 1994. Indoor air pollution and asthma: Results from aof unmeasured particulate air pollution data for an

  17. Personal and Ambient Air Pollution is Associated with Increased Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    indoor, and community air pollution research. Environ Healthasthmatics and air pollution: differences in effects bywith peak particulate air pollution and effect modification

  18. Tips for Reducing Asthma Triggers in Indoor Environments The goal of parents who have children with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products and pesticides can add pollutants to the indoor air. Keep your home well ventilated when using it in a tightly covered container to help control pests. 2. Ventilation Good ventilation can help reduce some. However, if the indoor air is still a problem after doing everything you can to control the source

  19. Particle Image Velocimetry measurement of indoor airflow field: A review of the technologies and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    quantitative information of indoor air distribution and local air velocity around occupants or passengers, which has strong relationship with the ventilation effectiveness, the pollutant transportation Velocimetry (PIV); Measurement Technology 1. Introduction Ventilation concepts, including natural ventilation

  20. Indoor Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing Facility (Indoor-PCAT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conductors in parallel tests. The tension limitations (i.e., the number of conductors) inherent in towersIndoor Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing Facility (Indoor-PCAT) Overview: The Indoor Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing facility (or Indoor-PCAT), planned for construction in FY04 at Oak

  1. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California: predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaluation of displacement ventilation and dedicated outdoorB, Carlson N (2009). Ventilation requirements in a retailof Intermittent Ventilation for Providing Acceptable Indoor

  2. Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corsi, Dr. Richard [University of Texas, Austin; Morandi, Dr. Maria [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston; Siegel, Dr. Jeffrey [University of Texas, Austin; Hun, Diana E [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attached garages have been identified as important sources of indoor residential air pollution. However, the literature lacks information on how the proximity of cars to the living area affects indoor concentrations of gasoline-related compounds, and the origin of these pollutants. We analyzed data from the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study and evaluated 114 residences with cars in an attached garage, detached garage or carport, or without cars. Results indicate that homes with cars in attached garages were affected the most. Concentrations in homes with cars in detached garages and residences without cars were similar. The contribution from gasoline-related sources to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to be dominated by car exhaust, or a combination of tailpipe and gasoline vapor emissions. Residing in a home with an attached garage could lead to benzene exposures ten times higher than exposures from commuting in heavy traffic.

  3. Building Air Quality Alliance Program fro Building Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kettler, G. J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has emerged as a major concern for building owners, managers, engineers and tenants. As the public recognizes the importance of healthy, comfortable. and productive indoor environments, their awareness and demand for good...

  4. Movement of outdoor particles to the indoor environment: An analysis of the Arnhem Lead Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, D.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Thatcher, T.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the role of soil tracking as a source of indoor particles and quantifies key parameters influencing the transport of soil-derived particles (resuspension rates for particulate matter on floors, deposition velocities of suspended particles in indoor and outdoor air). The paper begins with a brief review of studies of particle transport processes and presents a simple model for studying the transport of particles in the indoor environment. The model is used to examine data on Pb distributions in the indoor and outdoor environments of community adjacent to a secondary lead smelter.

  5. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloqtre CI, supplknretrt air I. Tome 35, Janvier 1974, page CI-29 NUCLEAR ORIENTATION ; FROM AN EXOTIC TO A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloqtre CI, supplknretrt air I. Tome 35, Janvier 1974, page CI-29 NUCLEAR ORIENTATION ; FROM AN EXOTIC TO A MATURED METHOD IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS H. POSTMA Natuurkundig Laboratorium. Plusieurs exemples d'experiences d'orientation nucleaire seront passes en revue. Abstract. - Nuclear

  6. Indoor Conditions Study and Impact on the Energy Consumption for a Large Commercial Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalina, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that were studied using dynamic simulations. The article provides interesting insights of the building indoor conditions (summer/winter comfort), humidity, air temperature, mean operative temperature and energy consumption using hourly climate data. A...

  7. Operation of Energy Efficient Residential Buildings Under Indoor Environmental Quality Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medhat, A. A.; Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the influence of Indoor Environmental Quality, [IEQ] requirements associated with occupation regimes on the criterion of energy demand s for HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) central systems that were...

  8. Indoor Radon and Its Decay Products: Concentrations, Causes, and Control Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of radon and radon progeny from indoor air, inMeeting on Radon-Radon Progeny Measurements, Report 520/5-August 1983. Radon - Radon Progeny Measurements, proceedings

  9. Indoor Radon and Its Decay Products: Concentrations, Causes, and Control Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an introduction to the behavior of radon 222 and its decay products in indoor air. This includes review of basic characteristics of radon and its decay products and of features of the indoor environment itself, all of which factors affect behavior in indoor air. The experimental and theoretical evidence on behavior of radon and its decay products is examined, providing a basis for understanding the influence of geological, structural, and meteorological factors on indoor concentrations, as well as the effectiveness of control techniques. We go on to examine three important issues concerning indoor radon. We thus include (1) an appraisal of the concentration distribution in homes, (2) an examination of the utility and limitations of popular monitoring techniques and protocols, and (3) an assessment of the key elements of strategies for controlling radon levels in homes.

  10. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6 th AIVC Conference “Ventilation Strategies and MeasurementAir Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, U.K. 1985REFERENCES ASHRAE. 2007. “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor

  11. Savings Project: Insulate and Air Seal Floors Over Unconditioned...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    barriers between an unconditioned garage and the conditioned spaces above can save energy and money, improve comfort, and safeguard indoor air quality. Your garage may be a...

  12. Handover Performance of HVAC Duct Based Indoor Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    in indoor wireless net- works (IWN) that use heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts]. An alternative approach to transmitt/receive the RF signal is to use heating, ventilation, and airconditioning and is connected to one or more antennas in the duct. Each antenna acts as a remote antenna (RA) for a particular

  13. A two-layer turbulence model for simulating indoor airow Part II. Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    , improve and optimize their ventilation systems and to save energy. This is because different air of the ventilation systems, the air-conditioning load can be reduced. One typical example of this design is the displacement ventilation systems. In order to calculate the indoor air¯ows, Xu and Chen (Part I) has recently

  14. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    event, the intermittent ventilation equations of Sherman,of the energy impact of ventilation and associated financialReview of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Berkeley,

  15. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dryers, and other local ventilation. ? Occupant activitiesventilation such as that provided by economizers or intermittent locallocal kitchen and bath exhausts, but a large part of the standard focuses on the continuous mechanical whole-house ventilation.

  16. TEAMS: Indoor Air Quality (IAR) Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melton, V.

    in place since April of 2002. Recognizing the need to expand the program in depth and breadth, we designed TEAMS. We were able to do this by assistance from Mike Miller and the EPA, who gave the District six “Tools for Schools” test kits (TfS Kit...

  17. Operation & Maintenance for Quality Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, C.; Bayer, C. W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    th floor were complaining of IAQ related symptoms which included eye irritation. sinus infections, sneezing and coughing fits. The occupants also complained of a dirty, musty smell which was particularly strong early in the morning. The majority...

  18. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    environment: PM 2.5 , acrolein, and formaldehyde. There isAcetaldehyde  Acrolein  Benzene  Formaldehyde  Naphthalene that total are PM 2.5 , acrolein, formaldehyde, and ozone.

  19. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the use of mechanical ventilation systems in the same way asand operating ventilation systems with variable amounts ofto determine the ventilation system’s operation. We presume

  20. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by x-ray fluorescence (XRF), photoelectron spectroscopy (for x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis; 0.8-~ silver filtersSize segregated samples for XRF analysis using an Automatic

  1. The Airborne Metagenome in an Indoor Urban Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, Susannah; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Xuguo; Yu, Yiting; Lee, Wah Heng; Yap, Jennifer; Yao, Fei; Suan, Sim Tiow; Ing, Seah Keng; Haynes, Matthew; Rohwer, Forest; Wei, Chia Lin; Tan, Patrick; Bristow, James; Rubin, Edward M.; Ruan, Yijun

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The indoor atmosphere is an ecological unit that impacts on public health. To investigate the composition of organisms in this space, we applied culture-independent approaches to microbes harvested from the air of two densely populated urban buildings, from which we analyzed 80 megabases genomic DNA sequence and 6000 16S rDNA clones. The air microbiota is primarily bacteria, including potential opportunistic pathogens commonly isolated from human-inhabited environments such as hospitals, but none of the data contain matches to virulent pathogens or bioterror agents. Comparison of air samples with each other and nearby environments suggested that the indoor air microbes are not random transients from surrounding outdoor environments, but rather originate from indoor niches. Sequence annotation by gene function revealed specific adaptive capabilities enriched in the air environment, including genes potentially involved in resistance to desiccation and oxidative damage. This baseline index of air microbiota will be valuable for improving designs of surveillance for natural or man-made release of virulent pathogens.

  2. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors (COPI): Identification of data needs and existing data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Fisk, William J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Delp, Woody W.; Riley, William J.; Sextro, Richard G.

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of characterizing human exposure to particulate matter requires information on both particle concentrations in microenvironments and the time-specific activity budgets of individuals among these microenvironments. Because the average amount of time spent indoors by individuals in the US is estimated to be greater than 75%, accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments for the US population. In addition, it is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. The spatial and temporal variations of indoor particle concentrations as well as the factors that affect these variations are important to health scientists. For them, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this report, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles in the indoor environment. Concentrations of particles indoors depend upon the fraction of outdoor particles that penetrate through the building shell or are transported via the air handling (HVAC) system, the generation of particles by indoor sources, and the loss mechanisms that occur indoors, such as deposition. To address these issues, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information including the behavior of particles during air leakage, HVAC operations, and particle filtration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations.

  3. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California: predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources bothair cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reducedremoval, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be the best

  4. Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, K.B.

    1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. CATEE: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillman, S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and musts often resort to drugs to alleviate symptoms. • Research shows that people spend over 50% of their time at home indoors. • Consumer awareness of IAQ is growing Why IAQ Matters © 2014 CirrusAir Technologies, Inc Sources: EPA, State of the Air... • Household cleaners © 2014 CirrusAir Technologies, Inc ESL-KT-14-11-27 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Current Filtration Systems © 2014 CirrusAir Technologies, Inc • The increased need for indoor air quality...

  6. air pollutants ozone: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone Heather L. Papinchak1 , E ndoor air pollution is ranked as one of the world's greatest public health risks (Wolverton,...

  7. Development and application of the scintillation flask technique for the measurement of indoor radon-222 concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Gerard Michael

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    half-life. Exposure to alpha emitting radon progeny is the major source of natural radiation doses to the lung (NCRP84b). Almost all of this is received indoors, where radon levels are elevated due to a trapping effect 1n the enclosed areas. Since... measure indoor radon and radon progeny levels, a suitable detection method must be developed. Charles (Ch84) designed and constructed an air grab sampling system using "scintillation flasks". There were, however, some minor problems with the system...

  8. Exposure assessment of particulate matter air pollution before, during, and after the 2003 Southern California wildfires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, J; Winer, A M; Delfino, R J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    particulate air pollution data for an epidemiological studyOstra, B. , 1997. Air pollution and emergency room visitsJ. , 1994. Indoor air pollution and asthma: Results from a

  9. The Cricket indoor location system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priyantha, Nissanka Bodhi, 1968-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor environments present opportunities for a rich set of location-aware applications such as navigation tools for humans and robots, interactive virtual games, resource discovery, asset tracking, location-aware sensor ...

  10. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

  11. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-62700 Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation Systems Max H Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation Systems Max H. Sherman and Iain S. Walker Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA ABSTRACT The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants

  12. Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domanski, P. A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology is presented for rating the performance of mixed, split residential air conditioners. The method accounts for the impact on system performance of the indoor evaporator, expansion device and fan; three major components that are likely...

  13. Exergy Analysis of Industrial Air Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bader, W. T.; Kissock, J. K.

    every industrial plant as a source of exergy for tools, actuators, and a myriad of manufacturing processes. For this analysis, a typical scenario is considered with a compressor installed indoors. Conditions for the indoor surroundings... are temperature T I and pressure Ph while the outdoor conditions, the environment, are To and Po. The compressor system is defined as the compressor, dryer (aftercooler) and compressed air distribution system (piping). We assume that the compressed air exits...

  14. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California: predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    irritant effects. For energy models, we estimated buildingreduced outdoor air VRs. The energy models estimate that, inof commercial building energy models. The study assessed the

  15. Sensitivity of Forced Air Distribution System Efficiency to Climate, Duct Location, Air Leakage and Insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Air Leakage and Insulation Iain S. Walker Energy Performance of Buildings Group Indoor Environment ................................................................................................................................................ 4 Duct Insulation, Location and Leakage Examples............................................................... 4 Figure 2. Sheet metal ducts in a basement insulated with asbestos

  16. Indoor environmental quality and ventilation in U.S. office buildings: A view of current issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much of the current focus on indoor environmental quality and ventilation in US office buildings is a response to sick building syndrome and occupant complaints about building-related health symptoms, poor indoor air quality, and thermal discomfort. The authors know that serious ``sick-building`` problems occur in a significant number of US office buildings and that a significant proportion of the occupants in many normal (non-sick) buildings report building-related health symptoms. Concerns about the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke have also focused attention on the indoor environment. The major responses of industry and governments, underway at the present time, are to restrict smoking in offices, to attempt to reduce the emissions of indoor pollutants, and to improve the operation of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Better air filtration, improved HVAC commissioning and maintenance, and increased provisions for individual control of HVAC are some of the improvements in HVAC that are currently being, evaluated. In the future, the potential for improved productivity and reduced airborne transmission of infectious disease may become the major driving force for improved indoor environments.

  17. Energy analysis of a personalized ventilation system in a cold climate: influence of the supplied air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential of personalized ventilation system in the tropics.a chair-based personalized ventilation system. Building andedged-mounted task ventilation system. Indoor Air, Vol. 14 (

  18. Association between Local Traffic-Generated Air Pollution and Preeclampsia and Preterm Delivery in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jun; Ren, Cizao; Delfino, Ralph J; Chung, Judith; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lutant exposures to PTD at pollution lev- els typical ofbeen associated with air pollution in only two recent U.S.indoor, and community air pollution research. Environ Health

  19. Benefits and technological challenges in the implementation of TiO2-based ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Al; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk, William J.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects student health and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent to which filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  20. Predicting air quality in smart environments Seun Deleawea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    attributable to air pollution, 1.5 million of these from indoor air pollution. Worldwide there are more deathsPredicting air quality in smart environments Seun Deleawea , Jim Kusznirb , Brian Lambb and Diane J that is often overlooked in maintaining a healthy lifestyle is the air quality of the environment. In this paper

  1. MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1) #12;SECTION 4 MANDATORY LIGHTING CONTROLS 1. 130.1 (a) Area Controls: Manual controls that control lighting in each area separately 2. 130.1 (b) Multi-level Controls: Allow occupants to choose the appropriate light level for each

  2. MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1) #12;SECTION 3 MANDATORY LIGHTING CONTROLS 1. 130.1 (a) Area Controls: Manual controls that control lighting in each area separately 2. 130.1 (b) Multi-level Controls: "Dimmability." Allow occupants to choose the appropriate light

  3. MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1) #12;SECTION 5 MANDATORY LIGHTING CONTROLS 1. Area Controls: Manual controls that control lighting in each area separately 2. Multi-level Controls: Allow occupants to choose the appropriate light level for each area 3. Shut

  4. AIR FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL Helmut E. Feustel and Richard C. Diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond, Richard

    To provide good indoor air quality or to calculate space conditioning loads for energy consumption for providing sufficient indoor air quality has an impact on the energy consumption of the building. The effect consumption per floor for a 12 story apartment building in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Consumption data have

  5. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  6. Journal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron beamJoin HERO MarinersJointJoseph TangJournal Sign

  7. A Coupled Airflow-and-Energy Simulation Program for Indoor Thermal Environment Studies (RP-927)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    for the design of radiative, convective, and hybrid heating and cooling systems. Keywords: Airflow, Air for thermal comfort (ASHRAE 1992). In an indoor space with radiative, convective, and hybrid heating with convective, radiative, and hybrid heating and cooling systems. In the past few years, many investigations

  8. Matchstick: A Room-to-Room Thermal Model for Predicting Indoor Temperature from Wireless Sensor Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazas, Mike

    that our model can predict future indoor temperature trends with a 90th percentile aggregate error between thermo- stat actuates the heating, ventilation, and air condition- ing (HVAC) infrastructure to bring and these energy approaches, a heating model could allow future temperature trends to be predicted using

  9. A two-layer turbulence model for simulating indoor airow Part I. Model development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    ) data [Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 18 (1997) 88]. # 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. Keywords: Two convection model [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41 (1998) 3161] with the aid of direct numerical simulation (DNS). On the other hand, indoor air¯ow have the impact on building energy consumption. For example, it is well

  10. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  11. SUMMER TO SUMMER VARIATIONS IN INDOOR RADON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Dibenenetto; Douglas G. Mose; George W. Mushrush

    Indoor radon concentrations show a strong dependence on weather. winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, in northern Virginia, the summer of 1988 was wetter than the summer of 1987. Consequently, the regional indoor radon during the summer of 1988 was about 30 % higher than during the summer of 1987, and indoor radon during the summer of 1988 actually exceeded the indoor radon level of the 1987-88 winter. Evidently care must be taken when attempting to estimate regional indoor radon concentrations, and homesite risk estimates should rely on long-term measurement intervals. Key word index: summer precipitation, soil capping, alpha-track radon monitors, home heating system, radon and radon progeny,

  12. ROOM AIR CONDITIONER WALL MOUNTED type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    SPLIT TYPE ROOM AIR CONDITIONER WALL MOUNTED type Reciprocating Compressor Models Indoor unit.6 - 11.4 ----- MOISTURE REMOVAL ( / hr) 2.0 1.8 2.7 2.7 4.3 3 AIR CIRCULATION - Hi (m / hr) 800 800 1

  13. air ambient temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    It not only impacts the thermal comfort of occupants, but also also greatly affects the energy consumption in air conditioning systems. The lower the indoor... Yao, Y.; Lian, Z.;...

  14. ambient air temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    It not only impacts the thermal comfort of occupants, but also also greatly affects the energy consumption in air conditioning systems. The lower the indoor... Yao, Y.; Lian, Z.;...

  15. Energy Department Launches Better Buildings Alliance Indoor Lighting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Department Launches Better Buildings Alliance Indoor Lighting Campaign for Commercial Buildings Energy Department Launches Better Buildings Alliance Indoor Lighting Campaign...

  16. Optimising the Fresh Air Economiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biship, R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , S., ?Economizers in Air Handling Systems?, CED Engineering Course M01-014, Stony Point New York, 2000. Moser, D., ?Free Cooling: Don?t Let Savings Slip Away?, Portland Energy Conservation Inc., published in Building Operating Management.... New Zealand, Standard NZS 4303:1990, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, Standards Association of New Zealand, Wellington. Portland Energy Conservation Inc., from Functional Testing Guide on website: (http...

  17. Algorithm for Rapid Tomography of Gas Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P.N.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sensing and computed tomography in industrial hygiene.American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 51: 1165-indoor air. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal

  18. Prediction of Room Air Diffusion for Reduced Diffuser Flow Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangisetti, Kavita

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    and analytical tool for investigating ventilation inside the system and thus to increase thermal comfort and improve indoor air quality. The room air supply diffuser flow rates can be reduced for less loading with the help of a variable air volume unit...

  19. About the Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program The Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program of the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    About the Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program The Air Pollution and Respiratory Health indoor and outdoor air pollution. CDC's asthma program focuses on three main activities: (1) tracking public health agencies. For example, CDC staff are currently studying the effect of outdoor air pollution

  20. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Braga, A. L. F. , Air pollution from biomass burning andJournal of Environment and Pollution 2009, 36, (1-3), 18.Journal of Environment and Pollution 2009, 36, (1-3), 19.

  1. AC System Equipment Specification, Installation and Operational Options for Improved Indoor Humidity Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirey, D. B.

    of 80?F (26.7?C) dry-bulb temperature and 67?F (19.4?C) wet-bulb temperature air entering the indoor unit (AHRI 2006), the equipment SHRs range from 0.67 to 0.8. Thus, the dehumidification fraction (one minus SHR) varies from 0.2 (20%) to 0.33 (33... Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, Plano, TX, December 15-17, 2008 Figure 3. Latent Capacity Degradation with Supply Air Fan Overrun at Reduced Air Flow compressor on cycle (Shirey et al. 2006). The plotted lines are results from a...

  2. 1622 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 Skin-Effect Self-Heating in Air-Suspended RF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    1622 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 Skin-Effect Self-Heating

  3. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics in a new hospital building

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Stephens, Brent

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogatemore »measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO? concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ~8×10? data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is vital for hospital environments, where they can impact patient health and the survival and spread of healthcare associated infections.« less

  4. CHINESE JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICS Vol.49, No.3, 2006, pp: 588598 REGIONAL DIFFERENCE OF SUMMER AIR TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SURFACE TEMPERATURE SUN Jian-Qi1,2 WANG Hui-Jun1 1 State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling, the temporal- spatial distributions of summer air temperature (SAT) are investigated. It is found TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES IN NORTHEAST CHINA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ATMOSPHERIC GENERAL CIRCULATION AND SEA

  5. Indoor robot gardening: design and implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Correll, Nikolaus

    This paper describes the architecture and implementation of a distributed autonomous gardening system with applications in urban/indoor precision agriculture. The garden is a mesh network of robots and plants. The gardening ...

  6. Inverse Design Methods for Indoor Ventilation Systems Using1 CFD-Based Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    use efficiency are three important29 indices for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC1 Inverse Design Methods for Indoor Ventilation Systems Using1 CFD-Based Multi equilibrium and require ventilation rates of12 a space to design ventilation systems for the space

  7. Indoor Landscaping with Living Foliage Plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWerth, A. F.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exotica Ficus eburnea Ficus elastica Ficus elas tica tlecora Ficus elasstica variegated Ficus nlacrophylla Ficus nititla (retusa) Ficus pandurata Ficus religiosa Ficus rubiginosa variegated (australis) Gyriura aurantiaca . Hedera canariensis... and nutrients. ,411 of these l'actors are interrelated, and all effect the height, strength ant1 health of the plant. Indoor Environmental Factors The selection of plants for indoor landscaping, therefore, is depenclent upon the environment. The problem...

  8. An Index for Evaluation of Air Quality Improvement in Rooms with Personalized Ventilation Based on Occupied Density and Normalized Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Cermak, Radim; De Carli, Michele; Li, Xianting

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration Research,on Cold Climate, Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning,

  9. Journal Information Journal Impact Factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krejcí, Pavel

    Journal Information Journal Impact Factor 5-Year Journal Impact Factor Journal Self Cites Journal Immediacy Index 2012 JCR Science Edition Journal: Applications of Mathematics Mark Journal Title ISSN Total- life APPL MATH-CZECH 0862-7940 240 0.222 0.549 0.054 37 7.3 >10.0 Cited Journal Citing Journal Source

  10. Journal Information Journal Impact Factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krejcí, Pavel

    Journal Information Journal Impact Factor 5-Year Journal Impact Factor Journal Self Cites Journal Immediacy Index Journal Cited Half-Life 2012 JCR Science Edition Journal: CZECHOSLOVAK MATHEMATICAL JOURNAL Mark Journal Title ISSN Total Cites Impact Factor 5-Year Impact Factor Immediacy Index Citable Items

  11. Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cold seasons, the closed middle air layer absorbs the solar energy, and becomes the buffer layer of space between the inside and outside because of the glasshouse effect. In this case, the indoor heat loss can be reduced. While during the hot... and natural climatic microenvironment for the people indoor. Considering the energy conservation and the ecological environmental protection, this system not only satisfies the aesthetic need of the architecture, but also is the need of developing...

  12. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berk, J.V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    because of natural gas combustion and/or cigarette smokincombustion appliances Furnishings Water service; natural gas

  13. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quality Measurements in Energy Efficient Buildings Craig D.Quality ~leasurements in Energy Efficient Buildings Craig D.Gregory W. Traynor Energy Efficient Buildings Program Energy

  14. Advanced Technology for Economical Dehumidification to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckwith, W. R.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    humidity. Finally, the offgassing of chemicals such as formaldehyde, from urea-formaldehyde products, and the perception of odors all increase in high humidity [5] (see Fig. 1 .). Prior to the mid-1970s. humidity was controlled by using a reheat...

  15. INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) PROGGRAM GUIDELINE HUMAN RESOURCES SERVICE GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    congestion, itching, coughing, and runny nose. Throat symptoms include feelings of dryness and irritation

  16. Indoor Air Quality Survey of Boston Nail Salons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    ) suggest that spontaneous abortion in workers exposed to toluene may occur nearly 3 times more than salon owners and workers Nail salon employees are of reproductive age and are exposed to chemicals and Health Xylene, toluene, acetone, and methyl ethyl ketone in nail polishes and hardeners are neurological

  17. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berk, J.V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modem RESIDENTIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION DATA (1976) TOTAL 18.95HEATING COMMERCIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION DATA (1976) TOTAL 10.3data on various active and pas- sive methods of reducing energy consumption

  18. Indoor Air Quality Forms 195 Building: _________________________________________________________ File Number: ________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    operational? Cooling Coil Inspection access? Clean? Supply water temp. O F Water carryover? Any indication? Odors from outdoors? (describe) Carryover of exhaust heat? Cooling tower within 25 feet? Exhaust outletOKComponent Comments Mist Eliminators Clean, straight, no carryover? Supply Fan Chambers Clean? No trash or storage

  19. IAQ in Hospitals - Better Health through Indoor Air Quality Awareness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Rajhi, S.; Ramaswamy, M.; Al-Jahwari, F.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .S, 2004). Nordstrom and his team from Sweden investigated IAQ in hospitals in relation to building dampness and type of construction. They analyzed four hospital buildings of different age and design and concluded that building dampness in the floor...? Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University hospital, Sweden.1998 Proc CIB World Building Congress ,Gaevle,Sweden. ? O'Neal C. Infection control; Keeping diseases at bay a full-time effort for healthcare professionals...

  20. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical Ventilation Systems. ” Int. J. Ventilation, 6(4),Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems. ” ASHRAE HVAC&Rfor Extension of Ventilation System Tracer Gas Testing. ” (

  1. Clean-up of Contaminated Indoor Air Using Photocatalytic Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hingorani, S.; Greist, H.; Goswami, T.; Goswami, Y.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    destruction using Acetone as a representative VOC. While monitoring the VOC destruction, carbon dioxide (C02) levels were also measured. By performing a mass balance between the VOC destruction and C02 production, the photocatalytic technology was found...

  2. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P.N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Environment and Thermal Envelope Council (BETEC)of Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes ofof the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of

  3. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P.N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. A. , AK Persily, and SJ Emmerich, "Energy Impacts of Airfuture work. Steve Emmerich from NISI provided unpublishedAndrew Persily and Steven Emmerich of the National Institute

  4. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P.N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey, or CBECS (EIA, 2003), to compare the types of buildings in our commercial building leakage database

  5. Health and productivity benefits of improved indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorgan, C.B. [Dorgan Associates, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Dorgan, C.E.; Kanarek, M.S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Willman, A.J. [Quantum Technology, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a summary of two studies completed for a national contractor`s association on the health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The original study documented the general health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The second study expanded the scope to include medical cost reductions for specific illnesses from improved IAQ. General information on the objectives, assumptions, definitions, and results of the studies are presented, followed by detailed information on research methodology, building inventory and wellness categories, health and medical effects of poor IAQ, health cost benefits, productivity benefits, recommended improvements, and conclusions and future improvements.

  6. INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, Craig D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    new buildings incorporating energy- efficient designs, Theenergy-efficient residential, studied as possible models design.

  7. Advanced Technology for Economical Dehumidification to Improve Indoor Air Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckwith, W. R.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    degrees dry bulb and 67 degrees wet bulb. To demonstrate the energy savings, economics, and positive environmental impact, we will compare the SCADR to an electric reheat system. Without SCADR, the system performs ten tons of cooling... psychrometric chart showing the performance enhancement of the SCADR Syetem (see fig. 5.). POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Conserving 46,530 KWH per year prevents the burning of 23.3 tons of coal at an electric power plant every year. This reduces...

  8. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P.N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measured Airflows in a Multifamily Building," AirflowPerformance of Building Envelopes, Components, and Systems,APARTMENTS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS Price, P.N. ; Shehabi,

  9. Indoor airPLUS Construction Specifications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of EnergyTreatment andJune 25, 2012

  10. Energy Efficient Removal of Ozone from Indoor Air

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic InputRudolphMATERIALS TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY GRAINandEnabling

  11. Indoor airPLUS Construction Specifications Version 1 (Rev. 02)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovementINDIAN COUNTRY ENERGYEnergy IndianaSystem1)2)

  12. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption analysis of the building is carried out using the energy consumption code. Velocity and temperature distribution in the air-conditioned zone is computed using CFD. According to the results, the energy consumption and indoor human thermal comfort...

  13. Investigation of Methods of Disinfection in an All-air System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Yan, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experiment of removing bacteria and indoor air particulates by a bag ventilation filter with synthetic media and an electrostatic filter was carried out, and the effect of killing bacteria by ozone application was also tested. The results show...

  14. Investigation of Methods of Disinfection in an All-air System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Yan, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experiment of removing bacteria and indoor air particulates by a bag ventilation filter with synthetic media and an electrostatic filter was carried out, and the effect of killing bacteria by ozone application was also tested. The results show...

  15. A concentration rebound method for measuring particle penetrationand deposition in the indoor environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    tlthatcher@lbl.gov

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous, size resolved particle measurements were performed in two houses in order to determine size-dependent particle penetration and deposition in the indoor environment. The experiments consisted of three parts: (1) measurement of the particle loss rate following artificial elevation of indoor particle concentrations, (2) rapid reduction in particle concentration through induced ventilation by pressurization of the houses with HEPA-filtered air, and (3) measurement of the particle concentration rebound after house pressurization stopped. During the particle concentration decay period, when indoor concentrations are very high, losses due to deposition are large compared to gains due to particle infiltration. During the concentration rebound period, the opposite is true. The large variation in indoor concentration allows the effects of penetration and deposition losses to be separated by the transient, two-parameter model we employed to analyze the data. We found penetration factors between 0.3 and 1 and deposition loss rates between 0.1 and 5 h{sup -1}, for particles between 0.1 and 10 {micro}m.

  16. Indoor environment quality in LEED buildings: Understanding conditions affecting performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Kristine

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Listening to the occupants: A web-based indoor environmentalC, Laeser KArens EA (2002) A web-based occupant satisfactionindoor environmental quality: A web- based indoor occupant

  17. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc. Boston, MA, USA June 2013 Funding was provided by the California Energy energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among1 Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits Federico Norisa, , Gary

  18. Indoor Air Quality Fact Sheet Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead to suffering from lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to suffering from lung diseases such as asthma. It can also cause headaches, dry eyes, nasal mucus, nausea and tiredness. People who already have lung problems have a greater chance of having these symptoms. Common

  19. Mold or Toxic Mold? An Indoor Air Pollutant Page 1 Mold or Toxic Mold? An Indoor Air Pollutant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -like symptoms, respiratory problems, nasal and sinus congestion, watery eyes, sore throat, coughing and skin

  20. Indoor nitrogen dioxide in five Chattangooga, Tennessee public housing developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, W.J.; Harper, J.P. (Tennessee Valley Authority (US)); Spengler, J.D.; Fraumeni, L.P.; Majahad, A.M. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (US)); Cropp, J.W. (Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau, Chattanooga, TN (US))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes an indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sampling study conducted during January through March of 1987 in five Chattanooga public housing developments. The origins of this study date to the summer of 1983 when the Piney Woods Community Organization (a citizens action group) expressed concern about toxic industrial air pollution and the effects it might have on their community. In response to these concerns, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (Bureau) requested assistance from the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) in conducting a community health survey and assistance from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in conducting a community air quality measurement program. The TDHE community health study did not find any significant differences between the mortality statistics for the Piney Woods community and a demographically similar control group. However, a health survey revealed that Piney Woods residents did not have a statistically significant higher self-reported prevalence of cough, wheezing, phlegm, breathlessness, colds, and respiratory illness.

  1. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L., E-mail: jalonne@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, 109 S. Observatory, SPH II, Rm. M6314, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Sanchez, Brisa N., E-mail: brisa@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Biostatistics Department, M4164 SPH II, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Jolliet, Olivier, E-mail: ojolliet@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, 6622 SPH tower, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States)] [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, 6622 SPH tower, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Zhang, Zhenzhen, E-mail: zhzh@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Biostatistics Department, M4164 SPH II, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States)] [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Biostatistics Department, M4164 SPH II, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Parker, Edith A., E-mail: Edith-Parker@uiowa.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Health Behavior and Health Education Department, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Timothy Dvonch, J., E-mail: dvonch@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, 1415 Washington Heights, 6642 SPH Tower, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); O'Neill, Marie S., E-mail: marieo@umich.edu [University of Michigan School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, 6631 SPH Tower, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  2. Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality M. Valari(1), L;-Pollutants concentrations [c] ·Average outdoors pollution ·Indoors air quality ·Other sources of intoxication (food, water etc.) -Population exposure: [c] x dt -Health data & air pollution health effects Health

  3. Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this study is to put forward a novel nonlinear feedback control strategy on controlling indoor air temperature by variable air volume. A dynamic model of a typical room for a VAV air-conditioning system is established...

  4. Proposal for a consulting commission Climate and Air Quality of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drmota, Michael

    and climate strategies and their relation to air pollution issues · Co-benefit consideration of different issues relating to the atmosphere (air pollution, climate change) and aerosol ­ climate interaction · Exposures to ambient and indoor air pollutants (fine and ultrafine particles) · Epidemiology of disease

  5. Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Svoukis; H. Tsertos

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

  6. Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svoukis, E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

  7. Indoor-Atmospheric Radon-Related Radioactivity Affected by a Change of Ventilation Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, T

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8:00-21:00 with weekend halts. This change of ventilation manner brought a clear alteration for the concentrations of radon-related natural radioactivity in indoor air. The present paper concerns an investigation of the effect of the ventilation strategy on the indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity.

  8. Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature field, small supply air temperature difference, large airflow, but no reheater. As the design airflow rate of air conditioning system for cleaning mainly considered to meet the need of the cleanliness class, its air exchange rate was much... above, we had chosen a representative air-handling unit for the testing renovation of 2nd return air system. Cleaning area for this AHU was a capsule clean room with a hundred thousand cleanliness classes. Indoor controlled dry-bulb temperature...

  9. Algorithms for GPS operation indoors and downtown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Anant

    Algorithms for GPS operation indoors and downtown Nainesh Agarwal Æ Julien Basch Æ Paul Beckmann Æ Piyush Bharti Æ Scott Bloebaum Stefano Casadei Æ Andrew Chou Æ Per Enge Æ Wungkum Fong Æ Neesha Hathi. Casadei Æ A. Chou Æ P. Enge Æ W. Fong N. Hathi Æ W. Mann Æ J. Stone Æ J. Tsitsiklis Æ B. Van Roy

  10. Effect of Return Air Leakage on Air Conditioner Performance in Hot/Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Rodriguez, A.; Davis, M.; Kondepudi, S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were designed for testing systems with cooling capacities of up to 10 tons. The unit used for return air leakage tests was a 3.5 ton (12.3 kW) split system air conditioner with TXV expansion and a scroll compressor. It had a seasonal energy... leakage on capacity, power, and energy efficiency ratio (EER) of an air conditioner were quantified. The air conditioner was subjected to an outdoor temperature of 100°F (37.g°C). The indoor conditions for the no leakage test were set at 75OF (23.g...

  11. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  12. Journal lag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trimble, V; Ceja, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was not seen in the largest international journal in ourfield, The Astrophysical Journal, which has a current impactCalifornia, US Source: Journal lag. By: Trimble, Virginia,

  13. Category 1: World's best journals Journal of Banking and Finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhengjun

    Category 1: World's best journals Journal of Banking and Finance Journal of Finance Journal: Leading specialist journals Financial Analysts Journal Financial Management Journal of Business Finance and Accounting Journal of Empirical Finance Journal of Financial Econometrics Journal of Financial Education

  14. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Infotech@Aerospace Conference, Paper No. 2005-7077 A Small Semi-Autonomous Rotary-Wing Unmanned Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -7077 1 A Small Semi-Autonomous Rotary-Wing Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Scott D. Hanford* , Lyle N. Long System (GPS) will not work indoors, so other sensors will have to be used for indoor flight. The software. * NSF Fellow, Aerospace Engineering, Member AIAA, sdh187@psu.edu. Professor, Aerospace Engineering

  15. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  16. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry [year] [journal], [year], [vol], 0000 | 1 Droplet mobility on lubricant-impregnated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the surrounding gas, and the liquid that needs to be shed ­ referred hereafter for simplicity as oil, airThis journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry [year] [journal], [year], [vol], 00­00 | 1 Droplet

  17. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  18. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  19. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL - 51328 ENERGY-RELATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITYof Public Health Florida Solar Energy Center, Florida StateStandards, U.S. Department of Energy National Institute of

  20. Input a journal Viewing Journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    Journals Contents: Input a journal Viewing Journals Deleting a journal Entering jnl into different period Problems Input a journal 1 Login to Bluqube 2 Select 3 Enter relevant Doc type To select the number of journals you will processing & the total credit value 6 Click on 7 Enter brief description 8

  1. Model-Based Commissioning for Filters in Room Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Kitagawa, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Goto, K.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a model that can estimate filter resistance. Two sorts of value are used as inputs to estimate filter resistance. One is the power consumed by the fan in the indoor unit and the other is the thermal performance. For the room air...

  2. Model-Based Commissioning for Filters in Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Kitagawa, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Goto, K.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a model that can estimate filter resistance. Two sorts of value are used as inputs to estimate filter resistance. One is the power consumed by the fan in the indoor unit and the other is the thermal performance. For the room air...

  3. Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    above, we had chosen a representative air-handling unit for the testing renovation of 2nd return air system. Cleaning area for this AHU was a capsule clean room with a hundred thousand cleanliness classes. Indoor controlled dry-bulb temperature...

  4. Energy and indoor environmental quality in relocatable classrooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael; Hodgson, Alfred; Shendell, Derek; Dibartolomeo, Dennis; Hochi, Toshifumi; Kumar, Satish; Lee, Seung-Min; Liff, Shawna; Rainer, Leo; Schmidt, Richard; Sullivan, Douglas; Diamond, Richard; Fisk, William

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are commonly utilized by school districts with changing demographics and enrollment sizes. Four energy-efficient RCs were designed and constructed for this study to demonstrate technologies that simultaneously attempt to improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each RC had two HVAC systems, alternated weekly, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. The hypothesized advantages of the IDEC include continuous outside air ventilation at {ge}7.5 L s{sup -1} per person, {approx}70% less cooling energy and efficient particle filtration. Measurements include: carbon dioxide, particles, VOCs, temperature, humidity, thermal comfort, noise, meteorology, and energy use. Preliminary IEQ monitoring results are reported.

  5. Ris-R-1462(EN) Airborne contamination in the indoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1462(EN) Airborne contamination in the indoor environment and its implications for dose K. Byskov, X.L. Hou, H. Prip, S.K. Olsen, T. Roed Title: Airborne contamination in the indoor environment of contaminant aerosol were examined, and since the previous measurements had indicated that elemental iodine

  6. Evolving an Indoor Robotic Localization System Based on Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Torsten

    of indoor robotic localization. We investigate the design and building of an autonomous localization system provides the position of one robot in a space, as in a Cartesian plane, corroborating with the EvoEvolving an Indoor Robotic Localization System Based on Wireless Networks Gustavo Pessin1

  7. Indoor Pollutants Emitted by Electronic Office Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo; Russell, Marion L.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last few decades have seen major changes in how people collect and process information at work and in their homes. More people are spending significant amounts of time in close proximity to computers, video display units, printers, fax machines and photocopiers. At the same time, efforts to improve energy efficiency in buildings by reducing leaks in building envelopes are resulting in tighter (i.e., less ventilated) indoor environments. Therefore, it is critical to understand pollutant emission rates for office equipment because even low emissions in areas that are under-ventilated or where individuals are in close proximity to the pollutant source can result in important indoor exposures. We reviewed existing literature reports on pollutant emission by office equipment, and measured emission factors of equipment with significant market share in California. We determined emission factors for a range of chemical classes including volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs), ozone and particulates. The measured SVOCs include phthalate esters, brominated and organophosphate flame retardants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were carried out in large and small exposure chambers for several different categories of office equipment. Screening experiments using specific duty cycles in a large test chamber ({approx}20 m{sup 3}) allowed for the assessment of emissions for a range of pollutants. Results from the screening experiments identified pollutants and conditions that were relevant for each category of office equipment. In the second phase of the study, we used a smaller test chamber ({approx}1 m{sup 3}) to measure pollutant specific emission factors for individual devices and explored the influence of a range of environmental and operational factors on emission rates. The measured emission factors provide a data set for estimating indoor pollutant concentrations and for exploring the importance of user proximity when estimating exposure concentrations.

  8. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk, William J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCOof a multi-panel, folded scrubber filled with NaMnO 4 ·H 2 Oreactor with a chemisorbent scrubber, are the lifetimes of

  9. Improving Home Indoor Air Quality There are three general ways of improving air quality in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lightsey, Glenn

    of back-drafting from combustion appliances such as gas water heaters that might be located in the garage they can do damage. Do not use unvented fossil-fuel-based space heaters, e.g., kerosene heaters, under any faulty gas wall heaters and other combustion appliances. Consider hiring a qualified professional to test

  10. GATEWAY Demonstration Indoor Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICYEnergyIndoor

  11. Air Tightness of US Homes: Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses that database to develop a model for estimating air leakage as a function of climate, building age, floor area, building height, floor type, energy-efficiency and low-income designations. The model developed can be used to estimate the leakage distribution of populations of houses.

  12. Report on HVAC option selections for a relocatable classroom energy and indoor environmental quality field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Delp, Woody W.; Diamond, Richard C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Kumar, Satish; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    It is commonly assumed that efforts to simultaneously develop energy efficient building technologies and to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are unfeasible. The primary reason for this is that IEQ improvements often require additional ventilation that is costly from an energy standpoint. It is currently thought that health and productivity in work and learning environments requires adequate, if not superior, IEQ. Despite common assumptions, opportunities do exist to design building systems that provide improvements in both energy efficiency and IEQ. This report outlines the selection of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to be used in demonstrating such an opportunity in a field study using relocatable school classrooms. Standard classrooms use a common wall mounted heat pump HVAC system. After reviewing alternative systems, a wall-mounting indirect/direct evaporative cooling system with an integral hydronic gas heating is selected. The anticipated advantages of this system include continuous ventilation of 100 percent outside air at or above minimum standards, projected cooling energy reductions of about 70 percent, inexpensive gas heating, improved airborne particle filtration, and reduced peak load electricity use. Potential disadvantages include restricted climate regions and possible increases in indoor relative humidity levels under some conditions.

  13. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  14. Performance of underfloor air distribution: Results of a field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas

    2004-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) is a new method of supplying heated or cooled air throughout a building. Reported advantages of UFAD include easy relocation of air supply diffusers, energy savings, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). We measured several aspects of the performance of an UFAD system installed in a medium-size office building. The measured air change effectiveness was very close to unity, which is comparable to that measured in buildings with typical overhead air distribution. The pollutant removal efficiency for carbon dioxide was 13 percent higher than expected in a space with well-mixed air, suggesting a 13 percent reduction in exposures to occupant generated pollutants. The increase in indoor air temperatures with height above the floor was only 1 to 2 C (2-4 F). This amount of thermal stratification could reduce the sensible energy requirements for cooling of outdoor air by approximately 10 percent. The occupants level of satisfaction with thermal conditions w as well above average and this high satisfaction rating could possibly be due, in all or part, to the use of a UFAD system. The results of this study provide some evidence of moderate energy and IAQ-related benefits of UFAD. Before general conclusions are drawn, the benefits need to be confirmed in other studies.

  15. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  16. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  17. Condition Controlling and Monitoring of Indoor Swimming Pools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nissinen, K.; Kauppinen, T.; Hekkanen, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VTT has executed a lot of research work concerning the usage, functionality and refurbishment of indoor swimming pools and spas lately. This work includes for instance detailed condition surveys, energy audits, cost analysis and maintenance planning...

  18. Multipath Reflections Analysis on Indoor Visible Light Positioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Wenjun; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visible light communication (VLC) has become a promising research topic in recent years, and finds its wide applications in indoor environments. Particularly, for location based services (LBS), visible light also provides a practical solution for indoor positioning. Multipath-induced dispersion is one of the major concerns for complex indoor environments. It affects not only the communication performance but also the positioning accuracy. In this paper, we investigate the impact of multipath reflections on the positioning accuracy of indoor VLC positioning systems. Combined Deterministic and Modified Monte Carlo (CDMMC) approach is applied to estimate the channel impulse response considering multipath reflections. Since the received signal strength (RSS) information is used for the positioning algorithm, the power distribution from one transmitter in a typical room configuration is first calculated. Then, the positioning accuracy in terms of root mean square error is obtained and analyzed.

  19. 2013 4-H Indoor Exhibits Junior New Mexico State Fair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013 4-H Indoor Exhibits Junior New Mexico State Fair Exhibitor Name County Place Animal Science J 0015 - Exhibit- Rodeo Arden Gardner Dona Ana 2 Timia Northcutt Curry County 3 0017 - Pet Pals Exhibit

  20. Indoor Environmental Science and Engineering: An Integrated Academic Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Quality (Physics and Chemistry), HVAC Design, Building Energy Simulation, Design of Energy Efficient1 . This statistic is disturbing given that recent studies indicate that indoor environments no regulatory attention and little research funding. Academic programs are lacking to train engineers

  1. 6 ORANGE COUNTY BUSINESS JOURNAL Local breaking news: www.ocbj.com JUNE 9, 2014 State Air Resources Board Could Move to OC Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    planning stages for replacing our current motor vehicle labora- tory," said John Swanton, an air pollution-Smit Laboratory is more than 40 years old, and industry and reg- ulatory changes have led to new testing needs space, new construction, or some combination of the two. "We would be the same as a private com- pany

  2. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noris, Federico

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc; 2010. [Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ;

  3. Performance of underfloor air distribution in a fieldsetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.P.; Chao, C.; Wan, M.P.; Zagreus, L.; Webster, T.

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) is a new method of supplying heated or cooled air throughout a building. Reported advantages of UFAD include energy savings and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). We measured several aspects of the performance of an UFAD system installed in a medium-size office building. The measured air change effectiveness was very close to unity, which is comparable to that measured in buildings with typical overhead air distribution. The pollutant removal efficiency for carbon dioxide was 13% higher than expected in a space with well-mixed air, suggesting a 13% reduction in exposures to occupant generated pollutants. The increase in indoor air temperatures with height above the floor was only 1 to 2 C. This amount of thermal stratification could reduce the sensible energy requirements for cooling of outdoor air by approximately 10%. The occupant's level of satisfaction with thermal conditions was well above average and this high satisfaction rating could possibly be due, in all or part, to the use of a UFAD system. The results of this study provide some evidence of moderate energy and IAQ-related benefits of UFAD. Before general conclusions are drawn, the benefits need to be confirmed in other studies.

  4. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Keywords: Sensor modeling Heating Ventilation Air conditioning systems Sensor monitoring Data mining Neural indoor-air-quality (IAQ) sensors used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems considered in this paper. Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Heating, ventilation

  5. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  6. Sorbent-Based Gas Phase Air Cleaning for VOCs in CommercialBuildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a review of current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The fundamental principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, novel sorbent technologies are described, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES DIVISION INDOOR ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Air Heating and Cooling Systems" -LBNL 47309 "Evaluation of flow hood measurements for residential register........................................................................................................................................ 7 PROGRESS UPDATE ON INDIVIDUAL TASKS...................................... 7 TASK 2: SIZING AND OPERATION OF COOLING SYSTEMS

  8. School Indoor Environmental Quality Assessments and Interventions: Benefits of Effective Partnerships in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.; Kim, Janice; Smorodinsky, Svetlana

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public, private, government, and university stakeholders have focused increasing attention on children's environmental health. Priority areas have been healthy school environments including indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ); susceptibilities of children to environmental factors and associated illness; and, understanding exposure to biological, chemical, and physical agents. As multidisciplinary teams, studies and intervention demonstrations in California public schools were conducted. A common theme among them was a ''partnership,'' the collaboration between stakeholders from the aforementioned sectors. Federal funding and local bond measures for planning, maintenance, and modernization of school facilities have recently been authorized. Therefore, beneficial ''partnerships'' should be established to conduct needed IEQ, environmental health, and productivity research, development and demonstration. This commentary describes benefits for stakeholders and five strategies for future effective collaborations.

  9. The International Journal of Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    air quality and reducing energy required for heating, cooling, and ventilation. One application. Introduction Heating, cooling and ventilation can account for 50 percent of total building energy useThe International Journal of Ventilation Volume 12 Number 4 ISSN 1473 - 3315 March 2014 Contents

  10. Better Indoor Climate With Less Energy: European Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magyar, Z.; Leitner, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the energy performance of buildings, taking into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate requirements. The main objective is to achieve better indoor climate with less energy....

  11. A fine-grained geospatial representation and framework for large-scale indoor environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battat, Jonathan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a system and method for extending the current paradigm of geographic information systems (GIS) to support indoor environments. It introduces features and properties of indoor multi-building environments ...

  12. Who are Climbing the Walls? An Exploration of the Social World of Indoor Rock Climbing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurten, Jason Henry

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , and share values, goals and language. For years, non-academics involved in the indoor climbing industry have recognized the social component of indoor rock climbing. A recent issue of Recreation Management magazine quoted Adam Koberna, the vice...

  13. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Huang, Li; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors. Building andEFFECTS OF SHORT-WAVE SOLAR RADIATION INDOORS Edward ARENSK. The effects of solar radiation on thermal comfort.

  14. Better Indoor Climate With Less Energy: European Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magyar, Z.; Leitner, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the energy performance of buildings, taking into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate requirements. The main objective is to achieve better indoor climate with less energy....

  15. Impact on the Indoor Environment of the Release and Diffusion of TVOC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The release of VOCs by architectural decorative material, furniture and indoor things for use is considered the main reason for indoor environment pollution. The polypropylene Styene-Butadiene Rubber (abbreviation SBR) is regarded as a TVOC release...

  16. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with Capillary Tube Expansion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ] conducted a laboratory test to determine the performance of a 3-ton air-to-air heat pump as a function of R-22 refrigerant charge in the heating mode. The tests were conducted with 50?F outdoor air and 70?F indoor air temperatures. The test unit did....8) 11 Figure 2.5 - Coefficient of Performance as a Function of Refrigerant Charge (adopted from ref.8) 12 A. A. Domingorena and S. J. Ball [9] studied the performance of a selected three-ton air-to-air heat pump in the heating mode at Oak Ridge...

  17. Development of a new model to predict indoor daylighting : integration in CODYRUN software and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Development of a new model to predict indoor daylighting : integration in CODYRUN software in the scientific literature for determining indoor daylighting values. They are classified in three categories. The originality of our paper relies on the coupling of several simplified models of indoor daylighting

  18. Experimental Design and Analysis of Transmission Properties in an Indoor Wireless Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental Design and Analysis of Transmission Properties in an Indoor Wireless Sensor Network channel common to an indoor, single-hop, wireless sensors networks in which the sensor deployment sensor network in a real-world indoor environment. We quantify the impact of primary factors

  19. Indoor Lighting Overview Page 5-1 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Manual August 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Lighting ­ Overview Page 5-1 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Manual August 2009 5 Indoor Lighting This chapter covers the requirements for indoor lighting design and installation, including controls. It is addressed primarily to lighting designers or electrical engineers and to enforcement agency

  20. A Method to Estimate the Chronic Health Impact of Air Pollutants in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name standards ­ that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Methods: Available disease incidence and disease impact

  1. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  2. Air Leakage of U.S. Homes: Model Prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses a model developed from that database in conjunction with US Census Bureau data for estimating air leakage as a function of location throughout the US.

  3. Journal Citation Reports Journal Citation Reports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Journal Citation Reports® 1 #12;· · Journal Citation Reports · Journal Citation Reports · Journal Citation Reports · 2 #12;JCR 3 #12; Web of Science (SCIE, SSCI, AHCI) EndNote Journal Citation;· · · · · · JCR 5 #12;JCR 6 #12;· ­ JCR Science Edition170 8005 ­ JCR Social Sciences Edition 502678 Journal

  4. Application of CFD Tools for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    used to assess building shape design, to evaluate the effectiveness of natural ventilation in buildings environment parameters. Nomenclature Ar Archimedes number Ary local Archimedes number, 2 n U/Tyg C for designing a comfortable indoor or outdoor environment. This is because the design of appropriate ventilation

  5. Enhancements to RSS Based Indoor Tracking Systems Using Kalman Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhancements to RSS Based Indoor Tracking Systems Using Kalman Filters I. Guvenc EECE Department of a location system over the deployed network, and the application of a Kalman filtering algorithm to enhance a Kalman filter algorithm are then presented. General Terms Algorithms, Measurement, Experimentation

  6. Understanding the Limitations of Transmit Power Control for Indoor WLANs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    Understanding the Limitations of Transmit Power Control for Indoor WLANs Vivek Shrivastava range of transmit power control (TPC) algorithms have been proposed in recent literature to reduce need to support power control mechanisms in a fine- grained manner ­ both in the number of possible

  7. Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits in Low-Income

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    environmental measurements and collect energy consumption data. Based on analyses of the data collected fromEnergy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits in Low-Income Apartments ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Environmental Research www.energy.ca.gov/research/environmental August 2011 The Issue

  8. A Sensor Placement Approach for the Monitoring of Indoor Scenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    needed by research projects on energy management (ERGDOM [1]) and on the medical monitoringA Sensor Placement Approach for the Monitoring of Indoor Scenes Pierre David, Vincent Idasiak of a French project, which aims at developing a new human presence sensor, we intend to design a sensor system

  9. Experimental Evaluation of an Angle Based Indoor Localization System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasipuri, Asis

    Experimental Evaluation of an Angle Based Indoor Localization System Asis Nasipuri and Ribal El available off-the-shelf components. Wireless sensor nodes equipped with photo sensors determine is required at the sensor nodes. The system also does not involve any centralized server or off

  10. An Information Theoretic Analysis on Indoor PLC Channel Characterizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesbert, David

    An Information Theoretic Analysis on Indoor PLC Channel Characterizations Hao LIN , Aawatif MENOUNI. But the development of Power Line Communications (PLC) highly depends on the knowledge of the channel characterizations. For this reason, a large number of attentions have been payed on the PLC channel analysis using

  11. Indoor exposure to radiation in the case of an outdoorrelease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Jayaraman, Buvana

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report quantifies the effectiveness of ''sheltering in place'' in a commercial building in the event of an outdoor radiological release. The indoor exposure to airborne particles is calculated by solving the mass balance equation that accounts for the loss of particles due to deposition, filtration and exhaust. Quantitative estimates of shelter-inplace effectiveness are provided for typical commercial buildings.

  12. Indoor Dose Conversion Coefficients for Radon Progeny for Different

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    Indoor Dose Conversion Coefficients for Radon Progeny for Different Ambient Environments K . N . Y Inhaled progeny of 222Rn (radon progeny) are the most important source of irradiation of the human-, urban-, and marine-influenced aerosols. The ASDs of attached radon progeny for all three studied ambient

  13. New excitation system for indoor testing of overhead conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, T.V. (Regional Engineering Coll., Calicut (India). Industry-Inst. Linkage Cell)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the study of wind-induced motion of conductors of overhead power transmission lines, an indoor test span measuring 30 m or more is normally used. The span is generally excited into motion by an electrodynamic-type exciter connected at a span end. This connection increases the stiffness of the span at the point of connection, which will affect the dynamic characteristics of the test span. A more exact simulation of the indoor test-conductor motion is essential. Simulation of test-conductor motion using the principle of electrodynamic forces between parallel, long conductors is proposed. Indoor test-span motion by this method is equivalent to steady crosswinds excitation in the field as distinguished from galloping conductors resulting from a combination of wind direction, velocity, moisture, and temperature. Consequently, the results of vibration experiments also will be more exact. The principle employed in the new excitation system, the methods of excitation in indoor spans using the principle, and the advantages of the new excitation system as compared to the presently employed system are discussed in this paper.

  14. Bayesian Prediction of Mean Indoor Radon Concentrations for Minnesota Counties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, P.N.; Nero, A.V.; Gelman, A.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past efforts to identify areas having higher than average indoor radon concentrations by examining the statistical relationship between local mean concentrations and physical parameters such as the soil radium concentration have been hampered by the noise in local means caused by the small number of homes monitored in some or most areas, In the present paper, indoor radon data from a survey in Minnesota are analyzed in such a way as to minimize the effect of finite sample size within counties, in order to determine the true county-to-county variation of indoor radon concentrations in the state and the extent to which this variation is explained by the variation in surficial radium concentration among counties, The analysis uses hierarchical modeling, in which some parameters of interest (such as county geometric mean (GM) radon concentrations) are assumed to be drawn from a single population, for which the distributional parameters are estimated from the data. Extensions of this technique, known as a random effects regression and mixed effects regression, are used to determine the relationship between predictive variables and indoor radon concentrations; the results are used to refine the predictions of each county's radon levels, resulting in a great decrease in uncertainty. The true county-to-county variation of GM radon levels is found to be substantially less than the county-to-county variation of the observed GMs, much of which is due to the small sample size in each county. The variation in the logarithm of surficial radium content is shown to explain approximately 80% of the variation of the logarithm of GM radon concentration among counties. The influences of housing and measurement factors, such as whether the monitored home has a basement and whether the measurement was made in a basement, are also discussed. This approach offers a self-consistent statistical method for predicting the mean values of indoor radon concentrations or other geographically distributed environmental parameters.

  15. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Norman, Bourassa; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshfumi; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Wang, Duo

    2008-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved HVAC system for portable classrooms was specified to address key problems in existing units. These included low energy efficiency, poor control of and provision for adequate ventilation, and excessive acoustic noise. Working with industry, a prototype improved heat pump air conditioner was developed to meet the specification. A one-year measurement-intensive field-test of ten of these IHPAC systems was conducted in occupied classrooms in two distinct California climates. These measurements are compared to those made in parallel in side by side portable classrooms equipped with standard 10 SEER heat pump air conditioner equipment. The IHPAC units were found to work as designed, providing predicted annual energy efficiency improvements of about 36 percent to 42 percent across California's climate zones, relative to 10 SEER units. Classroom ventilation was vastly improved as evidenced by far lower indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations. TheIHPAC units were found to provide ventilation that meets both California State energy and occupational codes and the ASHRAE minimum ventilation requirements; the classrooms equipped with the 10 SEER equipment universally did not meet these targets. The IHPAC system provided a major improvement in indoor acoustic conditions. HVAC system generated background noise was reduced in fan-only and fan and compressor modes, reducing the nose levels to better than the design objective of 45 dB(A), and acceptable for additional design points by the Collaborative on High Performance Schools. The IHPAC provided superior ventilation, with indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations that showed that the Title 24 minimum ventilation requirement of 15 CFM per occupant was nearly always being met. The opposite was found in the classrooms utilizing the 10 SEER system, where the indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations frequently exceeded levels that reflect inadequate ventilation. Improved ventilation conditions in the IHPAC lead to effective removal of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, on average lowering the concentrations by 57 percent relative to the levels in the 10 SEER classrooms. The average IHPAC to 10 SEER formaldehyde ratio was about 67 percent, indicating only a 33 percent reduction of this compound in indoor air. The IHPAC thermal control system provided less variability in occupied classroom temperature than the 10 SEER thermostats. The average room temperatures in all seasons tended to be slightly lower in the IHPAC classrooms, often below the lower limit of the ASHRAE 55 thermal comfort band. State-wide and national energy modeling provided conservative estimates of potential energy savings by use of the IHPAC system that would provide payback a the range of time far lower than the lifetime of the equipment. Assuming electricity costs of $0.15/kWh, the perclassroom range of savings is from about $85 to $195 per year in California, and about $89 to $250 per year in the U.S., depending upon the city. These modelsdid not include the non-energy benefits to the classrooms including better air quality and acoustic conditions that could lead to improved health and learning in school. Market connection efforts that were part of the study give all indication that this has been a very successful project. The successes include the specification of the IHPAC equipment in the CHPS portable classroom standards, the release of a commercial product based on the standards that is now being installed in schools around the U.S., and the fact that a public utility company is currently considering the addition of the technology to its customer incentive program. These successes indicate that the IHPAC may reach its potential to improve ventilation and save energy in classrooms.

  16. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Guide to Attic Air Sealing was completed in 2010 and although not in the standard Measure Guideline format, is intended to be a Measure Guideline on Attic Air Sealing. The guide was reviewed during two industry stakeholders meetings held on December 18th, 2009 and January 15th, 2010, and modified based on the comments received. Please do not make comments on the Building America format of this document. The purpose of the Guide to Attic Air Sealing is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy - health, safety and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  17. How the Number and Placement of Sensors Controlling Room Air Distribution Systems Affect Energy Use and Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, D.; Arens, E.; Webster, T.; Shi, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , ISRACVE, ASHRAE, 1993 Li, Y., M. Sandberg, and L. Fuchs. ?Vertical temperature profiles in rooms ventilated by displacement: full-scale measurement and nodal modeling.? Indoor Air, 1992. Vol. 2, pp. 225-243. Linden, P.F., G.F. Lane-Serff,, and D...

  18. Analysis of the Energy-Saving Potential of a Three-Rotary Wheel Fresh Air-Handling Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, X.; Zhang, G.; Zou, S.; Liu, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , TRWFAHU can save 10.2% of primary energy and greatly decrease the energy consumption of chiller. If waste heat is available for regenerating the desiccant, the system can achieve greater energy savings. It is feasible to improve indoor air quality (IAQ...

  19. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  20. H.N. Knudsen, P. Wargocki and J. Vondruskova (2006) "Effect of ventilation on perceived quality of air polluted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rate. This applies both for the data collected in small-scale and in full-scale experiments significance. These experiments should be carried out under realistic full- scale conditions. Keywords: Human responses to IAQ 1 Introduction Good perceived indoor air quality can be obtained by a low

  1. ARM - Campaign Journal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492air Comments? We would love to heargovInstrumentstdma Comments? WeairgovInstrumentswsiCampaign Journal

  2. Journal Titles American Orthoptic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Search Journal Titles American Orthoptic Journal Arctic Anthropology Contemporary Literature Ecological Restoration Journal of Human Resources Land Economics Land Management Pkg Landscape Journal Luso-Brazilian Review Monatshefte Native Plants Journal SubStance Article Copies/Permissions Journal Ebooks Library

  3. Indoor exposure to radiation in the case of an outdoor release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.; Jayaraman, Buvana

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor C in Deposition Resuspension Exhaust Figure 1deposition loss rate to areas where resuspension may occur (h -1 ) r: resuspension rate from “temporary” areas (h -1 ) D

  4. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors (COPI): Identification of data needs and existing data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surfaces, and resuspension activities lead to significantnear a secondary lead smelter, indicates that resuspensionresuspension. However, even moderate indoor activity, such as walking, can lead

  5. Shading and Cooling: Impacts of Solar Control and Windows on Indoor Airflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Penapa Wankaeo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    summer wind driven natural ventilation potential for indoor estimates the cooling potential of wind?driven ventilation and monsoon ? have  potential for wind?driven occupant 

  6. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  7. International Journal on Semantic Web and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh (Jessica)

    ON AIR!!! International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (Discount to SIG members) DON'T MISS: TOM GRUBER INTERVIEW (page 4) BulletinSemantic Web & Information Systems The Official Quarterly Newsletter of AIS Special Interest Group on Semantic Web and Information Systems AIS SIGSEMIS http

  8. Hydrogeology Journal Official Journal of the International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gvirtzman, Haim

    -edge methods for determining fault characteristics have been widely applied for oil and gas reservoir1 23 Hydrogeology Journal Official Journal of the International Association of Hydrogeologists ISSN

  9. Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 All manager or operator must submit the completed form to the air quality program manager before the project

  10. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first section on the Ventilation Program, funded by thea large study on hospital ventilation require- ments.iii Ventilation Program C. D. Hollowell, A. Anaclerio, D. W.

  11. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    continuous mechanical ventilation and local exhaust fromlocal exhaust fans (kitchens, bathrooms and laundry) and resulting increased ventilation

  12. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ventilation rates established by various state and localVentilation requirements are currently set by state and localventilation rates are specified in the various building codes adopted by state and local

  13. Comparing zonal and CFD models of air flows in large indoor spaces to experimental data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mora, L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A.l Mass airflow rates obtained with SD-SDF model (in g-sLaw mod­ els with Specific Driven Flows, or PL-SDF mod­ els.In the PL-SDF class of models, Bouia de­ veloped an

  14. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy consumption in the residential, commercial and public sectorspublic sectors in terms of energy efficiency with the majority of electricity consumptionpublic sectors in Brazil from 1965 to 2005. The residential sector accounts for 21.9% of energy consumption

  15. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    They recommend sealed natural gas combustion in all climateare indicative of natural gas combustion and are easy tosealed-combustion, direct vented natural gas appliances, and

  16. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a classification of the building energy efficiency based onEnergy Efficiency Levels in Commercial, Public and Service Buildings, the following classificationEnergy Efficiency Levels in Commercial, Public and Service Buildings presented in detail in Carlo and Lamberts (2008), the following classification

  17. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resistance Electric - Induction Oven Fuel Type Gas Electrican electric induction cooktop and electric oven; the onlyinduction heating elements. Gas usage was more prevalent for cooktops than for ovens,

  18. ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ensured dilution is dependent on an effective base standard for whole-house and spot ventilation. This is why the ASHRAE 62.2 residential ventilation standard is critical to...

  19. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy audit provisions of the 1978 U, S, National Energy Act, Finally, also in 1979, the University

  20. Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 PERSONAL REACTIVE CLOUDS: INTRODUCING THE CONCEPT OF NEAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    and respiratory system. For example, Kleno and Wolkoff (2004) observed increased eye blink frequency when human sensory irritation (33% reduction of mean respiratory rate) in mice exposed to the products of limonene zone of humans. The mechanism for ozone reactions with the C=C bond in alkenes was established

  1. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    uc/item/25x5j8w6 9. Gas water heater General Information: a.the technology of the water heater (check all that apply) i.i. Staining on top of the water heater ii. Corrosion on the

  2. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sealed natural gas combustion in all climate zones, withinside the home. Other gas combustion appliances will tendcooking found that gas combustion, frying and cooking of

  3. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar water heating system (may be combined with storage water heater)Solar energy was incorporated into nine of the home heating systems, being paired with tankless water heaters,

  4. Airborne Particulate Matter in HVAC Systems and its Influence on Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Z.; Li, N.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ], microorganisms [2], in the case of abnormal maintenance. Because there are all kinds of components in the duct systems, tapping the law of particle distribution in HVAC systems is not an easy work. Generally speaking, flow in the duct system... is turbulent except those in some kind of components like filters. Particle movement, especially particle deposition, is strongly related to organized structures in near-wall turbulence [3]. The mechanisms governing particle transport in HVAC systems...

  5. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Instituto Nacional de Metrologia. Rio de Janeiro, DiárioQ.I.I. Instituto Nacional de Metrologia; 2009. p. 27. [17]27, Instituto Nacio- nal de Metrologia, Rio de Janeiro.

  6. DESIGN OF A MOBILE LABORATORY FOR VENTILATION STUDIES AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berk, James V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    210 GA 2/0 GA I I I I C I 20A Instrument regulated pwr I 15AInstrument non-regulated pwr 20A I • I I 30 A twistA twist lock tool box Pump pwr Zero gas generated pwr

  7. DESIGN OF A MOBILE LABORATORY FOR VENTILATION STUDIES AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berk, James V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i co i 2KVA sou reg. X Instrument regulated pwr 20A 20AInstrument non-regulated pwr 30A twist lock tool box 30 Alock ( __J~ v x-k \\^_J~ Pump pwr 30A Zero gas generated pwr

  8. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, given the higher cost per KWh for electricity, aaverage cost of electrical energy per kilowatt-hour (kWh) is

  9. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RESIDENTiAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION DATA (1976) TOTAL 18,95 Quadsregulations; COMMERCIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION DATA (1976) TOTAL

  10. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air Charles J. Weschler*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    hydrocarbons, single ring aromatics, terpenes, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, and acrolein. Analysis

  11. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the analysis, most importantly acrolein, NO 2 , and PM 2.5 .concentrations found that acrolein concentrations were onof PM 2.5 , NO 2 , and acrolein requires a substantially

  12. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PM 2.5 , acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1,3- butadiene,PM 2.5 , formaldehyde and acrolein accounted for the vastof these pollutants, except acrolein, radon and ozone are

  13. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that incorporated energy efficient design. The EEB measuredshowed that energy efficient design features, intended toenergy efficient ventilation standards and ventilation designs

  14. Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS and Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) Program represents a whole new level of home performance, with rigorous requirements that ensure outstanding levels of energy savings,...

  15. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES AT A NEW YORK CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Rodger A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine the yearly ventilation-heating load for thecalculations of ventilation heating load 25 in variousexi~ting school heating and ventilation conditions. It must

  16. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercial kitchen ventilation system intercontinental markresidential mechanical ventilation systems. Ontario, Canada:to innovative ventilation systems. Ventilation Information

  17. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water heater is the most common type; it has a large tankwater heaters, gas boilers, and heat pumps in single and multiple storage tank

  18. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    uc/item/25x5j8w6 9. Gas water heater General Information: a.the technology of the water heater (check all that apply) i.production and (3) vented water heaters and furnaces undergo

  19. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Washington, D.C. : U.S. Green Building Council. U.S. DOE. (NAHB/ICC. (2009). National green building standard. NAHBcommercial-customers/green-building-and- the- environment/

  20. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and DiMattio, American Industrial Hygiene Association, "76:471. American Industrial Hygiene Association, "Community

  1. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    many hospitals for energy audits and for energy-conserving1980, will include an energy audit, modifications to theannotated bibliography of energy audit source materials will

  2. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rubber and resins Chloro Benzenes Strong narcotic; possible lung. liver, and kidney damage Used in production

  3. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency Measures in the Building Code of Australia,and Australia also has one of the first energy efficiencyEnergy efficiency requirements were introduced into the Building Code of Australia (

  4. Improving Indoor Air Quality Improves the Performance of Office Work and School Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wargocki, P.

    -10-15a Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 Definitions #0;? Performance: ability of an individual to perform different mentally and/or physically demanding tasks... Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 Performance vs productivity #0;? #0;? Effect on individual performance of reading: reduced by 10% Effect on overall productivity: reduced by only 5% if reading speed critical for 50...

  5. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HVAC) and the thermal envelope of buildings, but designments concern the thermal envelope, lighting and acoustics,HVAC and building’s thermal envelope. Yet requirements for

  6. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advantage Institute. Emmerich, S. J. , Gorfain, J. E. ,in attached garages. Emmerich et al. (2003) provide anthe building envelope (Emmerich et al. , 2003). Measurements

  7. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency Measures in the Building Code of Australia,Energy efficiency requirements were introduced into the Building Code of Australia (

  8. Evaluating Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) as Modifying Factor in Designing Public School Buildings in Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, H. H.; Al-Momani, H.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , location, which healthy symptoms did the students have; headache, Fatigue, erythematic, throat irritation, cough, nausea?etc to expect the causes. Some variables are scored by giving weight for each one ranged from 0 (min) to 5 (max), others...

  9. Dynamic predictive clothing insulation models based on outdoor air and indoor operative temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    predictive clothing insulation models based on outdoor airrange of the clothing insulation calculated for eachbuilding). Figure 8 Clothing insulation versus dress code [

  10. Predictive clothing insulation model based on outdoor air and indoor operative temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2012) Predictive clothing insulation model based on outdoorPredictive clothing insulation model based on outdoor airpredictive models of clothing insulation have been developed

  11. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of automatic variable ventilation control systems based onof automatic variable ventilation control systems, The Johnbe developed. Automatic Variable Ventilation Control Systems

  12. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and in new "energy-efficient design" hospitals. Developmentenergy-efficient ventilation standards and ventilation designs

  13. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    satisfaction. • In Brazil, energy efficiency became ancontribute to energy savings in Brazil, focusing onand renewable energy use in Brazil. Energy Policy 32: [25

  14. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    connected to the home’s central heating and cooling system.homes. For homes with electric heating, given the higher

  15. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into nine of the home heating systems, being paired withElectric cooking and heating homes were also recruited toheating. Very few homes had traditional heating equipment;

  16. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat exchangers; additional subcontract activities consisting of: • field survey of current practices in enforcement of ventilation regulations; COMMERCIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION DATA (

  17. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellweg, Stefanie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result inexposure models; Life Cycle Assessment; LCA; intake fractionneglected in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Such an omission

  18. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and optional sustainability and energy performance standards62 1.14.1 Housing Characteristics and Energy/SustainabilityCharacteristics and Energy/Sustainability Classification 24

  19. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cook top ventilation in passive House/LEED home. (2010).Berkeley National Lab. Passive House Institute U.S. (2011).What is a passive house? Retrieved 11/23, 2012, from http://

  20. Indoor Air Quality Forms 169 This section of the document is a collec-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -by-room basis on the topics of room use, ventilation, and occu- pant population. Ventilation Worksheet complaint or problem and how it is handled. Occupant Interview (2 pages): for record- ing the observations Form (4 pages): to be used as a short form for investigating an IAQ problem, or for periodic inspec

  1. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the literature for problems with ventilation systems, withthat the problems of kitchen pollutants and ventilation areand Installation Problems in Mechanical Ventilation Systems

  2. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    second the output of heat pump water heaters cannot servicewith tankless water heaters, gas boilers, and heat pumps inspace heater – § J Heat Pump Baseboard electric Hot water

  3. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used either natural gas or propane for cooktop fuel. Of the1302 Cooktop Fuel Type Gas Propane Electric - ResistanceFuel Type Gas Electric Propane Cooktop and Oven Together

  4. ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2 of 5) ALARA TrainingANDREW ( ARI| March 29,ASHRAERise

  5. Indoor airPLUS Construction Specifications Version 1 (Rev. 02) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of EnergyTreatment andJune 25, 2012 EMSummaryof

  6. United States Office of Radiation and EP A Environmental Protection Indoor Air August 1997

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourthN V4100 DOE/EA-1452D E P"-EP A

  7. Indoor airPLUS Version 1 (Rev. 01) Verification Checklist | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovementINDIAN COUNTRY ENERGYEnergy

  8. Community-wide benefits of targeted indoor residual spray for malaria control in the Western Kenya Highland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Minakawa, Noboru; Yan, Guiyun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ecological settings [4]. Among those control measures, insecticide- treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual-house

  9. Model for energy efficiency in radio over fiber distributed indoor antenna Wi-Fi network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Model for energy efficiency in radio over fiber distributed indoor antenna Wi-Fi network Yves Josse communications in indoor environments. In this paper, the power consumption and energy efficiency of a DAS using for different transmission configurations, yielding a distance- dependent energy efficiency model. In a second

  10. Automobile Proximity and Indoor Residential Concentrations of BTEX and Diana E. Hun1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Automobile Proximity and Indoor Residential Concentrations of BTEX and MTBE Diana E. Hun1 from gasoline-related sources to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to be dominated by car of other BTEX components and MTBE have been reported (CalEPA 2009; U.S. EPA 2005). Up until 2000, MTBE

  11. Author's personal copy Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Author's personal copy Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to have been dominated by car exhaust concentrations of other BTEX components and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been reported [5,6]. Up until

  12. Changes in indoor pollutants since the 1950s Charles J. Weschler a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA b International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical eventually been regulated. Many of the manufacturers of the materials, furnishings and products used indoors, Europe, Asia and other parts of the world have come to resemble one another. Initially, because

  13. Particle resuspension from indoor flooring materials James H. Lohaus, Atila Novoselac and Jeffrey A. Siegel*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Particle resuspension from indoor flooring materials James H. Lohaus, Atila Novoselac and Jeffrey A@mail.utexas.edu Keywords: Fluid dynamics, Indoor surfaces, Particle experiments Introduction Particle resuspension from for supermicron particles. Resuspension is usually reported either as a critical velocity, the velocity at which

  14. Literature Review on Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, P.; Cho, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ..................................................... 6 3.5. Task Ventilation Systems ................................................................................. 7 3.6. Recommendations from Experiences.............................................................. 8 IV. SUMMARY... transactions and journal papers are main sources about the UFAD systems. (More than 100 papers found) Elsevier Literature Search Engine: Keyword: Displacement Ventilation (26 papers found) Keyword: UnderFloor Air Distribution (2 papers found) Center...

  15. EPA Air DOCKET NO: A-98-49; II-B3-129; September 2014 DOCKET NO: A-98-49 Item: II-B3-129

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EPA Air DOCKET NO: A-98-49; II-B3-129; September 2014 DOCKET NO: A-98-49 Item: II-B3-129 Subpart PROTECTION AGENCY Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Center for Waste Management and Federal Regulation 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20460 September 2014 #12;EPA Air DOCKET NO: A-98-49; II-B3

  16. Air Pollution (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states regulations for monitoring air pollution, methods for permit applications, emission limitations for pollutants and air quality standards.

  17. Writing & Journal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    . Bearing stiffness, damping, and inertia force coefficients are then identified from an impedance matrix in the frequency domain. Dynamic tests for an open ends squeeze film damper at various journal center static (offset) positions are presented for three...

  18. 2013 R&D 100 Award: DNATrax could revolutionize air quality detection and tracking

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Farquar, George

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A team of LLNL scientists and engineers has developed a safe and versatile material, known as DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol Experiments (DNATrax), that can be used to reliably and rapidly diagnose airflow patterns and problems in both indoor and outdoor venues. Until DNATrax particles were developed, no rapid or safe way existed to validate air transport models with realistic particles in the range of 1-10 microns. Successful DNATrax testing was conducted at the Pentagon in November 2012 in conjunction with the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. This study enhanced the team's understanding of indoor ventilation environments created by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. DNATrax are particles comprised of sugar and synthetic DNA that serve as a bar code for the particle. The potential for creating unique bar-coded particles is virtually unlimited, thus allowing for simultaneous and repeated releases, which dramatically reduces the costs associated with conducting tests for contaminants. Among the applications for the new material are indoor air quality detection, for homes, offices, ships and airplanes; urban particulate tracking, for subway stations, train stations, and convention centers; environmental release tracking; and oil and gas uses, including fracking, to better track fluid flow.

  19. 2013 R&D 100 Award: DNATrax could revolutionize air quality detection and tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farquar, George

    2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A team of LLNL scientists and engineers has developed a safe and versatile material, known as DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol Experiments (DNATrax), that can be used to reliably and rapidly diagnose airflow patterns and problems in both indoor and outdoor venues. Until DNATrax particles were developed, no rapid or safe way existed to validate air transport models with realistic particles in the range of 1-10 microns. Successful DNATrax testing was conducted at the Pentagon in November 2012 in conjunction with the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. This study enhanced the team's understanding of indoor ventilation environments created by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. DNATrax are particles comprised of sugar and synthetic DNA that serve as a bar code for the particle. The potential for creating unique bar-coded particles is virtually unlimited, thus allowing for simultaneous and repeated releases, which dramatically reduces the costs associated with conducting tests for contaminants. Among the applications for the new material are indoor air quality detection, for homes, offices, ships and airplanes; urban particulate tracking, for subway stations, train stations, and convention centers; environmental release tracking; and oil and gas uses, including fracking, to better track fluid flow.

  20. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2013, 4, 24-27 doi:10.4236/jep.2013.48A1004 Published Online August 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jep)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    August 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jep) California's Agriculture-Related Local Air Pollution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ABSTRACT Air pollution is a critical environmental issue for California, which has some of the nation's most polluted air basins and also the nation

  1. Indoor Secondary Pollutants from Household Product Emissions inthe Presence of Ozone: A Bench-Scale Chamber Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Lunden, Melissa M.; Singer, Brett C.; Coleman,Beverly K.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone-driven chemistry is a major source of indoor secondary pollutants of health concern. This study investigates secondary air pollutants formed from reactions between constituents of household products and ozone. Gas-phase product emissions were introduced along with ozone at constant rates into a 198-L Teflon-lined reaction chamber. Gas-phase concentrations of reactive terpenoids and oxidation products were measured. Formaldehyde was a predominant oxidation byproduct for the three studied products, with yields under most conditions of 20-30% with respect to ozone consumed. Acetaldehyde, acetone, glycolaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid were each also detected for two or three of the products. Immediately upon mixing of reactants, a scanning mobility particle sizer detected particle nucleation events that were followed by a significant degree of ultrafine particle growth. The production of secondary gaseous pollutants and particles depended primarily on the ozone level and was influenced by other parameters such as the air-exchange rate. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the range 0.04-200 x 10{sup 5} molecules cm{sup -3} were measured. OH concentrations were observed to vary strongly with residual ozone level in the chamber, which was in the range 1-25 ppb, as is consistent with expectations from a simplified kinetic model. In a separate test, we exposed the dry residue of two products to ozone in the chamber and observed the formation of gas-phase and particle-phase secondary oxidation products.

  2. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  3. The effects of indoor pollution on Arizona children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, R.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The respiratory health of a large group of Arizona school children who have been exposed to indoor pollutants-tobacco smoke and home cooking fumes-is reported. A significant relationship was found between parental smoking and symptoms of cough, wheeze, and sputum production. Also, children in homes where gas cooking fuel was used had higher rates of cough than children in homes where electricity was used. No differences in pulmonary function or yearly lung growth rates occurred among subjects grouped by exposure to tobacco smoke or cooking fuel. Thus, parental smoking and home cooking fuel affected cross-sectional respiratory symptom rates in a large group of Arizona school children. Study of pulmonary function, however, revealed no lung function or lung growth effects during 4 yr of study.

  4. 3-D Wave Propagation Simulation in Complex Indoor Structures Farshid Aryanfar' and Kamal Sarabandi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarabandi, Kamal

    3-D Wave Propagation Simulation in Complex Indoor Structures Farshid Aryanfar' and Kamal Sarabandi in different environments is important for specifying system parameters. Recently, wave propagation prediction electromagnetic wave propagation models have been developed. Examination of reported wave propagation algorithms

  5. Coupling of a multizone airflow simulation program with computational fluid dynamics for indoor environmental analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Yang, 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current design of building indoor environment comprises macroscopIC approaches, such as CONT AM multizone airflow analysis tool, and microscopic approaches that apply Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Each has certain ...

  6. Risk Assessment Scheme of Infection Transmission Indoors Incorporating the Impact of Resuspension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Siming; Wan, Man Pun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    models for fine particle resuspension from indoor surfaces.Reed J, Hall D. On the resuspension of small parti- cles byFichman M, Gutfinger C. Resuspension of par- ticulates from

  7. Impact of Indoor Environment Improvement on Comfort and Productivity in a Chipboard Workplace 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Li, D.; Du, H.; Zhang, G.; Li, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A real example was investigated on the relationship between indoor environment, comfort and productivity in a chipboard workplace location in southern China. In this field study, a subjective evaluation and objective measurement were carried out...

  8. An example of verification, validation, and reporting of indoor environment CFD analyses (RP-1133)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    through an example of indoor environment modeling (an office with mechanical displacement ventilation similar procedure. The emphasis of the verification and validation is problem dependent. The computational ventilation systems and the development of control strategies require detailed knowledge of airflow

  9. RIS-M-2234 A NOTE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUTDOOR AND INDOOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reactor accidents. Earlier investigations relevant to this problem are reviewed. It is concluded of the indoor exposure integral, and thus of the inhalation doses, by deliberately controlling ventilation #12

  10. Impact of Indoor Environment Improvement on Comfort and Productivity in a Chipboard Workplace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Li, D.; Du, H.; Zhang, G.; Li, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A real example was investigated on the relationship between indoor environment, comfort and productivity in a chipboard workplace location in southern China. In this field study, a subjective evaluation and objective measurement were carried out...

  11. Operation of Energy Efficient Residential Buildings Under Indoor Environmental Quality Requirements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medhat, A. A.; Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effic iency in residential bui Idings I. INTRODUCTION Com prehensi \\Ie ex perience were gai ned over the past fifty years in Egy pt regarding how therm al comfort and sensations of Egyptians are related to indoor environmental. parameters...

  12. Indoor design condition and the cooling load calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, T.Y. [Sun (Tseng-Yao), Rancho Palos Verde, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling load calculation involves two steps. The first is to determine the basic building load. This consists of external loads through the building envelope and internal loads from people, lights, appliances, and other heat sources. The required supply air quantity for each conditioned space generally is determined in the first step. This is because each relates only to the coil leaving and required room dry bulb temperatures (unless reheat is required to control the humidity level in the conditioned space). The second step, after completing the above, is to calculate the system cooling load. This step adapts the selected air distribution system to the building load and involves the introduction of the required outdoor air volume into the air conditioning system for ventilation. Proper psychrometric analysis is required to calculate the entering and leaving wet bulb conditions of the air passing through the cooling coil. These, together with the corresponding dry bulb temperatures, will determine the system cooling load.

  13. Feasibility of air capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjan, Manya

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

  14. Monitoring Viable Fungal and Bacterial Bioaerosol Concentrations to Identify Acceptable Levels for Common Indoor Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, L. D.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and enumerated using several sampling methodologies, yet the specific effects of many airborne microorganisms on human health is not clearly understood. The lack of understanding is in part due to the extreme complexities that exists with respect to sampling... while sterile hyphae averaged 29 CFUlm3. Penicillium was observed in 50% if the indoor samples and averaged 48 CFUlm3. Aspergillus was documented to occur in 33% of the indoor samples and demonstrated an average airborne concentration of 20 CFUlm3...

  15. Guide to journal rankings 1. What are journal rankings?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCusker, Guy

    Opus Guide to journal rankings 1. What are journal rankings? Journal rankings are metrics that provide information on how a journal performs in comparison with other journals in the same discipline. Articles in high impact journals are more likely to be cited. Good citation counts are often considered

  16. Optimization Journals, Sites, Societies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization Online Links. Optimization related societies. Mathematical Optimization Society · SIAM · INFORMS. Optimization related journals. Mathematical ...

  17. Air Pollution Control (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter enumerates primary and secondary ambient air quality standards and the significant deterioration increments. Significant deterioration refers to an increase in ambient air pollution...

  18. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  19. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  20. AiR surface: AiR surface 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

  1. The effect of alternate defrost strategies on the reverse-cycle defrost of an air-source heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schliesing, John Steven

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with and understanding of my questions and ideas. Thanks also to my family and friends for their support and help svhile I svorked on this project. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the American Society oi' Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers... . . 21 Psychrometric Room Temperature Control Characteristics during a Frosting, 'Defrosting Test 3. 3 4. 3 4. 10 4. 11 Refrigerant Circuit Arrangement of the Outdoor Coil Heat Pump System Schematic Refrigerant Line Temperature Probe . Indoor...

  2. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with a Thermal Expansion Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the manufacturer for a specific indoor and outdoor temperatures. Once the full charge was determined, the unit was subjected to 40%, 30%, 20%, 15%, 10%, and 5% undercharging and 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% overcharging of refrigerant by mass. The fully charged tests were... CONDITION All tests were performed on a split system central air conditioner provided by the Trane company. To determine the proper amount of refrigerant charge needed in the system and the unit's corresponding performance, charging specifications...

  3. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  4. Air Pollution Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

  5. Analytical and experimental investigations of hybrid air foil bearings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Manish

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    rotary flow compressor, micro-turbines [2] and oil-free turbochargers [3]. Air Foil bearings, however, have reliability issues that stem from the wear caused by dry rubbing during startups and stops. These bearings also have limited heat dissipation... of Hybrid Airfoil Bearing? by Kumar, M., and Kim, D., 2008. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 130, Copyright 2008 by ASME. 10 Table 1: Bearing parameters ? Simulation Parameters Value Bearing diameter, 2R 38.1 mm Bearing axial...

  6. An indoor radon survey of the X-ray rooms of Mexico City hospitals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juarez, Faustino [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100. Estado de Mexico, 50000, Mexico. Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito (Mexico); Reyes, Pedro G. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100. Estado de Mexico, 50000 (Mexico); Espinosa, Guillermo [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. Cp.04510 (Mexico)

    2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the X-ray rooms of a selection of hospitals in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The metropolitan area of Mexico City is Mexico's largest metropolitan area by population; the number of patients requiring the use of X-rays is also the highest. An understanding of indoor radon concentrations in X-ray rooms is necessary for the estimation of the radiological risk to which patients, radiologists and medical technicians are exposed. The indoor radon concentrations were monitored for a period of six months using nuclear track detectors (NTD) consisting of a closed-end cup system with CR-39 (Lantrack Registered-Sign ) polycarbonate as detector material. The indoor radon concentrations were found to be between 75 and 170 Bq m{sup -3}, below the USEPA-recommended indoor radon action level for working places of 400 Bq m{sup -3}. It is hoped that the results of this study will contribute to the establishment of recommended action levels by the Mexican regulatory authorities responsible for nuclear safety.

  7. Do indoor environments in schools influence student performance? A review of the literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Heath, Garvin A.

    2004-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited research is available on potential adverse effects of school environments on academic performance, despite strong public concern. We examine the scientific evidence relevant to this relationship by reviewing available research relating schools and other indoor environments to human performance or attendance. As a primary focus, we critically review evidence for direct relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings and performance or attendance. As a secondary focus, we summarize, without critique, evidence on potential connections indirectly linking IEQ to performance or attendance: relationships between IEQ and health, between health and performance or attendance, and between attendance and performance. The most persuasive direct evidence showed increases in indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and outdoor concentrations of several specific pollutants to be related to reduced school attendance. The most persuasive indirect evidence showed indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants to be related to asthma and respiratory infections, which have in turn been related to reduced performance and attendance. Furthermore, a substantial scientific literature links poor IEQ (e.g., low ventilation rate, excess moisture or formaldehyde) with respiratory and other health effects in children and adults. Overall, evidence suggests that poor IEQ in schools can influence the performance and attendance of students, primarily through health effects from indoor pollutants. Also, inadequate IEQ in schools seems sufficiently common to merit strong public concern. Evidence is available to justify (1) immediate actions to protect IEQ in schools and (2) focused research on exposures, prevention, and causation, to better guide policies and actions on IEQ in schools.

  8. Potential Nationwide Improvements in Productivity and Health from Better Indoor Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in our estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., we estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  9. Indoor environmental quality, adaptive action and thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and mixed-mode buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honnekeri, Anoop N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. ANSI/ASHRAE (Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Apte MG, FiskCooling without air conditioning: The Torrent Research

  10. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Huang, Li; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE);comfort and on the air conditioning energy needed to correctby energy-intensive air-conditioning. Second, solar gain in

  11. Journal interaction A bibliometric analysis of economics journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Journal interaction A bibliometric analysis of economics journals Tove Faber Frandsen1 Royal journals. The proposed method controls for the different characteristics of the journals as well Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Documentation 61, 3 (2005) 385-401" #12;2 economics

  12. Journal Title Journal Homepage ISSN Full text Accounting and Finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqi, Sajjad Ahmed

    Journal Title Journal Homepage ISSN Full text from Accounting and Finance Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal www.emeraldinsight.com/aaj.htm 0951- 3574 1988 International Journal of Managerial Finance www.emeraldinsight.com/ijmf.htm 1743- 9132 2005 Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change www

  13. Post Occupancy Evaluation of Indoor Environmental Quality in Commercial Buildings: Do green buildings have more satisfied occupants?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Post Occupancy Evaluation of Indoor Environmental Quality in Commercial Buildings: Do green of Indoor Environmental Quality in Commercial Buildings: Do green buildings have more satisfied occupants the promise of a bright future ­ just like the green building movement. i #12;Post Occupancy Evaluation

  14. air temperature air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  15. Modeling, Real-Time Estimation, and Identification of UWB Indoor Wireless Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL] [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Yanyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Fathy, Aly [University of Tennessee (UT)] [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are used to model ultrawideband (UWB) indoor wireless channels. We show that the impulse responses for time-varying indoor wireless channels can be approximated in a mean square sense as close as desired by impulse responses that can be realized by SDEs. The state variables represent the inphase and quadrature components of the UWB channel. The expected maximization and extended Kalman filter are employed to recursively identify and estimate the channel parameters and states, respectively, from online received signal strength measured data. Both resolvable and non-resolvable multipath received signals are considered and represented as small-scaled Nakagami fading. The proposed models together with the estimation algorithm are tested using UWB indoor measurement data demonstrating the method s viability and the results are presented.

  16. Mechanism of Thermal Comfort and Its Application in Indoor Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lian, Z.; Liu, W.; Ye, X.; Ye, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was maintained at 60-70% and air velocity was maintained at 0.2m/s during the experiment. The range of ambient temperature is from 16 to 34 . We measured the peak value of electric current of metabolite of dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC... Students T test. Differences were considered statistically significant as Pambient temperature resulted...

  17. Templeman Library Journal loan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banaji,. Murad

    Templeman Library Journal loan Only postgraduate students or academic staff can borrow journals ............................................................................ * Initials ............................................................................ * Library card number ............................................................................ Fields marked * are required The item will be issued to your Library account for one week, normally

  18. General Air Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source, including a temporary source, which emits or has the potential to emit any air contaminant requires an air permit. Facilities with potential emissions less than 5 tons per year of any...

  19. Healthy Air Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Healthy Air Act was developed with the purpose of bringing Maryland into attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter by the...

  20. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY EFFICENCY Babu Joseph, Ph.D., P.E. Engineer Southern California Edison Irwindale, CA ABSTRACT This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency...

  1. Analysis of a wet scrubber network in the air remediation of industrial workplaces: benefit for the city air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Curci, Gabriele; Monaco, Alessio; De Giovanni, Marina; Giammaria, Franco; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial activities carried out in confined spaces are characterized by a very specific type of air pollution. The extended exposure to this kind of pollution is often highly harmful, resulting in dramatic effects both on health and safety aspects. The indoor industrial abatement systems, adopted to purify the air, are typically applied to the emission points. The processed air is subsequently emitted outside. In this study we present the experimental results of three-stage wet scrubber systems installed in the industrial workplace of a (i) fiberglass processing plant, where the highest exposure levels to volatile compounds are nowadays today monitored,and of a (ii) waste-to-energy plant, characterized by a very high particulate matter level. The adopted technology, to be used as complementing strategy,does not require special disposal procedures and the processed air is re-emitted in the same work environment for the benefit of the work operators. The operation of the scrubbers network during the working a...

  2. on man, nature & air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on man, nature & air pollution About three decades ago, itand episodes of air pollution the following summer. Wetthe increase in air pollution. This hypothesis generated

  3. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simply and cost-effectively with a dual path arrangement that treats and controls the ventilation air independently of the recirculation air. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)--the nonprofit R&D arm of the electric utility industry... particular type of application. EPRI is developing variations of the dual path concept to meet different reeofit and new construction markets. Figure 6. Ventilation Air Conditioner as a Separate Unit EPRVCALMAC System: Separate Unit for Ventilation Air...

  4. Development of a Cost-efficient Autonomous MAV for an Unstructured Indoor Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kernbach, Serge

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performing rescuing and surveillance operations with autonomous ground and aerial vehicles become more and more apparent task. Involving unmanned robot systems allows making these operations more efficient, safe and reliable especially in hazardous areas. This work is devoted to the development of a cost-efficient micro aerial vehicle in a quadrocopter shape for developmental purposes within indoor scenarios. It has been constructed with off-the-shelf components available for mini helicopters. Additional sensors and electronics are incorporated into this aerial vehicle to stabilize its flight behavior and to provide a capability of an autonomous navigation in a partially unstructured indoor environment.

  5. Journal of Nonlinear Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    57

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Nonlinear Science. The Principle of Hamilton for Mechanical Systems with Impacts and Unilateral. Constraints. --Manuscript Draft--. Manuscript ...

  6. MAD-AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N. A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with stress- related illness rather than the anwr that spells RELIEF. Air flow in, through ad arourd a house is an important concern in the building we call haw. !lb enhance air flow and change the various corditions or properties of the air, a variety...

  7. Air Quality Chapter Outline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Chapter 30 Air Quality Chapter Outline 1 Overview 2 1.1 Hazards / Impacts 2 1.2 Exposure Sources 3 Manual Chapter 30: Air Quality 7 References 20 8 Implementation 21 9 Ownership 22 1 Overview SLAC operations produce a wide range of air emissions. Sources of emissions include standard equipment

  8. Journal title 2010 Impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Emilio

    Journal title 2010 Impact Factor Information Sciences 2.833 Web Semantics 2.789 Artificial Intelligence 2.511 Future Generation Computer Systems 2.365 International Journal of Medical Informatics 2.244 Applied Soft Computing Journal 2.084 Expert Systems With Applications 1.924 Fuzzy Sets And Systems 1

  9. Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control...

  10. Which Journal Should I Use? NUFinancials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    Which Journal Should I Use? NUFinancials Accounting Actuals Journals Correction Journal (COR) Internal Sales Journal (ISJ) Transfer Journal (TFR) Agency Journal (AGY) Used For · Correcting expense department or unit to another inside the University · Correcting a prior internal sales journal · Moving

  11. Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    1 Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1 , Vamsi Paruchuri1 , Leonard Barolli2 and Raj. Louis, MO 63130, USA 314-935-4963, jain@cse.wustl.edu Abstract--We present Air to Air Communication (AAC........................................................2 3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION..............................3 4. SIMULATIONS

  12. Air Pollution- Local Air Quality (Ontario, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Air Pollution regulation administered by the Ministry of the Environment enforces compliance to the standards set in the Ontario law. The law is phased in, with portions taking effect in 2010,...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

  14. Journal Covers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The Energy Materials CenterTechnologies | BlandineTechnologies |Journal

  15. Humanoid Robot Localization in Complex Indoor Environments Armin Hornung Kai M. Wurm Maren Bennewitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teschner, Matthias

    for humanoid robots operating in such environ- ments is a challenging task. First, humanoids typically execute environment. The robot uses a head-mounted 2D laser range finder, attitude and joint angle sensors, as wellHumanoid Robot Localization in Complex Indoor Environments Armin Hornung Kai M. Wurm Maren

  16. Floor Plan Generation and Room Labeling of Indoor Environments from Laser Range Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakhor, Avideh

    . Such labels are useful for building energy simulations involving thermal models, as well as for ensuring and analysis software, requiring building geometry as input. Even though existing energy simu- lation tools can complex geometry models (Craw- ley et al., 2000). Indoor models can also be used for positioning in wide

  17. EUROGRAPHICS 2014/ M. Paulin and C. Dachsbacher Poster Reconstructing Complex Indoor Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pajarola, Renato B.

    .5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling --Boundary representations; Curve, surface the input model and build our space par- titioning structure directly from them. This differs fromEUROGRAPHICS 2014/ M. Paulin and C. Dachsbacher Poster Reconstructing Complex Indoor Environments

  18. A Novel Transmitter Placement Scheme based on Hierarchical Simplex Search for Indoor Wireless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , we propose an adaptive number adjustment algorithm (ANA) to speed up the search process, which adjusts the number of transmitters with variable step-sizes. A hierarchical simplex search algorithm (HSS1 A Novel Transmitter Placement Scheme based on Hierarchical Simplex Search for Indoor Wireless

  19. Technical note Barriers and opportunities for passive removal of indoor ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Technical note Barriers and opportunities for passive removal of indoor ozone Elliott T. Gall presents a Monte Carlo simulation to assess passive removal materials (PRMs) that remove ozone of homes in Houston, Texas, were taken from the literature and combined with back- ground ozone removal

  20. Gas Distribution in Unventilated Indoor Environments Inspected by a Mobile Robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zell, Andreas

    Gas Distribution in Unventilated Indoor Environments Inspected by a Mobile Robot Michael Wandel1@tech.oru.se Abstract Gas source localisation with robots is usually per- formed in environments with a strong in different environments, and the similarities as well as differences in the analyte gas distributions