National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for jet fuel demand

  1. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  2. Jet Fuel from Microalgal Lipids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-07-01

    A fact sheet on production of jet fuel or multi-purpose military fuel from lipids produced by microalgae.

  3. Jet fuel from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

  4. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  5. Bioenergy Impacts … Renewable Jet Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    able to produce renewable jet fuel for the commercial aviation industry and the military. ... Biofuel is becoming an option for commercial and military airplanes BIOENERGY To learn ...

  6. Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jim Hileman, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, presentation at the Industry Roundtable on Life-Cycle GHG Emissions Modeling 9_hileman_roundtable.pdf (637.68 KB) More Documents & Publications An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Emissions Modeling: GREET Life Cycle Analysis

  7. Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nate Brown, Federal Aviation Administration, presentation at the Industry Roundtable on Update on ASTM Approval. 10_brown_roundtable.pdf (575.65 KB) More Documents & Publications An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts CAAFI Progress Update Airlines & Aviation Alternative Fuels: Our Drive to Be Early Market Adopters

  8. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 May, 2013 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Randy Cortright PhD Virent, Inc WBS: 2.3.1.8 Goal Statement Project Goal - Integrate Virent's BioForming® Process with NREL's biomass deconstruction technology to efficiently produce cost effective "drop-in" fuels from corn stover with particular focus in maximizing jet fuel yields.  Improve pretreatment strategies for deconstruction of cellulose and hemicellulose while significantly reducing or eliminating costly enzymes

  9. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upatnieks, Ansis

    2006-05-30

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  10. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  11. Renewable Jet Fuel Is Taking Flight | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    efforts to develop renewable jet fuel for the military and commercial aviation industry. ... advanced biofuels, which can be utilized by both the military and civil aviation sectors. ...

  12. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  13. Sooting characteristics of surrogates for jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mensch, Amy; Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2010-06-15

    Currently, modeling the combustion of aviation fuels, such as JP-8 and JetA, is not feasible due to the complexity and compositional variation of these practical fuels. Surrogate fuel mixtures, composed of a few pure hydrocarbon compounds, are a key step toward modeling the combustion of practical aviation fuels. For the surrogate to simulate the practical fuel, the composition must be designed to reproduce certain pre-designated chemical parameters such as sooting tendency, H/C ratio, autoignition, as well as physical parameters such as boiling range and density. In this study, we focused only on the sooting characteristics based on the Threshold Soot Index (TSI). New measurements of TSI values derived from the smoke point along with other sooting tendency data from the literature have been combined to develop a set of recommended TSI values for pure compounds used to make surrogate mixtures. When formulating the surrogate fuel mixtures, the TSI values of the components are used to predict the TSI of the mixture. To verify the empirical mixture rule for TSI, the TSI values of several binary mixtures of candidate surrogate components were measured. Binary mixtures were also used to derive a TSI for iso-cetane, which had not previously been measured, and to verify the TSI for 1-methylnaphthalene, which had a low smoke point and large relative uncertainty as a pure compound. Lastly, surrogate mixtures containing three components were tested to see how well the measured TSI values matched the predicted values, and to demonstrate that a target value for TSI can be maintained using various components, while also holding the H/C ratio constant. (author)

  14. Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesley, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

  15. Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Kinchin, C.; McCormick, R.

    2013-12-01

    The study summarizes the best available public data on the production, capacity, cost, market demand, and feedstock availability for the production of biomass-based diesel and jet fuel. It includes an overview of the current conversion processes and current state-of-development for the production of biomass-based jet and diesel fuel, as well as the key companies pursuing this effort. Thediscussion analyzes all this information in the context of meeting the RFS mandate, highlights uncertainties for the future industry development, and key business opportunities.

  16. Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-based Jet Fuel Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel This is a presentation from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop given by Mary Biddy (NREL). biddy_caafi_workshop.pdf (1.47 MB) More Documents & Publications Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates

  17. A jet fuel surrogate formulated by real fuel properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, Stephen; Won, Sang Hee; Chaos, Marcos; Heyne, Joshua; Ju, Yiguang; Dryer, Frederick L.; Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen; Wang, Haowei; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A.

    2010-12-15

    An implicit methodology based on chemical group theory to formulate a jet aviation fuel surrogate by the measurements of several combustion related fuel properties is tested. The empirical formula and derived cetane number of an actual aviation fuel, POSF 4658, have been determined. A three component surrogate fuel for POSF 4658 has been formulated by constraining a mixture of n-decane, iso-octane and toluene to reproduce the hydrogen/carbon ratio and derived cetane number of the target fuel. The validity of the proposed surrogate is evaluated by experimental measurement of select combustion properties of POSF 4658, and the POSF 4658 surrogate. (1)A variable pressure flow reactor has been used to chart the chemical reactivity of stoichiometric mixtures of POSF 4658/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and POSF 4658 surrogate/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} at 12.5 atm and 500-1000 K, fixing the carbon content at 0.3% for both mixtures. (2)The high temperature chemical reactivity and chemical kinetic-molecular diffusion coupling of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate have been evaluated by measurement of the strained extinction limit of diffusion flames. (3)The autoignition behavior of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate has been measured with a shock tube at 674-1222 K and with a rapid compression machine at 645-714 K for stoichiometric mixtures of fuel in air at pressures close to 20 atm. The flow reactor study shows that the character and extent of chemical reactivity of both fuels at low temperature (500-675 K) and high temperature (900 K+) are extremely similar. Slight differences in the transition from the end of the negative temperature coefficient regime to hot ignition are observed. The diffusion flame strained extinction limits of the fuels are observed to be indistinguishable when compared on a molar basis. Ignition delay measurements also show that POSF 4658 exhibits NTC behavior. Moreover, the ignition delays of both fuels are also extremely similar over the temperature range studied in

  18. Four different shale oils processed into jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Crude shale oils produced by (a) Geokinetics, (b) Occidental, (c) Paraho, and (d) Tosco II processes have each been catalytically hydroprocessed to produce jet fuel fractions. The shale oil hydroprocessing was performed at low, medium and high hydroprocessing severities. Hydroprocessing severity was changed mainly by varying the temperature. Full boiling range (121-300/sup 0/C) jet fuel was produced from the hydroprocessed product of the raw oil distillates boiling below 343/sup 0/C. This paper describes the shale oil properties and hydroprocessing, gives the results of sulfur removal and hydrogenated shale oil distillation, and lists the physical and chemical properties of the jet fuels. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Greater fuel diversity needed to meet growing US electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, B.; Mullins, S.

    2008-01-15

    Electricity demand is growing in the USA. One way to manage the uncertainty is to diversity fuel sources. Fuel sources include coal, natural gas, nuclear and renewable energy sources. Tables show actual and planned generation projects by fuel types. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) ...

  1. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

  2. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

  3. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  4. ,"Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ...

  5. Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach * Biochemical conversion to Ethanol * Biochemical conversion to Advanced ...Costing and Raw Material Accounting Ethanol Yield Cost gal MFSP Minimum Fuel ...

  6. Energy Department Assisting Launch of Low Greenhouse Gas–Emitting Jet Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On behalf of the Department of Defense and the U.S. Air Force, the Energy Department is seeking research projects that would lead to the commercial production of coal-derived jet fuel. Creating jet fuels from coal capitalizes on an abundant domestic energy resource and lessens our dependence on foreign oil for jet fuel production.

  7. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  8. Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof

    2009-04-15

    This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

  9. HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses This is a presentation from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop given by Robert Malina, MIT. malina_caafi_workshop.pdf (23.86 MB) More Documents & Publications February GBTL Webinar Opportunities for the Early Production of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels in the U.S. -- An Overview Application of Synthetic Diesel Fuels

  10. NREL Teams with Navy, Private Industry to Make Jet Fuel from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Teams with Navy, Private Industry to Make Jet Fuel from Switchgrass Project could ... Department of Defense are poised to help private firms build the huge biorefineries that ...

  11. Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel February 25, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Energy Department recently posted a blog about Hexagon Lincoln, a company that creates carbon fiber composite fuel tanks used to transport hydrogen across the country. Read Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel to learn more about the company's expansion. Addthis Related Articles Hexagon Lincoln develops carbon

  12. Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel February 4, 2014 - 12:06pm Addthis Hexagon Lincoln develops carbon fiber composite fuel tanks that help deliver hydrogen to fleets throughout the country. The company has more than doubled its workforce to accommodate growing demand for the tanks. | Photo courtesy of Hexagon Lincoln Hexagon Lincoln develops carbon fiber composite fuel tanks that help deliver hydrogen to

  13. Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauman, Richard F.; Ryan, Daniel F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

  14. An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts Session 1-B: Advancing Alternative Fuels for the Military and Aviation Sector Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Nate Brown, Alternative Fuels Project Manager, Office of the Environment and Energy, Federal Aviation Administration b13_brown_2-b.pdf (829.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Federal Activities in the Bioeconomy Webinar: Bioproducts in the Federal Bioeconomy Portfolio

  15. Jet Fuel from Camelina: Jet Fuel From Camelina Sativa: A Systems Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: NC State will genetically modify the oil-crop plant Camelina sativa to produce high quantities of both modified oils and terpenes. These components are optimized for thermocatalytic conversion into energy-dense drop-in transportation fuels. The genetically engineered Camelina will capture more carbon than current varieties and have higher oil yields. The Camelina will be more tolerant to drought and heat, which makes it suitable for farming in warmer and drier climate zones in the US. The increased productivity of NC State’s-enhanced Camelina and the development of energy-effective harvesting, extraction, and conversion technology could provide an alternative non-petrochemical source of fuel.

  16. Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand Gasoline and distillate demand impact of the Energy Independance and Security Act of 2007 deer08_shore.pdf (228.14 KB) More Documents & Publications Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power - Committee on Energy and Commerce Drop In Fuels: Where the Road Leads Before the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power

  17. Conversion of crop seed oils to jet fuel and associated methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Thompson, David N.

    2010-05-18

    Aspects of the invention include methods to produce jet fuel from biological oil sources. The method may be comprised of two steps: hydrocracking and reforming. The process may be self-sufficient in heat and hydrogen.

  18. PLIF measurement of fuel concentration distribution in transient hydrogen jet flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomita, Eiji; Hamamoto, Yoshisuke; Yoshiyama, Sadami; Toda, Hitoshi

    1999-07-01

    To know the concentration field of fuel spray or jet is very important because the following combustion process strongly depends on it. Recently, planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurement is often used to clarify two-dimensional concentration field of fuel and other species. In this study, PLIF measurement was applied to investigate the concentration distribution of a transient hydrogen jet with combustion. The jet penetrates with entraining ambient air and hydrogen is mixed with the air. Each experimental run of the jet shows different configuration and concentration distribution although averaged jet shows axisymmetric ones. Normalized concentration in radial direction presents Gaussian distribution and normalized concentration in axial direction is expressed by the relation inverse to the axial direction. The mixture was ignited near the nozzle exit after some delay time (t = 3.6ms) during injection ({approximately}11ms). For example, the fuel concentration in the transient jet at t = 1.0 and 1.4ms after the spark ignition (t = 4.6 and 5.0 ms respectively) was obtained as shown in a figure. The behavior of the flame development was measured in the transient flame jet by analyzing these images. The velocities of the jet and flame tips were also determined.

  19. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet engine fuels has five components: development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer-sized and micrometer particles suspended in fuels during thermal stresses; characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics by direct coal liquefaction. Progress is described.

  20. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 March, 2015 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Randy Cortright PhD Virent, Inc WBS: 2.4.1.200 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information © Virent 2015 Slide 2 Goal Statement Project Goal - Integrate Virent's Catalytic BioForming® Process with NREL's Biochemical deconstruction technology to efficiently produce cost effective "drop-in" fuels from corn stover with particular focus in maximizing jet fuel yields. 

  1. Innovative Gasification to Produce Fischer-Tropsch Jet and Diesel Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovative Gasification to Produce Fischer- Tropsch Jet and Diesel Fuel March 23, 2015 Jerod Smeenk Frontline BioEnergy, LLC This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 1 Acronyms and definitions * BP - budget period (i.e., project phase) * BPD - barrel per day * BTL - biomass-to-liquids * F-76 - military spec diesel fuel * FT - Fischer-Tropsch process * IE - independent engineer engaged by the DOE to monitor and review project details *

  2. Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector Sector Fred Joseck U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop (TSPI) Transportation

  3. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  4. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial

  5. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1996-11-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation: (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods: (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  6. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Coleman, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Penn State program in advancd thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding them formation of vcarbonaceous solids; and, (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal.

  7. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  8. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  9. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  10. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  11. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  12. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1995-06-01

    Quantitative structure-property relationships have been applied to study the thermal stability of pure hydrocarbons typical of jet fuel components. A simple method of chemical structure description in terms of Benson groups was tested in searching for structure-property relationships for the hydrocarbons tested experimentally in this program. Molecular connectivity as a structure-based approach to chemical structure-property relationship analysis was also tested. Further development of both the experimental data base and computational methods will be necessary. Thermal decomposition studies, using glass tube reactors, were extended to two additional model compounds: n-decane and n-dodecane. Efforts on refining the deposit growth measurement and characterization of suspended matter in stressed fuels have lead to improvements in the analysis of stressed fuels. Catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation studies utilizing a molybdenum sulfide catalyst are also described.

  13. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Coleman, M.M.

    1993-12-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. An exploratory study was conducted to investigate the pyrolysis of n-butylbenzene in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. A number of similarities to trends previously observed in high-pressure static reactions were identified. The product distribution from pyrolysis of n-tetradecane at 400{degrees}C and 425{degrees}C was investigated. The critical temperatures of a suite of petroleum- and coal-derived jet fuels were measured by a rapidly heating sealed tube method. Work has continued on refining the measurements of deposit growth for stressing mixtures of coal-derived JP-8C with tetradecane. Current work has given emphasis to the initial stages of fuel decomposition and the onset of deposition. Pretreatment of JPTS fuel with PX-21 activated carbon (50 mg of PX-21 in 15 mL JPTS) delayed degradation and prevented carbon deposition during thermal stressing at 425{degrees}C for 5 h in nitrogen and air atmospheres. Clear indications of initial and subsequent deposit formation on different metal surfaces have been identified for thermal stressing of dodecane. Seven additives were tested for their ability to retard decomposition of dodecane at 450{degrees}C under nitrogen. Nuclear magnetic resonance data for Dammar resin indicates that structures proposed in the literature are not entirely correct.

  14. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  15. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for

  17. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  18. Microalgal Production of Jet Fuel: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-208

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvis, E. E.; Pienkos, P. T.

    2012-06-01

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can use CO2 and sunlight to generate the complex biomolecules necessary for their survival. These biomolecules include energy-rich lipid compounds that can be converted using existing refinery equipment into valuable bio-derived fuels, including jet fuel for military and commercial use. Through a dedicated and thorough collaborative research, development and deployment program, the team of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Chevron will identify a suitable algae strain that will surpass the per-acre biomass productivity of terrestrial plant crops.

  19. Biodegradation of jet fuel in vented columns of water-unsaturated sandy soil. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coho, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of soil water content on the rate of jet fuel (JP-4) biodegradation in air-vented, water-unsaturated columns of sandy soil was investigated. The contaminated soil was obtained from a spill site located on Tyndall AFB, Fla. The initial soil loading was 4590 mg of JP-4/kg of dry soil. Three laboratory columns were packed with the contaminated soil, saturated and drained for periods of 81-89 days. Two columns were continuously vented with air, and the third, intended to provide an anaerobic control, was vented with nitrogen. The venting gas flows were maintained between 1 and 2.5 soil pore volume changeouts per day. The total JP-4 removal in the air-vented columns averaged 44% of the mass originally present. Biodegradation and volatilization accounted for 93% and 7% of the total removal, respectively. A maximum biodegradation rate of 14.3 mg of JP-4/kg of moist soil per day was observed at a soil water content of approximately 72% saturation. Soil drainage characteristics indicated that this water content may have corresponded to 100% of the in situ field capacity water content. Theses.

  20. Ignition of ethane, propane, and butane in counterflow jets of cold fuel versus hot air under variable pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotache, C.G.; Wang, H.; Law, C.K.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates experimentally the nonpremixed ignition of ethane, propane, n-butane, and isobutane in a configuration of opposed fuel versus heated air jets. For each of these fuels the authors explore the effects of inert dilution, system pressure, and flow strain rate, for fuel concentrations ranging between 3--100% by volume, pressures between 0.2 and 8 atm, and strain rates of 100--600 s{sup {minus}1}. Qualitatively, these fuels share a number of characteristics. First, flame ignition typically occurs after an interval of mild oxidation, characterized by minimal heat release, fuel conversion, and weak light emission. The temperature extent of this regime decreases with increasing the fuel concentration, the ambient pressure, or the flow residence time. Second, the response to strain rate, pressure, and fuel concentration is similar for all investigated fuels, in that the ignition temperatures monotonically decrease with increasing fuel content, decreasing flow strain, and increasing ambient pressure. The C{sub 4} alkanes, however, exhibit three distinct p-T ignition regimes, similar to the homogeneous explosion limits. Finally, at 1 atm, 100% fuel, and a fixed flow strain rate the ignition temperature increases in the order of ethane < propane < n-butane < i-butane. Numerical simulation was conducted for ethane ignition using detailed reaction kinetics and transport descriptions. The modeling results suggest that ignition for all fuels studied at pressures below 5 atm is initiated by fuel oxidation following the high-temperature mechanism of radical chain branching and with little contribution by low-to-intermediate temperature chemistry.

  1. A RAM (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability) analysis of the proposed Tinker AFB Jet Fuel Storage Tank Facility. [Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, R.E.; Sattison, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) at the 30% design phase of a Jet Fuel Storage Tank Facility that is to be installed at the Tinker Air Force Base, Tulsa, Oklahoma. The Jet Fuel Storage Tank Facility was divided into four subsystems: Fuel Storage and Pipeline Transfer Pumps; Truck Unloading and Loading; Fire Protection (foam and water supply systems); and Electric Power. The RAM analysis was performed on four functions of these subsystems: transferring fuel from the two new 55K barrel storage tanks to the existing fuel pipeline system; transferring fuel from the two 55K barrel storage tanks to the aircraft refueler trucks; transferring fuel from the road transport trucks to the aircraft refueler trucks; and fire protection. A fault tree analysis was performed on each functional system. The quantification was performed for several mission times.

  2. Evaluation of the natural biodegradation of jet fuel JP-8 in various soils using respirometry. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    This research effort used an automated respirometer to evaluate the intrinsic aerobic biodegradation potential of jet fuel JP-8 in various types of natural soils. Four replications of a complete factorial design experiment were accomplished using three levels of fuel and three types of soil in a three by three matrix of treatments. Laboratory microcosms were prepared containing the treatments, using the soils in a close to natural state, and allowed to react for fourteen days. A two-way ANOVA test on the experimental data demonstrated a strong positive correlation between the amount of fuel biodegraded with the initial level of fuel and also with the clay content of the soil. Interaction effects were also observed between the two factors. The continuous oxygen uptake rate curves were used to follow biodegradation of the fuel through the various steps of biological growth. The biokinetics of the observed reactions could be inferred from the oxygen rate curves. Analyses of soil nutrient consumption and the predicted ratio of oxygen uptake to carbon dioxide production were also done. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in nirates in microcosms with higher initial levels of fuel.

  3. Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established a new, sharply lower standard for the maximum sulfur content of on-highway diesel fuel, to take effect October 1, 1993.

  4. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F2: Jet fuel consumption, price, and expenditure estimates, 2014 State Jet fuel a Consumption Prices Expenditures Thousand barrels Trillion Btu Dollars per million Btu Million ...

  5. Effects of potential additives to promote seal swelling on the thermal stability of synthetic jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, D.D.; Gormley, R.G.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Baltrus, J.P.

    2007-10-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering of ground vehicles, aircraft and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. These additives can include oxygenates and compounds containing other heteroatoms that may adversely affect thermal stability. In order to understand what additives will be the most beneficial, a comprehensive experimental and computational study of conventional and additized fuels has been undertaken. The experimental approach includes analysis of the trace oxygenate and nitrogen-containing compounds present in conventional petroleum-derived fuels and trying to relate their presence (or absence) to changes in the desired properties of the fuels. This paper describes the results of efforts to test the thermal stability of synthetic fuels and surrogate fuels containing single-component additives that have been identified in earlier research as the best potential additives for promoting seal swelling in synthetic fuels, as well as mixtures of synthetic and petroleum-derived fuels.

  6. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  7. Effect of fuel composition and differential diffusion on flame stabilization in reacting syngas jets in turbulent cross-flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Minamoto, Yuki; Kolla, Hemanth; Grout, Ray W.; Gruber, Andrea; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2015-07-24

    Here, three-dimensional direct numerical simulation results of a transverse syngas fuel jet in turbulent cross-flow of air are analyzed to study the influence of varying volume fractions of CO relative to H2 in the fuel composition on the near field flame stabilization. The mean flame stabilizes at a similar location for CO-lean and CO-rich cases despite the trend suggested by their laminar flame speed, which is higher for the CO-lean condition. To identify local mixtures having favorable mixture conditions for flame stabilization, explosive zones are defined using a chemical explosive mode timescale. The explosive zones related to flame stabilization aremore » located in relatively low velocity regions. The explosive zones are characterized by excess hydrogen transported solely by differential diffusion, in the absence of intense turbulent mixing or scalar dissipation rate. The conditional averages show that differential diffusion is negatively correlated with turbulent mixing. Moreover, the local turbulent Reynolds number is insufficient to estimate the magnitude of the differential diffusion effect. Alternatively, the Karlovitz number provides a better indicator of the importance of differential diffusion. A comparison of the variations of differential diffusion, turbulent mixing, heat release rate and probability of encountering explosive zones demonstrates that differential diffusion predominantly plays an important role for mixture preparation and initiation of chemical reactions, closely followed by intense chemical reactions sustained by sufficient downstream turbulent mixing. The mechanism by which differential diffusion contributes to mixture preparation is investigated using the Takeno Flame Index. The mean Flame Index, based on the combined fuel species, shows that the overall extent of premixing is not intense in the upstream regions. However, the Flame Index computed based on individual contribution of H2 or CO species reveals that hydrogen

  8. Effect of fuel composition and differential diffusion on flame stabilization in reacting syngas jets in turbulent cross-flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minamoto, Yuki; Kolla, Hemanth; Grout, Ray W.; Gruber, Andrea; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2015-07-24

    Here, three-dimensional direct numerical simulation results of a transverse syngas fuel jet in turbulent cross-flow of air are analyzed to study the influence of varying volume fractions of CO relative to H2 in the fuel composition on the near field flame stabilization. The mean flame stabilizes at a similar location for CO-lean and CO-rich cases despite the trend suggested by their laminar flame speed, which is higher for the CO-lean condition. To identify local mixtures having favorable mixture conditions for flame stabilization, explosive zones are defined using a chemical explosive mode timescale. The explosive zones related to flame stabilization are located in relatively low velocity regions. The explosive zones are characterized by excess hydrogen transported solely by differential diffusion, in the absence of intense turbulent mixing or scalar dissipation rate. The conditional averages show that differential diffusion is negatively correlated with turbulent mixing. Moreover, the local turbulent Reynolds number is insufficient to estimate the magnitude of the differential diffusion effect. Alternatively, the Karlovitz number provides a better indicator of the importance of differential diffusion. A comparison of the variations of differential diffusion, turbulent mixing, heat release rate and probability of encountering explosive zones demonstrates that differential diffusion predominantly plays an important role for mixture preparation and initiation of chemical reactions, closely followed by intense chemical reactions sustained by sufficient downstream turbulent mixing. The mechanism by which differential diffusion contributes to mixture preparation is investigated using the Takeno Flame Index. The mean Flame Index, based on the combined fuel species, shows that the overall extent of premixing is not intense in the upstream regions. However, the Flame Index computed based on individual contribution of H2 or CO species reveals that

  9. BioJet Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    93940 Sector: Carbon Product: Monterey-based carbon credit developer and producer of bio-jet fuel derived from jatropha. References: BioJet Corporation1 This article is a...

  10. As the world economy continues to expand the demand for petroleum based fuel increases and the price of these fuels rises

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 2004 Structural Studies of Catalytically Stabilized Industrial Hydrotreating Catalysts Myriam Perez De la Rosa 1 , Gilles Berhault 2 , Apurva Mehta 3 , Russell R. Chianelli 1 1 University of Texas at El Paso, Materials Research Technology Institute, El Paso, TX 2 Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, Villeurbanne cedex, France 3 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA Figure 1: MoS 2 layered structure. As the world economy continues to expand the demand for

  11. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  12. Temperature, Oxygen, and Soot-Volume-Fraction Measurements in a Turbulent C2H4-Fueled Jet Flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, Sean P.; Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert; Winters, Caroline; Farias, Paul Abraham; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.

    2015-09-01

    We present a detailed set of measurements from a piloted, sooting, turbulent C 2 H 4 - fueled diffusion flame. Hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to monitor temperature and oxygen, while laser-induced incandescence (LII) is applied for imaging of the soot volume fraction in the challenging jet-flame environment at Reynolds number, Re = 20,000. Single-laser shot results are used to map the mean and rms statistics, as well as probability densities. LII data from the soot-growth region of the flame are used to benchmark the soot source term for one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) modeling of this turbulent flame. The ODT code is then used to predict temperature and oxygen fluctuations higher in the soot oxidation region higher in the flame.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biomass-based diesel is defined as a renewable transportation fuel, transportation fuel additive, heating oil, or jet fuel, such as biodiesel or non-ester renewable diesel, and ...

  14. Fuzzy jets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Here, collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets . To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets , are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet taggingmore » variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.« less

  15. Demand Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee ...

  16. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  17. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  18. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  19. Mixing enhancement by use of swirling jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, D.K.; Cutler, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    It has been proposed that the mixing of fuel with air in the combustor of scramjet engines might be enhanced by the addition of swirl to the fuel jet prior to injection. This study investigated the effects of swirl on the mixing of a 30 deg wall jet into a Mach 2 flow. Cases with swirl and without swirl were investigated, with both helium and air simulating the fuel. Rayleigh scattering was used to visualize the flow, and seeding the fuel with water allowed it to be traced through the main flow. The results show that the addition of swirl to the fuel jet causes the fuel to mix more rapidly with the main flow, that larger amounts of swirl increase this effect, and that helium spreads better into the main flow than air. 12 refs.

  20. Commercial & Industrial Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  1. Fuel Cycle Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Initiatives Fuel Cycle Technologies Fuel Cycle Technologies Fuel Cycle Technologies Preparing for Tomorrow's Energy Demands Powerful imperatives drive the continued need for...

  2. ClearFuels-Rentech Pilot-Scale Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ClearFuels-Rentech pilot-scale biorefinery will use Fisher-Tropsch gas-to-liquids technology to create diesel and jet fuel.

  3. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantage Jet Fuel: Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-462

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elander, Rick

    2015-08-04

    NREL will provide scientific and engineering support to Virent Energy Systems in three technical areas: Process Development/Biomass Deconstruction; Catalyst Fundamentals; and Technoeconomic Analysis. The overarching objective of this project is to develop the first fully integrated process that can convert a lignocellulosic feedstock (e.g., corn stover) efficiently and cost effectively to a mix of hydrocarbons ideally suited for blending into jet fuel. The proposed project will investigate the integration of Virent Energy System’s novel aqueous phase reforming (APR) catalytic conversion technology (BioForming®) with deconstruction technologies being investigated by NREL at the 1-500L scale. Corn stover was chosen as a representative large volume, sustainable feedstock.

  4. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Micro-Jet Enhanced Ignition with a Variable Orifice Fuel Injector for High Efficiency Lean-burn Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Illinois at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Combustion Engines 

  6. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF STANDARD AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-10-10

    The X-ray Telescope on board the Hinode mission revealed the occurrence, in polar coronal holes, of much more numerous jets than previously indicated by the Yohkoh/Soft X-ray Telescope. These plasma ejections can be of two types, depending on whether they fit the standard reconnection scenario for coronal jets or if they include a blowout-like eruption. In this work, we analyze two jets, one standard and one blowout, that have been observed by the Hinode and STEREO experiments. We aim to infer differences in the physical parameters that correspond to the different morphologies of the events. To this end, we adopt spectroscopic techniques and determine the profiles of the plasma temperature, density, and outflow speed versus time and position along the jets. The blowout jet has a higher outflow speed, a marginally higher temperature, and is rooted in a stronger magnetic field region than the standard event. Our data provide evidence for recursively occurring reconnection episodes within both the standard and the blowout jet, pointing either to bursty reconnection or to reconnection occurring at different locations over the jet lifetimes. We make a crude estimate of the energy budget of the two jets and show how energy is partitioned among different forms. Also, we show that the magnetic energy that feeds the blowout jet is a factor of 10 higher than the magnetic energy that fuels the standard event.

  7. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  8. AltAir Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Product: Seattle-based developer of projects for the production of jet fuel from renewable and sustainable oils. References: AltAir Fuels1 This article is a...

  9. Plasma jet ignition device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIlwain, Michael E.; Grant, Jonathan F.; Golenko, Zsolt; Wittstein, Alan D.

    1985-01-15

    An ignition device of the plasma jet type is disclosed. The device has a cylindrical cavity formed in insulating material with an electrode at one end. The other end of the cylindrical cavity is closed by a metal plate with a small orifice in the center which plate serves as a second electrode. An arc jumping between the first electrode and the orifice plate causes the formation of a highly-ionized plasma in the cavity which is ejected through the orifice into the engine cylinder area to ignite the main fuel mixture. Two improvements are disclosed to enhance the operation of the device and the length of the plasma plume. One improvement is a metal hydride ring which is inserted in the cavity next to the first electrode. During operation, the high temperature in the cavity and the highly excited nature of the plasma breaks down the metal hydride, liberating hydrogen which acts as an additional fuel to help plasma formation. A second improvement consists of a cavity insert containing a plurality of spaced, metal rings. The rings act as secondary spark gap electrodes reducing the voltage needed to maintain the initial arc in the cavity.

  10. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan; Ma, Xiaoliang; Sprague, Michael J.; Subramani, Velu

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  11. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Development Smart Grid Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the ...

  12. Cross-sector Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  13. 1985 fuel supply seminar: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.

    1986-09-01

    The major topics were utility fuel demand uncertainty (featuring uncertainty in electricity demand growth prospects), fuel forecasts and assumptions, residual fuel oil and natural gas markets, coal in environmental planning, coal market conditions and implications for procurement, and Canadian energy purchases. Individual papers are processed separately for the data bases. (PSB)

  14. Residential Demand Sector Data, Commercial Demand Sector Data, Industrial Demand Sector Data - Annual Energy Outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Tables describing consumption and prices by sector and census division for 2006 - includes residential demand, commercial demand, and industrial demand

  15. Proposed methodology for combustion toxicology testing of combined halon replacement agent/jet fuel interaction. Final report, June-September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kibert, C.J.

    1993-04-01

    An international consensus to remove Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds from production and U.S. national policy to implement the resulting protocols has motivated the U.S. Air Force to embark on a program to find a suitable replacement for Halon 1211, currently used to extinguish flight line fires. This research addressed the feasibility of conducting a combustion toxicology (CT) program to assess the toxic products of the combustion interaction of JP-8 and the Group 1 or so-called Near Term candidate replacement agents for Halon 1211: HCFCs -123, -124, and -142b. A laboratory scale experiment benchmarked on large scale testing of a 150 sq ft pool fire was developed on the basis of Froude scaling of the full scale fire to a 15 x 15 cm pan fire. A prototype apparatus was developed and investigation into the use of animal behavior methods as an indicator of human incapacitation was conducted. The result is a new method which may potentially be utilized for future toxicity studies of the combustion interaction of current and future U.S. Air Force fuels with various fire extinguishants. Extinguishing agents, Halon 1211, Halon replacement, Combustion.

  16. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  17. International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD): Prototype Results for China

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jim Turnure, Director Office of Energy Consumption & Efficiency Analysis, EIA EIA Conference: Asian Energy Demand July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD): Prototype Results for China Dawn of new global oil market paradigm? 2 Jim Turnure, EIA Conference July 14, 2014 * Conventional wisdom has centered around $100-120/barrel oil and 110-115 million b/d global liquid fuel demand in the long term (2030-2040) * Demand in non-OECD may push

  18. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  19. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  20. Energy Demand (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Growth in U.S. energy use is linked to population growth through increases in demand for housing, commercial floorspace, transportation, manufacturing, and services. This affects not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels and consumption by sector.

  1. Liquid Fuels Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    correlations), AIChE papers, Petroleum Review. * An extensive review of foreign journals obtained with the aid of ORNL for the high-density jet fuel study. * Contractor...

  2. Liquid Fuels Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    correlations), AIChE papers, Petroleum Review. * An extensive review of foreign journals obtained with the aid of ORNL for the high-density jet fuel study. * Contractor...

  3. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Fuel Cell Technology Status

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Get Involved Fuel cell developers interested in collaborating with NREL on fuel cell technology status analysis should send an email to NREL's Technology Validation Team at techval@nrel.gov. NREL's analysis of fuel cell technology provides objective and credible information about new fuel cell technologies with a focus on performance, durability, and price. As demand for fuel cells grows, U.S. manufacturers are developing these technologies for a

  4. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Contract: DE-FE0004001 Demand Dispatch- ... ISO Independent System Operators LMP Locational Marginal Price MW Mega-watt MWh ... today My generator may come on and off ...

  5. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  6. Residential Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in-home displays with controllable home area network capabilities and thermal storage devices for home heating. Goals and objectives: Reduce the City's NCP demand above...

  7. Pulsed jet combustion generator for premixed charge engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A. K.; Stewart, H. E.; Hom, K.

    1990-01-01

    A method and device for generating pulsed jets which will form plumes comprising eddie structures, which will entrain a fuel/air mixture from the head space of an internal combustion engine, and mixing this fuel/air mixture with a pre-ignited fuel/air mixture of the plumes thereby causing combustion of the reactants to occur within the interior of the eddie structures.

  8. Jet-wall interaction effects on diesel combustion and soot formation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Lyle M.; Lopez, J. Javier

    2004-09-01

    The effects of wall interaction on combustion and soot formation processes of a diesel fuel jet were investigated in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. At identical ambient and injector conditions, soot processes were studied in free jets, plane wall jets, and 'confined' wall jets (a box-shaped geometry simulating secondary interaction with adjacent walls and jets in an engine). The investigation showed that soot levels are significantly lower in a plane wall jet compared to a free jet. At some operating conditions, sooting free jets become soot-free as plane wall jets. Possible mechanisms to explain the reduced or delayed soot formation upon wall interaction include an increased fuel-air mixing rate and a wall-jet-cooling effect. However, in a confined-jet configuration, there is an opposite trend in soot formation. Jet confinement causes combustion gases to be redirected towards the incoming jet, causing the lift-off length to shorten and soot to increase. This effect can be avoided by ending fuel injection prior to the time of significant interaction with redirected combustion gases. For a fixed confined-wall geometry, an increase in ambient gas density delays jet interaction, allowing longer injection durations with no increase in soot. Jet interaction with redirected combustion products may also be avoided using reduced ambient oxygen concentration because of an increased ignition delay. Although simplified geometries were employed, the identification of important mechanisms affecting soot formation after the time of wall interaction is expected to be useful for understanding these processes in more complex and realistic diesel engine geometries.

  9. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Demand...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Demand for fossil fuels surely will overrun supply sooner or later, as indeed it already has in the casc of United States domestic oil drilling. Recognition also is growing that ...

  10. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Jets in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, M.H.

    1996-02-01

    Many analyses at the collider utilize the hadronic jets that are the footprints of QCD partons. These are used both to study the QCD processes themselves and increasingly as tools to study other physics, for example top mass reconstruction. However, jets are not fundamental degrees of freedom in the theory, so we need an {ital operational} {ital jet} {ital definition} and {ital reliable} {ital methods} {ital to} {ital calculate} {ital their} {ital properties}. This talk covers both of these important areas of jet physics. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  13. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  14. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  15. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  16. Hydrodesulfurization and prereforming of logistic fuels for use in fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piwetz, M.M.; Larsen, J.S.; Christensen, T.S.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell development programs have traditionally emphasized the use of natural gas as the primary fuel. However, to meet strategic requirements for fuel cells in military use, the fuel of choice must be accessible throughout the world, easily transported and stored, and compatible with other military uses. The United States military`s logistic fuels (DF-2 diesel or JP-8 jet fuel) meet these requirements. The objectives of this program were to design and construct a fuel processing system (FPS) and by connecting the FPS with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), respectively, to demonstrate that such a system can be used to convert diesel or jet-fuel into a feed stream compatible with the fuel cell.

  17. Demand Response- Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response is an electricity tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers, designed to induce lower electricity use typically at times of high market prices or when grid reliability is jeopardized.

  18. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod7FAdj | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 7 Fuel Adj Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  19. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod3FAdj | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 3 Fuel Adj Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  20. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod4FAdj | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 4 Fuel Adj Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  1. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod8FAdj | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 8 Fuel Adj Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  2. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod6FAdj | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 6 Fuel Adj Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  3. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod1FAdj | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 1 Fuel Adj Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  4. A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 21, 2013 Gasification Mike Schultz, PhD., Project PI A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas Project Goal A hybrid biorefinery design that enables the production of jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels from waste biomass System Integration, Optimization and Analysis Integration Gasification & Syngas Conditioning Fermentation & Alcohol Recovery Catalysis Catalysis Gasoline Jet Fuel Diesel Butadiene MEK EtOH 2,3BD Wood Stover Switchgrass Improve Economics and Process

  5. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demand Dispatch-Intelligent Demand for a More Efficient Grid 10 August 2011 DOE/NETL- DE-FE0004001 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Prepared by: National Energy Technology Laboratory Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

  6. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  7. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  8. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  9. Aviation Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Demonstration & Market Transformation » Aviation Fuels Aviation Fuels A Navy plane in flight. The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) sees the potential for biofuels produced for the aviation industry to help enable the growth of an advanced bioeconomy. Drop-in jet fuel replacements remain the only true alternative for the commercial aviation industry and the military, both facing ambitious near-term greenhouse gas reduction targets. BETO has been working with

  10. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  11. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  12. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  13. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  14. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. Demand response programs are being used by electric system planners and operators as resource options for balancing supply and demand. Such programs can lower the cost of electricity in

  15. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Charges Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleDemandCharges&oldid488967" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  16. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  17. US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program Rick Kamin, Navy Fuels Lead, on US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program. 5_kamin_roundtable.pdf (1.07 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of the Navy: Driving Alternative Fuels Adoption Department of the Navy Bioeconomy Activity HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses

  18. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, Bill; Gangi, Jennifer; Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  19. travel-demand-modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Travel Demand Modeling for a Small sized MPO Using TRANSIMS Mohammad Sharif Ullah Champaign County Regional Planning Commission 1776 E Washington Street, Urbana, IL 61802 Phone: 217 328 3313 Ext 124 Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. List of Authors ================ Mohammad Sharif Ullah, Senior Transportation Engineer, CCRPC, Urbana, IL Asadur Rahman, PhD student, IIT, Chicago, IL Rita Morocoima-Black, Planning & Comm.

  20. Impulsively started incompressible turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witze, P O

    1980-10-01

    Hot-film anemometer measurements are presented for the centerline velocity of a suddenly started jet of air. The tip penetration of the jet is shown to be proportional to the square-root of time. A theoretical model is developed that assumes the transient jet can be characterized as a spherical vortex interacting with a steady-state jet. The model demonstrates that the ratio of nozzle radius to jet velocity defines a time constant that uniquely characterizes the behavior and similarity of impulsively started incompressible turbulent jets.

  1. B-jets and z + b-jets at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeans, Daniel; /Rome U.

    2006-06-01

    The authors present CDF cross-section measurements for the inclusive production of b jets and the production of b jets in association with a Z{sup 0} boson. Both measurements are in reasonable agreement with NLO QCD predictions.

  2. Radial flow pulse jet mixer (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radial flow pulse jet mixer Title: Radial flow pulse jet mixer The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing ...

  3. Biomass fuel use in agriculture under alternative fuel prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hillsman, E.L.; Tepel, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    A linear programming model is used to analyze cost-competitiveness of biomass fuels in agricultural applications for the projected year 1990. With all else held constant, the prices of conventional fuels are increased and analytically compared to prices for biomass fuel products across a variety of end uses. Potential penetration of biomass fuels is measured as the share of each conventional fuel for which cost savings could be realized by substituting biomass fuels. This study examines the cost competitiveness of biomass fuels produced on farms, relative to conventional fuels (diesel, gasoline, natural gas, LPG, fuel oil, and electricity), as the prices of conventional fuels change. The study is targeted at the year 1990 and considers only fuel use in the agricultural sector. The method of analysis is to project fuel demands for ten farm operations in the year 1990 and to match these with biomass fuel substitutes from ten feedstock and nine process alternatives. In all, 61 feedstock/process combinations are possible. The matching of fuel demands and biomass fuels occurs in a linear programming model that seeks to meet fuel demands at minimum cost. Two types of biomass fuel facilities are considered, assuming a decentralized fuel distribution system. The first includes on-farm production units such as oil presses, low-Btu gasifiers, biogas digestors and direct combustion units. The second type of facility would be run by a farm co-operative. The primary data describing the biomass technologies are cost per unit output, where costs are calculated as first-year capital charges, plus al l allocable operating expenses, less any by-products of value. All costs assume commercial purchase of equipment. Homemade or makeshift installations are not considered. 1 reference.

  4. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  5. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.

    2016-05-03

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  6. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  7. Vortex diode jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  8. ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit: Percents." ,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)" ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel ...

  9. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  10. Flow cytometer jet monitor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger

    1997-01-01

    A direct jet monitor illuminates the jet of a flow cytometer in a monitor wavelength band which is substantially separate from the substance wavelength band. When a laser is used to cause fluorescence of the substance, it may be appropriate to use an infrared source to illuminate the jet and thus optically monitor the conditions within the jet through a CCD camera or the like. This optical monitoring may be provided to some type of controller or feedback system which automatically changes either the horizontal location of the jet, the point at which droplet separation occurs, or some other condition within the jet in order to maintain optimum conditions. The direct jet monitor may be operated simultaneously with the substance property sensing and analysis system so that continuous monitoring may be achieved without interfering with the substance data gathering and may be configured so as to allow the front of the analysis or free fall area to be unobstructed during processing.

  11. BIPOLAR JETS LAUNCHED FROM ACCRETION DISKS. II. THE FORMATION OF ASYMMETRIC JETS AND COUNTER JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh E-mail: nezami@mpia.de

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the jet launching from accretion disks, in particular the formation of intrinsically asymmetric jet/counter jet systems. We perform axisymmetric MHD simulations of the disk-jet structure on a bipolar computational domain covering both hemispheres. We apply various models such as asymmetric disks with (initially) different scale heights in each hemisphere, symmetric disks into which a local disturbance is injected, and jets launched into an asymmetric disk corona. We consider both a standard global magnetic diffusivity distribution and a novel local diffusivity model. Typical disk evolution first shows substantial disk warping and then results in asymmetric outflows with a 10%-30% mass flux difference. We find that the magnetic diffusivity profile is essential for establishing a long-term outflow asymmetry. We conclude that bipolar asymmetry in protostellar and extragalactic jets can indeed be generated intrinsically and maintained over a long time by disk asymmetries and the standard jet launching mechanism.

  12. Ram jet engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crispin, B.; Pohl, W.D.; Thomaier, D.; Voss, N.

    1983-11-29

    In a ram jet engine, a tubular combustion chamber is divided into a flame chamber followed by a mixing chamber. The ram air is supplied through intake diffusers located on the exterior of the combustion chamber. The intake diffusers supply combustion air directly into the flame chamber and secondary air is conveyed along the exterior of the combustion chambers and then supplied directly into the mixing chamber.

  13. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  14. Demand Response Research Center and Open Automated Demand Response

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Capacity Bidding Real- Dme Pricing Demand Response Opportunities: Advance Notice and Duration of Response End Use Type Modulate OnOff Max. Response Time HVAC Chiller ...

  15. Jet initiation of PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAfee, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report details the progress of an effort to determine the quantitative aspects of the initiation of PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F 800) by copper jets. The particular jet used was that produced by the LAW warhead (66-mm diameter, 42/sup 0/ angle cone, copper-lined, conical shaped charge). Fifteen experiments, in various configurations, have been fired to define the essential parameters for quantitatively measuring the jet performance and initiation of bare PBX 9502. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  17. Demand Response Technology Roadmap A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meetings and workshops convened to develop content for the Demand Response Technology Roadmap. The project team has developed this companion document in the interest of providing...

  18. DemandDirect | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DemandDirect Place: Woodbury, Connecticut Zip: 6798 Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services Product: DemandDirect provides demand response, energy efficiency, load...

  19. China, India demand cushions prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, M.

    2006-11-15

    Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

  20. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod9FAdj | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FAdj Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 9 Fuel Adj Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEI...

  1. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod5FAdj | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FAdj Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 5 Fuel Adj Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEI...

  2. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod2FAdj | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FAdj Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 2 Fuel Adj Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEI...

  3. Fuel Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Fuel Options HomeCapabilitiesFuel ...

  4. MODELING THE DEMAND FOR E85 IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L

    2013-10-01

    How demand for E85 might evolve in the future in response to changing economics and policies is an important subject to include in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This report summarizes a study to develop an E85 choice model for NEMS. Using the most recent data from the states of Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa, this study estimates a logit model that represents E85 choice as a function of prices of E10 and E85, as well as fuel availability of E85 relative to gasoline. Using more recent data than previous studies allows a better estimation of non-fleet demand and indicates that the price elasticity of E85 choice appears to be higher than previously estimated. Based on the results of the econometric analysis, a model for projecting E85 demand at the regional level is specified. In testing, the model produced plausible predictions of US E85 demand to 2040.

  5. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  6. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  7. Fueling opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, P.L.

    1994-02-01

    The newly restructured natural gas industry is providing greater opportunities for independent energy producers searching to match fuel supply contracts with project needs. Order No. 636's unbundling of the services offered by pipelines completed the deregulation of the gas industry started by the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, which began a phased deregulation of wellhead natural gas prices. Traditionally, the pipelines aggregated gas from numerous producers, transported it, stored it if necessary and sold it to a local distribution company or major customer, such as an electric generator. Order No. 636 separates pipeline transportation, sales and storage services and provides open access to pipelines. Customers are now subject to balancing requirements, scheduling penalties and operational flow orders, but there are new flexibilities in purchase and receipt of gas. The capacity release provisions allow those with excess transportation capacity entitlements to market that capacity. The order also favors the straight fixed-variable rate design which increases demand charges by including all fixed charges, including a pipeline's return and taxes, in the demand component of the rate. Under the previous modified fixed-variable methodology, a pipeline's fixed-cost recovery and earnings depended at least in part on maintaining throughput. Critics say the change will reduce the pipelines' incentive to operate efficiently and to market gas aggressively to power generators.

  8. Shroud for a submerged jet cutting nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwab, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    A shroud for a submerged jet cutting nozzle is described which separates the jet from surrounding fluid environment and enhances the cutting effect.

  9. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by θ{sub j} ∼ 1/5Γ{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, Γ{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of θ{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle θ{sub j,{sub max}} ∼ 1/5 ∼ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  10. TRUPACT-I Unit 0 test data analysis. [Puncture bar impacts; free fall of package 12 inches onto unyielding surface; 30-foot free fall drop onto unyielding target; 40-inch drops onto 6-inch diagmeter puncture bar; engulfment in jet fuel fire for 35 minutes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romesberg, L.E.; Hudson, M.L.; Osborne, D.M.

    1985-09-01

    TRUPACT-I was tested to evaluate the response of the design to the normal and hypothetical accident conditions specified in applicable regulations. The governing regulations are contained in DOE Order No. 5480.1, Chapter 3 and 10 CFR, Part 71, Refs. 1 and 2. Tests were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, and at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Normal condition tests included three 13-pound (1.25 in. diameter) puncture bar impacts onto the exterior surface and free fall of the package 12 inches onto an essentially unyielding surface. Hypothetical accident conditions included in the test sequence were two 30-foot free fall drops of the package onto an essentially unyielding target, four 40-inch drops onto a 6-inch-diameter puncture bar, and engulfment in a JP-4 jet fuel fire for 35 minutes. Instrumentation data traces will be published in Ref. 3 and are not reproduced herein. This report presents an analysis of the available data and an interpretation of the results. The results of the tests are compared to results from numerical analyses and scale model tests which are incorporated in the TRUPACT-I SARP, Ref. 4. 9 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, ...

  12. Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants - Energy Information...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and the environment All electricity data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Capacity and generation Costs, revenue and expense Demand Environment Fuel use...

  13. Table 5.4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. ...

  14. Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate ...

  15. Table 5.7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. ...

  16. Table 5.3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or ...

  17. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  18. Homeowners: Respond to Fuel Shortages | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    At the same time, the demand for fuel may spike due to evacuations, or because consumers are buying more fuel to power backup generators during electrical outages. All these ...

  19. Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    saving on fuel costs," he said. "If these law enforcement vehicles were running great on propane autogas in such a demanding environment, then this was the fuel for my fleet."...

  20. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  1. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and implement a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of demand response resources and to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to assess economic value of the realizable potential of demand response for ancillary services.

  2. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  3. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  4. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, S.P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  5. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 .mu.m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (.about.200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments.

  6. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  7. Demand Response- Policy: More Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE's commitment to ensuring non-wires options to modernize the nation's electricity delivery system includes ongoing support of a number of national and regional activities in support of demand response.

  8. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  9. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  10. Drivers of Future Energy Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drivers of Future Energy Demand in China Asian Energy Demand Outlook 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 Valerie J. Karplus MIT Sloan School of Management 2 www.china.org.cn www.flickr.com www.wikimedia.org globalchange.mit.edu Global Climate Change Human Development Local Pollution Industrial Development & Resource Needs How to balance? 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 1981 1991 2001 2011 Non-material Sectors/Other Construction Commercial consumption Residential consumption

  11. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  12. renewable sources of power. Demand for fossil fuels surely will...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... to meet future energy needs and worsen the national dependency on foreign petroleum. ... This trend towards a dependency on the transmission grid to facilitate not only economic ...

  13. A Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cell as a Biochemical Oxygen Demand...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    emerged as a central technology in an attempt to produce electricity. In a BES, bacteria interact with electrodes using electrons, which are either removed or supplied...

  14. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-02-09

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world`s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia.

  15. Alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askew, W.S.; McNamara, T.M.; Maxfield, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    The commercialization of alternative fuels is analyzed. Following a synopsis of US energy use, the concept of commercialization, the impacts of supply shortages and demand inelasticity upon commercialization, and the status of alternative fuels commercialization to date in the US are discussed. The US energy market is viewed as essentially numerous submarkets. The interrelationship among these submarkets precludes the need to commercialize for a specific fuel/use. However, the level of consumption, the projected growth in demand, and the inordinate dependence upon foreign fuels dictate that additional fuel supplies in general be brought to the US energy marketplace. Commercialization efforts encompass a range of measures designed to accelerate the arrival of technologies or products in the marketplace. As discussed in this paper, such a union of willing buyers and willing sellers requires that three general conditions be met: product quality comparable to existing products; price competitiveness; and adequate availability of supply. Product comparability presently appears to be the least problematic of these three requirements. Ethanol/gasoline and methanol/gasoline blends, for example, demonstrate the fact that alternative fuel technologies exist. Yet price and availability (i.e., production capacity) remain major obstacles. Given inelasticity (with respect to price) in the US and abroad, supply shortages - actual or contrived - generate upward price pressure and should make once-unattractive alternative fuels more price competitive. It is noted, however, that actual price competitiveness has been slow to occur and that even with price competitiveness, the lengthy time frame needed to achieve significant production capacity limits the near-term impact of alternative fuels.

  16. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  17. Fragmentation inside an identified jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Procura, Massimiliano; Stewart, Iain W.

    2011-05-23

    Using Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) we derive factorization formulae for semi-inclusive processes where a light hadron h fragments from a jet whose invariant mass is measured. Our analysis yields a novel 'fragmenting jet function' G{sub i}{sup h}(s,z) that depends on the jet invariant mass {radical}(s), and on the fraction z of the large light-cone momentum components of the hadron and the parent parton i. We show that G{sub i}{sup h}(s,z) can be computed in terms of perturbatively calculable coefficients, J{sub ij}(s,z/x), integrated against standard non-perturbative fragmentation functions, D{sub j}{sup h}(x). Our analysis yields a simple replacement rule that allows any factorization theorem depending on a jet function J{sub i} to be converted to a semi-inclusive process with a fragmenting hadron h.

  18. Energy Demand | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    affect not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels used. Energy consumption per capita declined from 337 million Btu in 2007 to 308 million Btu in 2009, the...

  19. Evidence is growing on demand side of an oil peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    After years of continued growth, the number of miles driven by Americans started falling in December 2007. Not only are the number of miles driven falling, but as cars become more fuel efficient, they go further on fewer gallons - further reducing demand for gasoline. This trend is expected to accelerate. Drivers include, along with higher-efficiency cars, mass transit, reversal in urban sprawl, biofuels, and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  20. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  1. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  2. Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eere.energy.gov 1 Program Name or Ancillary Text eere.energy.gov Advanced Bio-basedJet Fuel Cost of Production Workshop Thermochemical Conversion Processes to Aviation Fuels John Holladay (PNNL) November 27, 2012 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov 2 * Building on the Approach previously described by Mary * Syngas routes from alcohols (sans Fischer-Tropsch) * Pyrolysis approaches (Lignocellulosics) - Fast Pyrolysis - Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis (in situ and ex situ) * Pyrolysis

  3. Shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays directly imaged by x-radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; MacPhee, A.; Powell, C. F.; Yue, Y.; Narayanan, S.; Tate, M. W.; Renzi, M. J.; Ercan, A.; Fontes, E.; Gruner, S. M.; Walther, J.; Schaller, J.

    2001-12-20

    Synchrotron x-radiography and a novel fast x-ray detector are used to visualize the detailed, time-resolved structure of the fluid jets generated by a high pressure diesel-fuel injection. An understanding of the structure of the high-pressure spray is important in optimizing the injection process to increase fuel efficiency and reduce pollutants. It is shown that x-radiography can provide a quantitative measure of the mass distribution of the fuel. Such analysis has been impossible with optical imaging due to the multiple-scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. In addition, direct visualization of the jet-induced shock wave proves that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions. The radiographic images also allow quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock wave.

  4. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  5. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS A protostellar jet and outflow...

  6. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  7. Evaluation of the Ram-Jet device, a PCV air bleed. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency receives information about many systems which appear to offer potential for emission reduction or fuel economy improvement compared to conventional engines and vehicles. This report discusses EPA's evaluation of the Ram-Jet, a retrofit device marketed by Ed Almquist. It is designed to bleed in extra air to the engine by allowing ambient air to bypass the carburetor under high engine load conditions. The manufacturer claims the device reduces emission pollutants and improves fuel economy.

  8. Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text Version) Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text...

  9. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating...

  10. Demand Management Institute (DMI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Management Institute (DMI) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Demand Management Institute (DMI) Address: 35 Walnut Street Place: Wellesley, Massachusetts Zip: 02481 Region:...

  11. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating ...

  12. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  13. Promising Technology: Demand Control Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand control ventilation (DCV) measures carbon dioxide concentrations in return air or other strategies to measure occupancy, and accurately matches the ventilation requirement. This system reduces ventilation when spaces are vacant or at lower than peak occupancy. When ventilation is reduced, energy savings are accrued because it is not necessary to heat, cool, or dehumidify as much outside air.

  14. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  15. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  16. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  17. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  18. DECELERATING RELATIVISTIC TWO-COMPONENT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R. E-mail: Rony.Keppens@wis.kuleuven.b

    2009-11-10

    Transverse stratification is a common intrinsic feature of astrophysical jets. There is growing evidence that jets in radio galaxies consist of a fast low-density outflow at the jet axis, surrounded by a slower, denser, extended jet. The inner and outer jet components then have a different origin and launching mechanism, making their effective inertia, magnetization, associated energy flux, and angular momentum content different as well. Their interface will develop differential rotation, where disruptions may occur. Here we investigate the stability of rotating, two-component relativistic outflows typical for jets in radio galaxies. For this purpose, we parametrically explore the long-term evolution of a transverse cross section of radially stratified jets numerically, extending our previous study where a single, purely hydrodynamic evolution was considered. We include cases with poloidally magnetized jet components, covering hydro and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models. With grid-adaptive relativistic MHD simulations, augmented with approximate linear stability analysis, we revisit the interaction between the two jet components. We study the influence of dynamically important poloidal magnetic fields, with varying contributions of the inner component jet to the total kinetic energy flux of the jet, on their non-linear azimuthal stability. We demonstrate that two-component jets with high kinetic energy flux and inner jet effective inertia which is higher than the outer jet effective inertia are subject to the development of a relativistically enhanced, rotation-induced Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability. This instability plays a major role in decelerating the inner jet and the overall jet decollimation. This novel deceleration scenario can partly explain the radio source dichotomy, relating it directly to the efficiency of the central engine in launching the inner jet component. The FRII/FRI transition could then occur when the relative kinetic energy flux of the

  19. Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-08-22

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which values terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to lead to increased demand for water for agricultural systems (+200%), even in the absence of climate change. In general policies to mitigate climate change will increase agricultural demands for water, regardless of whether or not terrestrial carbon is valued or not. Burgeoning demands for water are driven by the demand for bioenergy in response to emissions mitigation policies. We also find that the policy matters. Increases in the demand for water when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-prices are vastly larger than when terrestrial system carbon emissions are prices at the same rate as fossil fuel and industrial emissions. Our estimates for increased water demands when terrestrial carbon systems go un-priced are larger than earlier studies. We find that the deployment of improved irrigation delivery systems could mitigate some of the increase in water demands, but cannot reverse the increases in water demands when terrestrial carbon

  20. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel

  2. Development test report for the high pressure water jet system nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takasumi, D.S.

    1995-09-28

    The high pressure water jet nozzle tests were conducted to identify optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle orifice size and fixture configuration needed to effectively decontaminate empty fuel storage canisters in KE-Basin. This report gives the tests results and recommendations from the these tests.

  3. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  4. Antioxidants and stabilizers for lubricants and fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and evaluation of antioxidants and stabilizers used in lubricants and fuels. The synthesis, stability, degradation, and storage life of lubricant and fuel additives are discussed. Additives used in jet engine, turbine, natural-gas, and coal-water fuels are examined. (Contains a minimum of 129 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  6. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  7. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a Light Duty Vehicle Workshop in Washington, D.C. on July 26, 2010. liquid_trans_tech.pdf (584.34 KB) More Documents & Publications February GBTL Webinar GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses

  8. National Microalgae Biofuel Production Potential and Resource Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2011-04-14

    Microalgae continue to receive global attention as a potential sustainable "energy crop" for biofuel production. An important step to realizing the potential of algae is quantifying the demands commercial-scale algal biofuel production will place on water and land resources. We present a high-resolution national resource and oil production assessment that brings to bear fundamental research questions of where open pond microalgae production can occur, how much land and water resource is required, and how much energy is produced. Our study suggests under current technology microalgae have the potential to generate 220 billion liters/year of oil, equivalent to 48% of current U.S. petroleum imports for transportation fuels. However, this level of production would require 5.5% of the land area in the conterminous U.S., and nearly three times the volume of water currently used for irrigated agriculture, averaging 1,421 L water per L of oil. Optimizing the selection of locations for microalgae production based on water use efficiency can greatly reduce total water demand. For example, focusing on locations along the Gulf Coast, Southeastern Seaboard, and areas adjacent to the Great Lakes, shows a 75% reduction in water demand to 350 L per L of oil produced with a 67% reduction in land use. These optimized locations have the potential to generate an oil volume equivalent to 17% of imports for transportation fuels, equal to the Energy Independence and Security Act year 2022 "advanced biofuels" production target, and utilizing some 25% of the current irrigation consumptive water demand for the U. S. These results suggest that, with proper planning, adequate land and water are available to meet a significant portion of the U.S. renewable fuel goals.

  9. Examining Future Global Energy Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Examining Future Global Transportation Energy Demand For EIA Energy Conference July 11, 2016 | Washington, DC By John Maples Outline * Model overview - Passenger travel - Freight travel - Energy consumption for 16 regions: * USA, Canada, Mexico/Chile, OECD Europe, Japan, S. Korea, Australia/New Zealand * Russia, Non-OECD Europe/Eurasia, China, India, Non-OECD Asia, Middle East, Africa, Brazil, Other South/Central * IEO2016 Reference case transportation projections * Preliminary scenario results

  10. Nuclear fuel: a new market dynamic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kee, Edward D.

    2007-12-15

    After almost 20 years of low nuclear fuel prices, buyers have come to expect that these low and stable nuclear fuel prices will continue. This conventional wisdom may not reflect the significant changes and higher prices that growing demand, and the end of secondary sources of uranium and enrichment, will bring. (author)

  11. Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop WHEN: Jan 11, 2016 8:30 AM - Jan 13, 2016 5:30 PM WHERE: Inn and Spa at Loretto 211 Old Santa Fe...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electricity Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on

  19. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  20. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  1. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Reformer Development Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Subir Roychoudhury Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), North Haven, CT Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop March 29, 2011 ...

  2. Inclusive jet production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2006-08-01

    Preliminary results on inclusive jet production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data are presented. Measurements are preformed using different jet algorithms in a wide range of jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity. The measured cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations

  3. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  4. The low-temperature partial-oxidation reforming of fuels for transportation fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    Passenger cars powered by fuel cell propulsion systems with high efficiency offer superior fuel economy, very low to zero pollutant emissions, and the option to operate on alternative and/or renewable fuels. Although the fuel cell operates on hydrogen, a liquid fuel such as methanol or gasoline is more attractive for automotive use because of the convenience in handling and vehicle refueling. Such a liquid fuel must be dynamically converted (reformed) to hydrogen on board the vehicle in real time to meet fluctuating power demands. This paper describes the low-temperature Argonne partial-oxidation reformer (APOR) developed for this application. The APOR is a rapid-start, compact, lightweight, catalytic device that is efficient and dynamically responsive. The reformer is easily controlled by varying the feed rates of the fuel, water, and air to satisfy the rapidly changing system power demands during the vehicle`s driving cycle.

  5. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels DOE would invest $52 million to fund a major fleet transformation at Idaho National Laboratory, along with the installation of nine fuel management systems, purchase of additional flex fuel cars and one E85 ethanol fueling station. Transportation projects, such as the acquisition of highly efficient and alternative-fuel vehicles, are not authorized by ESPC legislation. DOE has twice proportion of medium vehicles and three times as many heavy vehicles as compared to the Federal agency

  6. PADD 1 and PADD 3 Transportation Fuels Markets

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    This study examines supply, consumption, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 1 and 3, or the U.S. East Coast and the Gulf Coast, respectively. The East Coast region includes states from Maine to Florida along the U.S. Atlantic Coast. The Gulf Coast region comprises states between New Mexico in the west to Alabama in the east along the Gulf of Mexico. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. Residual fuel oil supply is also analyzed where applicable.

  7. Effects of Coaxial Air on Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Diffusion Flame Length and NOx Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Chen, R.-H.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    Turbulent nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jet diffusion flames with high velocity coaxial air flows are investigated for their NOx emission levels. This study is motivated by the DOE turbine programs goal of achieving 2 ppm dry low NOx from turbine combustors running on nitrogen-diluted high-hydrogen fuels. In this study, effects of coaxial air velocity and momentum are varied while maintaining low overall equivalence ratios to eliminate the effects of recirculation of combustion products on flame lengths, flame temperatures, and resulting NOx emission levels. The nature of flame length and NOx emission scaling relationships are found to vary, depending on whether the combined fuel and coaxial air jet is fuel-rich or fuel-lean. In the absence of differential diffusion effects, flame lengths agree well with predicted trends, and NOx emissions levels are shown to decrease with increasing coaxial air velocity, as expected. Normalizing the NOx emission index with a flame residence time reveals some interesting trends, and indicates that a global flame strain based on the difference between the fuel and coaxial air velocities, as is traditionally used, is not a viable parameter for scaling the normalized NOx emissions of coaxial air jet diffusion flames.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Digg

  9. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in 2012 for the fourth year in a row. Domestic coal consumption is on track to total 829 million tons this year. That's the lowest level since 1992, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new monthly energy forecast. Utilities and power plant operators are choosing to burn more lower-priced natural gas

  10. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maine 65.8 73.9 85.6 122.4 124.0 147.4 1983-2016 Massachusetts 879.3 810.9 991.2 1,026.9 1,155.5 1,177.0 1983-2016 New Hampshire 30.7 32.7 36.6 42.5 48.4 52.6 1983-2016 Rhode ...