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Sample records for johnston atoll midway

  1. Clean soil at Eniwetok and Johnston Atolls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bramlitt, E.T.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency has managed two large-scale soil cleanups (landmass decontaminations) of plutonium contamination. Both are at Pacific Ocean atolls formerly used for nuclear weapons tests. The Eniwetok Atoll (EA) cleanup between 1977 and 1980 evaluated 390 ha of contaminated land and cleaned 50 ha by removing 80,000 m[sup 3] of contaminated soil. The Johnston Atoll (JA) cleanup is in process. It has checked 270 ha, will clean 15 ha, and plans for removal of 80,000 m[sup 3] of soil. The cleanups are similar in other respects including carbonate-based soil, in situ radiation surveys, contamination characteristics, soil excavation methods, safety, and weather. The two cleanups are in contrast relative to planning time, agencies involved, funding, documentation, environmental considerations, cleanup workforce, site beneficiaries, waste characterization, regulatory permits, management, and project duration. The most noteworthy differences are the rationale for cleanup, the cleanup process, the definition of clean, and the cost.

  2. Monitored plutonium aerosols at a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.O.; Johnson, J.S.

    1996-01-23

    Suspended plutonium in air was monitored for four periods near the operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. The monitoring periods were 14 October-14 November 1992, 20 October-15 November 1993, 16 August-3 November 1994, and 17 February-27 February 1995. Pairs of high volume air samplers were located at each of four locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quotes} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the hot soil gate of the sorter, the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved, and the {open_quotes}oversize soil{close_quotes} crushing area. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The median concentrations of Pu in {open_quotes}workplace{close_quotes} air (combined spoils pile, plant area, and clean pile sites) in 1992 was 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}), but increased to median values of 23000 aCi/m{sup 3} (852 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in August-November 1994 and 29800 aCi/m{sup 3} (1100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in February 1995. The highest median value at the worksites (29800 aCi/m{sup 3}) was more than 200 times lower than the regulatory level. The highest observed value was 84200 aCi/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile site, and this was more than 70 times lower than the regulatory level. The conclusion was that, in spite of the dusty environment, and the increased level of specific activity, we did not find that the soil processing posed any significant risk to workers during the observation periods 1992-1995.

  3. Suspended plutonium aerosols near a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll in 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.F.; Johnson, J.S.

    1994-02-01

    Plutonium aerosol monitoring was conducted for one month near the 1992 operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. Pairs of high volume cascade impactors and a high volume air sampler were located at each of three locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quote} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the-hot soil gate of the sorter, and the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, uncontaminated {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The three monitoring locations were extremely dusty, even though there were frequent rains during the period of operation. Total suspended particulate mass loadings were 178 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile, 93 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the plant area, and 79 {mu}g/m{sup 3} at the clean pile during this period, when background mass loadings were 41 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. There was no practical difference in the aerosol specific activity between the three locations, however, which had a median value of 3.64 pCi/g (135 Bq/kg). The aerosol specific activity is enhanced by a factor of 3 over the specific activity of the processed contaminant soil. This is about the same enhancement factor as found by other studies of road traffic, bulldozing, and agricultural operations. Specific activity of processed soil was 1.35 pCi/g (50 Bq/kg). The median mass-loading of the three downwind sites was 109 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (uncorrected for the sea spray contribution), so that the median concentrations in air using the median aerosol specific activity was calculated to be 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}). Measured Pu concentrations ranged from 280 to 1508 aCi/m{sup 3} (10 to 56 {mu}Bq/m3).

  4. William Johnston

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos andSeminarsDesign » Design William Johnston

  5. EA-1951: Midway-Moxee Rebuild and Midway-Grandview Upgrade Transmissio...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration is preparing an EA to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed rebuilding of the existing 34-mile Midway-Moxee transmission line...

  6. EA-1951: Midway-Moxee Rebuild and Midway-Grandview Upgrade Transmissio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    line in Benton and Yakima Counties, Washington. Additional information is available at the project website: http:efw.bpa.govenvironmentalservicesDocumentLibraryMidway-Moxee...

  7. The J. Bennett Johnston Sr.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment TopMetathesisSediments and Related J. Bennett Johnston

  8. Scientists unravel secrets of marine life at the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

    of a permanent research and monitoring station. Since then, the Marine Biological Reserve of Rocas Atoll have during low tide. The authors believe these environments provide shelter against direct wave action the Northeastern coast of Brazil is Rocas Atoll, the only atoll in the entire Southern Atlantic. Atolls

  9. Radiological cleanup of Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    For 8 years, from 1972 until 1980, the United States planned and carried out the radiological cleanup, rehabilitation, and resettlement of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands. This documentary records, from the perspective of DOD, the background, decisions, actions, and results of this major national and international effort. The documentary is designed: First, to provide a historical document which records with accuracy this major event in the history of Enewetak Atoll, the Marshall Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Micronesia, the Pacific Basin, and the United States. Second, to provide a definitive record of the radiological contamination of the Atoll. Third, to provide a detailed record of the radiological exposure of the cleanup forces themselves. Fourth, to provide a useful guide for subsequent radiological cleanup efforts elsewhere.

  10. Resuspension studies at Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.; Robison, W.L.

    1989-08-01

    The following experiments were conducted on Bikini Atoll to provide key parameters for an assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: (1) a characterization of background (plutonium activity, dust, plutonium, sea spray, and organic aerosol concentrations), (2) a study of plutonium resuspension from a bare field, (3) a study of plutonium resuspension by traffic, and (4) a study of personal inhalation exposure. Studies similar to (1) and (2) have been previously performed at Enewetak Atoll. 9 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Growing plants on atoll soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the year. Except on the driest of atolls, air temperature and humidity range only within limits set by the surrounding sea. There are no cold seasons, no frosts, no cold soils, no dry winds, and no periodic plagues of insects or diseases moving from miles away. Problems of soil drainage or salinity are few and easily recognized. Nor are there problems with acid soils, soil crusting, or erosion that challenge cultivators in many other areas. On the contrary, some of the black soils at the center of wide islands rank with the best soils of Russia and the American Midwest, except for their shortage of potassium and the uncertainties of rainfall. Some of these atoll soils contain more total nitrogen than many of the world's most productive agricultural soils and, in some, the total phosphorus content is so high as to be almost unbelievable--two to five tons of the element per acre. Certainly, problems exist in growing plants on atolls. There are also some special concerns not encountered in other environments, such as the wind and salt spray near shore. The two major physical limitations, however, are inadequate rainfall in some years and in many places, and soil fertility limitations. The alkaline or ''limy'' make-up of atoll soils means that a few plant nutrients, especially iron, limit growth of many introduced plants, and this is difficult to correct. As elsewhere in the world, many--but not all--atoll soils lack enough nitrogen and/or phosphorus for high yield, and all lack sufficient potassium. There is no practical way of overcoming drought except by use of tolerant plants such as coconut (ni) and Pandanus (bob), plus collection and careful use of whatever water is available. There are opportunities to overcome nutritional limitations mentioned above, first, by intensive use of all organic debris and household wastes in small gardens and, second, by use of commercial fertilizers. Imported fertilizers are expensive, certainly, but much less so on a family basis than the equivalent costs of imported food.

  12. Circulation in Enewetak Atoll lagoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, M.; Smith, S.V.; Stroup, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Currents at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, were measured on the reef margins, in the channels, and in the lagoon. Lagoon circulation is dominated by wind-driven downwind surface flow and an upwind middepth return flow. This wind-driven flow has the characteristics of an Ekman spiral in an enclosed sea. Lagoon flushing is accomplished primarily by surf-driven water input over the windward (eastern) reefs and southerly drift out the South Channel. Mean water residence time is 1 month, while water entering the northern portion of the atoll takes about 4 months to exit.

  13. Johnston, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder atHills, Pennsylvania:HuayangIllinois:Texas:JohnstonIowa:

  14. The depositional history of the Midway-Wilcox section, new Ulm field, Austin County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinero, Edwin

    1982-01-01

    Formation. An ex- tensive transgression began in the early Tertiary and deposited the Midway Shale. The section represents the marine interval between the Navarro and the Wilcox. The Eocene Wilcox is one of the fluvio-deltaic wedges which contains oil.... Robert R. Berg New Ulm field is typical of structures along the updip part of the Wilcox fault "trend. " Gas is produced from the Midway Formation and oil and gas from the Wilcox Group. Midway traps are probably stratigraphic in channel sandstones...

  15. NASA's Information Power Grid William E. Johnston, Project Manager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NASA's Information Power Grid William E. Johnston, Project Manager Arsi Vaziri, Deputy Project that Grids and Web Services combined represent as powerful a new tool for accessing and managing distributed and Data Grids? · Grids are technology and an emerging architecture that involve several types

  16. Johnston County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder atHills, Pennsylvania:HuayangIllinois:Texas:Johnston County,

  17. Johnston County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder atHills, Pennsylvania:HuayangIllinois:Texas:Johnston

  18. Johnston, Rhode Island: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder atHills, Pennsylvania:HuayangIllinois:Texas:JohnstonIowa:Rhode

  19. EA-1912: Midway-Benton No. 1 Rebuild Project, near town of Desert Aire, Benton County, WA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration to rebuild its existing Midway-Benton No.1 transmission line in place, or to reroute a portion of the Midway-Benton No. 1 transmission line that currently crosses Gable Mountain and Gable Butte in order to avoid crossing these features.

  20. O P I N I O N Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: a `midway' strategy for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    O P I N I O N Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: a `midway' strategy for increasing ethanol of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Abstract This article reviews the history and current state of ethanol. We propose that it is possible to produce ethanol from sugarcane while maintaining or even recovering

  1. Geohydrology of Enewetak Atoll islands and reefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1981-05-06

    Extensive tidal studies in island wells and the lagoon at Enewetak Atoll have shown that island ground water dynamics are controlled by a layered aquifer system. The surface aquifer of unconsolidated Holocene material extends to a depth of approximately 15 m, and has a hydraulic conductivity K = 60 m/day. From 15 to 60 m (approximate lagoon depth) the reef structure consists of successive layers of altered Pleistocene materials, with bulk permeability substantially higher than that of the surface aquifer. Because of wave set-up over the windward reef and the limited pass area for outflow at the south end of the atoll, lagoon tides rise in phase with the ocean tides but fall later than the ocean water level. This results in a net lagoon-to-ocean head which can act as the driving force for outflow through the permeable Pleistocene aquifer. This model suggests that fresh water, nutrients or radioactive contaminants found in island ground water or reef interstitial water may be discharged primarily into the ocean rather than the lagoon. Atoll island fresh water resources are controlled by recharge, seawater dilution due to vertical tidal mixing between the surface and deeper aquifers, and by loss due to entrainment by the outflowing water in the deeper aquifers. Estimated lagoon-ot-ocean transit times through the deep aquifer are on the order of a few years, which corresponds well to the freshwater residence time estimates based on inventory and recharge. Islands in close proximity to reef channels have more fresh ground water than others, which is consistent with a locally reduced hydraulic gradient and slower flow through the Pleistocene aquifers.

  2. Helix Atoll JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl Jump to: navigation, searchAtoll JV

  3. Radiological Conditions on Rongelap Atoll: Diving and Fishing on and Around Rongelap Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T F

    2003-02-01

    Rongelap Atoll experienced close-in ''local fallout'' from nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States (1946-58) in the northern Marshall Islands. Most of the radiation dose delivered to Rongelap Island residents during the 1950s was from radioactive elements that quickly decayed into non-radioactive elements. Since 1985, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has continued to provide monitoring of radioactive elements from bomb testing in the terrestrial and marine environment of Rongelap Atoll. The only remaining radioactive elements of environmental importance at the atoll are radioactive cesium (cesium-137), radioactive strontium (strontium-90), different types (isotopes) of plutonium, and americium (americium-241). Cesium- 137 and strontium-90 dissolve in seawater and are continually flushed out of the lagoon into the open ocean. The small amount of residual radioactivity from nuclear weapons tests remaining in the lagoon does not concentrate through the marine food chain. Elevated levels of cesium-137 and strontium-90 are still present in island soils and pose a potential health risk if certain types of local plants and coconut crabs are eaten in large quantities. Cesium-137 is taken up from the soil into plants and edible food products, and may end up in the body of people living on the islands and consuming local food. The presence of cesium-137 in the human body can be detected using a device called a whole body counter. A person relaxes in a chair for a few minutes while counts or measurements are taken using a detector a few inches away from the body. The whole body counting program on Rongelap Island was established in 1999 under a cooperative agreement between the Rongelap Atoll Local Government (RALG), the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Local technicians from Rongelap continue to operate the facility under supervision of scientists from LLNL. The facility permits resettlement workers living on Rongelap Island to check the amount of cesium-137 in their bodies. The amount of cesium-137 detected in resettlement workers living on Rongelap Island over the past three years is well below the level of radiation exposure considered safe by the Nuclear Claims Tribunal. Returning residents and visitors to Rongelap will also be able to receive a whole body count free of charge to check the level of cesium in their bodies. There is also a very low health risk from exposure to external sources of radiation from visiting or walking around any of the islands on the atoll.

  4. Economic Mass Producible Mirror Panels for Solar Concentrators G Johnston, G. Burgess, K. Lovegrove and A. Luzzi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Mass Producible Mirror Panels for Solar Concentrators G Johnston, G. Burgess, K. Lovegrove to the success of all solar concentrators of this nature are cost effective and durable mirror panel components World Solar Congress 743 #12;Economic Mass Producible Mirror Panels for Solar Concentrators Johnston

  5. Introduction: Enewetak Atoll and the PEACE program. [Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, T.W.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive study was made from June 1984 through August 1985 of the surface and subsurface configurations of two large nuclear craters on the northern side of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. These craters, KOA and OAK, resulted from the near-surface detonation of two high-yield thermonuclear devices in 1958, when the atoll was part of the Pacific Proving Grounds. This multidisciplinary study was designed to produce a broad well-documented geologic, geophysical, and materials-properties data base for use in answering critical questions concerning craters formed by high-yield bursts. The study was part of a larger research initiative by the US Department of Defense to better understand high-yield, strategic-scale nuclear bursts and how Pacific Proving Grounds craters relate to the basing and targeting of nuclear-weapon systems and related national defense issues. The data gathered during the study of the Enewetak craters are applicable to many scientific topics well beyond cratering mechanics and other related strategic concerns of the US DOD. These scientific topics include the geologic evolution of the Pacific Basin, the biologic and geologic history of a coral atoll, the fluctuation of sea level in response to glaciation and deglaciation, the diagenetic history of carbonate rocks in relation to sea-level changes and the differing substrate-water geochemistries thus produced, the speciation and migration of marine biotas, and the biostratigraphic succession of biotas through time and the calibration of these events with an absolute isotopic time scale, to name a few.

  6. The ecosystem study on Rongelap Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, R.B.; Gessel, S.P.; Held, E.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    During the 1950`s and 1960`s, the Laboratory of Radiation Biology at the University of Washington carried out an intensive study of this Atoll, which was contaminated with radioactive fallout from the {open_quotes}Bravo shot{close_quotes} in 1954. This study involved many aspects of the environment and the plant and animal life: soils, land plants, marine life, birds, geology and hydrology, and human diets as well. In much of the research, the fortuitiously present radioactive isotopes, especially {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, were tracers. Although the term {open_quotes}ecosystem study{close_quotes} was not in vogue at that time, it is clear that this was an early use of the ecosystem approach. Soil types and their development, the distribution of mineral elements in plants and soils, including predominant radionuclides, distribution and growth of native terrestrial plants in relation to topography and salinity, some aspects of the human diets, micronutrient nutrition of the coconut palm, island and islet development and stability, were given attention in the studies. Some of the findings in the various areas of study will be presented and discussed. 32 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Johnston et al. 1 Preliminary U-Pb Geochronology of the Tugela Terrane, Natal Belt, eastern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Stephen T.

    Johnston et al. 1 Preliminary U-Pb Geochronology of the Tugela Terrane, Natal Belt, eastern South of the Mesoproterozoic Natal belt of eastern South Africa. The Tugela terrane consists of a west-plunging structural granitoid suite. Introduction Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts are common to most continental fragments

  8. Science With The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder S. JohnstonA,X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, Ray

    Science With The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder S. JohnstonA,X , M. BailesB , N and m-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP

  9. Hunt, Johnston, Abraham, Rodier, Garry, Putman and de la Barra Comparisons from the Sacramento Model Testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert A.

    Hunt, Johnston, Abraham, Rodier, Garry, Putman and de la Barra 1 Comparisons from the Sacramento Barra Three land use and transport interaction models were applied to the Sacramento, CA region futures. INTRODUCTION Background The Sacramento Model Testbed research program was established to apply

  10. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands. Utrok Atoll (2010-2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T. F.; Kehl, S. R.; Martinelli, R. E.; Hickman, R. E.; Hickman, D. P.; Tumey, S. J.; Brown, T. A.; Langston, R. G.; Tamblin, M. W.; Tibon, S.; Chee, L.; Aisek, Jr., A.; DeDrum, Z.; Mettao, M.; Henson, J.

    2014-12-15

    As a hard copy supplement to the Marshall Islands Program website (https://marshallislands.llnl.gov), this document provides an overview of the individual radiological surveillance monitoring program established in support of residents of Utr?k Atoll and nonresident citizens of the Utr?k Atoll population group, along with full disclosure of verified measurement data (2010-2012). The Utr?k Atoll Whole Body Counting Facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utr?k Atoll Local Government, serves as a national radiological facility open to the general public.

  11. Strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, K.R.; Halley, R.B.; Simmons, K.R.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1988-02-01

    /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios determined for samples from a 350 m core of Neogene lagoonal, shallow-water limestones from Enewetak Atoll display a remarkably informative trend. Like the recently published data for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) carbonates, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr at Enewetak increases monotonically but not smoothly from the early Miocene to the Pleistocene. The data show intervals of little or no change in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, punctuated by sharp transitions to lower values toward greater core depths. The sharp transitions correlate with observed solution disconformities caused by periods of subaerial erosion, whereas the intervals of little or no change in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr correspond to intervals of rapid accumulation of shallow-water carbonate sediments. When converted to numerical ages using the published DSDP 590B trend, the best-resolved time breaks are at 282 m (12.3 to 18.2 Ma missing) and 121.6 m (3.0 to 5.3 Ma missing) below the lagoon floor. At Enewetak, Sr isotopes offer a stratigraphic resolution for these shallow-marine Neogene carbonates comparable to that of nannofossil zonation in deep-sea carbonates (0.3-3 m.y.). In addition, the correlation of times of Sr-isotope breaks at Enewetak with times of rapid Sr-isotope change in the DSDP 590B samples confirms the importance of sea-level changes in the evolution of global-marine Sr isotopes and shows that the Sr-isotope response to sea-level falls is rapid.

  12. Radiologoical Conditions on Rongelap Atoll: Recommendations for Visiting and Food Gathering on the Norhtern Islands of Rongelap Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamliton, T F

    2003-02-01

    Rongelap Atoll experienced close-in or local fallout from the U.S. nuclear test program conducted in the northern Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. By all internationally agreed scientific criteria, Rongelap Island is considered safe for permanent resettlement. However, the amount of bomb-related radioactivity in soil and vegetation is, on average, about 5 times greater in the northern islands of the atoll because the centerline of the fallout pattern from the 1954 thermonuclear ''Bravo'' test extended over this part of the atoll. The most important radioactive element remaining on the atoll is radioactive cesium (cesium-137). Cesium-137 emits what is called a ''gamma ray'' that can penetrate the body and deliver both an external (outside the body) and internal (from inside the body) gamma dose to inhabitants of Rongelap Atoll. Cesium-137 is taken up from the soil into locally grown foodstuffs such as coconut, Pandanus and breadfruit. Significant quantities of cesium-137 may also be found in coconut crab. The internal dose delivered to people eating these products will be directly proportional to the concentration of cesium-137 in the food and the amount consumed. The external gamma dose will depend on the concentration of cesium-137 in the soil and the amount of time spent in the area. The highest concentration of cesium-137 in surface soils of the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll is about equivalent to that measured on Bikini Island. Under the radiation protection criteria adopted by the Republic of the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal, permanent resettlement of these islands would require intervention because of the higher radiation doses that could potentially be delivered to inhabitants living on a diet derived largely from local foods. A more realistic lifestyle scenario is that the resettled population on Rongelap Island will occasionally visit the northern part of the atoll for food gathering, fishing and other recreational activities. It is estimated that a person spending 8 hours (1 work day) in the interior of the Rongelap Atoll northern islands will receive a maximum additional external dose of around 0.1-0.2 mrem per day. Furthermore, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's environmental monitoring continues to show that the marine environment contains very low levels of bomb radioactivity. Similarly, the occasional consumption of terrestrial foods including coconut crab from the northern islands is not expected to add significantly to the radiological health risk of living on Rongelap Island. The average annual effective ingestion dose for Rongelap Island resettlement in 2002 is estimated to be around 1-2 mrem per year when imported foods are made available and proposed remediation efforts take effect. This estimate is about twice that of the Rongelap Island resettlement worker population using direct measurements from the whole body counting program. Resettlement workers presently living on the islands receive an average internal dose from cesium-137 of less than 1 mrem (0.01 mSv) per year. These workers are known to eat locally grown foods and coconut crabs collected from the northern islands. The highest individual dose observed was 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) per year. Under the guidelines adopted by the Republic of the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal, it is concluded that diving, fishing and visiting any northern island of Rongelap Atoll are safe activities for limited periods. Eating local fish and other marine life such as clams would also be considered safe. Consumption of plant foods from the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll depends on successful implementation of specific remediation measures to ensure dietary intakes of cesium-137 remain at or below levels considered safe. The whole body counting program should continue to monitor the actual internal levels of cesium-137 among people eating plants and coconut crabs gathered from the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll islands until such time that the Nuclear Claims Tribunal guidelines are met.

  13. Bikini Atoll ionizing radiation survey, May 1985-May 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shingleton, K.L.; Cate, J.L.; Trent, M.G.; Robison, W.L.

    1987-10-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 23 nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, which resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of a number of islands in the atoll and prevented the timely resettlement of the native population. Although the external dose rates from beta and gamma radiation have been previously determined by aerial survey and a variety of ground measurement techniques, technical constraints limited the assessment of external beta dose rates that result from the /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y contamination on the islands. Now, because of the recent development of very thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), the external beta dose rates can be measured. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers from Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean: Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bybell, L.M.; Poore, R.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Boring of the carbonate sequence at the northern end of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, was conducted in 1985, as part of the Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program. The overall goal of the program was to characterize physical effects of large-scale nuclear blasts, which were conducted in the early 1950's, on the sediments of the atoll. In the report the authors document the occurrences of stratigraphically diagnostic planktic microfossils in samples from Enewetak (generally referred to as core) and outline the rationale for incorporating all available diagnostic planktic assemblages into a composite sequence that was used to date the Enewetak benthic zonation.

  15. EA-1188: Chevron U.S.A., Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc. Midway Valley 3D Seismic Project, Kern County, California

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project. Chevron U.S.A., Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources are proposing to conduct seismic...

  16. Addressing the dilemma of development on a coral reef atoll: A case study of Agatti atoll, in the Lakshadweep archipelago of India. ? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajwade, Aparajita

    This dissertation was carried out with an aim of advancing the concept of establishing small, no take MPAs as a solution to sustainable reef use and conservation in the tropical atoll of Agatti, India. This was done by ...

  17. Thin porridges (atoles) prepared from maize and sorghum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vivas Rodriguez, Nancy Esther

    1985-01-01

    ) Lawrence . Johnson (Memb r) Ronald L. Richter (Member) , ~/j. /('glP 4 g ~ 7. wc ~ Mohamed M. orad ~ . C. A. R e (Member) (Head of epartment) MAY 19B5 ABSTRACT Thin Porridges (Atoles) Prepared From Maize and Sorghum (May 1985) Nancy Esther Yivas... the following equation: PSI= (k. )(wt. ) Total Recovery (g) where wt. represents the weight on each sieve [No. 25, 40, 60, 70, I 80, and pan (80 )] and k- the factors used (2. 5, 4. 0, 6. 0, 7. 0, 8. 0 and 10. 0) for each sieve, respectivelly...

  18. Sediment facies of Enewetak Atoll lagoon. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wardlaw, B.R.; Henry, T.W.; Martin, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two sets of benthic (bottom-surface) samples were taken from the lagoon on Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, during the PEACE Program (1984-1985). These samples were collected to (1) familiarize project geologists with the distribution of sediment types and facies within Enewetak lagoon, (2) increase understanding of the distribution of modern microfaunas in the lagoon, and (3) supplement studies of the sea-floor features both within and near OAK and KOA craters. The benthic sample studies aided both evaluation of the stratigraphic sequence penetrated during the Drilling Phase and interpretation of the litho- and biostratigraphic framework used in analysis of OAK and KOA.

  19. Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Inventories of /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of /sup 239 +240/Pu and lesser amounts of /sup 241/Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of /sup 239 +240/Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized /sup 239 +240/Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of /sup 239 +240/Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of /sup 241/Am to /sup 239 +240/Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of /sup 239 +240/Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables.

  20. Evaluation of the location and recency of faulting near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Angell, M.M.; Thomas, A.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Gibson, J.D.

    2002-01-17

    Evaluation of surface faulting that may pose a hazard to prospective surface facilities is an important element of the tectonic studies for the potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository in southwestern Nevada. For this purpose, a program of detailed geologic mapping and trenching was done to obtain surface and near-surface geologic data that are essential for determining the location and recency of faults at a prospective surface-facilities site located east of Exile Hill in Midway Valley, near the eastern base of Yucca Mountain. The dominant tectonic features in the Midway Valley area are the north- to northeast-trending, west-dipping normal faults that bound the Midway Valley structural block-the Bow Ridge fault on the west side of Exile Hill and the Paint-brush Canyon fault on the east side of the valley. Trenching of Quaternary sediments has exposed evidence of displacements, which demonstrate that these block-bounding faults repeatedly ruptured the surface during the middle to late Quaternary. Geologic mapping, subsurface borehole and geophysical data, and the results of trenching activities indicate the presence of north- to northeast-trending faults and northwest-trending faults in Tertiary volcanic rocks beneath alluvial and colluvial sediments near the prospective surface-facilities site. North to northeast-trending faults include the Exile Hill fault along the eastern base of Exile Hill and faults to the east beneath the surficial deposits of Midway Valley. These faults have no geomorphic expression, but two north- to northeast-trending zones of fractures exposed in excavated profiles of middle to late Pleistocene deposits at the prospective surface-facilities site appear to be associated with these faults. Northwest-trending faults include the West Portal and East Portal faults, but no disruption of Quaternary deposits by these faults is evident. The western zone of fractures is associated with the Exile Hill fault. The eastern zone of fractures is within Quaternary alluvial sediments, but no bedrock was encountered in trenches and soil pits in this part of the prospective surface facilities site; thus, the direct association of this zone with one or more bedrock faults is uncertain. No displacement of lithologic contacts and soil horizons could be detected in the fractured Quaternary deposits. The results of these investigations imply the absence of any appreciable late Quaternary faulting activity at the prospective surface-facilities site.

  1. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  2. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  3. The natural history of Enewetak Atoll: Volume 2, Biogeography and systematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaney, D.M.; Reese, E.S.; Burch, B.L.; Helfrich, P.

    1987-01-01

    The two volumes of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll summarize research done at the Mid-Pacific Research Laboratory from 1954 to 1984 under the auspices of the Department of Energy. Volume 2 of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll provides information on the taxonomy of animals and plants known to occur at Enewetak Atoll. The collections on which the checklists in each chapter are based are housed at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu and the US National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. In addition to the species checklists, each chapter in Volume 2 provides a succinct summary of the biota with respect to endemism, range extensions, and other features that set the Enewetak biota apart from those one might expect to find on equivalent Indo-Pacific islands. This compendium of taxonomic information for an atoll should prove of immense value to scientists interested in biogeography and evolutionary biology of island ecosystems for years to come. Individual chapters are processed separately for the data base.

  4. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). 3) The Project will annually produce 365,292 MWh?s of clean energy. 4) By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO{sub 2} equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 28.3 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  5. Radiological-dose assessments of atolls in the northern Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.

    1983-04-01

    The Marshall Islands in the Equatorial Pacific, specifically Enewetak and Bikini Atolls, were the site of US nuclear testing from 1946 through 1958. In 1978, the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey was conducted to evaluate the radiological conditions of two islands and ten atolls downwind of the proving grounds. The survey included aerial external gamma measurements and collection of soil, terrestrial, and marine samples for radionuclide analysis to determine the radiological dose from all exposure pathways. The methods and models used to estimate doses to a population in an environment where natural processes have acted on the source-term radionuclides for nearly 30 y, data bases developed for the models, and results of the radiological dose analyses are described.

  6. Reassessment of the potential radiological doses for residents resettling Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Phillips, W.A.; Mount, M.E.; Clegg, B.R.; Conrado, C.L.

    1980-10-30

    The purpose of this report is to refine the dose predictions, subsequent to the cleanup effort, for alternate living patterns proposed for resettlement of Enewetak Atoll. The most recent data developed from projects at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls for concentration and uptake of Cs, Sr, Pu, and Am were used in conjunction with recent dietary information and current dose models to predict annual dose rates and 30- and 50-y integral doses (dose commitments). The terrestrial food chain in the most significant exposure pathway - it contributes more than 50% of the total dose - and external gamma exposure is the second most significant pathway. Other pathways evaluated are the marine food chain, drinking water, and inhalation.

  7. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field.

  8. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

    2009-04-20

    The United States conducted 24 nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll with a total yield of 76.8 Megatons (MT). The Castle series produced about 60% of this total and included the Bravo test that was the primary source of contamination of Bikini Island and Rongelap and Utrok Atolls. One of three aerial drops missed the atoll and the second test of the Crossroads series, the Baker test, was an underwater detonation. Of the rest, 17 were on barges on water and 3 were on platforms on an island; they produced most of the contamination of islands at the atoll. There were 42 tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll with a total yield of 31.7 MT (Simon and Robison, 1997; UNSCEAR, 2000). Of these tests, 18 were on a barge over wateror reef, 7 were surface shots, 2 aerial drops, 2 under water detonations, and 13 tower shots on either land or reef. All produced some contamination of various atoll islands. Rongelap Atoll received radioactive fallout as a result of the Bravo test on March 1, 1954 that was part of the Castle series of tests. This deposition was the result of the Bravo test producing a yield of 15 MT, about a factor of three to four greater than the predicted yield that resulted in vaporization of more coral reef and island than expected and in the debris-cloud reaching a much higher altitude than anticipated. High-altitude winds were to the east at the time of detonation and carried the debris-cloud toward Rongelap Atoll. Utrok Atoll also received fallout from the Bravo test but at much lower air and ground-level concentrations than at Rongelap atoll. Other atolls received Bravo fallout at levels below that of Utrok [other common spellings of this island and atoll (Simon, et al., 2009)]. To avoid confusion in reading other literature, this atoll and island are spelled in a variety of ways (Utrik, Utirik, Uterik or Utrok). Dose assessments for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll (Robison et al., 1997), Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll (Robison et al., 1987), Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll (Robison et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1997), and Utrok Island at Utrok Atoll (Robison, et al., 1999) indicate that about 95-99% of the total estimated dose to people who may return to live at the atolls today (Utrok Island is populated) is the result of exposure to {sup 137}Cs. External gamma exposure from {sup 137}Cs in the soil accounts for about 10 to 15% of the total dose and {sup 137}Cs ingested during consumption of local food crops such as drinking coconut meat and fluid (Cocos nucifera L.), copra meat and milk, Pandanus fruit, and breadfruit accounts for about 85 to 90%. The other 1 to 2% of the estimated dose is from {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The {sup 90}Sr exposure is primarily through the food chain while the exposure to {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am is primarily via the inhalation pathway as a result of breathing re-suspended soil particles.

  9. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll: Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation, soil, animals, cistern water, and ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Stuart, M.L.

    1988-05-31

    This report is intended as a resource document for the eventual cleanup of Bikini Atoll and contains a summary of the data for the concentrations of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in vegetation through 1987 and in soil through 1985 for 14 islands at Bikini Atoll. The data for the main residence island, Bikini, and the most important island, Eneu, are extensive; these islands have been the subject of a continuing research and monitoring program since 1974. Data for radionuclide concentrations in ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, and pigs from Bikini and Eneu Islands are presented. Also included are general summaries of our resuspension and rainfall data from Bikini and Eneu Islands. The data for the other 12 islands are much more limited because samples were collected as part of a screening survey and the islands have not been part of a continuing research and monitoring program. Cesium-137 is the radionuclide that produces most of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake by terrestrial foods and secondly by direct external gamma exposure. Remedial measures for reducing the /sup 137/Cs uptake in vegetation are discussed. 40 refs., 32 figs., 131 tabs.

  10. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in lifestyle, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and estimating the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation protection monitoring program established for the Enewetak Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2002-2004). Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated web site is a provision where users are able calculate and track doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

  11. Rev. Brasil. Biol., 60(2): 291-298 ENTOMOLOGICAL FAUNA FROM ATOL DAS ROCAS, RN, BRAZIL 291

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Dale H.

    Rev. Brasil. Biol., 60(2): 291-298 ENTOMOLOGICAL FAUNA FROM ATOL DAS ROCAS, RN, BRAZIL 291. Carlos Chagas, 4o andar, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil, 4365, CEP 21045-900, Manguinhos, RJ, trophic niche. #12;Rev. Brasil. Biol., 60(2): 291-298 292 ALMEIDA, C. E. de et al. RESUMO Fauna

  12. The natural history of Enewetak Atoll: Volume 1, The ecosystem: Environments, biotas, and processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaney, D.M.; Reese, E.S.; Burch, B.L.; Helfrich, P.

    1987-01-01

    The two volumes of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll summarize research done at the Mid-Pacific Research Laboratory from 1954 to 1984 under the auspices of the Department of Energy. The history of the laboratory and the reasons for its support by the United States Department of Energy are described in Chapter 1 of Volume 1. Volume 1 provides a synthesis of the research carried out under the subject headings of the respective chapters. Certain of the chapters, e.g., those on geology, subtidal and intertidal environments and ecology, and those on reef processes and trophic relationships, summarize a great diversity of research carried out by many scientists for many years. In contrast, the chapters on meteorology and oceanography summarize research carried out under one integrated program involving fewer scientists working over a shorter period. Individual chapters are processed separately for the data base.

  13. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, /sup 137/Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. /sup 90/Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sup 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sup 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sup 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines.

  14. An updated dose assessment for a U.S. Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1975. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The corresponding 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.1 cSv, 13 cSv, and 15 cSv, respectively. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {plus_minus}35% of its expected value. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

  15. Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program, Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Part 4. Analysis of borehole gravity surveys and other geologic and bathymetric studies in vicinity of Oak and Koa craters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, T.W.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program was established to resolve a number of questions for the Department of Defense (DOD) about the geologic and material-properties parameters of two craters (KOA and OAK), formed by near-surface bursts of high-yield thermonuclear devices on the northern margin of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, in 1958. The multidisciplinary studies conducted by the USGS in collaboration with other organizations during 1984 through 1987 were part of a much larger research initiative by the DNA to better understand the dynamic properties of strategic-scale nuclear bursts and the relevance of the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) craters to issues of strategic basing and targeting of nuclear weapons. Major topics include: Borehole gravity; Palentologic evidence for mixing; Electron paramagnetic resonance studies; Bathymetric studies of OAK crater; Constraints on densification and piping for OAK; and Additional studies of geologic crater models.

  16. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  17. Radiation-induced risk of resettling Bikini atoll. Final report, November 7, 1981-May 28, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohn, H.I.; Dreyer, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has concluded that the Bikini atoll is unsafe for resettlement. In response to the Bikinians' request for an independent review, we have examined the following DOE findings: (a) radionuclide contamination of Eneu and Bikini Islands, (b) radiation dosage to those who might resettle the islands, and (c) risks to the health of such settlers. We are in practical agreement with the DOE estimates. Resettlement of either island in 1983 would lead to a range of annual or 30-year cumulative doses that exceed the Federal Radiation Council (FRC) guides for the general population, but not those for occupation exposure. By 2013 resettlement of Eneu probably would be permissible. The principal source of radiation dose is local food, especially coconut, owing to contamination of the soil by cesium-137. A precise estimate of dose is impossible. The availability of imported foods would lessen local food consumption, but not sufficiently to meet the FRC guides for the general population. The 30-year cumulative index dose is 61 (25-122) rem for Bikini, and about 8 (3-16) rem for Eneu.

  18. Dynamics of radionuclide exchange in the calcareous algae Halimeda at Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spies, R.B.; Marsh, K.V.; Kercher, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of /sup 239 +240/Pu in the detrital inclusions and in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions of Halimeda macrophysa showed a 10-fold higher concentration in the acid-insoluble coenocytic filaments than in the acid-soluble fraction. In a depuration experiment with Halimeda incrassata at Enewetak Atoll the loss rate of six radionuclides was measured. Data for /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 102//sup m/Rh were fit to loss curves by using one term for exponential loss; data for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am required two terms. For each radionuclide, compartment size and transfer functions were determined for the apropriate one- and two-compartment models. Of 26 possible two-compartment models, only seven gave solutions with our data. Nearly identical loss rates were obtained for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in the fast-exchanging compartments for all seven models. The uptake rates for these nuclides were also similar when uptake rates were normalized to local sediment concentrations. The fast-exchanging compartment probably corresponds to the mucilage surface layer of the coenocytic filaments. The identity of the slow-exchanging compartment is less certain but it may correspond to the skeletal surface.

  19. Dynamics of radionuclide exchange in the calcareous algae Halimeda at Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spies, R.B.; Marsh, K.V.; Kercher, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of /sup 239+240/Pu in the detrital inclusions and in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions of Halimeda macrophysa showed a 10-fold higher concentration in the acid-insoluble coenocytic filaments than in the acid-soluble fraction. In a depuration experiment with Halimeda incrassata at Enewetak Atoll the loss rate of six radionuclides was measured. Data for /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 102m/Rh were fit to loss curves by using one term for exponential loss; data for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239+240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am required two terms. For each radionuclide, compartment size and transfer functions were determined for the appropriate one- and two-compartment models. Of 26 possible two-compartment models, only seven gave solutions with our data. Nearly identical loss rates were obtained for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239+240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in the fast-exchanging compartments for all seven models. The uptake rates for these nuclides were also similar when uptake rates were normalized to local sediment concentrations. The fast-exchanging compartment probably corresponds to the mucilage surface layer of the coenocytic filaments. The identity of the slow-exchanging compartment is less certain but it may correspond to the skeletal surface.

  20. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 2. inventories of transuranium elements in surface sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-10-01

    This is the second of three reports on Bikini sediment studies, which discusses the concentrations and inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in sediments from the lagoon. Surface sediment samples were collected from 87 locations over the entire lagoon at Bikini Atoll during 1979. The collections were made to map the distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred in the composition of the sediment as a result of the testing program. Present inventories for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in the surface 2 cm of sediment are estimated to be 14 and 17 TBq, respectively. These values are estimated to represent only 14% of the total inventory in the sediment column. Sediment inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are changing only slowly with time through chemical- physical processes that continuously mobilize small amounts of the transuranics to the water column. The lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with deposits logoonward of the eastern reef.

  1. Midway-Moxee Rebuild and Midway-Grandview Upgrade Transmission...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About BPA Newsroom Integrated Fish & Wildlife Program Information for Contractors Environmental Services BPA Home Triangle Bullet Point EFW Home Triangle Bullet Point...

  2. ''A ground water resources study of a Pacific Ocean atoll - Tarawa, Gilbert Islands,'' by J. W. Lloyd, J. C. Miles, G. R. Chessmand, and S. F. Bugg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatcraft, S.W.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1981-10-01

    Several inherent problems in the methodology employed in the ground water resource study of Tarawa Atoll (Lloyd, et al., 1981) are described. Studies of Enewetak Atoll have provided data that require a significantly different conceptual model of the atoll hydrogeology system. Comparison of well, lagoon, and ocean tidal observations with a mathematical model that assumes horizontal tidal propagation indicates that the observed results are more consistent with a system that is controlled by vertical coupling between the unconsolidated surface aquifer and an underlying aquifer of more permeable limestone. This indicates that most fresh water recharged to the aquifer migrates downward and mixes with the sea water in a deeper aquifer providing easy exchange with the ocean. Lloyd, et al., do not take tidal mixing or vertical transport into account and it therefore seems likely that fresh water inventories are significantly overestimated. Failure to include these significant loss terms in the island water budget may also account for calculated heads above ground level. (JMT)

  3. Analysis of radiation exposure for personnel on the residence islands of Enewetak Atoll after Operation Greenhouse, 1951-1952. Technical report, 3 December 85-20 April 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.; Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.

    1987-04-20

    The radiological environments and reconstructed for the residence islands of Enewetak Atoll following the roll-up phase of Operation GREENHOUSE in May 1951. The residence islands received fallout during Operation GREEHOUSE (April/May 1951) as a result of Shots, DOG, EASY, and ITEM. From the reconstructed radiological environments and assumed personnel activity scenarios, equivalent personnel film badge doses are calculated, by month, from June 1951 to June 1952. For a individual assigned to Enewetak Atoll during this period, a mean dose of 1.5-2.0 rem would have been accrued, depending on the residence island to which he was assigned.

  4. Uncertainty analysis for an updated dose assessment for a US nuclear test site: Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.; Robison, W.L.

    1995-11-01

    A detailed analysis of uncertainty and interindividual variability in estimated doses was conducted for a rehabilitation scenario for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, in which the top 40 cm of soil would be removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer, prior to an assumed resettlement date of 1999. Predicted doses were considered for the following fallout-related exposure pathways: ingested Cesium-137 and Strontium-90, external gamma exposure, and inhalation and ingestion of Americium-241 + Plutonium-239+240. Two dietary scenarios were considered: (1) imported foods are available (IA), and (2) imported foods are unavailable (only local foods are consumed) (IUA). Corresponding calculations of uncertainty in estimated population-average dose showed that after {approximately}5 y of residence on Bikini, the upper and lower 95% confidence limits with respect to uncertainty in this dose are estimated to be approximately 2-fold higher and lower than its population-average value, respectively (under both IA and IUA assumptions). Corresponding calculations of interindividual variability in the expected value of dose with respect to uncertainty showed that after {approximately}5 y of residence on Bikini, the upper and lower 95% confidence limits with respect to interindividual variability in this dose are estimated to be approximately 2-fold higher and lower than its expected value, respectively (under both IA and IUA assumptions). For reference, the expected values of population-average dose at age 70 were estimated to be 1.6 and 5.2 cSv under the IA and IUA dietary assumptions, respectively. Assuming that 200 Bikini resettlers would be exposed to local foods (under both IA and IUA assumptions), the maximum 1-y dose received by any Bikini resident is most likely to be approximately 2 and 8 mSv under the IA and IUA assumptions, respectively.

  5. A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1993-07-01

    On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. Here the authors provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 and strontium-90 to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The estimated maximum annual effective dose is 4.4 mSv y{sup {minus}1} when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 10 cSv, 14 cSv, and 16 cSv, respectively. An analysis of interindividual variability in 0- to 30-y expected integral dose indicates that 95% of Bikini residents would have expected doses within a factor of 3.4 above and 4.8 below the population-average value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {+-}35% of its expected value. The authors have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to less than 10% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

  6. Ecosystem dynamics at a productivity gradient: A study of the lower trophic dynamics around the northern atolls in the Hawaiian Archipelago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiu, Peng

    of the endangered Hawaiian Monk Seals at the north- ern atolls appears to be linked to the winter position of the TZCF (Baker et al., 2007). When the TZCF is shifted south monk seal pup survival 1­2 years later is increased and when it is shifted fur- ther north monk seal pup survival 1­2 years later declines (Baker et

  7. Geologic reconnaissance of natural fore-reef slope and a large submarine rockfall exposure, Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halley, R.B.; Slater, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    In 1958 a submarine rockfall exposed a cross section through the reef and fore-reef deposits along the northwestern margin of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Removal of more than 10/sup 8/ MT of rock left a cirque-shaped submarine scarp 220 m high, extending back 190 m into the modern reef, and 1000 m along the reef trend. The scarp exposed older, steeply dipping beds below 220 m along which the rockfall detached. They sampled this exposure and the natural fore-reef slope surrounding it in 1984 and 1985 using a manned submersible. The natural slope in this area is characterized by three zone: (1) the reef plate, crest, and near fore reef that extends from sea level to -16 m, with a slope of less than 10/sup 0/, (2) the bypass slope that extends from -16 to -275 m, with slopes of 55/sup 0/ decreasing to 35/sup 0/ near the base, and (3) a debris slope of less than 35/sup 0/ below -275 m. Vertical walls, grooves, and chutes, common on other fore-reef slopes, are sparse on the northwestern slope of Enewetak. The scarp exposes three stratigraphic units that are differentiated by surficial appearance: (1) a near-vertical wall from the reef crest to 76 m that appears rubbly, has occasional debris-covered ledges, and is composed mainly of coral; (2) a vertical to overhanging wall from -76 m to -220 m that is massive and fractured, and has smooth, blocky surfaces; and (3) inclined bedding below -220 m along which the slump block has fractured, exposing a dip slope of hard, dense, white limestone and dolomite that extends below -400 m. Caves occur in all three units. Open cement-lined fractures and voids layered with cements are most common in the middle unit, which now lies within the thermocline. Along the sides of the scarp are exposed fore-reef boulder beds dipping at 30/sup 0/ toward the open sea; the steeper (55/sup 0/) dipping natural surface truncates these beds, which gives evidence of the erosional nature of the bypass slope.

  8. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.; Forster, C.; Jenkins, C.; Schamel, S.; Sprinkel, D.; and Swain, R.

    1999-02-01

    This project reactivates ARCO's idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming was used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project completed in December 1996. During the demonstration phase begun in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery is testing the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having simular producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially t o other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  9. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Schamel

    1997-07-29

    This project reactivates ARCO?s idle Pru Fee property in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming was used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase begun in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery was initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and the recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  10. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Resrvoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creties Jenkins; Doug Sprinkel; Milind Deo; Ray Wydrinski; Robert Swain

    1997-10-21

    This project reactivates ARCO?s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  11. In situ determination of /sup 241/Am on Enewetak Atoll. Date of survey: July 1977-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tipton, W.J.; Fritzsche, A.E.; Jaffe, R.J.; Villaire, A.E.

    1981-11-01

    An in situ gamma ray spectrometer system was operated at Enewetak Atoll from July 1977 to December 1979 in support of the Enewetak Cleanup Project. The system employed a high purity germanium planar detector suspended at a height of 7.4 m above ground. Conversion factors were established to relate measured photopeak count rate data to source concentration in the soil. Data obtained for /sup 241/Am, together with plutonium-to-americium ratios obtained from soil sample analyses, were used to establish area-averaged surface (0 to 3 cm) transuranic concentration values. In areas which exceeded cleanup criteria, measurements were made in an iterative fashion to guide soil removal until levels were reduced below the cleanup criteria. Final measurements made after soil removal had been completed were used to document remaining surface transuranic concentration values and to establish external exposure rate levels due to /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co.

  12. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-05-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from <1 to 8 {micro}Bq per day and are well below action levels established under the latest Department regulation 10 CFR 835 in the United States for in vitro bioassay monitoring of {sup 239}Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of {sup 239}Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both.

  13. Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) program, Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Part 1. Drilling operations and descriptions of boreholes in vicinity of KOA and OAK craters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, T.W.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Skipp, B.; Major, R.P.; Tracey, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    From mid-1984 through mid-1985, the United States Geological Survey engaged in an investigation of two craters formed from high-yield, near-surface nuclear bursts at Enewatak Atoll. The craters studied, KOA and OAK, resulted from 1.4- and 8.9-megaton, near-surface bursts detonated near the northern perimeter of the Enewetak lagoon on May 12 and June 28, 1958, respectively. At that time, Enewetak was a part of the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG). OAK and KOA are among the only high-yield nuclear explosion craters available for studies of cratering processes and crater-related effects. The objects of this program were: (1) to identify major crater dimensions, morphology, and structures; (2) to provide a data base for material-properties, shock-metamorphic, and other types of related studies; and (3) to gain a better understanding of both the process that formed the excavational crater and that altered that initial feature to its present form. These data from the Enewetak craters are needed for verification of cratering prediction models (code validation), which is important to the analysis of survivability of various strategic defense systems.

  14. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W; Stone, E; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C

    2005-04-08

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 1970 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4 % of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  15. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W L; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L

    2004-04-14

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  16. Grid Architecture William E. Johnston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Management Accounting Data Management: replication and metadata Encapsulation as Web Services Encapsulation Services Specialized Portal Access (high performance displays, PDAs, etc.) . . . Services Building Blocks Monitoring Events Workflow Management Programming Services Experiment Management Instrument& Sensor

  17. CotancheSt. Johnston St.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, K.

    .H.SmithRd. S BRODY BUILDING Dickinson Ave. Dickinson Ave. 134 S Laupus Library LectureHalls Nursing Allied Health Main Clinic AlliedHealth Outpatient Parking Pediatric Parking M Clinic Parking M MoyeBlvd. S S S S M

  18. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, S.

    1996-11-01

    This project reactivates ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway- Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program. One of the main objectives of Budget Period I was to return the Pru Fee property to economic production and establish a baseline productivity with cyclic steaming. By the end of the second quarter 1996, all Pru producers except well 101 had been cyclic steamed two times. Each steam cycle was around 10,000 barrels of steam (BS) per well. No mechanical problems were found in the existing old wellbores. Conclusion is after several years of being shut-in, the existing producers on the Pru lease are in reasonable mechanical condition, and can therefore be utilized as viable producers in whatever development plan we determine is optimum. Production response to cyclic steam is very encouraging in the new producer, however productivity in the old producers appears to be limited in comparison.

  19. Midway, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickeyWestNewOhio:Midstate Electric

  20. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1997-12-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected during 1979 from 87 locations in the lagoon at Bikini Atoll. The collections were made to better define the concentrations and distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred to the composition of the surface sediment from the nuclear testing program conducted by the United States at the Atoll between 1946 and 1958. This is the last of three reports on Bikini sediment studies. In this report, we discuss the concentrations and inventories of the residual long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in sediments from the lagoon. The gamma-emitting radionuclides detected most frequently in sediments collected in 1979, in addition to Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) (discussed in the second report of this series), included Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Bismuth-207 ({sup 207}Bi), Europium-155 ({sup 155}Eu), and Cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co). Other man-made, gamma-emitting radionuclides such as Europium-152,154 ({sup 152,154}Eu), Antimony-125 ({sup 125}Sb), and Rhodium-101,102m ({sup 101,102m}Rh) were occasionally measured above detection limits in sediments near test site locations. The mean inventories for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 207}Ei, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 60}Co in the surface 4 cm of the lagoon sediment to be 1.7, 0.56, 7.76, and 0.74 TBq, respectively. By June 1997, radioactive decay would reduce these values to 1.1, 0.38, 0.62, and 0.07 TBq, respectively. Some additional loss results from a combination of different processes that continuously mobilize and return some amount of the radionuclides to the water column. The water and dissolved constituents are removed from the lagoon through channels and exchange with the surface waters of the north equatorial Pacific Ocean. Highest levels of these radionuclides are found in surface deposits lagoonward of the Bravo Crater. Lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with sediment lagoonward of the eastern reef. The quantities in the 0-4 cm surface layer are estimated to be less than 35% of the total inventory to depth in the sediment column.

  1. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Robison, W. L.

    1998-09-01

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the United States as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 Mt (Mt TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for 10's of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently about 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is dominated by the natural radionuclides, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb. Man-made radionuclides presently contribute less than 0.3% of the dose from these natural radionuclides in the marine food chain.

  2. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Jaoquin Basin, California. Annual report, June 13, 1995--June 13, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.; Jenkins, C.; Sprinkel, D.; Swain, R.; Wydrinski, R.; Schamel, S.

    1998-09-01

    This project reactivates ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  3. EA-1951: Midway-Moxee Rebuild and Midway-Grandview Upgrade Transmission

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of Energy 8: DOEFindingDraft4: FindingLine; Benton and

  4. Midway-Moxee Rebuild and Midway-Grandview Upgrade Transmission Line Project: Draft Environmental Assessment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy6-09.doc Microsoft WordBlends Mid-LevelDomesticB O N N

  5. Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Ellis, Scott; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Bharadwaj, Nitin

    2014-05-16

    To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected four months of observations from three radars, the S-band Polarization Radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band Zenith Radar (KAZR) on Addu Atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. This study compares the measurements from the S-Pol and SMART-R to those from the more sensitive KAZR in order to characterize the hydrometeor detection capabilities of the two scanning precipitation radars. Frequency comparisons for precipitating convective clouds and non-precipitating high clouds agree much better than non-precipitating low clouds for both scanning radars due to issues in ground clutter. On average, SMART-R underestimates convective and high cloud tops by 0.3 to 1.1 km, while S-Pol underestimates cloud tops by less than 0.4 km for these cloud types. S-Pol shows excellent dynamic range in detecting various types of clouds and therefore its data are well suited for characterizing the evolution of the 3D cloud structures, complementing the profiling KAZR measurements. For detecting non-precipitating low clouds and thin cirrus clouds, KAZR remains the most reliable instrument. However, KAZR is attenuated in heavy precipitation and underestimates cloud top height due to rainfall attenuation 4.3% of the time during DYNAMO/AMIE. An empirical method to correct the KAZR cloud top heights is described, and a merged radar dataset is produced to provide improved cloud boundary estimates, microphysics and radiative heating retrievals.

  6. Cliff T. Johnston Professor of Soil Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott A.

    in Academic, Professional and Scholarly Societies American Chemical Society Clay Minerals Society Awarded a Fulbright Senior Specialist Grant ­ Brazil. Publications - Journal Articles and Invited Reviews developments in soil science research, L.L. Boersma (ed.), Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. Publications, Madison, WI

  7. Roy L. Johnston School of Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinke, Dietmar

    of Functional Materials ­ Catalyst Design · Catalytic converters · Fuel cells ­ Structure-Disciplinary Optimization and Data Mining", University of Birmingham ­ 6 June 2008 #12;Synopsis · Introduction: Optimisation

  8. Jill Clough-Johnston | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA Public CommentInverted Attic9: What(CSC) |JeffJennifer

  9. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin basin, California. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, S.

    1996-06-28

    This project will reactivate ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conduct a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program. The producibility problems initially thought to be responsible for the low recovery in the Pru Fee property are: (a) the shallow dip of the bedding; (b) complex reservoir structure, (c) thinning pay zone; and (d) the presence of bottom water. The project is using tight integration of reservoir characterization and simulation modeling to evaluate the magnitude of and alternative solutions to these problems. Two main activities were brought to completion during the first quarter of 1996: (1) lithologic and petrophysical description of the core taken form the new well Pru 101 near the center of the demonstration site and (2) development of a stratigraphic model for the Pru Fee project area. In addition, the first phase of baseline cyclic steaming of the Pru Fee demonstration site was continued with production tests and formation temperature monitoring.

  10. United States nuclear tests, July 1945 through September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air.

  11. Microsoft Word - Midway-Benton_MAP_Final.docx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    during various phases of the Proposed Action. BPA and its contractors would remove old wood-pole structures and replace them with new wood-pole structures and associated hardware...

  12. CPW Midway 2012 6.270 Autonomous Robot Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brian C.

    148 Women's Rugby Club 147 Women's Ultimate 145 Women's Volleyball 146 Women's Water Polo Performance Schedule 1:02 PM Constructs Dance Crew 1:09 PM Chamak 1:16 PM Concert Choir 1:23 PM Falun Dafa 1:30 PM Dancetroupe 1:37 PM Syncopasian 1:44 PM Sport TaeKwonDo 1:51 PM Tech Squares 1:58 PM Ridonkulous 2:05 PM Cross

  13. Microsoft Word - xx xx 13 Midway pole replacement news release...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hansen, 503-230-4328 or 503-230-5131 BPA to hold public meeting on proposed rebuild of aging transmission line near Yakima, Wash. Portland, Ore. - The Bonneville Power...

  14. Rigby Midway School Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-bRenewable Energy| OpenNew York: EnergyIII

  15. Optical links for cryogenic focal plane array Alan R. Johnston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossum, Eric R.

    that is immune to electro-magnetic interference (EMI) and can lower the heat load on the dewar. Our approach for heat to enter the cryogenic system. Reduction in cable channel count can also lead to an increase, there is a trade-off made for less dynamic range but higher data rate. In a typical scientific system

  16. Microsoft Word - Johnston.IOS.Network Communication as a Service...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system communication be based on a service-oriented capability. Keywords. Energy Sciences Network (ESnet), networks for large-scale science, network planning, networks...

  17. Combating Diarrhoea in Children Nina Jenkins-Johnston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    for sustaining, operating and managing their water and sanitation facilities. Rural communities are thus successfully as a framework for WAWI. 1. Inform rural communities about the difference between "community sanitation and poor hygiene. Populations in rural areas tend to be more severely deprived of adequate water

  18. MATCHKiosk: A Multimodal Interactive City Guide Michael Johnston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stations, directions and maps in car rental offices, interactive tourist and vis- itor guides in tourist collection in an AT&T facility in Wash- ington, D.C. where it provides visitors with infor- mation about

  19. Johnston LFG (MA RPS Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:onItron (California) JumpJeffersonJessi3bl'sDeControlsLFG (MA

  20. Pacific Enewetak Atoll cratering exploration completion report. [PEACE Program - Pacific-Enewetak Atoll Cratering Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The primary objectives of this seaborne drilling operation were to obtain sufficient quantities of continuous, high quality carbonate core/samples, an integrated suite of geophysical logs, and other sub-sea floor data from within and adjacent to the KOA and OAK craters. This information is vital to refinement of previous interpretation and model studies detailing the dynamics of crater formation and to confirm residual postshot changes of the underlying formations. Specifically, the information obtained will provide an accurate understanding of the original dimensions of the transient craters and through precise analysis of material property samples will lead to an understanding of the response behavior of the lagoon sediments beneath the craters. All program objectives were accomplished. A total of 32 precisely positioned exploratory holes were completed in KOA and OAK craters from a drill ship in water depths of 30 to 200 ft. (Reference Appendix I for summary drilling curves of each borehole.)

  1. Siphonophores of the Pacific with a Review of the World Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarino, Angeles

    1971-01-01

    Atoll (inside lagoon), Eniwetok Atoll (outside lagoon),and outside lagoon in Eniwetok Atoll) Great Barrier ReefRongerik Atoll, inside lagoon Eniwetok Atoll Rees and White,

  2. O P I N I O N Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: a `midway' strategy for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    in the 1970s, generated by the oil crisis, led Brazil to start a program to substitute ethanol for gasoline the `blending wall', which limited th

  3. Microsoft Word - xx xx 13 Midway pole replacement news release final 2 12 13.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetection ofOctober10 Years2,2004 North5, 19992,B.4 1333

  4. EA-1912: Midway-Benton No. 1 Rebuild Project, near town of Desert Aire,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of Energy 8: DOEFinding of NoDraft EnvironmentalBenton

  5. Post-accident inhalation exposure and experience with plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, J

    1998-06-01

    This paper addresses the issue of inhalation exposure immediately afterward and for a long time following a nuclear accident. For the cases where either a nuclear weapon burns or explodes prior to nuclear fission, or at locations close to a nuclear reactor accident containing fission products, a major concern is the inhalation of aerosolized plutonium (Pu) particles producing alpha-radiation. We have conducted field studies of Pu- contaminated real and simulated accident sites at Bikini, Johnston Atoll, Tonopah (Nevada), Palomares (Spain), Chernobyl, and Maralinga (Australia).

  6. Springtime Aerosol Observations at Dongsha Atoll,Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    , and Peng Xian-Lynch · Advanced Light Source program, including Kevin Perry #12;Background · Role? · The (Multi-Partner) Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7 SEAS) Mission: A Program to Study Pollution the transport of smoke and pollution from Indochina to Taiwan, led by National Central Univ of Taiwan ­ Dongsha

  7. ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dearborn, Don

    successful public outreach event and want to recognize Lee Ann Choy and Jon Ordenstein of Pacific Rim4410040 NOAA NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center NOAA NOS NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve USFWS Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council

  8. Manhattan Project: Operation Crossroads, Bikini Atoll, July 1946

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy ofArticle)SciTechNorris Bradbury,Cubes of uraniumY-12 Plant,

  9. Examining Montessori Middle School through a Self- Determination Theory Lens : : A Mixed Methods Study of the Lived Experiences of Adolescents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casquejo Johnston, Luz

    2013-01-01

    in Educational Leadership by Luz Casquejo Johnston CommitteeHuie Hofstetter Copyright Luz Casquejo Johnston, 2013 AllPAGE The Dissertation of Luz Casquejo Johnston is approved,

  10. Design of a Deep Space Network Scheduling Application Bradley J. Clement and Mark D. Johnston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaffer, Steven

    for generating schedules are currently only specified in hours/week per antenna. DSN schedulers need more manual and collaborative effort to generate schedules and resolve conflicts has spurred an effort-month schedule. Schedules are currently manually generated a year into the future with allocations

  11. Experimental demonstration of a magnetic bipolar junction transistor E. Johnston-Halperin*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    , University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242; c Center for Spintronics and Quantum Computation, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA ABSTRACT The field of semiconductor spintronics has pursued a critical step in the development of an active spin functional device architecture. Keywords: spintronics

  12. A spatial property of the retino-cortical mapping ALAN JOHNSTON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Alan

    a process of unconscious inference to provide our perception of a three-dimensional world. Though knowledge or physiological model of how this might be achieved. Stevens (1981) has analysed the computational difficulties-trivial. Particular problems arise when we consider this approach as a model for human vision, since in man stimuli

  13. High throughput lessons from the LHC experience.Johnston.TNC2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    signal transport, layer 2 transport, data transport (TCP is still the norm), operating system evolution, data movement and management techniques and software, and increasing...

  14. Laura Johnston, M.D. Stephany Rodriguez, R.N., N.P.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, James

    incidence? Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) Alemtuzumab Total lymphoid irradiation and ATG #12;TLI/ATG and CGVHD Extensive Skin Ds Prognostic Factors #12;Stewart, B. L. et al. Blood 2004;104:3501-3506 STEROID DOSE

  15. G. Wu, K.L. More, C.M. Johnston, and P. Zelenay, "High-Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eres, J.Y. Howe, L. Zhang, X. Li, and Z. Pan, "Aligned Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composites Produced by Chemical Vapor Infiltration," Carbon 497 (2011). Z. Jiao...

  16. A review of "Revelation Restored: The Apocalypse in Later Seventeenth-Century England" by Warren Johnston 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    approach the derivation of meaning from older paintings. As Price himself states, ?this piece of Dutch history still lives and is still capable of giving pleasure, though we can never be sure that what we see and experience now is either what the artist... by ?? ??? ???????, ???? ????? ? ??? ? ?? ? ??. Radical religion and attendant hopes for the apocalypse in the years preceding and even more so during the British and Irish Civil Wars and Revolution of the mid-seventeenth century have been long examined and explored by a range of authors and through...

  17. Essential Role in Modern Science William E. Johnston, ESnet Adviser and Senior Scientist

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES October 27th,EnvironmentalEqual EmploymentEvolution of Research

  18. SBOT NEW YORK BROOKHAVEN LAB POC Jill Clough-Johnston Telephone

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 -Rob Roberts About Us RobCALIFORNIA LAWRENCEIOWAMEXICO

  19. High throughput lessons from the LHC experience.Johnston.TNC2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D. Title: Professor -|High energy neutronhigh

  20. Microsoft Word - Johnston.IOS.Network Communication as a Service-Oriented Capability.5.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 Assessment of the Performance of32933 SECTIONMatter

  1. Microsoft Word - Motivation, Design, Deployment and Evolution of OSCARS - Johnston.v1.4.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 Assessment of theUMBRELLAProject Proposal Form4

  2. Long-term record of nss-sulfate and nitrate in aerosols on Midway Island, 19812000: Evidence of increased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    from Asia, especially from regions undergoing rapid industrial development, have raised interest role in climate by scattering and absorbing both solar and terres- trial radiation and by modifying the distribution of clouds and their radiative properties. The recent assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel

  3. Scenography for Stephen Sondheim and John Weidman's ASSASSINS: Carnival of Presidential Carnage: What If We Never Left the Midway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Phillip John

    2012-08-31

    elements as I go. I know that once I get the space as it will be, I can then use these modeled pieces to generate working drawings and elevations. I can also generate my lighting storyboards through the use of the powerful and accurate light rendering en... by the Broadway version. It feels rawer to me. A bit more dangerous. I also had the music score and lyrics. I began searching for the libretto to go along with it. I searched libraries, the KU library copy had gone missing, the copy in the script library within...

  4. Foraminiferal and lithologic characteristics through the zone of the Midway-Wilcox contact in Bastrop, Williamson, and Milam counties, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David Irving

    1962-01-01

    which were later desigaated eLigaitice ead "llidway". Safford (1056, p. 160) gave the first feraal aeae to be4s of Paleoceae-Lower Eoseae age whee he referre4 to thea as the "ligaite Oroap". Rilgard (1060, p. 100) dsfiaed "gorthera Ligaitic" fer sedi... of the Wilcox, stated that Crider ead Johasca iatea4e4 that the Wilcox be nane4 fran Wilcox, klabna& snd not Wilcox Coeaty, Lichens. Eowe farther state4 that he had aot boca able to fied s tewa called Wilcox ca the Alabaas state nsp. Wibsarth (1%38, p. 8333...

  5. Bibliographia Nudibranchia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Gary R

    2006-01-01

    some opisthobranchiate mollusks from Eniwetok Atoll, westerneuthyneuran Gastropoda from Eniwetok Atoll, western Pacific.

  6. Bibliographia Nudibranchia, second edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Gary R

    2009-01-01

    some opisthobranchiate mollusks from Eniwetok Atoll, westerneuthyneuran Gastropoda from Eniwetok Atoll, western Pacific.

  7. A KEPLERIAN-LIKE DISK AROUND THE FORMING O-TYPE STAR AFGL 4176 Katharine G. Johnston1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beuther, Henrik

    Heidelberg, Germany 3 Ural Federal University, Astronomical Observatory, 51 pr. Lenina, Ekaterinburg, Russia

  8. INTEGRATED VOC VAPOR SENSING ON FBAR-CMOS ARRAY Matthew L. Johnston, Hassan Edrees, Ioannis Kymissis, and Kenneth L. Shepard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Kenneth

    polymer layers as gas absorbers for individual FBAR functionalization, and frequency shifts are measured performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, techniques that are sensitive and precise but cannot sensitivity constant, is the resonator surface area, and is the density. There is a clear incentive

  9. Biological computation of image motion from flows over boundaries A. Johnston a,*, P.W. McOwan b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McOwan, Peter

    ], the motion energy strategy [2] and the spatio-temporal gradient strategy [3­5]. The first two are essentially, UK b Department of Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, UK c Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 8 Woodlands Road, Bristol, UK Abstract A theory

  10. The Prairie Naturalist 43(1/2):3844; June 2011 Corresponding author email address: carol.johnston@sdstate.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; Phragmites in unglaciated western South Dakota usually occurred on creeks and stock dams, stock dam, Prairie Coteau, Black Hills Common reed, Phragmites australis [(Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (syn Dakota to list the non-native P. australis haplotype M as a noxious weed (South Dakota Rules §12

  11. US-LARP Progress on LHC IR Upgrades Tanaji Sen, John Johnstone, Nikolai Mokhov, FNAL, Batavia, IL 60510

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tanaji

    of a long-range interaction on the beams. IR DESIGNS Design and construction of next generation IR magnets in determining these parameters. The required field quality is another key input to the magnet designers. An IR to higher luminosity. In the designs to be presented here, we consider the inner triplet magnets

  12. Tru-ly Clean - What Does It Mean?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, A.

    2008-07-01

    The evolution and genesis of the definition of transuranic waste (known as TRU) and its application to the cleanup criteria applied to soils contaminated with transuranics, specifically plutonium, has been a matter of discussion at contaminated sites in the United States and elsewhere. Cleanup decisions and the processes that led up to those decisions have varied at several plutonium contaminated sites within the United States and without the pacific region. The sites with radionuclide soil action levels include Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands; Johnston Atoll, Hawaii; the Hanford Site in Washington State; the Nevada Test Site; the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Colorado; the Chariot Site in north Alaska; and the Maralinga Site in Australia. The soil-action level developed for Rocky Flats by the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment for plutonium is one of the higher soil-action levels approved by regulatory agencies that is considered protective for future use of land at a cleanup site. The Republic of the Marshall Islands has adopted a relatively conservative cleanup standard to accommodate the subsistence lifestyle of the islanders, while the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has been transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior to be used as a fish and wildlife refuge, a land use that resulted in a less conservative plutonium soil cleanup level. (authors)

  13. An Archaeological Survey for Cross Bayou Exploration's Midway 3-D Seismic Survey in the Kisatchie National Forest in Webster Parish, Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William; Baxter, Edward

    2015-07-30

    A Phase I cultural resources survey of a 0.59 square mile area (375 acres) within the Caney Ranger District of the Kisatchie National Forest in central Webster Parish, Louisiana was conducted by Dixie Environmental Services Co., LP (DESCO) under...

  14. Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1981-02-18

    Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

  15. NEW HEIGHTS A Handbook for Developing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christiansen Richard Elliot Julia Gardner Annie-France Gravel Robert Hélie Kirk Johnstone Gary Kofinas Dennis

  16. An Experimental Study of Natural Convection Heat Loss from a Solar Concentrator Cavity Receiver at Varying Orientation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a cavity receiver lined with reactor tubes for ammonia dissociation for energy storage (Johnston et al

  17. Driven response of time delay coupled limit cycle oscillators Ramana Reddy V. Dodla 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodla, Ramana

    *, George L. Johnston 2 Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India Abstract We

  18. STATE OF CALIFORNIA THE RESOURCES AGENCY ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER, Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Connie Bruins, Compliance Project Manager SUBJECT: Midway Sunset Cogeneration Project (85-AFC-3C) Staff a petition from the Midway Sunset Cogeneration Company (MSCC) to amend the Energy Commission Decision for the Midway Sunset Cogeneration Project. The Midway Sunset Cogeneration Project is a 225 MW cogeneration power

  19. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heavy | Louisiana Month | North | Kern | Midway- | Louisiana | Light | Slope | River | Sunset | Sweet | Sweet |||||...

  20. Brad Johnston, Sean O'Connell, Robert Firth, Carletria Wheeler, Brian Bell The Title: A Community Marketplace for Louisiana Non-profits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Sukhamay

    of various poverty stricken communities as well as the non­ profit organizations that serve them. The site and their work to help the poverty stricken people pick up the pieces and succeed. We believe it is our duty

  1. A. SEN, C.F.F. KARNEY, G.L. JOHNSTON, A. BERS Plasma Fusion Center alid Research Laboratory of Electronics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karney, Charles

    of the important problems in the lower hybrid heating scheme for tokamak plasmas is the transport of r.f. energy

  2. Schottky-quantum dot photovoltaics for efficient infrared power conversion Keith W. Johnston, Andras G. Pattantyus-Abraham, Jason P. Clifford, Stefan H. Myrskog,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    in multijunction photovoltaic device configurations. © 2008 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10 underutilized in large- area, low-cost photovoltaics. Solution-processed multijunc- tion solar cells offer the possibility of capturing each spectral band with maximal efficiency.1 For a double junction cell, which can

  3. Catalog of the Benthic Invertebrate Collections of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. I - Decapod Crustacea and Stomatopoda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luke, Spencer R

    1977-01-01

    ANS-Philadelphia RSN61 Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Is. ,1972 1430 hrs. R. Nolan RSN67 Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Is. ,Cactus and La Crosse, Eniwetok Atoll, ca. 11°30'N 162°10'~

  4. Community Structure, Ciculation and Seawater pH in a Coral Reef Ecosystem (Moorea, French Polynesia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frei, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    a windward coral reef on Eniwetok Atoll. Ecol Monogr 25:291-on windward reef flat of Eniwetok-Atoll. Limnology andacross the reef flat on Eniwetok Atoll even though live

  5. Assessment of the advantages and feasibility of a nuclear rocket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of rebuilding and testing a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) for the Mars mission has been investigated. Calculations indicate that an NTR would substantially reduce the earth-orbit assembled mass compared to LOX/LH/sub 2/ systems. The mass savings were 36% and 65% for the cases of total aerobraking and of total propulsive braking respectively. Consequently, the cost savings for a single mission of using an NTR, if aerobraking is feasible, are probably insufficient to warrant the NTR development. If multiple missions are planned or if propulsive braking is desired at Mars and/or at Earth, then the savings of about $7B will easily pay for the NTR development. Estimates of the cost of rebuilding a NTR were based on the previous NERVA program's budget plus additional costs to develop a flight ready engine. The total cost to build the engine would be between $4 to 5B. The concept of developing a full-power test stand at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific appears very feasible. The added expense of building facilities on the island should be less than $1.4B.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Designed Artificial Reefs as Ecosystem Service Providers: Building Social-Ecological Resilience on Atoll Islands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schut, Kaj T.

    Coral reef ecosystems are under increasing threat from climatic and anthropogenic pressures. Research has revealed that approximately twenty per cent of the world’s coral reefs have already been degraded and it has been ...

  7. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Contributions Index Vols. 1-39, 1938-1969

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1970-01-01

    Anomalous sediment ~epositionon the flank of Eniwetokdeposition on the flank of Eniwetok Atoll. Hutton, Williamrefraction studies of Eniwetok Atoll •. • Seismic-refraction

  8. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF WASTE TRANS -PORT IN SELECTED ROCKS: 1977 ANNUAL REPORT OF LBL CONTRACT NO. 45901AK. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program-Collection and Generation of Transport Data.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    in the ground­ waters at Eniwetok Atoll (IAEA-SM- 199/33),soil samples from Eniwetok. Atoll and equilibrated them

  9. Marine Geophysics: A Navy Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shor, Elizabeth N; Ebrahimi, Carolyn L

    1987-01-01

    refraction studies of Eniwetok Atoll, U.S. Geol. Surv. Profrefraction studies of Eniwetok Atoll, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof

  10. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, S.

    2001-01-09

    The objective of this project is not just to produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  11. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike; Olsen, Keven

    2000-04-20

    During the initial phase of the project a multifaceted feasibility study was carried out to examine whether the pilot project could be justified technically and economically at this site. This study included: (1) Recompletion of 9 shut-in wells and drilling of a additional producer and a new temperature observation well. A core was taken from the reservoir interval in the new producer, Pru-101. The wells were produced by conventional cyclic steaming over a period of 15 months to establish a production baseline for the site, (2) Characterization of the stratigraphy and petrophysical properties of the Monarch Sand reservoir using existing well logs and analyses on samples in the core taken from Pru-101. The resulting data were used to develop a geostatistical model of the reservoir at the Pru Fee property and a specific reservoir simulator for the pilot test site on the property, and (3) Use of the reservoir simulator to test various steamflood and cyclic steaming production options leading to design of a production strategy for the pilot steamflood based on a four pattern, 9-spot array covering 8 ac near the center of the 40 ac Pru Fee property. The array chosen required drilling additional producers and injectors to supplement the existing wells recompleted in the initial phase of the project.

  12. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  13. Executive Summary HEALTH OF THE FRASER RIVER AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM Acknowledgements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -France Gravel, Andrew Green, Kirk Johnstone, Kay Kim, Jean MacRae, Eric McGreer, Dan Millar, Mike Nassichuk, Bev, Kirk Johnstone, it would not have been completed amidst other high-priority concerns. Kirk not only

  14. CX-003574: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    North Carolina-County-JohnstonCX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1Date: 08/26/2010Location(s): Johnston County, North CarolinaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  15. 3D Simulations of Thermonuclear Supernovae From Very Massive Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    3D Simulations of Thermonuclear Supernovae From Very Massive Stars Ke-Jung (Ken) Chen Johnston #12;3D Simulations of Thermonuclear Supernovae From Very Massive Stars Ke-Jung (Ken) Chen Johnston

  16. Veterinary Diagnostic Services Histopathology Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maizels, Rick

    for research grant applications. Please contact us: Pamela Johnston BVM&S, PhD, PGCHE, FHEA, MRCVS, Academic

  17. Genetic interactions between a phospholipase A2 and the Rim101 pathway components in S. cerevisiae reveal a role for this pathway in response to changes in membrane composition and shape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattiazzi, M.; Jambhekar, A.; Kaferle, P.; DeRisi, J. L.; Križaj, I.; Petrovi?, U.

    2010-01-01

    HA-tagged BY4742 using the lithium acetate method (Geitz andtransformation with lithium acetate. In: Johnston JR (ed)

  18. THREE-DIMENSIONAL EFFECTS IN THE NONLINEAR PROPAGATION OF LOWER HYBRID WAVES*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karney, Charles

    , G. L. Johnston and A. Bers Plasma Research Report PRR 77/16 June 1977 Submitted t o Nuclear Fusion

  19. EA-1742: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rhode Island LFG Genco LLC, Combined Cycle Electricity Generation Plant Fueled By Landfill Gas Johnston, Rhode Island

  20. Thursday 10 October 2013 MEETING OF THE PARLIAMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    ).......................................................................................23588 Alison Johnstone (Lothian) (Green]. The Minister for Energy, Enterprise and Tourism (Fergus Ewing)........................................................................................23601 Patrick Harvie (Glasgow) (Green) ..................................................

  1. More Than Just a Job

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jane Johnston came to Argonne National Laboratory for a job funded through the Recovery Act, and found supportive colleagues.

  2. Spatio-temporal variability in suspended particulate matter concentration and the role of aggregation on size distribution in a coral reef lagoon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    characteristics. For example, on Eniwetok Atoll, Johannes (1967) observed a marked increase in the concentration

  3. Bureau Home > Australia > Queensland > Rainfall & River Conditions > River Brochures > FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    ) · Flood Risk · Previous Flooding · Flood Forecasting · Local Information · Johnstone ALERT System · Flood · Other Links Flood Risk The North and South Johnstone Rivers rise in the tablelands of the north tropical FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the JOHNSTONE RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system operated

  4. STATE OF CALIFORNIA THE RESOURCES AGENCY GRAY DAVIS, Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cogeneration Company ) MIDWAY SUNSET COGENERATION ) ORDER APPROVING a Petition PROJECT ) to Increase Ammonia Slip ) The Midway Sunset Cogeneration Company (MSCC), the owner/operator of the Midway Sunset Cogeneration Project, has requested to modify the facility by increasing the amount of unreacted ammonia

  5. Source of the tsunami associated with the Kalapana (Hawaii) earthquake of November 1975

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.C.

    1980-12-01

    The travel times of the tsunami generated on 29 November 1975 off the Kau-Puna coast of Hawaii to the tide gages at Hilo, Kahului, Honolulu, and Nawiliwili have been calculated from the arrival times indicated on the tide-gage records, applying gage-time corrections, assuming that the tsunami was generated at the time of the earthquake it accompanied. Travel times have also been calculated similarly to other places on the coast of Hawaii where arrival times of the tsunami were reported, and to Johnston Atoll. Inverse tsunami refraction diagrams have been constructed by graphical means for the path of the tsunami between the vicinity of its source and the places of known arrival times. The isochrones of the refraction diagrams corresponding to the respective calculated travel times for the tsunami front have been used to define the boundary of the area of upward sea-floor displacement from which the tsunami propagated. This area is about 15 or 20 miles long (parallel to the southeast coast of Hawaii) and on the order of 14 or 15 miles wide, considerably smaller than the area earlier considered the tsunami source. Coastal subsidence measured soon after the earthquake indicates that the area of initial upward displacement was separated from the coast by a narrow belt of downward displacement. Comparisons between the crest arrival times and the travel times indicated by the inverse refraction diagrams indicate a lag of about four minutes between the time of the earthquake and the accomplishment of the maximum upward displacement. Accuracies of estimation are insufficient to determine whether the maximum upward displacement occurred within the area of initial displacement or seaward of it within a distance of about 15 miles. Displacement resulting from a mega-landslide cannot be distinguished from strictly tectonic displacement by the comparison of arrival times and travel times. 14 references, 19 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Constructing a Merged CloudPrecipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of observations from three radars--the S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile, and radiative heating rate retrievals. With this dataset the full spectrum of tropical convective clouds during, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. Corresponding author address: Dr. Zhe Feng, Pacific

  8. Heterogeneity and Depositional Variability of Reef Sand Aprons: Integrated Field and Modeling of the Dynamics of Holocene Aranuka Atoll, Republic of Kiribati, Equatorial Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wasserman, Hannah

    2013-08-31

    Depositional facies represent the net product of a complex set of processes that impact sediment supply and transport through geomorphic systems. Although the general facies motifs of many isolated platforms throughout the ...

  9. Bomb-test 90Sr in Pacific and Indian Ocean surface water as recorded by banded corals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toggweiler, JR; Trumbore, S

    1985-01-01

    from the U.S. tests at Eniwetok and Bikini atolls duringby U.S. nuclear tests at Eniwetok and Bikini atolls in theU.S. nuclear detonations at Eniwetok and Bikini were small,

  10. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM COMMEMORATING THE 25th ANNIVERSARY OF ELEMENTS 99 AND 100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    from the Mi ke Devi ceo Eniwetok Atoll. Engebi Is 1and, Fig.read: Radiochemical'data on recent Eniwetok test indicatesthe Island of Elugelab in the Eniwetok Atoll. You would be

  11. Friday, February 16, 2001 [Note to the publisher: The footnote is currently at the end of the article; it should appear as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    that was present at the `Mike shot' at Eniwetok atoll. Mel spent some time with Alvarez at Livermore (California

  12. Does Collective Identity Matter? : African-American Conventional and Unconventional Political Participation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robnett, Belinda

    2007-01-01

    Johnston editors. Social Movements and Culture. University67. Self, Identity, and Social Movements. Sheldon Stryker,1973. Social Conflict and Social Movements. Prentice-Hall.

  13. A Numerical Evaluation Of Electromagnetic Methods In Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration - Reply Authors L. Pellerin and J. M. Johnston Published Journal Geophysics, 1997 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Citation L....

  14. Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Renewable Energy Programs Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Scott Johnston U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Brian Kinlan NCCOS-CMA-Biogeography Branch National Oceanographic...

  15. Exam 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Charlotte M

    2013-10-03

    113 Zeigler, Rachel. T. 125. Hollar, Matthew. W. 107 Zhou, Mingyi. W. 113. Hyman, Shane. V. 107 Barnett, Katie. Q. 113. Johnston, George. O. 119 Cook, Shelby.

  16. Exam 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Charlotte M

    2013-09-11

    107 Zeigler, Rachel. W. 101. Hollar, Matthew. O. 113 Zhou, Mingyi. S. 113. Hyman, Shane. P. 119 Barnett, Katie. T. 113. Johnston, George. O. 207 Cook, Shelby.

  17. Through Native Lenses: American Indian Vernacular Photographies and Performances of Memories, 1890-1940

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathman, Nicole Dawn

    2013-01-01

    to the award- winning documentary film “Picturing a People,illustrated in the documentary film about George JohnstonPerforming Memories - The Documentary Film To the left of

  18. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Fact Sheet, 2014 The Gas Technology Institute, in collaboration with Cannon Boiler Works, Integrated CHP Systems Corp., Capstone Turbine Corporation, Johnston Boiler...

  19. CENTER HALL RESPONSIBILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    PAVILION JOHNSTON GILLETT LATHROP SOUTH HALL LAWS CONLEY AVE PARKING GARAGE UNIVERSITY AVE PARKING GARAGE QUARRY CENTER HEARNES MULTIPURPOSE BUILDING LOCUST STREET BUILDING REYNOLDS ALUMNI CENTER LEWIS DALTON

  20. Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girguis, Peter R.

    and decoupling from sulfate reductionemi_2825 1..15 Scott D. Wankel,1,2 Melissa M. Adams,1 David T. Johnston,2

  1. THE COMBUSTION OF SOLVENT REPINED COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2011-01-01

    1. SRC properties, Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. (1976)coal for the SRC was a mixture of Kentucky 9 and 11. The properties

  2. EA-1188: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chevron U.S.A., Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc. Midway Valley 3D Seismic Project, Kern County, California

  3. EA-1188: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chevron U.S.A., Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc. Midway Valley 3D Seismic Project, Kern County, California

  4. CX-008779: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    9: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008779: Categorical Exclusion Determination Curecanti-Poncha-Canon City West-Midway 230-Kilovolt Transmission Line Road Maintenance...

  5. Hidden Economies in Public Spaces: A Study of Fruit Vendors in Los Angeles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosales, Rocio

    2012-01-01

    papaya, cucumber, coconut, mango, and lime. Vendorscantaloupes, honeydew melons, coconuts, and papayas. Theabout the softness of his coconut. She was mid-way through a

  6. K-7109Agnew Hall M-2204Air Conditioning Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K-7109Agnew Hall M-2204Air Conditioning Plant M-833Ambler Johnston Hall - East Wing M-832Ambler is an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution. K-7109 Agnew Hall 460 West Campus Dr M-2204 Air Conditioning Plant 344 Stanger St M-833 Ambler Johnston Hall - East Wing 700 Washington St SW M-832 Ambler

  7. HISTIDINE MUTANTS REQUIRING ADENINE: SELECTION OF MUTANTS WITH REDUCED hisG EXPRESSION IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, John R.

    IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM H. MARK JOHNSTON AND JOHN R. ROTH Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake). For abbreviations, see Figure 1. Genetics 92: 1-15 May. 1979. #12;H. M. JOHNSTON A N D J. R. ROTH A Histidine Operon Bratton-Marshall Com- pound), Phosphoribosylformimino-PRAIC;BBMIII, Phosphoribulosylfomimino-PRAIC; [ 1

  8. Exhuming Norwegian ultrahigh-pressure rocks: Overprinting extensional structures and the role

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    of the Nordfjord-Sogn Detachment Zone Scott M. Johnston,1,2 Bradley R. Hacker,1 and Torgeir B. Andersen3 Received 2 exhumation. Citation: Johnston, S. M., B. R. Hacker, and T. B. Andersen (2007), Exhuming Norwegian ultrahigh-scale extension [e.g., Walsh and Hacker, 2004], other models argue that relatively strong UHP terranes are exhumed

  9. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. 2005. 123 Management of Ponderosa Pine Nutrition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Through Fertilization 1 Mariann T. Garrison-Johnston2 , Terry M. Shaw2 , Peter G. Mika2 and Leonard R to the establishment of a region-wide Seedling Establishment study (Moore and Mika 1997, Garrison and others 1@uidaho.edu, ljohnson@uidaho.edu) #12;Management of ponderosa pine nutrition--Garrison-Johnston, Shaw, Mika and Johnson

  10. Dose assessment, radioecology, and community interaction at former nuclear test sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.

    1994-11-01

    The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. A total of 66 nuclear devices were tested--23 at Bikini Atoll (total yield of 77 megatons) and 43 at Enewetak Atoll (total yield of 33 megatons). This resulted in contamination of many of the islands at each atoll. The BRAVO test (yield 15 megatons) on March 1, 1954 contaminated several atolls to the east of Bikini Atoll some of which were inhabited. The author has conducted an experimental, monitoring, and dose assessment program at atolls in the northern Marshall Islands for the past 20 years. The goals have been to: (1) determine the radiological conditions at the atolls; (2) provide dose assessments for resettlement options and alternate living patterns; (3) develop and evaluate remedial measures to reduce the dose to people reinhabiting the atolls; and (4) discuss the results with each of the communities and the Republic of the Marshall Islands government officials to help them understand the data as a basis for resettlement decisions. The remaining radionuclides at the atolls that contribute any significant dose are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am.

  11. Award Recipient National Institute of Standards and Technology U.S. Department of Commerce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and projects future needs one, two, and three years out. A refined model is used for workforce planning as part of the strategic planning process and links to financial planning for current and future periods. The approach throughout the company as part of MidwayUSA's mission statement. #12;The MidwayUSA strategic planning process

  12. Interpretation of 35 Hz QPO in the Atoll Source 4U 1702-42 as a Low Branch of the Keplerian Oscillations Under the Influence of the Coriolis Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Osherovich; Lev Titarchuk

    1999-07-26

    The recent model of quasi-periodic oscillations in neutron star binaries (Osherovich and Titarchuk 1999, Titarchuk and Osherovich 1999) has suggested the existence of two branches of QPOs due to the influence of Coriolis force on the linear Keplerian oscillator: one branch with frequencies from 400 to 1200 Hz and another branch with frequencies an order of magnitude lower. The frequencies of the high branch nu_h hold a hybrid frequency relation with the Keplerian frequency nu_K: nu_h^2=nu_K^2+ [Omega/pi]^2, where Omega is the rotational frequency of the star's magnetosphere. The frequency of the low branch is nu_L=(Omega/pi)(nu_K/nu_h) sin(delta), where delta is a small angle between vector Omega and the vector normal to the plane of Keplerian oscillations. The observations of the source 4U 1702-42 (Markwardt et al 1999) have shown that the centroid of the 35 Hz QPO tracks the frequency of the kilohertz oscillations. We interpret the 35 Hz oscillations as nu_L and find delta=3.9^o +/- 0.2^o. Our results make 4U 1702-42 the second source (after Sco X-1) for which the theoretically derived lower branch is identified (within our model) and delta is calculated. The inferred angle delta stays approximately the same over the significant range of nu_K (650 - 900 Hz), as expected from the model. Based on our model we present a classification of QPO frequencies in the source 4U 1702-42 observed above and below nu_L.

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory ATOMIC PHOTOGRAPHY ATOMIC PHOTOGRAPHY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nevada Test Site, southeastern Nevada. Below, observers witness Operation Greenhouse, Eniwetok Atoll, spring 1951. Greenhouse was a series of four tests. 17 Proof of principle for...

  14. Transit-Based Smart Parking in the U.S.: Behavioral Analysis of San Francisco Bay Area Field Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodier, Caroline J.; Shaheen, Susan

    2006-01-01

    and A. Johnston. Real Time Parking Management dor TransitSmirti 13. Willson, R. Parking Pricing Without Tears: TripP. H. L. Bovy. A Dynamic Parking Reservation System for City

  15. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999, Can. J. For. Res. ,soils, Int. J. Wildland Fire, in press. Boby, L. A. , E. A.F. Johnstone (2010), Quantifying fire severity, carbon, and

  16. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    reduction of iron in soda-lime-silicate glasses by reactionand solubility [13]. In soda-lime silicate glass, Johnston0.4 and 0.8 µm for soda-lime silicate. Rapp [9] con?rmed

  17. A Numerical Evaluation Of Electromagnetic Methods In Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    clay cap. Authors L. Pellerin, J. M. Johnston and G. W. Hohmann Published Journal Geophysics, 1996 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Citation L....

  18. Interannual variability of surface energy exchange depends on stand age in a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Heping; Randerson, James T

    2008-01-01

    stand age on the boreal forest energy balance, Agric. For.RANDERSON: BOREAL FOREST FIRE AND ENERGY EXCHANGE Johnstone,AND RANDERSON: BOREAL FOREST FIRE AND ENERGY EXCHANGE uous

  19. Anniversary Concert Attendee List 156 people have booked for this event as at 3 July 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    Karel Tripp (2007) and Miss Heather Johnston W Dr James Westbrook (2009) and Mr Adam Paice Mr Philip) and Mr Andrew Cox (2009) Dr Madeleine Devey (1970) and Mr Michael Farbrother (1976) Professor Stephen

  20. In dieser Reihe sind bisher erschienen: Bericht 93.2 (Januar 1993)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansson, Christian

    -itg.lbl.gov/~johnston Figure 1 Where we are now. 1 1 #12;tenyearretrospective.ieee2col.fm- 5/28/98 - 2© IEEE 7th IEEE Symposium

  1. Recent progress in neutrino factory and muon collider research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Colin ; Johnson, Rolland P. ; Johnstone, Carol ; Jungmann, Klaus ; Kahn, Stephen A. ; Kaplan Daniel M. ; Keil, Eberhard K. ; Kim, Eun-San ; Kim, Kwang-Je ; King, Bruce J. ; Kirk,...

  2. NEW LARGEST KNOWN FACTOR OF FERMAT NUMBERS JOHN B. COSGRAVE AND YVES GALLOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Wood, Mike Curtis, Chad Davis, Daval Davis, Mike Dawson, John De- Cuir, S'ebastien Desnault, Olivier Dodinval Hanson, Bill Hodgeman, Chris Jeppesen, Jo Yeong Uk, Paul Jobling, Craig Johnston, Rick Jones, Henk-Jan de

  3. Theory of star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Christopher F.; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2007-01-01

    D. , Di Francesco, J. , & Kirk, H. 2004, ApJL, 611, L45J. M. 2003, ApJ, 599, 1157 Kirk, H. , Johnstone, D. , &J. 2006, ApJ, 646, 1009 Kirk, J. M. , Ward-Thompson, D. , &

  4. Ecological Applications, 15(4), 2005, pp. 11781190 2005 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Johnston 1991, Mitsch and Gosselink 1993). Located at the confluence of transport pathways for reactive constituents from both terrestrial and aquatic systems, wetland ecosystems can serve as bio- geochemical

  5. CX-006860: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Johnston Avenue Solar ProjectCX(s) Applied: A9Date: 09/20/2011Location(s): Hamilton Township, Mercer County, New JerseyOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  6. Table 2. Ten Largest Plants by Generation Capacity, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    II","Natural gas","Ocean State Power II",218.6 6,"Pawtucket Power Associates","Natural gas","Pawtucket Power Associates LP",60 7,"Johnston LFG Turbine Plant","Other...

  7. Submitted on February 9, 2007. Accepted on August 16, 2007. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, IB, Depto. de Zoologia. Ilha do Fundo, 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. E-mail:pcpaiva@biologia.ufrj.br.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

    Janeiro, CCS, IB, Depto. de Zoologia. Ilha do Fundão, 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. E: Rocas Atoll. Crustacea. Polychaeta. Oceanic Islands. Brazil. RESUMO: O Atol das Rocas, Brasil: análise. Brasil. INTRODUCTION Oceanic islands are remarkable environments owing to their high diversification

  8. Submitted on February 16, 2007. Accepted on May 8, 2007. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, IB, Departamento de Zoologia. Ilha do Fundo, 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

    , CCS, IB, Departamento de Zoologia. Ilha do Fundão, 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. 3 Research: Polychaeta) do Atol das Rocas, nordeste do Brasil. Três espécies de anfinomídeos do Atol das Rocas, nordeste do Brasil foram identificados. São apresentadas redescrições das espécies: Eurythoe complanata

  9. Enewetak fact book (a resume of pre-cleanup information)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliss, W.

    1982-09-01

    The book contains a group of short treatises on the precleanup condition of the islands in Enewetak Atoll. Their purpose was to provide brief guidance to the radiological history and radiological condition of the islands for use in cleanup of the atoll. (ACR)

  10. Minnesota's Computer Industry: History, Legacies, Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobelman, Gerald E.

    : payroll, taxes, suburban development History | Legacies | Traces #12;Control Data at Minnesota state fair | Legacies | Traces A. Univac West 7th (1956) 2750 Shepard Road, Saint Paul B. ERA plant #1 (1946) Midway

  11. Application of Fast Marching Method in Shale Gas Reservoir Model Calibration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Changdong

    2013-07-26

    and reservoir heterogeneity but also is time consuming. In this thesis, we propose and apply an efficient technique, fast marching method (FMM), to analyze the shale gas reservoirs. Our proposed approach stands midway between analytic techniques and numerical...

  12. Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Gas Turbine Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Steam Turbine CogenEastridge Sunrise Ii Combined Cycle Expansion Midway-Sunset0.33-0.39 a CHP/cogen/ Combined cycle O.4 b c 0.58-0.84 d

  13. MENTORING PAIRINGS (plus others with mentors in common)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, J. Peter

    -mails, and mentors. (All e-mails are @midway.uchicago.edu.) Philip Ascher pa7 Fowler, Scheels, and Iyer Emil Bojanov and Patel Emily Witt emily1 Amin and Patel #12;MENTORING PAIRINGS 3 SESAME Graduate students and e

  14. Re-urbanizing Ismailia : by implementing an urban infill housing strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel Azim, Mariam Raafat

    2014-01-01

    Ismailia is a modem Egyptian city located midway along the Suez Canal, the renowned waterway linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. The city was developed in 1983 following a French archetype, in collaboration with ...

  15. The accretion process in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Dacheng

    2009-01-01

    There had been long-standing fundamental problems in the spectral studies of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binaries involving the X-ray spectral decomposition, the relations between subtypes (mainly atoll ...

  16. Genetic Pore Types and Their Relationship to Reservoir Quality: Canyon Formation (Pennsylvanian), Diamond M Field, Scurry County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barry, Travis

    2012-02-14

    flow characteristics. This thesis provides an integrated petrographic, stratigraphic, and petrophysical study of the 'Canyon Reef' reservoir, a Pennsylvanian phylloid algal mound complex in the Horseshoe atoll. Core descriptions on three full...

  17. Compliance Order issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    July 12,2007 CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED Dr. Michael T. Anastasio Laboratory Director Los Alamos National Laboratory MS-A1 00 SM-30, Bikini Atoll Road Los Alamos, NM...

  18. Technical papers presented at a DOE meeting on criteria for cleanup of transuranium elements in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    Transuranium element soil contamination cleanup experience gained from nuclear weapons accidents and cleanup at Eniwetok Atoll was reviewed. Presentations have been individually abstracted for inclusion in the data base. (ACR)

  19. Shipboard Report, Capricorn Expedition 26 September 1952 – 21 February 1953

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    1953-01-01

    PARTY SD (San Diego); E (Eniwetok); K (Kwajalein) Gustaf1952 and went directly to Eniwetok in the Marshall Islands,that found at Bikini and Eniwetok atolls. During the night

  20. Castle series, 1954. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, E.J.; Rowland, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    CASTLE was an atmospheric nuclear weapons test series held in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak and Bikini atolls in 1954. This is a report of DOD peronnel in CASTLE with an emphasis on operations and radiological safety.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in South-Central Oklahoma due to Projected Precipitation Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborne, Cesalea

    2014-11-19

    through NASA CAN NNX10AU65A The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer spans five counties in south-central Oklahoma: Carter, Coal, Johnston, Murray, and Pontotoc Base Data • Aquifer study area, roads, rural/non-rural communities, state/county boundaries Methodology... through NASA CAN NNX10AU65A The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer spans five counties in south-central Oklahoma: Carter, Coal, Johnston, Murray, and Pontotoc Base Data • Aquifer study area, roads, rural/non-rural communities, state/county boundaries Methodology...

  2. Inheritance of resistance to southern stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f.s. meridionalis) in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngeleka, Kadima

    1990-01-01

    Committee: Dr. Olin D. Smith. Soybean 'Crockett', 'Dowling', and 'Tracy-M', resistant to stem canker (Diaporrhe phaseoloram f. s. rnerirlionalis), were crossed with two susceptible soybean cultivars, Coker 338 and Johnston, in order to study... of Fz population of the cross Dowling x Johnston to 3:1 ratio 25 Table 8. Reaction of Dowling, Coker 338, and their progenies to stem canker 27 Table 9. Chi-square test for homogeneity of Fz population of the cross Dowling x Coker 338 to 3:1 ratio...

  3. Transport and equilibrium in molecular plasmas: the sulfur lamp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Foundation, STW, as project ETN.3892 CIP-DATA LIBRARY TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT EINDHOVEN Johnston, Colin 2.2 Origin and operational trends in the spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2.1 Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2.3 Spectral trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3 State

  4. The Centre for Power Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Vibration Control for Rotorcraft Helicopters and other rotorcraft are subject to large vibrations, caused by the periodic variation of the airflow over the rotor blades and transmitted through the rotor hub pressure. (Dr D N Johnston). #12;6. Hybrid Testing of Multibody Systems Hybrid testing, also called model

  5. MINIMAL AND MAXIMAL OPERATOR SPACES AND OPERATOR SYSTEMS IN ENTANGLEMENT THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulsen, Vern

    MINIMAL AND MAXIMAL OPERATOR SPACES AND OPERATOR SYSTEMS IN ENTANGLEMENT THEORY NATHANIEL JOHNSTON-maximal operator spaces and operator systems, and investigate their relationships with the basic separability operator systems that were recently introduced and show that their cones of positive elements are exactly

  6. Faculty of Information University of Toronto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Traas, and Tracy Zahradnik o 6 renewals: Melissa Bell, Benjamin Carter, Malissa Farnham, Robb Gilbert Battiston, David Fernández, Monica Finlay, Jessica Gallinger, Brian Griffin, Ryan Johnston, Caitlin Marshall ($1,500) o Florence Partridge Scholarship (20): Brooke Gardhouse, Caitlin Marshall, Ryan Tegenfeldt

  7. 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. A Model of Problem Solving: Its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. A Model of Problem Solving: Its Operation, Validity, and Usefulness: The Johnstone­El-Banna model of problem solving is based on working- memory theory as well as on Pascual. INTRODUCTION Problem solving is a process by which the learner discovers a combination of previously learned

  8. Cell, Vol. 29, 551-559, June 1982, Copyright 0 1982 by MIT Directed Transposon Tn5 Mutagenesis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ausubel, Frederick M.

    by the isolation of nodulation-defective (Nod-) and nitrogen-fixation-defective (Fix-) mutants (Buchanan-Wollaston et al., 1980; Meade et al., 1982; Scott et al., 1982). We define the Nod- phenotype as failure (nod genes) are located on plasmids (Johnston et al., 1978; Zurkowski and Lorkiewicz, 1979; Beynon et

  9. Several recent studies suggest that transcriptional rewiring similar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hespos, Susan J.

    . cerevisiae prefers to ferment (even in the presence of oxygen), an adaptation linked to the whole. Mortimer, R.K., Romano, P., Suzzi, G., and Polsinelli, M. (1994). Genome renewal: a new phenomenon revealed.S., Wilson, R.K., and Johnston, M. (2006). After the duplication: gene loss and adaptation in Saccharomyces

  10. Nominal Presentation of Cubical Sets Models of Type Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitts, Andrew M.

    2015-06-16

    , 1997. 10 M. Hofmann and T. Streicher. Lifting Grothendieck universes. Unpublished note, 1999. A. M. Pitts 19 11 P T. Johnstone. Topos Theory. Number 10 in LMS Mathematical Monographs. Academic Press, London, 1977. 12 C. Kapulkin, P. L. Lumsdaine, and V...

  11. Simultaneous SHG of orthogonally polarized fundamentals in single QPM crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simultaneous SHG of orthogonally polarized fundamentals in single QPM crystals Benjamin F. Johnston - electric field poling assisted by laser micro-machined topographical electrodes. To date, single period harmonic generation of 1064nm laser light with 1st order type-I and 7th order type-0 QPM simultaneously

  12. Dispatch R427 Time perception: Brain time or event time?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Alan

    Dispatch R427 Time perception: Brain time or event time? Alan Johnston* and Shin'ya Nishida Recent experiments show that synchronous events can appear to an observer to occur at different times. Neural processing time delays are offered as an explanation of these temporal illusions, but equating perceived time

  13. Anniversary Film Screening Attendee List 151 people have booked for this event as at 3 July 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    Andrew Cox (2009) Dr Madeleine Devey (1970) and Mr Michael Farbrother (1976) Professor Stephen Dodds Gray (1998), Mr James Leaton Gray, Mr Conrad Leaton Gray, Mr Angus Leaton Gray and Master Felix Leaton (2007) and Miss Heather Johnston Professor Witold Tulasiewicz (1983) and Mrs Lore Tulasiewicz W Mr

  14. arXiv:1108.0930v1[astro-ph.CO]3Aug2011 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 000000 (0000) Printed 5 August 2011 (MN LATEX style file v2.2) Cosmological Measurements with Forthcoming Radio Continuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, Ray

    continuum surveys: the wide surveys with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), Australian Square Kilometre Array Frequency ARray (LOFAR, R¨ottgering 2003), the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP, Johnston et al. 2008) and APERTIF, the new Phased Array Feed e-mail: alvise.raccanelli@port.ac.uk (AR

  15. arXiv:0810.5187v1[astro-ph]29Oct2008 Experimental Astronomy manuscript No.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, Ray

    by the editor) SCIENCE WITH ASKAP The Australian Square-Kilometre-Array Pathfinder S. Johnston · R. Taylor · M Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries. The SKA will be 50, Manly, NSW 2095, Australia #12;iii Abstract The future of cm and m-wave astronomy lies with the Square

  16. (Agricultural Need for Sustainable Willow Effluent Recycling)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the use of SRC willow for bioremediation. Alistair McCracken & Chris Johnston AFBI Environment!!! The challenges ! Energy Policy & The Environment Sustainable Water Mgmt Affordability (Fuel poverty SRC willow, for the management of waste water effluents. · To establish FIVE effluent recycling

  17. Office of Postdoctoral Affairs (OPA) Weekly Digest January 5, 2015 Listing of All Events (more info on each event found below)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindler, Christian

    President, Research & Development at Lumiode, Inc. Jennifer Johnston, DPhil Senior Scientist at Merck Robert for those on or soon to be on the job market. A traditional research seminar ­ A 20-30 minute standard research seminar presentation. Set up the context of your research and then show us your experimental

  18. Bimodal sensory discrimination is finer than dual single modality discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Alan

    Bimodal sensory discrimination is finer than dual single modality discrimination Department of Psychology and Complex, University College London, London, U.KAlan Johnston Here we show that discriminating the first or second samples. We propose that the bimodal signal discrimination advantage arises from

  19. Polydimethylsiloxane based microfluidic diode This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Polydimethylsiloxane based microfluidic diode This article has been downloaded from IOPscience­1521 doi:10.1088/0960-1317/15/8/020 Polydimethylsiloxane based microfluidic diode M L Adams1, M L Johnston2/1517 Abstract In this paper, we present a novel elastomer-based microfluidic device for rectifying flow

  20. The Law of Hazardous Waste: CERCLA, RCRA, & Common Law Claims

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Law 273.4 The Law of Hazardous Waste: CERCLA, RCRA, & Common Law Claims (Fall 2006) Units: 3 CCN (2 of Hazardous Waste Disposal and Remediation (2d ed. 2005) Syllabus Class 1 ­ August 22 Claims Based on Common: 1. Miller & Johnston The Law of Hazardous Waste Disposal and Remediation 2. Ch. III, Intro to RCRA

  1. The Law of Hazardous Waste: CERCLA, RCRA, & Common Law Claims

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Law 273.4 The Law of Hazardous Waste: CERCLA, RCRA, & Common Law Claims (Fall 2008) Units: 3 CCN (2, The Law of Hazardous Waste Disposal and Remediation (2d ed. 2005) Syllabus Class 1 ­ August 19 Claims on Federal Law: 1. Miller & Johnston The Law of Hazardous Waste Disposal and Remediation 2. Ch. III, Intro

  2. The radiated fields of the fundamental mode of photonic crystal fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Technology, Tehran, 14115-337, Iran 2MIC ­ Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 818­823 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-818. 5. T. F. Johnston, "M2 concept characterizes beam quality," Laser Focus World 26, 173 (1990). 6. N

  3. High Altitude Unmanned Air System for Atmospheric Science Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    High Altitude Unmanned Air System for Atmospheric Science Missions A. S´obester , S. J. Johnston and processing atmospheric observations across a range of altitudes. We consider the aeronautical a specified block of airspace. I. The Need for Wide Altitude Range Atmospheric Observations The ability

  4. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY COURT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neri, Peter

    P Beaumont, Councillor P Johnston, Mr J Leiper, Mr M Lockhead, Ms C Macaslan, Mr D Marr, Councillor Marr, General Council Assessor on Court, had resigned from Court due to increasing pressures on his time from other commitments. The Court recorded its thanks and appreciation for Dr Marr's service

  5. This paper is adapted from a chapter in: L. Grandinetti (ed.), "Grid Computing and New Frontiers of High Performance Processing." Elsevier, 2005.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Large-Scale Science: DOE's ESnet William E. Johnston ESnet Manager and Senior Scientist, DOE Lawrence approach and architecture for DOE's Energy Sciences Network (ESnet), which is the network that serves all of the major DOE facilities. This new architecture includes elements supporting multiple, high-speed national

  6. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 95, pp. 617620, January 1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Mark

    shape; otherwise, optimal allocation is greater in the sex function for which success increases more between male allocation and rate of self-fertilization in a hermaphroditic animal MARK O. JOHNSTON*, BIJON Brook, NY, November 18, 1997 (received for review May 27, 1997) ABSTRACT Sex-allocation theory predicts

  7. Supplement 19, Part 3, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Parasites: Trematoda And Cestoda 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Shirley J.; Shaw, Judith H.; Kirby, Margie D.; Hood, Martha W.

    1975-01-01

    laboratory conditions Acanthoparyphium spinulosum (Johnston) Crassostrea virginica (mantle) Acanthostomum sp. larvae Diplodus annularis (gill) Acanthostomum (Atrophe- caecum) alii sp. n. Elaphe helena (intestine) Little, J. W.; Hopkins, S...., 1968 a Louisiana Alloglossidium corti Becker, D. ?.; and Houghton, (Lamont, 1921) W. C., 1969 a, 114 Ictalurus natalis (intestine) all from Lake Fort Smith, I. punctatus " Arkansas Allonematobothrium gha- Fischthal, J. H.; and Thomas, nensis n...

  8. University of Alberta FGSR Council meeting summary, 2008/12/19 Summary Minutes of a Meeting of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hao "Howard"

    Department Representatives N Kav, Agriculture, Food & Nutritional Sci M Lipsett, Mechanical Engineering J Greer, Art & Design M Glerum, Medical Genetics I Gellatly, Business PhD P Lacy, Medicine B HayesMullin, Electrical & Computer Eng T Carson, Secondary Education J McClay, Elementary Education W Johnston, Sociology

  9. University of Alberta FGSR Council meeting summary, 2009/01/16 Summary Minutes of a Meeting of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hao "Howard"

    Department Representatives N Kav, Agriculture, Food & Nutritional Sci M Lipsett, Mechanical Engineering G Forth, Anthropology L Guilbert, Med Micro & Immunology J Greer, Art & Design E Le, Modern Lang McKay, Educational Studies W Johnston, Sociology J McClay, Elementary Education C Boliek, Speech

  10. UW Climate Action Plan Team Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    , FacilitiesUW Tacoma Ruth Johnston, Strategy Management Steve Ashurst, UW Technology Tad Anderson, Atmospheric (CoLeaders) Ashley Rumble, Student Bridget Mason, Environmental Studies, Tacoma Christina Heinlen, Project Support, SM Jim Gawel, Environmental Sciences, Tacoma Katherine Hoffman, Kevin Laverty, Business

  11. Artificial Rearing of Rat Pups Reveals the Beneficial Effects of Mother Care on Neonatal Inflammation and Adult

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Inflammation and Adult Sensitivity to Pain CYNTHIA B. DE MEDEIROS, ALISON S. FLEMING, CELESTE C. JOHNSTON, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1C6, Canada; School of Nursing [C.C.J., C.-D.W.], McGill University, Montreal H3A 2A7 previously showed that maternal care provided to pups experiencing pain re- duced adult pain sensitivity

  12. MAE 130A / SE 101A (4 units) Mechanics I: Statics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    MAE 130A / SE 101A (4 units) Mechanics I: Statics Class/Laboratory Schedule: four hours of lecture/Materials: 1. Beer and Johnston, Vector Mechanics for Engineers - Statics, McGraw-Hill, 2012, 10th ed. 2. Hibbeler, R.C., "Engineering Mechanics: Statics", Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010, 12th ed. Catalog Description

  13. An interactive georeferenced water quality model S. Marsili Libelli, G. Pacini, C. Barresi, E. Petti, F. Sinacori

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , abstraction points, wastewater treatment plants, non-point sources, etc.) in their geographical context locations along the river reach is of primary importance in water quality studies. This paper proposes into their geographical context. This feature is considered of primary importance (Johnston, 1998; Lang, 1998). This paper

  14. The spiny lobster, Panulirus margin-atus, is endemic to the Hawaiian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    birds, monk seals, and reef fishes (Polo- vina et al., 1994). After the recruit- ment collapse132 The spiny lobster, Panulirus margin- atus, is endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago and Johnston in the northwestern portion of the archipelago known as the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). From the early 1980s

  15. ENDANGERED SPECIES RESEARCH Endang Species Res

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aberdeen, University of

    for endangered Hawaiian monk seals, threatened Hawaiian green sea turtles, and the endangered Laysan finch · Hawaiian monk seal · Green sea turtle · Laysan finch Resale or republication not permitted without written in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Jason D. Baker1, 2,*, Charles L. Littnan1 , David W. Johnston3 1 Pacific Islands

  16. A mechanism for sustained groundwater pressure changes induced by distant earthquakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manga, Michael

    for coseismic pore pressure steps in which a temporary barrier deposited by groundwater flow is entrained suggest that seismic waves inter- acting with aquifers produce the sustained changes in pore pressure., 1999]. The redistribution of pore pressure can generate crustal deformation [Johnston et al., 1995

  17. Monazite response to ultrahigh-pressure subduction from U-Pb dating by laser ablation split stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    10.1029/2004TC001781. Young, D.J. , Hacker, B.R. , Andersen,Soc. Am. Bull. 117, 117–134. Hacker, B.R. , Andersen, T.B. ,Geol. 21, 613–629. Hacker, B.R. , Andersen, T.B. , Johnston,

  18. STAG UK Newsletter Issue 45 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1981-01-01

    Subject: Physics iii ABSTRACT Dielectric-loaded Microwave Cavity for High-gradient Testing of Superconducting Materials. (May 2011) Nathaniel Johnston Pogue, B.A., Carleton College; M.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Peter...

  19. Neutron and X-ray Scattering Study of Magnetic Manganites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boothroyd, Andrew

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Study of Magnetic Manganites Graeme Eoin Johnstone A Thesis submitted are performed using a variety of neutron scattering and x-ray scattering techniques. The electronic ground for analysing the results of the polarised neutron scattering experiment. There are a large number of people who

  20. 2014/15 Whole Group Timetable Semester 2 Code Module Title Event Type Day Start Finish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banaji,. Murad

    Start Finish Timetable Weeks Lecturer Room Name Room Code Capacity Class Size 643672 AM1004 American Lecture Theatre 3 KE LT3 150 137 705552 AM1004 American History, 1877-Present Lecture Mon 15:00 16:00 TT Weeks 14-22, 24 Johnstone A E Dr Attenborough Basement Lecture Theatre 1 ATT LT1 204 137 643719 AM1005

  1. SOUTHWEST CATALYSIS 2015 SPRING SYMPOSIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    Baton Rouge, LA 70817 jnovak@PIDC.com Lin Luo The Dow Chemical Company 2301 Brazosport Blvd., B-251 University Chair #12;3 3 2015 PROGRAM All talks & breaks will be held in Melcher Hall, Room 150 7:30 AM Registration ­ Victor Johnston, Treasurer (& helpers) 8:25 AM Welcoming Remarks ­ Dan Shantz, Chair 8:30 AM Bob

  2. Health and Counselling Services SFU Health Promotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Health and Counselling Services SFU Health Promotion A division of Student Services HEALTHY CAMPUS COMMUNITY 2 0 1 3 R E P O R T #12;Dr. Tim Rahilly Dr. Nancy Johnston FOREWORD The health and well Campus Community 2013 Report. This report highlights the work that SFU Health Promotion is undertaking

  3. Current Biology 21, 592597, April 12, 2011 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2011.02.048 NompC TRP Channel Is Essential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alford, Simon

    C mutants are contributed by gravity/ wind receptor cells. Ablating the sound receptors reduces of gravity/wind receptors and that the sound receptors of the mutants fail to respond to sound. Hence, Johnston's organ (JO), houses sound and gravity/wind receptors: about half of the fly's approxi- mately 480

  4. 12RESEARCHERS Western-led creation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    delegation to Brazil, accompanied by Governor General David Johnston, in April 2012 alternative energy Next-generation renewable energy sources from wind, sun and biofuels for a greener world BRAZIL Impact / Reputation globalbrazil #12;BRAZIL Investment 12RESEARCHERS Western-led creation of Canada Visiting Chair

  5. GEORGE, J. C. 1962. A histophysiological study ofthe red and white mus-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . MidI. Nat. 68:487-494. GORDON, M. S. 1968. Oxygen consumption of red and white muscles from tuna.). Compo Biochem. Physiol. 49B:367-373. JOHNSTON, I. A., W. DAVISON, AND G. GOLDSPINK. 1977. Energy that is common in southern California 1965; StephensetaI.1974). These authors and Helly' have suggested

  6. Residence Hall Addresses Residence Hall Physical Street Address Zip Plus Four

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - East 700 Washington St SW 24061-9521 Ambler Johnston Hall - West 720 Washington St SW 24061 Drillfield Dr 24061-9535 Campbell Hall - Main 300 Drillfield Dr 24061-9503 Cochrane Hall 770 Washington St SW 385 West Campus Dr 24061-9505 Johnson Hall 500 Washington St SW 24061-9506 Lee Hall 570 Washington St

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER Dominique Pontier Ludovic Say Franc ois Debias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thioulouse, Jean

    Thierry Micol Eugenia Natoli The diet of feral cats (Felis catus L.) at five sites on the Grande Terre-Antarctic ecosystems where these effects may be dramatic. We evaluated the diet of introduced feral cats (Felis catus L; Johnstone 1985; Warham 1990). The domestic cat, Felis catus, has been commonly introduced to sub

  8. Marine seismic sources: QC of wavefield computation from near-field pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marine seismic sources: QC of wavefield computation from near-field pressure measurements1 A.M. Ziolkowski2 and R.G.K. Johnston2 Abstract A commercial marine seismic survey has been completed was obtained from the same calibration data set by minimizing the energy in the computed notional source

  9. Bio-logging of marine migratory species in the law of the sea James Kraska a,b,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wei

    Bio-logging of marine migratory species in the law of the sea James Kraska a,b,n , Guillermo Ortuño Crespo a , David W. Johnston a a Division of Marine Science and Conservation, Nicholas School of the Environment Duke University Marine Laboratory, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516, USA b Stockton

  10. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  11. Keeping Students Engaged with Web-Based Polling in the Library Instruction Session 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoppenfeld, Jared

    2012-01-01

    ?and?reinforce,?if?necessary,?specific?learning?objectives.??At?the?midway?point?of?the? session,?the?class?is?asked?a?few?questions?about?an?online?tutorial?they?were?to?have?viewed?before? coming?to?class.??The?tutorial?is?an?introduction?to?the?West?Campus?Library?as?well?as?its?website.??At?the? end...

  12. CX-001049: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Replacing 11 Wood Pole Structures on the Midway ? Grandview Transmission Line and 12 Wood Pole Structures on the Grandview ? Red Mountain Transmission LineCX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 01/27/2010Location(s): Yakama County, WashingtonOffice(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  13. January 15, 1994 / Vol. 19, No. 2 / OPTICS LETTERS 123 Femtosecond signal processing by second-order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    . Enhanced second- order diffraction from a thermoplastic plate makes possible new signal recombine the various frequen- cies into a single collimated beam. A thermoplastic plate'0 placed midway and signal beams is recorded on the thermoplastic plate. The resultant spectral hologram can be read out

  14. CX-012074: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Canyon City West-Midway 230-Kilovolt Transmission Line Safety Marker Ball Installation CX(s) Applied: B.13 Date: 04/07/2014 Location(s): Colorado, Colorado, Colorado Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

  15. Monitoring rapid temporal change in a volcano with coda wave interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    the case for the coda. Approximately midway through this period, however, the seismic coda decorrelates not be discernible using direct­ or single­scattered seismic wave methods. Citation: Gre^t, A., R. Snieder, R. C to study nonlinear temperature dependence of velocity in granite [Snieder et al., 2002], where

  16. FERC Approves $85.7 Million Western Energy Settlement The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) today approved an $85.7 million settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    markets during the Western energy crisis of 2000-2001. The settlement between Midway Sunset Cogeneration Independent System Operator harmless for actions taken to implement the settlement. The California Parties are Pacific Gas and Electric Co., Southern California Edison Co., San Diego Gas & Electric Co., the state

  17. Arthur Heights Baldwin City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesston Hiattville Hickok Highland Park Hilford Hill City Hilldale Hilldale South Hoag Hog Back Hoge Industry Ingalls Inman Iola Jarbalo Jefferson Junction City Kanorado Kansas City Kansas Falls Kanwaka Keats Mertz Michigan Valley Middletown Midian Midland Park Midway Milford Millerton Milton Mineral Springs

  18. Supplement 19, Part 7, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Hosts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Judith H.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Crawley, Lila R.; Kirby, Margie D.; Washington, Ethel M.

    1975-01-01

    (external surface) Acanthurus xanthopterus "surgeon fishes" (gills) Cleithrarticus cleith- rarticus Young, P. C., 1968 b, 270, 271 Queensland, Australia Lewis, A. G., 1968 a , 10 Eniwetok Atoll Young, P. C., 1968 b, 270, 271 Queensland, Australia... Lewis, A. G., 1968 a, 71 Eniwetok Atoll Young, P. C., 1968 b, 270, 271 Queensland, Australia Accipiter cooperii"Cooper1 s Mueller, N. S.; Mueller, H. hawk" C.; and Berger, D. D., 19?9 a Lynchia americana Wisconsin Accipiter gentilis Da?ia, G. G...

  19. Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese, and United States nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, V. ); Schultz, S.C. ); Robison, W.L. )

    1991-05-01

    A considerable literature exists on the Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese and their atolls; however, this literature consists of a large number of governmental documents that are relatively unknown and difficult to locate. This is particularly true of the documents of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and those related to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands. Because a comprehensive bibliography on the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the Marshallese and their atolls does not exist, the preparation of a bibliography that includes sufficient information to locate all types of reports seems justified. This document is the bibliography.

  20. Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan) crinoids from Oklahoma and Missouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strimple, H. L.

    1975-05-28

    (1969), are included. One new species from the Webbers Falls Shale Member, Atoka Formation, in Wag- oner County, Oklahoma, is described and ma- terial is included from an unnamed shale in Manuscript received November 20, 1979. Johnston County as well... the base of the cup, is assigned to the species. Hypotype.—OU 4480, Paleontological Collec- tions, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma; collected by Allen A. Graffham. Occurrence.—Barnett Hill Member, Atoka Formation, Atokan Stage (Middle...

  1. A periodic and statistical review of the biorhythm theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Steven H.

    1985-01-01

    Committee: Mr. Charles L. Gilmore and Dr. Nay Johnston Nearly 150, 000 industrial worker accidents recorded 1n the State of Colorado were analysed using a computer program designed to determine the status of the victim's biorhythm at the time... the accident occurred and record the results in critical and non-critical categories . The expected rate of occurrence of accidents on biorhythm critical days under random occurrence was statistically compared to the actual rate of occurrence us1ng...

  2. Sleep Characteristics in Breastfeeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Elizabeth Anne Averill

    2009-12-09

    first time parents. According to Doan et al. (2007) postpartum sleep deprivation results in low energy, fatigue, irritability and delayed maternal recovery. This combination of symptoms could result in mothers feeling sad that they are not enjoying..., and maternal fatigue perceptions. Elias, Nicolson, Bora and Johnston (1986) proposed that the mother?s need for sleep without interruptions might lead to early weaning. Pinilla and Birch (1993) identified a positive relationship between the maternal need...

  3. ESnet: Large-Scale Science and Data Management ( (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Johnston, Bill

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2004: Bill Johnston of Berkeley Lab's Computing Sciences is a distinguished networking and computing researcher. He managed the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet), a leading-edge, high-bandwidth network funded by DOE's Office of Science. Used for everything from videoconferencing to climate modeling, and flexible enough to accommodate a wide variety of data-intensive applications and services, ESNet's traffic volume is doubling every year and currently surpasses 200 terabytes per month.

  4. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

  5. Submitted on February 16, 2007. Accepted on May 8, 2007. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, IB, Departamento de Zoologia. Ilha do Fundo, 21940-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

    , CCS, IB, Departamento de Zoologia. Ilha do Fundão, 21940-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil 3 E, 1825 (Annelida, Polychaeta) do Atol das Rocas, Brasil, com a descrição de uma nova espécie. Três Grande do Norte (RN), Brasil (3o 51'30"S e 33o 49'29"W). Dentre estas, uma nova espécie: Bispira klautae

  6. ECOLOGY OF T H ARCH PELA (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prestwich, Ken

    forage on the extensive coral reef systems in the lagoons and seaward slopes of the Chagos atolls given the `Critical hired' status of hawksbills and the `Endangered' status of green turtles than two centuries, breeding and foraging populations of the globall y endangered hawksbill

  7. HAWAI`I UNDERSEA RESEARCH LABORATORY NOAA's Undersea Research Center for Hawai`i and the Western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    'i Undersea Research Laboratory is the only U.S. deep submergence facility in the Pacific Rim tasked Pacific Applying Innovative Deep-sea Technologies Toward Research, Service, and Stewardship in the Pacific Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument ©Google 2012 Rose Atoll Marine National Monument Jarvis

  8. Operation Sandstone: 1948. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkhouse, L.H.; Hallowell, J.H.; McMullan, F.W.; Davis, S.E.; Jones, C.B.

    1983-12-19

    SANDSTONE was a three-detonation atmospheric nuclear weapon test series conducted during the spring of 1948 at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Report emphasis is on the radiological safety of the personnel. Available records on personnel exposure are summarized.

  9. Operation Ivy: 1952. Technical rept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladeck, F.R.; Hallowell, J.H.; Martin, E.J.; McMullan, F.W.; Miller, R.H.

    1982-12-01

    Ivy was a two-detonation atmospheric nuclear weapon test series conducted during October and November of 1952 at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands. One of the two events was designated Mike and was the first thermonuclear or hydrogen bomb. Report emphasis is on the radiological safety of the personnel. Available records on personnel exposure are summarized.

  10. Operation Ivy. Joint Task Force 132, 1952. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    This report covers the activities of the Joint Task Force 132 in Operation Ivy, in 1952 at Eniwetok Atoll. Shots Mike and King were detonated in conjunction with eleven experimental programs. This report describes the device, weapon, and experimental programs, giving as many preliminary conclusions as can be drawn from early analysis of the data.

  11. High concentration low wattage solar arrays and their applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, R.; OGallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1997-02-01

    Midway Labs currently produces a 335x concentrator module that has reached as high as 19{percent} active area efficiency in production. The current production module uses the single crystal silicon back contact SunPower cell. The National Renewable Energy Lab has developed a multi junction cell using GalnP/GaAs technologies. The high efficiency ({gt}30{percent}) and high cell voltage offer an opportunity for Midway Labs to develop a tracking concentrator module that will provide 24 volts in the 140 to 160 watt range. This voltage and wattage range is applicable to a range of small scale water pumping applications that make up the bulk of water pumping solar panel sales. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. A Review of "Writing the Forest in Early Modern England: A Sylvan Pastoral Nation" by Jeffrey Theis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Donovan

    2010-01-01

    -century news Jeffrey Theis. Writing the Forest in Early Modern England: A Sylvan Pastoral Nation. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2009. xv + 368 pp. + 5 illus. $60.00. Review by donovan sherman, university of california, irvine. A passage midway... into Jeffrey Theis?s Writing the Forest in Early Modern England poetically exemplifies its broader contention that early modern literary and cultural studies elides the palpable presence of the forest. Traditional readings of Shakespeare, Theis begins...

  13. Grain Sorghum Date-of-Planting and Spacing Experiments. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karper, R. E. (Robert Earl); Quinby, J. R.; Jones, D. L.; Dickson, R. E.

    1931-01-01

    tation ii' loc?at 'rl in th astern part of Hardeman Co11nty, fi\\t? and n -hnlf mil e.~ ' < u h\\\\? ~t of hilli oth, about midway IH ?I.wc ?Pn t h" ]{pd an

  14. Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-20

    World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

  15. Magnetic resonance apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, J.A.; Cooper, R.K.

    1980-10-10

    The patent consists of means for producing a region of homogeneous magnetic field remote from the source of the field, wherein two equal field sources are arranged axially so their fields oppose, producing a region near the plane perpendicular to the axis midway between the sources where the radial correspondent of the field goes through a maximum. Near the maximum, the field is homogeneous over prescribed regions.

  16. Analysis of radiation exposure for naval personnel at Operation GREENHOUSE. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.; Weitz, R.; Gminder, R.; Goetz, J.; Stuart, J.

    1982-07-30

    The radiological environments are reconstructed for seven ships and the residence islands of Eniwetok Atoll that received fallout during operation GREENHOUSE (April-May 1951) as a result of Shots DOG, EASY, and ITEM. From the reconstructed operations and radiological environments, equivalent personnel film-badge doses are calculated and compared with actual film-badge data available for six of the ships. Considering the increased time spent topside by badged personnel as opposed to an average crewmember, correlation between calculations and dosimetry is good. Average shipboard doses range from a low of 0.13 rem for the crew of the USNS LT. ROBERT CRAIG to a high of 1.14 rem for the crew of the USNS SGT. CHARLES E. MOWER. Average doses on the residence islands of Eniwetok Atoll range from 2.75 rem to 3.10 rem.

  17. Issue Specific Explanations of China-ASEAN Relationship: Applying the Realist and Constructivist Assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Wei-hsieh

    2010-12-29

    islands in South China Sea are a collection of coral reefs, atolls and sand bars covering seventy thousand square miles, whose sovereignty is partly or wholly claimed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and the Philippines (Dosch 2008... Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) was an anti-terror program that included six ASEAN countries: Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Brunei. Indeed, the U.S. holds annual CARAT joint exercises with the six countries...

  18. An Assessment of the Current Day Impact of Various Materials Associated with the U.S. Nuclear Test Program in the Marshall Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Bogen, K T

    2001-05-01

    Different stable elements, and some natural and man-made radionuclides, were used as tracers or associated in other ways with nuclear devices that were detonated at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls as part of the U.S. nuclear testing program from 1946 through 1958. The question has been raised whether any of these materials dispersed by the explosions could be of sufficient concentration in either the marine environment or on the coral islands to be of a health concern to people living, or planning to live, on the atolls. This report addresses that concern. An inventory of the materials involved during the test period was prepared and provided to us by the Office of Defense Programs (DP) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The materials that the DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) ask to be evaluated are--sulfur, arsenic, yttrium, tantalum, gold, rhodium, indium, tungsten, thallium, thorium-230,232 ({sup 230,232}Th), uranium-233,238 ({sup 233,238}U), polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po), curium-232 ({sup 232}Cu), and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). The stable elements were used primarily as tracers for determining neutron energy and flux, and for other diagnostic purposes in the larger yield, multistage devices. It is reasonable to assume that these materials would be distributed in a similar manner as the fission products subsequent to detonation. A large inventory of fission product and uranium data was available for assessment. Detailed calculations show only a very small fraction of the fission products produced during the entire test series remain at the test site atolls. Consequently, based on the information provided, we conclude that the concentration of these materials in the atoll environment pose no adverse health effects to humans.

  19. Testing the ‘extreme female brain’ theory of psychosis in adults with autism spectrum disorder with or without co-morbid psychosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Felicity V.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Wagner, Adam P.; MRC AIMS Consortium; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Holland, Anthony J.

    2015-06-12

    Testing the ‘Extreme Female Brain’ Theory of Psychosis in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder with or without Co-Morbid Psychosis Felicity V. Larson1, Meng-Chuan Lai2,3, Adam P. Wagner1,4, MRC AIMS Consortium¶, Simon Baron-Cohen2,4,5, Anthony J. Holland1... (Cambridge), Peter Jezzard (Oxford), Patrick Johnston (IoP), Derek K. Jones (IoP), Meng-Chuan Lai (Cambridge), Michael V. Lombardo (Cambridge), Anya Madden (IoP), Diane Mullins (IoP), Clodagh M. Murphy (IoP), Declan G. M. Murphy (IoP), Greg Pasco (Cambridge...

  20. np-elastic analyzing power An0 and spin transfer Knn 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNaughton, M. W.; Johnston, K.; Swenson, D. R.; Tupa, D.; York, R. L.; Ambrose, DA; Coffey, P.; McNaughton, K. H.; Riley, P. J.; Glass, G.; Hiebert, John C.; Jeppersen, R. H.; Spinka, H.; Supek, I.; Tripard, G. E.; Woolverton, H.

    1993-01-01

    VOLUME 48, NUMBER 1 JULY 1993 np-elastic analyzing power A.1vp and spin transfer K1vlv M. W. McNaughton, K. Johnston, * D. R. Swenson, D. Tupa, and R. L. York Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, Nevj Mexico 876/5 D. A. Ambrose, P. Coffey, K. H... Report No. UCRL- 19451, 1970. [49] M.W. McNaughton and E.P. Chamberlin, Phys. Rev. C 24, 1778 (1981). [50] R.A. Ransome et al. , Nucl. Instrum. Methods 201, 309 (1982). [51] R. Garnett et al. , Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 309, 508 (1991). [52] M...

  1. Subjects: Trematoda and Trematode Diseases, Part 9: Checklist Of Generic, Specific, and Subspecific Names A-M 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doss, Mildred A.

    1968-01-01

    . acuminata de Blainville, N. H. D. , 1820a, 203. 1820: FASCIOLA. acuminata Goldberge r, J., 1911c, 17-22, figs. 8-10. 19H:AZYGIA. acuminata Johnston, S. J., 1913b, 733-737, pl. 75, fig. 3, pl. 77, figs. 9-10. 1913: MEHLISIA. acuminatum Nicoli. W., 1915b.... ALIPTREMA Ruiz, J. M. ; & Teixeira Leao, ?. , 1955a, 485-486 (tod: Aliptrema ribeiroi). aliud Nicoli, W. , 1914f, 147-150, pl. 4, figs. 9-9a. 1914: ECHINOSTOMUM. ALLACANTHOCHASMUS Van Cleave, H. J., 1921e, 43; 1922a, 1-8 (tod: A. varius n. sp...

  2. Subjects: Trematoda And Trematode Diseases, Part 2: Supergenera And Genera C 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roach, Katharine F.; Breen, Virginia L.

    1964-01-01

    . F., 1934a, 179, 219 (Heterophyidae). --Ward, ?. ?. , 1917c, 5; 1918b, 391, 400. --Yama- FORSYTH ROACH and VIRGINIA L. BKEEN guti, S. , 1934a, 366. parvulus Marshall, W. S.; & Gilbert, N. ? ., ~~1905a, 478-481, pi. 15, figs. 1-4 (mt.... ; & Allison, L. N., 1941a,519-520,522 (type : ? ? calceostoma (Wagener, 1857). -- Froissant, A. , 1930a, 34, ?Fuhrmann, ?., 1928b, 27. --Gamble, F. W. , 1896a, 73. -- Johnston, ?.?.; & Tiegs, O. W. , 1922a, 85, 119, 123 (type : Calceostoma ? a 1 ? e o...

  3. Evans Library - 197 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-01-01

    varieties of cotton. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 36: 875-888. 1944. 4. Brooks, L. E. Hubam clover as a cash and soil-improving crop for the Wichita Valley. Tex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Prog. Rpt. 1069. I 947. CONTROL OF COTTON ROOT ROT BY SWEETCLOVER IN ROTATION 21.... Johnston. Hubam clover in rotations causes higher yields and less root rot. Tex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Prog. Rpt. 868. 1943. 11. King, C. J. and H. F. Loomis. Experiments on the control of cotton root rot in Arizona. Jour. Agr. Res. 32 : 297-310. 1926. King...

  4. Bioavailability of tritiated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as an incurred residue in bovine milk administered to lactating and nonlactating swiss white mice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brower, Catherine Sue

    1988-01-01

    BI QAVA I LABILI TY OF TR IT IATED 2, 3, 7 y 8-TETRACHLORODI BENZQ- P-DIOXIN &TCDD) AS AN INCURRED RESIDUE IN BOVINE MILK ADMINISTERED TO LACTATING AND NQNLACTATING SWISS WHITE MICE A Thesis by CATHERINE SUE BRQWER Submitted to the Graduate...) AS AN INCURRED RESIDUE IN BOVINE MILK ADMINISTERED TO LACTATING AND NONLACTATING SWISS WHITE MICE A Thesis by CATHERINE SUE BROWER Approved as to style and content by: W. . Johnston (Chairman of Committee) J. S s (Membe ) Ivie ember) H. nes (Me b r...

  5. Never Say Die Issue 6 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golledge, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    from spring to frost (Arnold, 1999). Leucophyllum candidum I. M. Johnston Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. var. drummondii Torr. & Gray Violet Silver-leaf Turk's Cap This compact native shrub adds a great blue-sliver contrast to the landscape... as an accent plant. The capacity of this shrub to flower can be tremendous after a rain (Nokes, 2001). This under story shrub is extremely variable from 3' to 8' tall and sprawling to upright. The shrub has a distinct red flower from spring to frost...

  6. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Colin A.; Kasson, Peter M.; Donis, Ruben O.; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C. Todd; Garten, Rebecca J.; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I.; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Macken, Catherine A.; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Suarez, David L.; Trock, Susan C.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B.; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D.

    2014-10-16

    to Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP) (Moult et al., 2011). In a CASP-like exercise, one or more experimental groups would generate quantita- tive phenotype data for a set of viruses, for exam- ple the relative binding of ?2... al. 2012. A long neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6:e1814. doi:10.1371/ journal.pntd.0001814. Gething PW, Patil AP, Smith DL, Guerra CA, Elyazar IR, Johnston GL, Tatem AJ, Hay SI...

  7. alpha-synuclein induced synapse damage is enhanced by amyloid-beta1-42

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bate, Clive; Gentleman, Steve; Williams, Alun

    2010-12-07

    -42/1-40 ratio in vitro and in vivo. Neuron 1996, 17(5):1005-1013. 30. Koo EH, Squazzo SL: Evidence that production and release of amyloid ?- protein involves the endocytic pathway. JBiolChem 1994, 269(26):17386-17389. 31. Podlisny MB, Ostaszewski BL, Squazzo SL... , Koo EH, Rydell RE, Teplow DB, Selkoe DJ: Aggregation of secreted amyloid ?-protein into sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable oligomers in cell culture. JBiolChem 1995, 270(16):9564-9570. 32. Jeffrey M, Halliday WG, Bell J, Johnston AR, MacLeod NK, Ingham C...

  8. Facies relationships in the Steven Sandstone, Kern County, California 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Findley, Richard Lee

    1975-01-01

    Formation. Sections were measured in detail and sampled for petro- graphic study (Appendix). One section that is equivalent to the Stevens on the west side of the basin was examined at Midway-Sunset 16 field. Two sections in the Santa Margarita Formation..., matrix-like micaceous minerals. Mean grain size of sandstones is 0. 51 mm and range from 0. 29 mm to 0. 74 mm. The laterally-equivalent Santa Margarita Formation on the east side of the basin is interpreted to be submarine landslide deposits on a...

  9. Mississippian corals from New Mexico and a related Pennsylvanian species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffords, Russell M.

    1955-01-01

    between Alamo and Marble Canyons ( 3 feet above the base of the formation ); Marble Canyon, SW sec. 23, T. 16 S., R. 10 E.; 1 mile south of Marble Canyon; and X mile south of Marble Can- yon. Specimens were collected also from Ash Can- yon at SE NW sec. 28... MILLER, from the Caballero member, Lake Valley formation, midway formation, Kinderhookian Series, Mississip- between Alamo and Marble Canyons, Sacra- pian, New Mexico 3 mento Mountains, New Mexico. a, Side 2a-b.—Mature specimen (J306b ) from...

  10. High energy, high average power solid state green or UV laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Norton, Mary; Dane, C. Brent

    2004-03-02

    A system for producing a green or UV output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A Nd:glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high quality but low power output and then multi-pass through and amplification in a zig-zag slab amplifier and wavefront correction in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multi-pass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zig-zag slab amplifier.

  11. Sintering atmosphere effects on the ductility of W-Ni-Fe heavy metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, R.M.; Churn, K.S.

    1984-04-01

    Residual porosity has a strong negative effect on the ductility of tungsten-nickel-iron heavy metals. This investigation examined the sintering atmosphere role in stabilizing detrimental residual pore structures. Experiments are reported on alloys containing 93, 95, or 97 wt pct W with Ni:Fe ratios of 7:3. The negative effect of prolonged sintering is attributed to pore coarsening involving trapped gas. Calculated pore growth rates for hydrogen filled pores suggest that pore coarsening involves both ripening and coalescence driven by tungsten grain growth. A change in sintering atmosphere from hydrogen to argon midway through the sintering cycle can aid pore degassing and increase ductility and strength.

  12. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 113133, 2015 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/113/2015/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    -Alesund, Svalbard (Spitsbergen), Norway and Sweden SUM 72.58 -38.48 3238.0 Summit, Greenland BRW 71.32 -156.60 11, Mongolia NWR 40.05 -105.58 3526.0 Niwot Ridge, Colorado, USA AZR 38.77 -27.38 40.0 Terceira Island, Azores, Midway, USA ASK 23.18 5.42 2728.0 Assekrem, Algeria MLO 19.53 -155.58 3397.0 Mauna Loa, Hawai, USA KUM 19

  13. Geological aspects of drilling horizontal wells in steam flood reservoirs, west side, southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crough, D.D.; Holman, M.L.; Sande, J.J. (Shell Western E P Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Shell Western E P Inc. has drilled 11 horizontal wells in four mature steam floods in the Coalinga, South Belridge, and Midway-Sunset fields. Two medium radius wells are producing from the Pliocene Etchegoin Formation in Coalinga. One medium radius well is producing from the Pleistocene Tulare Formation in South Belridge field. Three short radius and five medium radius wells are producing from the upper Miocene, Sub-Hoyt and Potter sands in Midway-Sunset field. Horizontal wells at the base of these reservoirs and/or structurally downdip near the oil-water contact are ideally suited to take advantage of the gravity drainage production mechanism. Reservoir studies and production experience have shown these horizontal wells should increase reserves, improve recovery efficiency, improve the oil-steam ratio, and improve project profitability. Geological considerations of targeting the wells vary between fields because of the different depositional environments and resulting reservoir characteristics. The thin sands and semicontinuous shales in the Tulare Formation and the Etchegoin Formation require strict structural control on the top and base of the target sand. In the Sub-Hoyt and Potter sands, irregularities of the oil-water contact and sand and shale discontinuities must be understood. Logging and measurement while drilling provide geosteering capability in medium radius wells. Teamwork between all engineering disciplines and drilling and producing operations has been critical to horizontal well success.

  14. Operation redwing: Report to the scientific director. Timing and firing (sanitized version)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-29

    Task Unit 5 (YU-5) was organized to accomplish the following tasks during Operation Redwing (May - June 1956): (1) To supply timing signals and voice count-down to meet the principal requirements of the experimental programs; (2) To supply the arming and firing pulses to the devices tested; (3) To furnish personnel as members of the arming and firing parties; (4) To provide and maintain the Task Group 7.1 (TG 7.1) short-range commercial radio communications at Bikini and Eniwetok atolls; and (5) To perform such scientific measurements and photography as provided for under existing contractual agreements.

  15. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 11. Timing and firing and fiducial markers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grier, H.E.

    1985-09-01

    An automatic remote-control system armed and fired the bomb and sent out a sequence of time signals to experimental equipment on the atoll. A central station at Parry Island sent signals via submarine cables to a timer station on a shot island. The timer station controlled signals to the zero station and to experiments on the island, and through auxiliary stations, it also controlled signal distribution on adjacent islands. Light-sensitive triggering units for apparatus and for accurate standard zero-time reference were provided in the form of Blue Boxes, or fiducial markers.

  16. Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Miller, Terence Holland

    2008-10-31

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in the Enewetak Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The survey was strictly a visual survey, backed up by digital photos and a written description of the current condition.

  17. Help:Assigning permissions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl Jump to: navigation, searchAtoll

  18. Fly ash system technology improves opacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-15

    Unit 3 of the Dave Johnston Power Plant east of Glenrock, WY, USA had problems staying at or below the opacity limits set by the state. The unit makes use of a Lodge Cottrell precipitator. When the plant changed to burning Power River Basin coal, ash buildup became a significant issue as the fly ash control system was unable to properly evacuate hoppers on the unit. To overcome the problem, the PLC on the unit was replaced with a software optimization package called SmartAsh for the precipitator fly ash control system, at a cost of $500,000. After the upgrade, there have been no plugged hoppers and the opacity has been reduced from around 20% to 3-5%. 2 figs.

  19. Desorption efficiencies of toluene and n-butanol in an organic vapor monitor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heaney, Mary Ann

    1979-01-01

    to be due to the physical and chemical nature cf ihe sorbent' ACKNOWLEDGER~ NTS I wish to express my thanks and appreciation to my committee members Dry Richard 3 ~ Konzen, Dr. W. L. Johnston and Dry Alan R. Hanks for their a . istance in the prepara...?"oc:"i manta) Value !?; cover y oe f1c1ent 1'%co. I-i aj Val 'e De so~ pt1on Efficiency Vapol (7 m /m3 70 o5 7+ 178 mg/m3 212 207 178 mg/m3 342 356 350 . 56 ul . 56 . 51 ~ 9A , Q-', =93 7P ~ 73 . 66 ~ 7', '82 mg/'m3 ?93 mg/m3...

  20. An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

    1994-07-01

    We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

  1. Enewetak radiological support project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, B.

    1982-09-01

    From 1972 through 1980, the Department of Energy acted in an advisory role to the Defense Nuclear Agency during planning for and execution of the cleanup of Enewetak Atoll. The Nevada Operations Office of the Department of Energy was responsible for the radiological characterization of the atoll and for certification of radiological condition of each island upon completion of the project. In-situ measurements of gamma rays emitted by americium-241 were utilized along with wet chemistry separation of plutonium from soil samples to identify and delineate surface areas requiring removal of soil. Military forces removed over 100,000 cubic yards of soil from the surface of five islands and deposited this material in a crater remaining from the nuclear testing period. Subsurface soil was excavated and removed from several locations where measurements indicated the presence of radionuclides above predetermined criteria. The methodologies of data acquisition, analysis and interpretation are described and detailed results are provided in text, figures and microfiche. The final radiological condition of each of 43 islets is reported.

  2. Comparative behavior of plutonium and americium in the equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inventories of /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The amount of /sup 239 +240/Pu mobilized to solution at the atolls can be predicted from a distribution coefficient K/sub d/ of 2.3 x 10/sup 5/ and the mean sediment concentrations. The mobilized /sup 239 +240/Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Characteristics of /sup 239 +240/Pu described at one location may not necessarily describe its behavior elsewhere. The relative amounts of /sup 241/Am to /sup 239 +240/Pu may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay.

  3. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  4. An Evaluation of Activated Bismuth Isotopes in Environmental Samples From the Former Western Pacific Proving Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.A.; Jokela, T.A.

    2000-03-21

    {sup 207}Bi (t{sub 1/2}=32.2 y) was generated by activation of weapons material during a few ''clean'' nuclear tests at the U.S. Western Pacific Proving Grounds of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The radionuclides first appeared in the Enewetak environment during 1958 and in the environment of Bikini during 1956. Crater sediments from Bikini with high levels of {sup 207}Bi were analyzed by gamma spectrometry in an attempt to determine the relative concentrations of {sup 208}Bi (t{sup 1/2} = 3.68 x 10{sup 5} y). The bismuth isotopes were probably generated during the ''clean'', 9.3 Mt Poplar test held on 7/12/58. The atom ratio of {sup 208}Bi to {sup 207}Bi (R value) ranges from {approx}12 to over 200 in sections of core sediments from the largest nuclear crater at Bikini atoll. The presence of bismuth in the device is suggested to account for R values in excess of 10.

  5. Effect of shading by the table coral Acropora Hyacinthus on understory corals. [Acropora; Pocillopora

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stimson, J.

    1985-02-01

    Field surveys at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, show that coral density and diversity is much lower beneath Acropora table corals than in adjacent unshaded areas. Additionally, the understory community is predominantly composed of massive and encrusting species, while branching Acropora and Pocillopora predominate in unshaded areas. Results of experiments in which coral fragments were transferred to the shade of table Acropora and to adjacent unshaded areas show that shading slows the growth and leads to higher mortality of branching species, while massive and encrusting species are unaffected. Light measurements made beneath table Acropora show that illumination and irradiance values fall to levels at which most hermatypic corals do not occur. The fast-growing but fragile table Acropora are abundant in a wide variety of atoll habitats and grow rapidly to form a canopy approx. = 50 cm above the substrate. However, table Acropora also have high mortality rates, so that there is continuous production of unshaded areas. The growth and death of tables thus create local disturbances, and the resulting patchwork of recently shaded and unshaded areas may enhance coral diversity in areas of high coral cover.

  6. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  7. Particle decay studies at or near closed shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    We summarize briefly two sets of investigations. In the first one ..cap alpha..-decay rates of neutron-deficient even-even Pb isotopes were studied by using the UNISOR separator on-line at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. These data indicate that midway between N = 82 and N = 126, the Z = 82 shell gap may not exist. The second investigation, carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron and SuperHILAC, has dealt with the delayed-proton decays of the N = 81 precursors /sup 147/Dy, /sup 149/Er, and /sup 151/Yb. All three proton spectra have sharp peaks and thus provide evidence for greatly reduced level densities in the N = 82 proton emitting nuclei /sup 147/Tb, /sup 149/Ho, and /sup 151/Tm. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Development of a simple 2.45 GHz microwave plasma with a repulsive double hexapole configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arciaga, Marko; Ulano, April; Lee, Henry Jr.; Lledo, Rumar; Ramos, Henry; Tumlos, Roy

    2008-09-15

    A simple and inexpensive 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source with a repulsive double hexapole configuration is described and characterized. In this work, the operation of the source is shown to be flexible in terms of electron density, electron temperature, and plasma uniformity even at low-pressures (approximately millitorr). It allows for easy control of the electron temperature (2-3.8 eV) and density ({approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) by removing either of the two hexapoles or by varying the separation distance between the two hexapoles. Characterization was done via information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe measurements for electron temperature and density. The source makes a resonant surface with its repulsive double hexapole magnetic configuration providing an additional longitudinal confinement near the walls midway between the two hexapoles. Magnetic field maps are presented for varying double hexapole distances. Power delivery for various settings is also presented.

  9. Simple stressed-skin composites using paper reinforcement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the composite reinforcement concept in a hands-on manner, using readily available materials; to demonstrate the consequences of certain defects in these structures; and to quantify the gains made by engineering composite construction, using a simple measurement of Young's modulus of electricity. The materials used were foam rubber beams, beams reinforced on one side by bonding with heavy paper, a beam reinforced on both sides by bonding with heavy paper, and a beam with a defect caused by using a piece of waxed paper midway to prevent bonding of the paper. The experiment is designed to teach students at the high school level or above the concept of Young's modulus, a measure of a material's stiffness. 2 figs. (BM)

  10. Electrostatic generator/motor having rotors of varying thickness and a central stator electrically connected together into two groups

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2010-11-16

    A sub-module consists of a set of two outer sets of stationary fan-blade-shaped sectors. These outer sectors include conductive material and are maintained at ground potential in several examples. Located midway between them is a set of stationary sector plates with each plate being electrically insulated from the others. An example provides that the inner sector plates are connected together alternately, forming two groups of parallel-connected condensers that are then separately connected, through high charging circuit resistances, to a source of DC potential with respect to ground, with an additional connecting lead being provided for each group to connect their output as an AC output to a load. These same leads can he used, when connected to a driver circuit, to produce motor action.

  11. Science and Technology Review July/August 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blobaum, K M

    2010-05-27

    This issue has the following articles: (1) Deterrence with a Minimum Nuclear Stockpile - Commentary by Bruce T. Goodwin; (2) Enhancing Confidence in the Nation's Nuclear Stockpile - Livermore experts are participating in a national effort aimed at predicting how nuclear weapon materials and systems will likely change over time; (3) Narrowing Uncertainties - For climate modeling and many other fields, understanding uncertainty, or margin of error, is critical; (4) Insight into a Deadly Disease - Laboratory experiments reveal the pathogenesis of tularemia in host cells, bringing scientists closer to developing a vaccine for this debilitating disease. (5) Return to Rongelap - On the Rongelap Atoll, Livermore scientists are working to minimize radiological exposure for natives now living on or wishing to return to the islands.

  12. Mission hazard assessment for STARS Mission 1 (M1) in the Marshall Islands area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outka, D.E.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    A mission hazard assessment has been performed for the Strategic Target System Mission 1 (known as STARS M1) for hazards due to potential debris impact in the Marshall Islands area. The work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories as a result of discussion with Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) safety officers. The STARS M1 rocket will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), Hawaii, and deliver two payloads to within the viewing range of sensors located on the Kwajalein Atoll. The purpose of this work has been to estimate upper bounds for expected casualty rates and impact probability or the Marshall Islands areas which adjoin the STARS M1 instantaneous impact point (IIP) trace. This report documents the methodology and results of the analysis.

  13. Hard tail detection in the LMXB 4U1636-53 from INTEGRAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Fiocchi; A. Bazzano; P. Ubertini; M. federici

    2006-10-11

    Recent INTEGRAL observations and archival BeppoSAX data have been analyzed to deeply investigate the hard X-ray behavior of the neutron star, atoll type, low mass X-ray Binary 4U1636-53. Our investigation in three different periods outline three corresponding different sates. Infact, the source was detected in both the canonical high and low state and moreover in one occasion \\integral spectrum shows, for first time in this source, a hard tail dominating the emission above 30 keV. This spectrum is fitted as the sum of a Comptonized component similar to soft state and a power-law component ($\\Gamma=2.76$), indicating the presence of a non thermal electron distribution of velocities.

  14. The impact of atmospheric aerosols on trace metal chemistry in open ocean surface seawater 3. Lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maring, H.B.; Duce, R.A. )

    1990-04-15

    Atmospheric aerosols collected at Enewetak Atoll in the tropical North Pacific were exposed to seawater in laboratory experiments to assess the impact of atmospheric aerosols on lead chemistry in surface seawater. The net atmospheric flux of soluble lead to the ocean is between 16 and 32 pmol cm{sup {minus}2}/yr at Enewetak. The stable lead isotopic composition of soluble aerosol lead indicates that it is of anthropogenic origin. Anthropogenic aerosol lead from Central and North America appears to be less soluble and/or to dissolve less rapidly than that from Asia. Dissolved organic matter and possibly lower pH appear to increase the nonaluminosilicate aerosol lead solubility and/or dissolution rate. The isotopic composition of lead in air, seawater and dry deposition suggests that after deposition in the ocean, nonaluminosilicate particulate lead can be reinjected into the atmosphere during sea salt aerosol production.

  15. Mid-Pacific Research Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colin, P.L.; Harrison, J.T. III

    1982-02-01

    Fiscal year 1983 marked the end of on-site operations of the Mid-Pacific Research Laboratory at Enewetak Atoll in the Northern Marshall Islands. With the departure of the laboratory staff from Enewetak on 22 September, research conducted by the resident scientific staff ceased. Henceforth, MPRL will exist in the form of a research readiness program involving a part-time technician at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology who will inventory and maintain residual scientific assets and be available to support expeditionary research efforts in the Pacific area. A summary of research efforts in FY 83 is reported including descriptions of the redistribution of coarse surface particles by callianassid to deeper layers of the sediment. The relationship of this bioturbation to the redistribution of Bravo event fallout is related.

  16. Subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Bryan, J.B.; Glenn, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Ground are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Attempts to explain the difference in terms of device yield (which was much larger in the Pacific tests than at NTS) have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 41 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  17. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  18. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 4. 1. Cloud studies. Part 1. Cloud physics. Part 2. Development of the atomic cloud. Part 3. Cloud-tracking photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.E.; Gustafson, P.E.; Kellogg, W.W.; McKown, R.E.; McPherson, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    The cloud-physics project was primarily intended to fulfill a requirements for detailed information on the meteorological microstructure of atomic clouds. By means of a tracking and photographic network extending halfway around Eniwetok Atoll, the behavior of the first three clouds of Operation Greenhouse were observed and recorded. The rise of the fourth cloud was observed visually from only one site. The analysis of these observations, combined with information about the local weather conditions, gives a fairly complete picture of the development of each of the clouds. Particular emphasis was placed on the earlier phases of development, and the heights and sizes of the cloud parts have been determined as functions of time. A summary of important features of some previous atomic clouds are included for comparison.

  19. Blast induced subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests over coral

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Glenn, H.D.; Bryan, J.B.

    1985-02-01

    The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site and elsewhere. Attempts to account for the differences quantitatively have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin Kang; Robert Schrecengost

    2009-01-07

    Alstom Power Inc. has conducted a DOE/NETL-sponsored program (under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-04NT42306) to demonstrate Mer-Cure{trademark}, one of Alstom's mercury control technologies for coal-fired boilers. Mer-Cure{trademark} utilizes a small amount of Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbent that is injected into the flue gas stream for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous mercury. Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbents are carbon-based and prepared with chemical additives that promote oxidation and capture of mercury. Mer-Cure{trademark} is unique in that the sorbent is injected into an environment where the mercury capture kinetics is accelerated. This full-scale demonstration program was comprised of three seven-week long test campaigns at three host sites including PacifiCorp's 240-MW{sub e} Dave Johnston Unit No.3 burning a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Basin Electric's 220-MW{sub e} Leland Olds Unit No.1 burning a North Dakota lignite, and Reliant Energy's 170-MW{sub e} Portland Unit No.1 burning an Eastern bituminous coal. All three boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators. The goals for this Round 2 program, established by DOE/NETL under the original solicitation, were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the previous target of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results for all three host sites indicated that Mer-Cure{trademark} technology could achieve mercury removal of 90%. The estimated mercury removal costs were 25-92% lower than the benchmark of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The estimated costs for control, at sorbent cost of $1.25 to $2.00/lb respectively, are as follows: (1) Dave Johnston Unit No.3--$2,650 to $4,328/lb Hg removed (92.8% less than $60k/lb); (2) Leland Olds Unit No.1--$8,680 to $13,860/lb Hg removed (76.7% less than $60k/lb); and (3) Portland Unit No.1--$28,540 to $45,065/lb Hg removed (24.9% less than $60k/lb). In summary, the results from demonstration testing at all three host sites show that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. Mercury removal performance4 of greater than 90% reduction was above the 50-70% reduction goal, and mercury removal cost of 25-92% lower than the benchmark was above the 25 to 50% cost reduction goal.

  1. Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Second quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Midway-Sunset Field (CA) is the largest Heavy Oil field in California and steam injection methods have been successfully used for more than 30 years to produce the Heavy Oil from many of its unconsolidated sand reservoirs. In partnership with another DOE/ERIP grantee, our Company has acquired an 80 ac. lease in the SE part of this field, in order to demonstrate our respective technologies in the Monarch sand, of Miocene Age, which is one of the reservoirs targeted by the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. This reservoir contains a 13 API oil, which has a much higher market value, as a Refinery Feedstock, than the 5 to 8 API Vaca Tar, used only as road paving material. This makes it easier to justify the required investment in a vertical well equipped with two horizontal drainholes. The economic viability of such a project is likely to be enhanced if Congress approves the export to Japan of a portion of the 27 API (1% Sulfur) AK North Slope oil, which currently is landed in California in preference to lighter and sweeter Far East imported crudes. This is a major cause of the depressed prices for California Heavy Oil in local refineries, which have reduced the economic viability of all EOR methods, including steam injection, in California. Two proposals, for a Near-Term (3 y.) and for a Mid-Term (6 y.) project respectively, were jointly submitted to the DOE for Field Demonstration of the Partners` new technologies under the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. The previous design of a special casing joint for the Oxnard field well was reviewed and adapted to the use of existing Downhole Hardware components from three suppliers, instead of one. The cost of drilling and completion of a well equipped with two horizontal drainholes was re-evaluated for the conditions prevailing in the Midway Sunset field, which are more favorable than in the Oxnard field, leading to considerable reductions in drilling rig time and cost.

  2. Potential for a Tensor Asymmetry Azz Measurement in the x > 1 Region at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Elena [UNH

    2014-10-01

    The tensor asymmetry A(zz) in the quasi-elastic region through the tensor polarized D(e, e')X channel is sensitive to the nucleon-nucleon potential. Previous measurements of A(zz) have been used to extract b(1) in the DIS region and T(20) in the elastic region. In the quasielastic region, A(zz) can be used to compare light cone calculations with variation nucleon- nucleon calculations, and is an important quantity to determine for understanding tensor effects, such as the dominance of pn correlations in nuclei. In the quasi-elastic region, A(zz) was first calculated in 1988 by Frankfurt and Strikman using the Hamada-Johnstone and Reid soft-core wave functions [1]. Recent calculations by M. Sargsian revisit A(zz) in the x > 1 range using virtual-nucleon and light-cone methods, which differ by up to a factor of two [2]. Discussed in these proceedings, a study has been completed that determines the feasibility of measuring A(zz) in the quasi-elastic x > 1 region at Jefferson Lab's Hall C.

  3. IMPACT OF SYSTEMATICS ON SZ-OPTICAL SCALING RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesiadzinski, T.; McMahon, J.; Nord, B.; Miller, C. J.; Shaw, L.

    2012-09-20

    One of the central goals of multi-wavelength galaxy cluster cosmology is to unite all cluster observables to form a consistent understanding of cluster mass. Here, we study the impact of systematic effects from optical cluster catalogs on stacked Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals. We show that the optically predicted Y-decrement can vary by as much as 50% based on the current 2{sigma} systematic uncertainties in the observed mass-richness relationship. Miscentering and impurities will suppress the SZ signal compared to expectations for a clean and perfectly centered optical sample, but to a lesser degree. We show that the levels of these variations and suppression are dependent on the amount of systematics in the optical cluster catalogs. We also study X-ray luminosity-dependent sub-sampling of the optical catalog and find that it creates Malmquist bias, increasing the observed Y-decrement of the stacked signal. We show that the current Planck measurements of the Y-decrement around Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical clusters and their X-ray counterparts are consistent with expectations after accounting for the 1{sigma} optical systematic uncertainties using the Johnston mass-richness relation.

  4. The technical basis for air pathway assessment of resuspended radioactive aerosols: LLNL experiences at seven sites around the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    There is a large uncertainty in quantifying the inhalation pathway and the aerosol emission rate in human health assessments of radioactive-contamination sites. The need for site-specific assessments led to formation of our team of specialists at LLNL, who have participated in numerous field campaigns around the world. Our goal was to obtain all the information necessary for determining potential human exposures and to estimate source terms for turbulent transport of the emissions during both normal and disturbed soil conditions. That is, measurements were made of the key variables to quantify the suspended aerosols at the actual contamination sites, but different scenarios for habitation, site management, and site cleanup were included. The most notable locations of these site-investigations were the Marshall Islands (Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap), Nevada Test Site (GMX, Little Feller, Palanquin, and Plutonium Valley), Tonopah (Nevada--site of Roller Coaster), Savannah River Lab (South Carolina--H-Area site), Johnston Island (cleanup of rocket-impact site), Chernobyl (Ukraine--grass field end sandy beach sites near Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4), and Palomares (Spain--site of aircraft accident). This discussion will review the variables quantified, methods developed, general results, uncertainty of estimations, and recommendations for future research that are a result of our experience in these field studies.

  5. Comet 1P/Halley multifluid MHD model for the Giotto fly-by

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K.; Combi, M. R.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Shou, Y.; Tenishev, V. M.; Tóth, G.; Van der Holst, B.

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of comets with the solar wind has been the focus of many studies including numerical modeling. We compare the results of our multifluid MHD simulation of comet 1P/Halley to data obtained during the flyby of the European Space Agency's Giotto spacecraft in 1986. The model solves the full set of MHD equations for the individual fluids representing the solar wind protons, the cometary light and heavy ions, and the electrons. The mass loading, charge-exchange, dissociative ion-electron recombination, and collisional interactions between the fluids are taken into account. The computational domain spans over several million kilometers, and the close vicinity of the comet is resolved to the details of the magnetic cavity. The model is validated by comparison to the corresponding Giotto observations obtained by the Ion Mass Spectrometer, the Neutral Mass Spectrometer, the Giotto magnetometer experiment, and the Johnstone Plasma Analyzer instrument. The model shows the formation of the bow shock, the ion pile-up, and the diamagnetic cavity and is able to reproduce the observed temperature differences between the pick-up ion populations and the solar wind protons. We give an overview of the global interaction of the comet with the solar wind and then show the effects of the Lorentz force interaction between the different plasma populations.

  6. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  7. Localizing multiple X chromosome-linked retinitis pigmentosa loci using multilocus homogeneity tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, J.; Terwilliger, J.D. (New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York (USA)); Bhattacharya, S. (Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (England)); Chen, J.D.; Denton, J.; Donald, J. (Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick (Australia)); Dubay, C.; Litt, M.; Weleber, R.G. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland (USA)); Farrar, G.J.; Humphries, P. (Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)); Fishman, G.A.; Wong, F. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA)); Frey, D.; Maechler, M. (Institute of Medical Genetics, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1990-01-01

    Multilocus linkage analysis of 62 family pedigrees with X chromosome-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) was undertaken to determine the presence of possible multiple disease loci and to reliability estimate their map location. Multilocus homogeneity tests furnish convincing evidence for the presence of two XLRP loci, the likelihood ratio being 6.4 {times} 10{sup 9}:1 in a favor of two versus a single XLRP locus and gave accurate estimates for their map location. In 60-75% of the families, location of an XLRP gene was estimated at 1 centimorgan distal to OTC, and in 25-40% of the families, an XLRP locus was located halfway between DXS14 (p58-1) and DXZ1 (Xcen), with an estimated recombination fraction of 25% between the two XLRP loci. There is also good evidence for third XLRP locus, midway between DXS28 (C7) and DXS164 (pERT87), supported by a likelihood ratio of 293:1 for three versus two XLRP loci.

  8. Results from ORNL Characterization of Zr02-500-AK2 - Surrogate TRISO Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunn, John D [ORNL; Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL

    2005-06-01

    This document is a compilation of the characterization data for the TRISO-coated surrogate particle batch designated ZrO2-500-AK2 that was produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program. The ZrO2-500-AK2 material contains nominally 500 {micro}m kernels of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coated with all TRISO layers (buffer, inner pyrocarbon, silicon carbide, and outer pyrocarbon). The ZrO2-500-AK2 material was created for: (1) irradiation testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and (2) limited dissemination to laboratories as deemed appropriate to the AGR program. This material was created midway into a TRISO fuel development program to accommodate a sudden opportunity to perform irradiation testing on surrogate material. While the layer deposition processes were chosen based on the best technical understanding at the time, technical progress at ORNL has led to an evolution in the perceived optimal deposition conditions since the createion of ZrO2-500-AK2. Thus, ZrO2-500-AK2 contains a reasonable TRISO microstructure, but does differ significanly from currently produced TRISO surrogates and fuel at ORNL. In this document, characterization data of the ZrO2-500-AK2 surrogate includes: size, shape, coating thickness, and density.

  9. Results from ORNL characterization of ZrO2-500-AK2 - surrogate TRISO material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL

    2005-06-01

    This document is a compilation of the characterization data for the TRISO-coated surrogate particles designated ZrO2-500-AK2 that was produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program. The ZrO2-500-AK2 material contains nominally 500 {micro}m kernels of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coated with all TRISO layers (buffer, inner pyrocarbon, silicon carbide, and outer pyrocarbon). The ZrO2-500-AK2 material was created for: (1) irradiation testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and (2) limited dissemination to laboratories as deemed appropriate to the AGR program. This material was created midway into a TRISO fuel development program to accommodate a sudden opportunity to perform irradiation testing on surrogate material. While the layer deposition processes were chosen based on the best technical understanding at the time, technical progress at ORNL has led to an evolution in the perceived optimal deposition conditions since the creation of ZrO2-500-AK2. Thus, ZrO2-500-AK2 contains a reasonable TRISO microstructure, but does differ significantly from currently produced TRISO surrogates and fuel at ORNL. In this document, characterization data of the ZrO2-500-AK2 surrogate includes: size, shape, coating thickness, and density.

  10. Heavy oil upgrading via fluidized bed processing and hydrogenation processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, F.N. Jr. [California Synfuels Research Corp., Palos Verdes, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    California is the second largest crude oil producer in the lower 48 states. Nearly half of its production is heavy oil, difficult to transport and costly to refine. Given better methods of processing, production could be expanded. Likewise, huge worldwide reserves of heavy oils could be better exploited if more attractive processing methods were available. Midway Sunset crude at 11.8 API gravity, is a fairly difficult crude to process. It has about 1.5 percent sulfur, a very high nitrogen content, in the range of 0.7--0.8%, and metals of approximately 120--170 ppm, vanadium plus nickel. The authors will be reporting here results of the pilot plant testing to see whether non-catalytic fluid bed cracking technology, operated at low conversion, followed by hydrogenation would be economically attractive. Results suggest that this approach is competitive with delayed coking and with atmospheric resid desulfurization. This approach successfully combines carbon removal and hydrogen addition techniques for heavy oil upgrading. Comparative yields, product quality and economic considerations are reviewed in this study.

  11. Corrugation of Phase-Separated Lipid Bilayers Supported by Nanoporous Silica Xerogel Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goksu, E I; Nellis, B A; Lin, W; Satcher Jr., J H; Groves, J T; Risbud, S H; Longo, M L

    2008-10-30

    Lipid bilayers supported by substrates with nanometer-scale surface corrugations holds interest in understanding both nanoparticle-membrane interactions and the challenges of constructing models of cell membranes on surfaces with desirable properties, e.g. porosity. Here, we successfully form a two-phase (gel-fluid) lipid bilayer supported by nanoporous silica xerogel. Surface topology, diffusion, and lipid density in comparison to mica-supported lipid bilayers were characterized by AFM, FRAP, FCS, and quantitative fluorescence microscopy, respectively. We found that the two-phase lipid bilayer follows the xerogel surface contours. The corrugation imparted on the lipid bilayer results in a lipid density that is twice that on a flat mica surface. In direct agreement with the doubling of actual bilayer area in a projected area, we find that the lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of lipids on xerogel ({approx}1.7 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) is predictably lower than on mica ({approx}4.1 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) by both FRAP and FCS techniques. Furthermore, the gel-phase domains on xerogel compared to mica were larger and less numerous. Overall, our results suggest the presence of a relatively defect-free continuous two-phase bilayer that penetrates approximately midway into the first layer of {approx}50 nm xerogel beads.

  12. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  13. The imperfect price-reversibility of world oil demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gately, D. [New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper examines the price-reversibility of world oil demand, using price-decomposition methods employed previously on other energy demand data. We conclude that the reductions in world oil demand following the oil price increases of the 1970s will not be completely reversed by the price cuts of the 1980s. The response to price cuts in the 1980s is perhaps only one-fifth that for price increases in the 1970s. This has dramatic implications for projections of oil demand, especially under low-price assumptions. We also consider the effect on demand of a price recovery (sub-maximum increase) in the 1990s - due either to OPEC or to a carbon tax-specifically whether the effects would be as large as for the price increases of the 1970s or only as large as the smaller demand reversals of the 1980s. On this the results are uncertain, but a tentative conclusion is that the response to a price recovery would lie midway between the small response to price cuts and the larger response to increases in the maximum historical price. Finally, we demonstrate two implications of wrongly assuming that demand is perfectly price-reversible. First, such an assumption will grossly overestimate the demand response to price declines of the 1980s. Secondly, and somewhat surprisingly, it causes an underestimate of the effect of income growth on future demand. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Influence of anticlinal growth on upper Miocene turbidite deposits, Elk Hills field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); McJannet, G.S. (Dept. of Energy, Tupman, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Growth of subsea anticlines during deposition of the upper Miocene 24Z and 26R sandstones at Elk Hills caused the development of several sinuous, lenticular sand bodies. later structural growth enhanced the trap characteristics of these sandstones. Both sandstones are in the uppermost portion of the Elk Hills Shale Member of the Monterey Formation and contain channel-fill and overbank deposits of sand-rich turbidite systems. At the onset of turbidite deposition, low relief subsea anticlines separated broad basins which progressively deepened to the northeast. Channel-fill deposits of coarse-grained sand generally followed the axes of these northwest-southeast-trending basins. At several sites, channel-fill deposits also spilled north across anticlinal axes into the next lower basins. Wide bands of overbank sand and mud were deposited at sand body edges on the flat basin floors. Midway through turbidite deposition, a period of anticlinal growth substantially raised subsea relief. Channel-fill deposits continued in narrower basins but passed north into deeper basin only around well-defined sites at the anticlines' downplunge termini. Narrow basin shapes and higher anticline relief prevented significant overbank deposition. With Pliocene to Holocene uplift of the late Miocene structural trends, stratigraphic mounding of the north-directed channel-fill deposits helped create structural domes at 24Z, 2B and Northwest Stevens pools. In sand bodies lacking significant overbank deposits prevented oil entrapment in sand bodies deposited at times of low anticlinal relief.

  15. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-05-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using /sup 125/I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare /sup 125/I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. At each site the /sup 125/I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it.

  16. Energy Conservation Program of the Division of Substation and Control Engineering : An Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    1981-04-01

    Energy conservation projects undertaken by BPA that could benefit residential and commercial users and development of prototype equipment are described. Progress reports are presented and directions that the projects will take are indicated. The first projects presented are those being done at BPA's Midway Residential Community: studies on air infiltration and weatherization, and evaluation of such energy conservation measures as heat pump and solar water heaters. The next section involves an energy audit and retrofit program undertaken to reduce energy consumption in BPA's own buildings. The third section, also concerned with BPA's efforts to reduce internal energy consumption, presents the application of passive solar techniques to the design of new BPA buildings. The fourth section reports on a system developed to utilize waste thermal energy from transformers and solar energy for space heating and cooling. The fifth section also involves the development of a prototype system, one to monitor energy usage of industrial equipment. The final sections report on projects involving solar and wind energy, the Photovoltaic Applications Program, and the Mod-2 Wind Generator project at Goodnoe Hills. (MCW)

  17. Studies of Plutonium Aerosol Resuspension at the Time of the Maralinga Cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, J

    2003-08-01

    At the former nuclear test site at Maralinga, South Australia, soil cleanup began in October 1996 with the objective to remove the potential for residual plutonium (Pu) exposures to the public. In this case the cleanup was to restore access to the closed test site. The proposed long-term land use was primarily to be a hunting area for Pitjantjatjara (Aboriginal) people, but also presumably to be available to the public who might have an interest in the history of the site. The long-term management objective for the site was to allow casual use, but to prohibit habitation. The goal of this study is to provide an evaluation of the Maralinga soil cleanup in terms of potential long-term public inhalation exposures to particulate Pu, and in terms of a contribution to planning and conducting any such soil Pu-cleanup. Such cleanups might be carried out for example, on the Nevada Test Site in the United States. For Pu that has been deposited on the soil by atmospheric sources of finely divided particles, the dominant exposure pathway to humans is by inhalation. Other exposure pathways are less important because the Pu particles become oxidized into a nearly insoluble form, do not easily enter into the food chain, nor are they significantly transferred through the intestine to the bloodstream should Pu become ingested. The purpose of this report is to provide results of the Pu resuspension measurements made before, during, and after the Pu cleanup at Maralinga, to compare these against similar measurements made elsewhere, and to interpret the results as they relate to potential long-term public exposures. (Exposures to Pu in dust plumes produced by mechanical disturbance during cleanup are considered short-term, unlikely to be significant for purposes of this report, and are not included). A considerable amount of research had been conducted at Maralinga by the Australian Radiation Laboratory, now the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), prior to the cleanup (Johnston et al, 1992, Williams 1993, Johnston et al 1993, Burns et al 1994, Burns et al 1995). ARPANSA staff made major contributions to delineate the areas with Pu in the soil, to determine the degree of secondary soil contamination by fission products from nuclear testing, to measure Pu resuspension by wind erosion of the undisturbed soil, and to prepare assessments of the human health risk from residual soil Pu. In addition, ARPANSA supported the Maralinga cleanup to assure compliance with criteria set by an independent technical advisory committee. During the cleanup ARPANSA monitored the residual Pu in the soil and certified that the cleanup was complete according to the criteria. It was not the reduction in potential inhalation exposure that usually was the main driver of the cleanup, but the requirement to also remove individual hot particles and fragments. It is the residual microscopic particles of Pu in the soil, however, that have the potential for long-term human exposure. The resuspension of respirable-size Pu particles has been studied with specialized equipment at the Nevada Test Site (Gilbert et al 1988a, Gilbert et al 1988b, Shinn et al 1989, and Shinn 1992), and at Bikini and Enewetak in the Marshall Islands (Shinn et al 1997). These efforts were in large part contributed by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study reported here is a collaboration between ARPANSA and LLNL, and was jointly supported by the United States Department of Energy, and the Commonwealth of Australia Department of Primary Industry and Energy.

  18. Spin Coherence at the Nanoscale: Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Arthur J.

    2013-09-10

    Breakthrough results were achieved during the reporting period in the areas of organic spintronics. (A) For the first time the giant magnetic resistance (GMR) was observed in spin valve with an organic spacer. Thus we demonstrated the ability of organic semiconductors to transport spin in GMR devices using rubrene as a prototype for organic semiconductors. (B) We discovered the electrical bistability and spin valve effect in a ferromagnet /organic semiconductor/ ferromagnet heterojunction. The mechanism of switching between conducting phases and its potential applications were suggested. (C) The ability of V(TCNE)x to inject spin into organic semiconductors such as rubrene was demonstrated for the first time. The mechanisms of spin injection and transport from and into organic magnets as well through organic semiconductors were elucidated. (D) In collaboration with the group of OSU Prof. Johnston-Halperin we reported the successful extraction of spin polarized current from a thin film of the organic-based room temperature ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]x and its subsequent injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode (LED). Thus all basic steps for fabrication of room temperature, light weight, flexible all organic spintronic devices were successfully performed. (E) A new synthesis/processing route for preparation of V(TCNE)x enabling control of interface and film thicknesses at the nanoscale was developed at OSU. Preliminary results show these films are higher quality and what is extremely important they are substantially more air stable than earlier prepared V(TCNE)x. In sum the breakthrough results we achieved in the past two years form the basis of a promising new technology, Multifunctional Flexible Organic-based Spintronics (MFOBS). MFOBS technology enables us fabrication of full function flexible spintronic devices that operate at room temperature.

  19. Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Compared to Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Mumbi, Maina

    2009-02-11

    The notion of"productive use" is often invoked in discussions about whether new technologies improve productivity or otherwise enhance commerce in developing-country contexts. It an elusive concept,especially when quantitative measures are sought. Improved and more energy efficient illumination systems for off-gridapplication--the focus of the Lumina Project--provide a case in which a significant productivity benefit can be imagined, given the importance of light to the successful performance of many tasks, and the very low quality of baseline illumination provided by flame-based source. This Research Note summarizes self-reported quantitative and qualitative impacts of switching to LED lighting technology on the prosperity of night-market business owners and operators. The information was gathered in the context of our 2008 market testing field work in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province, which was performed in the towns of Maai Mahiu and Karagita by Arne Jacobson, Kristen Radecsky, Peter Johnstone, Maina Mumbi, and others. Maai Mahiu is a crossroads town; provision of services to travelers and freight carriers is a primary income source for the residents. In contrast, the primary income for Karagita's residents is from work in the large, factory style flower farms on the eastern shores of Lake Naivasha that specialize in producing cut flowers for export to the European market. According to residents, both towns had populations of 6,000 to 8,000 people in June 2008. We focused on quantifying the economics of fuel-based and LED lighting technology in the context of business use by night market vendors and shop keepers. Our research activities with the business owners and operators included baseline measurement of their fuel-based lighting use, an initial survey, offering for sale data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring the adoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.

  20. The L_X--M relation of Clusters of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. S. Rykoff; A. E. Evrard; T. A. McKay; M. R. Becker; D. E. Johnston; B. P. Koester; B. Nord; E. Rozo; E. S. Sheldon; R. Stanek; R. H. Wechsler

    2008-03-27

    We present a new measurement of the scaling relation between X-ray luminosity and total mass for 17,000 galaxy clusters in the maxBCG cluster sample. Stacking sub-samples within fixed ranges of optical richness, N_200, we measure the mean 0.1-2.4 keV X-ray luminosity, , from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. The mean mass, , is measured from weak gravitational lensing of SDSS background galaxies (Johnston et al. 2007). For 9 /10^42 h^-2 erg/s = (12.6+1.4-1.3 (stat) +/- 1.6 (sys)) (/10^14 h^-1 M_sun)^1.65+/-0.13. The slope agrees to within 10% with previous estimates based on X-ray selected catalogs, implying that the covariance in L_X and N_200 at fixed halo mass is not large. The luminosity intercent is 30%, or 2\\sigma, lower than determined from the X-ray flux-limited sample of Reiprich & Bohringer (2002), assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This difference could arise from a combination of Malmquist bias and/or systematic error in hydrostatic mass estimates, both of which are expected. The intercept agrees with that derived by Stanek et al. (2006) using a model for the statistical correspondence between clusters and halos in a WMAP3 cosmology with power spectrum normalization sigma_8 = 0.85. Similar exercises applied to future data sets will allow constraints on the covariance among optical and hot gas properties of clusters at fixed mass.

  1. The L_X-M relation of Clusters of Galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rykoff, E.S.; Evrard, A.E.; McKay, T.A.; Becker, M.R.; Johnston, D.E.; Koester, B.P.; Nord, B.; Rozo, E.; Sheldon, E.S.; Stanek, R.; Wechsler, R.H.

    2008-05-16

    We present a new measurement of the scaling relation between X-ray luminosity and total mass for 17,000 galaxy clusters in the maxBCG cluster sample. Stacking sub-samples within fixed ranges of optical richness, N200, we measure the mean 0.1-2.4 keV X-ray luminosity, , from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. The mean mass, , is measured from weak gravitational lensing of SDSS background galaxies (Johnston et al. 2007). For 9 {le} N{sub 200} < 200, the data are well fit by a power-law, /10{sup 42} h{sup -2} ergs{sup -1} = (12.6{sub -1.3}{sup +1.4}(stat) {+-} 1.6 (sys)) (/10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}){sup 1.65{+-}0.13}. The slope agrees to within 10% with previous estimates based on X-ray selected catalogs, implying that the covariance in L{sub X} and N{sub 200} at fixed halo mass is not large. The luminosity intercept is 30%, or 2{sigma}, lower than determined from the X-ray flux-limited sample of Reiprich & Boehringer (2002), assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This slight difference could arise from a combination of Malmquist bias and/or systematic error in hydrostatic mass estimates, both of which are expected. The intercept agrees with that derived by Stanek et al. (2006) using a model for the statistical correspondence between clusters and halos in a WMAP3 cosmology with power spectrum normalization {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.85. Similar exercises applied to future data sets will allow constraints on the covariance among optical and hot gas properties of clusters at fixed mass.

  2. Resuspension studies in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.; Robison, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The contribution of inhalation exposure to the total dose for residents of the Marshall Islands was monitored at occasions of opportunity on several islands in the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. To determine the long-term potential for inhalation exposure, and to understand the mechanisms of redistribution and personal exposure, additional investigations were undertaken on Bikini Island under modified and controlled conditions. Experiments were conducted to provide key parameters for the assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: characterization of the contribution of plutonium in soil-borne aerosols as compared to sea spray and organic aerosols, determination of plutonium resuspension rates as measured by the meteorological flux-gradient method during extreme conditions of a bare-soil vs. a stabilized surface, determination of the approximate individual exposures to resuspended plutonium by traffic, and studies of exposures to individuals in different occupational environments simulated by personal air sampling of workers assigned to a variety of tasks. Enhancement factors (defined as ratios of the plutonium-activity), of suspended aerosols relative to the plutonium-activity of the soil were determined to be less than 1 (typically 0.4 to 0.7) in the undisturbed, vegetated areas, but greater than 1 (as high as 3) for the case studies of disturbed bare soil, roadside travel, and for occupational duties in fields and in and around houses. 12 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. RossiXTE monitoring of 4U 1636-53: I. Long-term evolution and kHz Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomaso Belloni; Jeroen Homan; Sara Motta; Eva Ratti; Mariano Mendez

    2007-05-06

    We have monitored the atoll-type neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for more than 1.5 years. Our campaign consisted of short (~2 ks) pointings separated by two days, regularly monitoring the spectral and timing properties of the source. During the campaign we observed a clear long-term oscillation with a period of ~30-40 days, already seen in the light curves from the RXTE All-Sky Monitor, which corresponded to regular transitions between the hard (island) and soft (banana) states. We detected kHz QPOs in about a third of the observations, most of which were in the soft (banana) state. The distribution of the frequencies of the peak identified as the lower kHz QPO is found to be different from that previously observed in an independent data set. This suggests that the kHz QPOs in the system shows no intrinsically preferred frequency.

  4. Fifteenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This collection contains 173 abstracts from presented papers and poster sessions. The five sessions of the conference were on the subjects of: (1) Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing, (2) Applied Biological Research, (3) Bioprocessing Research (4), Process Economics and Commercialization, and (5) Environmental Biotechnology. Examples of specific topics in the first session include the kinetics of ripening cheese, microbial liquefaction of lignite, and wheat as a feedstock for fuel ethanol. Typical topics in the second session were synergism studies of bacterial and fungal celluloses, conversion of inulin from jerusalem artichokes to sorbitol and ethanol by saccharomyces cerevisiae, and microbial conversion of high rank coals to methane. The third session entertained topics such as hydrodynamic modeling of a liquid fluidized bed bioreactor for coal biosolubilization, aqueous biphasic systems for biological particle partitioning, and arabinose utilization by xylose-fermenting yeast and fungi. The fourth session included such topics as silage processing of forage biomass to alcohol fuels, economics of molasses to ethanol in India, and production of lactic acid from renewable resources. the final session contained papers on such subjects as bioluminescent detection of contaminants in soils, characterization of petroleum contaminated soils in coral atolls in the south Pacific, and landfill management for methane generation and emission control.

  5. Possible differences in biological availability of isotopes of plutonium: Report of a workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, J.R.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a workshop conducted on the apparent different bioavailability of isotopes {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu. There is a substantial body of evidence that {sup 238}Pu as commonly found in the environment is more biologically available than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Trinity Site, Nevada Test Site from nonnuclear and nuclear events, Rocky Flats, Enewetak and Bikini, and the arctic tundra support this conclusion and indicate that the bioavailability of {sup 238}Pu is more than an order of magnitude greater than that of {sup 239}Pu. Plant and soil studies from controlled environments and from Savannah River indicate no isotopic difference in availability of Pu to plants; whereas studies at the Trinity Site do suggest a difference. While it is possible that these observations can be explained by problems in the experimental procedure and analytical techniques, this possibility is remote given the ubiquitous nature of the observations. Studies of solubility of Pu in the stomach contents of cattle grazing at the Nevada Test Site and from fish from Bikini Atoll both found that {sup 238}Pu was more soluble than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Los Alamos effluent stream indicate that as particle size decreases, the content of {sup 238}Pu relative to {sup 239}Pu increases.

  6. Evaluation of critical pathways, radionuclides, and remedial measures for reducing the radiological dose to returning populations at a former nuclear test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W. L., LLNL

    1997-11-01

    Bikini Island, the major residence island at Bikini Atoll, was contaminated with radioactive fallout as a result of the BRAVO test conducted on March 1, 1954. We have identified the critical radionuclides and supplied radiological data needed to develop dose estimates for all possible exposure pathways. These estimates show that the major dose to returning populations would result from ingestion of cesium-137 (137 Cs) in locally grown terrestrial foods where the predicted population average effective dose exceeds current federal guidelines. Consequently, we designed several long-term field experiments to develop and evaluate methods to reduce the 137 Cs content in locally grown foods.This paper gives a general outline of the remediation experiments with a more detailed description of a preferred combined option. Our comparative evaluation on various remedial methods show that the combined option--potassium treatment of the entire islands with limited excavation of soil in village an d housing areas--will be effective in reducing the dose to about 10% of pretreatment levels, and offers very significant benefits with respect to adverse environmental impacts as well as savings in overall costs, time, and required expert resources.

  7. Equatorial hydrology studies by satellite telemetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robison, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-12-30

    We are using a geostationary satellite functioning as a transponder to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Enewetak and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely measure net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water-flux model predicted wet season plant-transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6- to 7-mm/d evaporation-pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. From the microclimate data we estimated a 1:3 and 1:20 /sup 137/Cs dry-matter concentration ratio, which was later confirmed by radioisotopic analysis. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  8. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesselet, R.; Fontugne, M.; Buat-Menard, P.; Ezat, U.; Lambert, C.E.

    1981-04-01

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m/sup -3/, in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r<0.5 mm). The /sup 13/C//sup 12/C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d/sup 13/C = 26 +- 2/sup 0///sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols (<20% of the total concentration) is likely to have a direct marine origin since its carbon isotopic composition is close to the expected value (d/sup 13/C = -21 +- 2/sup 0///sub 00/) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere.

  9. Assessment of plutonium exposure in the Enewetak population by urinalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.

    1997-07-01

    Since 1980, the inhabitants of Enewetak Atoll have been monitored periodically by scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory for internally deposited radioactive material. In 1989, the establishment of fission track analysis and of a protocol for shipboard collection of 24-h urine samples significantly improved our ability to assess the internal uptake of plutonium. The purpose of this report is to show the distribution of plutonium concentrations in urine collected in 1989 and 1991, and to assess the associated committed effective doses for the Enewetak population based on a long-term chronic uptake of low-level plutonium. To estimate dose, we derived the plutonium dose-per-unit-uptake coefficients based on the dosimetric system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Assuming a continuous uptake, an integrated Jones`s plutonium urine excretion function was developed to interpret the Enewetak urine data. The Appendix shows how these values were derived. The committed effective doses were 0.2 mSv, calculated from the 1991 average plutonium content in 69 urine samples. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ({sup 63}Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 63}Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 63}Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 63}Ni. The primary source of {sup 63}Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 62}Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. {sup 63}Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of {sup 63}Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq{sup a} per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). {sup 63}Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in {sup 63}Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains {approximately}9% total Ni or {approximately}0.3% {sup 63}Ni).

  11. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and /sup 137/Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  12. Bomb tests attack the food chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruff, T. )

    1990-03-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, the most common type of fish poisoning in the world, has become a major public health problem in some parts of the South Pacific. This area has always been the site of periodic outbreaks, especially after severe storms or natural disasters that damage core reefs. But since World War II it has become evident that military activities and major construction projects that wreak havoc on corals also lead to ciguatera outbreaks. Extraordinarily high rates of ciguatera poisoning have occurred on the small Pacific islands that have been used for nuclear tests and on the islands that host the military infrastructures and activities that accompany the tests. This is true for both the Marshall Islands near Bikini and Eniwetok, where U.S. tests took place, and in French Polynesia, in the area around Moruroa Atoll where the French government continues to test. Ciguatera poisoning has a disastrous effect on people who depend on fishing as a way of life and on fish as the major source of protein. 10 refs.

  13. Validation and analysis of microwave-derived rainfall over the tropics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleishauer, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    A recently developed single channel microwave rain rate retrieval algorithm exists to measure global precipitation over the data-sparse tropical oceans. The objective of this study is to retrieve and validate rainfall using this algorithm, followed by an analysis of the derived rainfall fields. Retrieval consists of applying the algorithm technique to the extraction of four years worth of achieved data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) instrument flown aboard the NIMBUS 5 satellite. The Pacific Atoll Raingage Data Set is chosen as a ground truth measure to validate the ESMR-Derived rainfall data against, comparing slope, intercept and correlation between 5 deg x 5 deg area average. Despite limitations imposed by the comparison of point measurements to area-averaged rainfall, results show a 0.80 correlation. Monthly and quarterly climatological mean rainfall estimates are produced, with a consequent analysis of prominent signals, especially in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and the Indian monsoon. Latent heat flux is computed, using the ESMR-derived rainfall, and plotted to show qualitatively where seasonal latent thermodynamic energy sources and sinks exist in the atmosphere. A comparison of the summer and winter quarterly composites of the above products with previously compiled climatologies and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) showed only minor discrepancies in location and intensity, which are discussed in some detail.

  14. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

    2003-04-01

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  15. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Han

    2011-09-30

    This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

  16. Spanish courtyards: High mass cooling in hot weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.S. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Several courtyards (patios) in Andalucia were monitored for air temperature, relative humidity and daylight in July-august of 1994. Two patios are described here. Locations above and within these patios as well as adjacent rooms were included. The patios are from one to two stories deep, with rather small floor areas, so relatively little direct sun falls on these patio floors, in a season mid-way between the summer solstice and the fall equinox. Neither patio had a toldo, or movable canvas cover, that would provide shade by day, but exposure to the night sky. The cooling strategy here is mostly a reliance on high mass, with no evidence (exhaust fans or stacks) of deliberate night ventilation. Occasional evaporative cooling is likely, due to the watering of the plants within these patios. There is potential for considerable evaporative cooling, due to relative humidities averaging about 32%. The temperatures within the adjacent spaces were quite stable, just above the summer comfort zone for still air. Night ventilation might provide somewhat more cooling than high mass. Measured temperatures at sunny locations in and above the patios were higher than the official readings, at both maximum and minimum times. Sky conditions were generally clear, and almost no rain fell. The strategy of high mass cooling, typical of indigenous housing in hot arid areas, was demonstrated to be effective in these case. Although the highest interior temperatures pushed the upper limits of the summer comfort zone for still air, they were well below the exterior maximum. With a slight increase in air motion (the well-known hand held fans of Spain, for example), comfort is readily attained. An even greater degree of psychological cooling is attained through visual, audial and olfactory stimuli associated with shading plants and water.

  17. OGLE-ing the Magellanic system: stellar populations in the Magellanic Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skowron, D. M.; Jacyszyn, A. M.; Udalski, A.; Szyma?ski, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Koz?owski, S.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzy?ski, G.; Soszy?ski, I.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, ?., E-mail: dszczyg@astrouw.edu.pl [Warsaw University Astronomical Observatory, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-11-10

    We report the discovery of a young stellar bridge that forms a continuous connection between the Magellanic Clouds. This finding is based on number density maps for stellar populations found in data gathered by OGLE-IV that fully cover over 270 deg{sup 2} of the sky in the Magellanic Bridge area. This is the most extensive optical survey of this region to date. We find that the young population is present mainly in the western half of the MBR, which, together with the newly discovered young population in the eastern Bridge, form a continuous stream of stars connecting both galaxies along ? ? –73.5 deg. The young population distribution is clumped, with one of the major densities close to the SMC and the other fairly isolated and located approximately mid-way between the Clouds, which we call the OGLE island. These overdensities are well matched by H I surface density contours, although the newly found young population in the eastern Bridge is offset by ?2 deg north from the highest H I density contour. We observe a continuity of red clump stars between the Magellanic Clouds which represent an intermediate-age population. Red clump stars are present mainly in the southern and central parts of the Magellanic Bridge, below its gaseous part, and their presence is reflected by a strong deviation from the radial density profiles of the two galaxies. This may indicate either a tidal stream of stars, or that the stellar halos of the two galaxies overlap. On the other hand, we do not observe such an overlap within an intermediate-age population represented by the top of the red giant branch and the asymptotic giant branch stars. We also see only minor mixing of the old populations of the Clouds in the southern part of the Bridge, represented by the lowest part of the red giant branch.

  18. A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert G. Ellingson

    2004-09-28

    One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

  19. The prospects for constraining dark energy with future X-ray cluster gas mass fraction measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Rapetti; Steven W. Allen; Adam Mantz

    2008-06-25

    We examine the ability of a future X-ray observatory to constrain dark energy via measurements of the cluster X-ray gas mass fraction, fgas. We find that fgas measurements for a sample of ~500 hot, X-ray bright, dynamically relaxed clusters, to a precision of ~5 per cent, can be used to constrain dark energy with a Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) figure of merit of 15-40, with the possibility of boosting these values by 40 per cent or more by optimizing the redshift distribution of target clusters. Such constraints are comparable to those predicted by the DETF for other leading, planned dark energy experiments. A future fgas experiment will be preceded by a large X-ray or SZ survey that will find hot, X-ray luminous clusters out to high redshifts. Short `snapshot' observations with the new X-ray observatory should then be able to identify a sample of ~500 suitably relaxed systems. The redshift, temperature and X-ray luminosity range of interest has already been partially probed by existing X-ray cluster surveys which allow reasonable estimates of the fraction of clusters that will be suitably relaxed for fgas work. Our analysis uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method which fully captures the relevant degeneracies between parameters and facilitates the incorporation of priors and systematic uncertainties in the analysis. We explore the effects of such uncertainties for scenarios ranging from optimistic to pessimistic. We conclude that the fgas experiment will provide tight constraints on the mean matter and dark energy densities, with a peak sensitivity for dark energy work at redshifts midway between those of supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillation/weak lensing/cluster number counts experiments. In combination, these experiments should enable a precise measurement of the evolution of dark energy. (Abridged)

  20. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1992--September 30, 1992, Number 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-01

    In accordance with section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), the Department has prepared the seventh in a series of reports on the progress of site characterization at the Yucca Mountain candidate site. The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program made significant progress during the reporting period at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Several important advances were made in the surface-based testing program including: initiation of borehole drilling utilizing the new, state-of-the-art LM-300 drill rig which employs dry drilling and coring techniques; neutron access borehole drilling to evaluate infiltration processes; excavations to aid geologic mapping; and trenching in Midway Valley to study Quaternary faulting. A Floodplain Assessment and Statement of Findings was published in the Federal Register which concluded there would be no significant impact nor cumulative impacts on floodplains resulting from Exploratory Studies Facility activities. The National Academy of Sciences` National Research Council released its report entitled ``Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise?`` which concluded that none of the evidence cited as proof of groundwater upwelling in and around Yucca Mountain could be reasonably attributed to that process and that significant water table excursions to the repository design level are not shown by the geologic record. The June 29, 1992, earthquake near Yucca Mountain provided scientists with a wealth of information relevant to understanding the neotectonics of the area and the geometry of faults at depth. Early findings suggest that accelerations recorded were well within proposed design limits for the surface waste handling facilities.

  1. Fourier resolved spectroscopy of 4U 1728-34: New Insights into Spectral and Temporal Properties of Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. R. Shrader; P. Reig; D. Kazanas

    2007-06-11

    Using archival RXTE data we derive the 2-16 keV Fourier-resolved spectra of the Atoll source 4U 1728-34 in a sequence of its timing states as its low QPO frequency spans the range between 6 and 94 Hz. The increase in the QPO frequency accompanies a spectral transition of the source from its island to its banana states. The banana-states' Fourier-resolved spectra are well fitted by a single blackbody component with $kT \\sim 2-3$ keV depending on the source position in the color -- color diagram and the Fourier frequency, thus indicating that this spectral component is responsible for the source variability on these timescales. This result is in approximate agreement with similar behavior exhibited by the Z sources, suggesting that, as in that case, the boundary layer -- the likely source of the thermal component -- is supported by radiation pressure. Furthermore, it is found that the iron line at $\\sim$6.6 keV, clearly present in the averaged spectra, not apparent within the limitations of our measurements in the frequency-resolved spectra irrespective of the frequency range. This would indicate that this spectral component exhibits little variability on time scales comprising the interval $10^{-2}-10^2$ seconds. In the island state the single blackbody model proved inadequate, particularly notable in our lowest frequency band ($0.008-0.8$ Hz). An absorbed powerlaw or an additive blackbody plus hard powerlaw model was required to obtain a satisfactory fit. Statistics do not allow unambiguous discrimination between these possible scenarios.

  2. Transuranic resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-04-01

    Characteristics of aged resuspension sources are more uncertain than those of new resuspension sources, which can be investigated using inert-particle controlled-tracer sources. Even though airborne concentrations are low, one aged uniform-area source which can be used for resuspension studies is the accumulated radionuclide fallout in the soil from stratospheric and tropospheric fallout debris. Airborne radionuclide concentrations from this source were investigated at convenient locations on the Hanford site. The objective is to summarize plutonium and americium resuspension research conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1977 to 1983. Airborne plutonium was determined at five sites in the Hanford area, and both plutonium and americium were determined at two Hanford sites. Airborne plutonium and americium were examined as a function of aerodynamic particle diameter, sampling height, wind speed increments, and wind direction increments. The following results are discussed: airborne radionuclide concentrations, ..mu..Ci/cm/sup 3/ of sampled air; radionuclide activity densities, ..mu..Ci/g of airborne solids; airborne plutonium fluxes, ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day); /sup 241/Am//sup 239 +240/Pu) activity ratios, (..mu..Ci /sup 241/Am)/(..mu..Ci/sup 239 +240/Pu); and airborne solid concentrations, ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ of sampled air. In addition, a relationship based on field data for aged plutonium sources at Bikini Atoll, the Hanford site, and Rocky Flats was developed to estimate the maximum expected plutonium activity density on airborne solids compared to activity densities for bulk surface-soil samples. As a result, it is possible to more accurately predict resuspension factor ranges as a function of the resuspension source activity densities. 31 references, 18 figures, 5 tables.

  3. University of Washington`s radioecological studies in the Marshall Islands, 1946-1977

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, L.R.; Seymour, A.H.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1997-07-01

    Since 1946, personnel from the School of Fisheries, University of Washington, have studied the effects of nuclear detonations and the ensuing radioactivity on the marine and terrestrial environments throughout the Central Pacific. A collection of reports and publications about these activities plus a collection of several thousand samples from these periods are kept at the School of Fisheries. General findings from the surveys show that (1) fission products were prevalent in organisms of the terrestrial environment whereas activation products were prevalent in marine organisms; (2) the best biological indicators of fallout radionuclides by environments were (a) terrestrial-coconuts, land crabs; (b) reef-algae, invertebrates; and (c) marine-plankton, fish. Studies of plutonium and americium in Bikini Atoll showed that during 1971-1977 the highest concentrations of {sup 241}Am, 2.85 Bq g-{close_quote} (77 pCi g{sup -1}) and {sup 239,240}Pu, 4.44 Bq g{sup -1} (120 pCi g{sup -1}), in surface sediments were found in the northwest part of the lagoon. The concentrations in the bomb craters were substantially lower than these values. Concentrations of soluble and particulate plutonium and americium in surface and deep water samples showed distributions similar to the sediment samples. That is, the highest concentration of these radionuclides in the water column were at locations with highest sediment concentration. Continuous circulation of water in the lagoon and exchange of water with open ocean resulted in removal of 111 G Bq y{sup -1} (3 Ci y{sup -1}) {sup 241}Am and 222 G Bq y{sup -1} (6 Ci y{sup -1}) {sup 239,240}Pu into the North Equatorial Current. A summary of the surveys, findings, and the historical role of the Laboratory in radioecological studies of the Marshall Islands are presented. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Clinal morphological variation along a depth gradient in the living scleractinian reef coral Favia pallida: Effects on perceived evolutionary tempos in the fossil record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuffey, R.J. ); Pachut, J.F. )

    1990-12-01

    The Holocene reef-building coral Favia pallida was sampled at 4.5 m depth increments (to 40 m) from two reefs on Enewetak Atoll to examine intraspecific environmental effects. An exposed outer reef was massive and wall-like, whereas a sheltered lagoonal reef grew as a slender pinnacle. Corallite diameter and growth rate, two attributes retrievable in fossil corals, were measured with data partitioned into shallow (<20 m), intermediate (20 to 29 m), and deep-water (>29 m) subsets. Highly significant differences between depth zone populations were found for both corallite diameters and growth rates in analyses of individual and combined reef data sets. Canonical variates analyses (CVA) separated populations from depth zones along single, highly significant, functions. Centroids and 95% confidence intervals, calculated from CVA scores of colonies in each population, are widely separated for the lagoon reef and combined data sets. Conversely, populations from shallow and intermediate depths on the outer reef display overlapping confidence bars indicative of more gradational morphologic changes. When CV's were used to classify specimens to groups, misassignments of intermediate depth specimens to shallow or deep-water populations underscored the gradational nature of the environment. Completely intergrading populations of Favia pallida collected from different depths can be morphologically separated into statistically distinct groupings. A stratigraphic succession of such morphotypes might be interpreted as abruptly appearing separate species if sampling were not as uniform, systematic, and detailed as was possible on modern reefs. Analyses of evolutionary patterns must carefully assess potential effects of clinal variation if past evolutionary patterns are to be interpreted correctly.

  5. Magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions in Cr{sub 8}, Cr{sub 7}Cd, and Cr{sub 7}Ni molecular rings from {sup 19}F-NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordonali, L.; Borsa, F.; Consorzio INSTM, Via Giusti 9, I-50121 Firenze; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 ; Garlatti, E.; Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parma, Viale G. P. Usberti 7 Casadei, C. M.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 ; Furukawa, Y.; Lascialfari, A.; Consorzio INSTM, Via Giusti 9, I-50121 Firenze; Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano ; Carretta, S.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.

    2014-04-14

    A detailed experimental investigation of the {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance is made on single crystals of the homometallic Cr{sub 8} antiferromagnetic molecular ring and heterometallic Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 7}Ni rings in the low temperature ground state. Since the F{sup ?} ion is located midway between neighboring magnetic metal ions in the ring, the {sup 19}F-NMR spectra yield information about the local electronic spin density and {sup 19}F hyperfine interactions. In Cr{sub 8}, where the ground state is a singlet with total spin S{sub T} = 0, the {sup 19}F-NMR spectra at 1.7 K and low external magnetic field display a single narrow line, while when the magnetic field is increased towards the first level crossing field, satellite lines appear in the {sup 19}F-NMR spectrum, indicating a progressive increase in the Boltzmann population of the first excited state S{sub T} = 1. In the heterometallic rings, Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 7}Ni, whose ground state is magnetic with S{sub T} = 3/2 and S{sub T} = 1/2, respectively, the {sup 19}F-NMR spectrum has a complicated structure which depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field, due to both isotropic and anisotropic transferred hyperfine interactions and classical dipolar interactions. From the {sup 19}F-NMR spectra in single crystals we estimated the transferred hyperfine constants for both the F{sup ?}-Ni{sup 2+} and the F{sup ?}-Cd{sup 2+} bonds. The values of the hyperfine constants compare well to the ones known for F{sup ?}-Ni{sup 2+} in KNiF{sub 3} and NiF{sub 2} and for F{sup ?}-Cr{sup 3+} in K{sub 2}NaCrF{sub 6}. The results are discussed in terms of hybridization of the 2s, 2p orbitals of the F{sup ?} ion and the d orbitals of the magnetic ion. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the electron-spin decoherence.

  6. RELAP5-3D Restart and Backup Verification Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. George L Mesina

    2013-09-01

    Existing testing methodology for RELAP5-3D employs a set of test cases collected over two decades to test a variety of code features and run on a Linux or Windows platform. However, this set has numerous deficiencies in terms of code coverage, detail of comparison, running time, and testing fidelity of RELAP5-3D restart and backup capabilities. The test suite covers less than three quarters of the lines of code in the relap directory and just over half those in the environmental library. Even in terms of code features, many are not covered. Moreover, the test set runs many problems long past the point necessary to test the relevant features. It requires standard problems to run to completion. This is unnecessary for features can be tested in a short-running problem. For example, many trips and controls can be tested in the first few time steps, as can a number of fluid flow options. The testing system is also inaccurate. For the past decade, the diffem script has been the primary tool for checking that printouts from two different RELAP5-3D executables agree. This tool compares two output files to verify that all characters are the same except for those relating to date, time and a few other excluded items. The variable values printed on the output file are accurate to no more than eight decimal places. Therefore, calculations with errors in decimal places beyond those printed remain undetected. Finally, fidelity of restart is not tested except in the PVM sub-suite and backup is not specifically tested at all. When a restart is made from any midway point of the base-case transient, the restart must produce the same values. When a backup condition occurs, the code repeats advancements with the same time step. A perfect backup can be tested by forcing RELAP5 to perform a backup by falsely setting a backup condition flag at a user-specified-time. Comparison of the calculations of that run and those produced by the same input w/o the spurious condition should be identical. Backup testing is more difficult the other kinds of testing described above because it requires additional coding to implement. The testing system constructed and described in this document resolves all of these issues. A matrix of test features and short-running cases that exercise them is presented. A small information file that contains sufficient data to verify calculations to the last decimal place and bit is produced. This testing system is used to test base cases (called null testing) as well as restart and backup cases. The programming that implements these new capabilities is presented.

  7. 137Cs(90Sr) and Pu isotopes in the Pacific Ocean sources & trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T.F., Millies-Lacrox, J.C. [Service Mixte de Securite Radologique, Mondhery (France); Hong, G.H. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan (Korea)

    1996-11-01

    The main source of artificial radioactivity in the world`s oceans can be attributed to worldwide fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Measurements of selected artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean were first conducted in the 1960`s where it was observed that fallout radioactivity had penetrated the deep ocean. Extensive studies carried out during the 1973-74 GEOSECS provided the first comprehensive data on the lateral and vertical distributions of {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and Pu isotopes in the Pacific on a basin wide scale. Estimates of radionuclide inventories in excess of amounts predicted to be delivered by global fallout alone were attributed to close-in fallout and tropospheric inputs from early U.S. tests conducted on Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Equatorial Pacific. In general, levels of fallout radionuclides (including {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and Pu isotopes) in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean have decreased considerably over the past 4 decades and are now much more homogeneously distributed. Resuspension and the subsequent deposition of fallout radionuclides from previously deposited debris on land has become an important source term for the surface ocean. This can be clearly seen in measurements of fallout radionuclides in mineral aerosols over the Korean Peninsula (Yellow dust events). Radionuclides may also be transported from land to sea in river runoff-these transport mechanisms are more important in the Pacific Ocean where large quantities of river water and suspended sands/fluvial sediments reach the coastal zone. Another unique source of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is derived from the slow resolubilization and transport of radionuclides deposited in contaminated lagoon and slope sediments near U.S. and French test sites. Although there is a small but significant flux of artificial radionuclides depositing on the sea floor, > 80% of the total 239, {sup 240}Pu inventory and > 95% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory remains in the water column. Studies conducted through the 1980`s appear to be consistent with earlier findings and indicate that radionuclide inventories in mid-northern latitudes are at least a factor of two above those expected from global fallout alone. The long term persistence of close-in and/or stratospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands still appears to be the only plausible explanation for this anomaly.

  8. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-05-01

    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]).

  9. Use Patterns of LED Flashlights in Kenya and a One-Year Cost Analysis of Flashlight Ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-02-16

    Flashlight usage is widespread across much of sub-Saharan Africa.1 In Kenya in particular, over half of all households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). Aside from household use, flashlights are also widely used to perform income-earning jobs in Kenya. Lumina Research Note No.4, the first report in this series documenting flashlight use in Kenya, highlights flashlight use patterns of night watchmen and bicycle taxi drivers. Both of these are occupations that rely on the use of flashlights on a nightly basis (Tracy et al., 2009). Also highlighted by Research Note No.4, flashlight users in Kenya have reported being highly dissatisfied with the quality of the low-cost LED flashlights that are available, and they identify several reoccurring problems they have faced as flashlight end-users (Tracy et al., 2009). The fact that there exists a substantial dependency upon flashlights in Kenya and that users are disgruntled with the available products suggests reasons for concern about flashlight quality. This concern is present despite two recent technological transitions in the flashlight market. First, LED technology has quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya, outpacing incandescent flashlights (Johnstone et al., 2009). LED technology has the potential to provide efficiency and performance benefits relative to incandescent bulbs, and low-cost LEDs have achieved price levels that make them cost competitive with conventional lighting sources for a number of applications (Mills, 2005). Second, rechargeable sealed-lead acid (SLA) batteries are also becoming more prevalent alternatives to disposable dry cell batteries. Flashlights using rechargeable SLA batteries tend to have a lower total cost of ownership over a two-year period than a flashlight using dry cell batteries (Radecsky, 2009); however, as this current report highlights, this may vary depending on the intensity of use patterns. To avoid a potential market spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (Mills and Jacobson, 2008; Lighting Africa, 2007) a better understanding of flashlight use-patterns is crucial (Tracy et al., 2009). In addition, the economic implications faced by rural flashlight end-users provide further incentive for a move toward higher quality low-cost flashlights. In this report, our team uses interviews with 46 end users of flashlights to collect information about their use patterns and costs associated with owning and operating flashlight products. While flashlights used in their portable mode typically do not represent a substitute for kerosene or other forms of fuel-based lighting, at times they are used in stationary applications in place of a fuel-based lamp. In either case, these products often represent end users first exposure to LED technology and rechargeable dry cell batteries, and thus stand to either provide a positive or negative impression of these technologies for a diversity of lighting applications.

  10. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

    2009-11-24

    Baylor University Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR) has conducted a phased, comprehensive evaluation of Lake Whitney to determine its suitability for use as a regional water supply reservoir. The area along the Interstate 35 corridor between Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex and the Waco / Temple Centroplex represents one of the fastest growth areas in the State of Texas and reliable water supplies are critical to sustainable growth. Lake Whitney is situated midway between these two metropolitan areas. Currently, the City of Whitney as well as all of Bosque and Hill counties obtain their potable water from the Trinity Sands aquifer. Additionally, parts of the adjoining McLennan and Burleson counties utilize the Trinity sands aquifer system as a supplement to their surface water supplies. Population growth coupled with increasing demands on this aquifer system in both the Metroplex and Centroplex have resulted in a rapid depletion of groundwater in these rural areas. The Lake Whitney reservoir represents both a potentially local and regional solution for an area experiencing high levels of growth. Because of the large scope of this project as well as the local, regional and national implications, we have designed a multifaceted approach that will lead to the solution of numerous issues related to the feasibility of using Lake Whitney as a water resource to the region. Phase IA (USEPA, QAPP Study Elements 1-4) of this research focused on the physical limnology of the reservoir (bathymetry and fine scale salinity determination) and develops hydrodynamic watershed and reservoir models to evaluate how salinity would be expected to change with varying hydrologic and climatic factors. To this end, we implemented a basic water quality modeling program in collaboration with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to add to the developing long-term database on Lake Whitney. Finally, we conducted an initial assessment of knowledge of watershed and water quality related issues by local residents and stakeholders of Lake Whitney and design an intervention educational program to address any deficiencies discovered. Phase IA was funded primarily from EPA Cooperative Agreement X7-9769 8901-0. Phase IC (USEPA, QAPP Study Element 5) of this research focused on the ambient toxicity of the reservoir with respect to periodic blooms of golden algae. Phase IC was funded primarily from Cooperative Agreement EM-96638001. Phase 1B (USDOE, Study Elements 6-11) complemented work being done via EPA funding on study elements 1-5 and added five new study elements: 6) Salinity Transport in the Brazos Watershed to Lake Whitney; 7) Bacterial Assessment; 8) Organic Contaminant Analysis on Lake Whitney; 9) Plankton Photosynthesis; 10) Lake Whitney Resident Knowledge Assessment; and 11) Engineering Scoping Perspective: Recommendations for Use.

  11. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10{sup -10} m{sup -1} and agrees very well with the values between 10{sup -10} m{sup -1} and 10{sup -9} m{sup -1} previously reported. We observed a mean Pu/Am ratio of 7.1 with a relative variation of 30%, which compares well with a mean value of 6.5 for nearby plot 2-2. The resuspension rate (R) was in the middle of the range, 10{sup -11} s{sup -1} to 10{sup -12} s{sup -1} as observed in other stable sites, and indicates low potential for Pu redistribution.

  12. Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

    2012-02-28

    Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

  13. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Residential Downlights and Undercabinet Lights in the Lane County Tour of Homes, Eugene, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-10

    In August 2008 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a light emitting diode (LED) residential lighting demonstration project for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies, as part of DOE’s Solid State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Gateway Program. Two lighting technologies, an LED replacement for downlight lamps (bulbs) and an LED undercabinet lighting fixture, were tested in the demonstration which was conducted in two homes built for the 2008 Tour of Homes in Eugene, Oregon. The homes were built by the Lane County Home Builders Association (HBA), and Future B Homes. The Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO) also participated in the demonstration project. The LED downlight product, the LR6, made by Cree LED Lighting Solutions acts as a screw-in replacement for incandescent and halogen bulbs in recessed can downlights. The second product tested is Phillips/Color Kinetics’ eW® Profile Powercore undercabinet fixture designed to mount under kitchen cabinets to illuminate the countertop and backsplash surfaces. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light performance and electrical power usage were taken at each site before and after initially installed halogen and incandescent lamps were replaced with the LED products. Energy savings and simple paybacks were also calculated and builders who toured the homes were surveyed for their responses to the LED products. The LED downlight product drew 12 Watts of power, cutting energy use by 82% compared to the 65W incandescent lamp and by 84% compared to the 75W halogen lamp. The LED undercabinet fixture drew 10 watts, cutting energy use by 83% to 90% compared to the halogen product, which was tested at two power settings: a low power 60W setting and a high power 105W setting. The LED downlight consistently provided more light than the halogen and incandescent lamps in horizontal measurements at counter height and floor level. It also outperformed in vertical illuminance measurements taken on the walls, indicating better lateral dispersion of the light. The undercabinet fixture’s light output was midway between the low and high power halogen undercabinet fixture light outputs (35.8 foot candle versus 13.4 fc and 53.4 fc) but it produced a more uniform light (max/min ratio of 7.0 versus 10.8). The color correlated temperature (CCT, the blue or yellowness) of the LED light correlated well with the halogen and incandescent lights (2675 K vs 2700 K). The color rendering of the LED downlight also correlated well at 92 CRI compared to 100 CRI for the halogen and incandescent lamps. The LED undercabinet fixture had measures of 2880 K CCT and 71 CRI compared to the 2700 K and 100 CRI scores for the halogen undercabinet fixture. Builders who toured the homes were surveyed; they gave the LED downlight high marks for brightness, said the undercabinet improved shadows and glare and said both products improved overall visibility, home appearance, and home value. Paybacks on the LED downlight ranged from 7.6 years (assuming electricity cost of 11 c/kWh) to 13.5 years (at 5C/kWh). Paybacks on the LED undercabinet fixture in a new home ranged from 4.4 years (11c/kWh electricity) to 7.6 years (5c/kWh) based on product costs of $95 per LED downlight and $140 per LED undercabinet fixture at 3 hrs per day of usage for the downlight and 2 hrs per day for the undercabinet lighting.

  14. Distribution and Ratios of 137Cs and K in Control and K-treated Coconut Trees at Bikini Island where Nuclear Test Fallout Occurred: Effects and Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W L; Brown, P H; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2008-05-19

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally, low concentrations, however, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 or 2.2 kg. Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they age is logarithmic but K remobilization is linear in K-treated trees where K concentration is high. As a result of K treatment the {sup 137}Cs concentration in K-treated fronds is extremely low and constant with frond age. Fronds of K treated trees contain a greater amount of K than control tree fronds. As they fall to the ground and decay they provide a small continuing pool of K that is about 3% of the natural K in soil under the tree canopy. Results of K and {sup 137}Cs concentration and distribution in control and K-treated coconut trees suggest that the application of K reduces {sup 137}Cs uptake both in the short term immediately following K fertilization and in the long term, after soil K levels have returned to normal but while plant K stores remain high. These results suggests that high internal K concentration and not high soil K is primarily responsible for long-term reduction of {sup 137}Cs in edible fruits, and plays a significant role in limiting further uptake of {sup 137}Cs by roots, and affects allocation of {sup 137}Cs to edible fruits for years. Coconut trees are capable of luxury K accumulation when provided with excess K and in this example the additional K can effectively provide the K requirements of the plant for in excess of 10 years. The reduction of {sup 137}Cs uptake lasts for at least 10 y after K is last applied and greatly reduces the estimated radiation dose to people consuming local tree foods. Effectiveness and duration of K treatment provides important assurances that reduction in {sup 137}Cs is long term and the radiation dose from consuming local plant foods will remain low.

  15. Technical Report: Final project report for Terahertz Spectroscopy of Complex Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Cheville; D. R. Grischkowsky

    2007-02-08

    This project designed characterization techniques for thin films of complex matter and other materials in the terahertz spectral region extending from approximately 100 GHz to 4000 GHz (4 THz) midway between radio waves and light. THz has traditionally been a difficult region of the spectrum in which to conduct spectroscopic measurements. The “THz gap” arises from the nature of the sources and detectors used in spectroscopy both at the optical (high frequency) side and electronic (low frequency) side of the gap. To deal with the extremely rapid oscillations of the electric field in this frequency region this research project adapted techniques from both the electronics and optics technologies by fabricating microscopic antennas and driving them with short optical pulses. This research technique creates nearly single cycle pulses with extremely broad spectral bandwidth that are able to cover the THz spectral range with a single measurement. The technique of THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has seen increasing use and acceptance in laboratories over the past fifteen years. However significant technical challenges remain in order to allow THz-TDS to be applied to measurement of solid materials, particularly thin films and complex matter. This project focused on the development and adaptation of time domain THz measurement techniques to investigate the electronic properties of complex matter in the terahertz frequency region from 25 GHz to beyond 5 THz (<1 inv. cm to >165 inv. cm). This project pursued multiple tracks in adapting THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to measurement of complex matter. The first, and most important, is development of a reliable methods to characterize the complex dielectric constant of thin films with high accuracy when the wavelength of the THz radiation is much longer than the thickness of the film. We have pursued several techniques for measurement of thin films. The most promising of these are waveguide spectroscopy and THz interferometry. Since THz spectroscopy measures the changes of the transmitted spectra, any noise on the THz signal contributes to measurement errors. The dynamic range—defined as the RMS noise of the THz detector compared to the peak THz signal—of THz spectroscopy using photoconductive antennas is extremely high, typically over 10,000. However the precision with which spectroscopic data can be measured is limited by the noise on the laser source which is typically 0.1% to 1%. For low values of the sample absorbance and for values of optical thickness less than approximately 0.01, the change in transmission approaches the measurement accuracy. The sample refractive index can be measured with better accuracy since the index causes a temporal shift of the THz pulse by an amount time shift of nd/c where n is the refractive index, d the sample thickness, and c the speed of light. Time shifts of tens of femtoseconds can generally be resolved so that index-thickness values of nd > ten microns can be accurately measured. Waveguide spectroscopy is a way to increase the path length in thin film by several orders of magnitude, and thus have a large interaction length even when the film is much less than a wavelength in thickness. Film thicknesses of 10’s of nm have been measured. THz interferometry cancels out many of the noise sources of THz spectroscopy and can thus result in measurements of films of several hundred nm in thickness and is additionally suitable for optical pump, THz probe spectroscopic techniques. A large amount of additional work was performed in support of the main project direction or to explore promising alternative avenues for research. This report discussed work on the the confinement of low density species for measurement of nanogram or picogram quantities of material. Whispering gallery mode resonators to achieve long path lengths were also investigated as were imaging techniques for sub-wavelength imaging of thin films. The report concludes with a report on investigations of fundamental issues in THz beam propagation and coupli