Sample records for ivoire kenya nigeria

  1. Potential Savings for Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal from BUENAS modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal from BUENASCote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal, which togetherGhana Million m 2 GWh Nigeria Senegal Source: BUENAS 2008

  2. Potential Savings for Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal from BUENAS modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sector. Nigeria has a low reported energy consumption forNigeria Senegal Source: BUENAS 2008 and IEA for Industry Module 2: Unit Energy

  3. Prophet, Priest and King in Colonial Africa: Anglican and Colonial Political Responses to African Independent Churches in Nigeria and Kenya, 1918-1960 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Thomas Winfield

    2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Many African Independent Churches emerged during the colonial era in central Kenya and western Nigeria. At times they were opposed by government officials and missionaries. Most scholars have limited the field of enquiry ...

  4. Re-Placing Faith: Reconsidering the Secular-Religious Use Divide in the United States and Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aoki, Paul M.

    Re-Placing Faith: Reconsidering the Secular-Religious Use Divide in the United States and Kenya in urban centers in the United States and Kenya. The contributions of this work for the CHI/CSCW community countries, including key "emerging markets" such as Brazil, Nigeria and Kenya, the recent growth

  5. Sheena Tonkin, '07 Marigat, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheena Tonkin, '07 Marigat, Kenya Caitlyn, Jeanna and I were able to spend our summer of service in Marigat, Kenya. Marigat is located in the Rift Valley of Kenya, which is located in the northwestern part

  6. Karina Davis, '08 Marigat, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karina Davis, '08 Marigat, Kenya This past May I had the amazing opportunity to spend six weeks living and working with four Franciscan nuns in Marigat, Kenya. Marigat is a small town located in Kenya

  7. Melissa Krueger, '06 Salawa, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melissa Krueger, '06 Salawa, Kenya Douglas and I were able to travel in Western Kenya through in Kenya and such a different culture. The woman does everything in the family and for the family. She

  8. Diffractions politiques du march (Cte-d'Ivoire, Vietnam)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    politique, à partir des cas de la Côte-d'Ivoire et du Vietnam. Il s'inscrit contre une autonomisation de la'être burkinabè et empêché de se présenter aux élections. Mots clés Côte d'Ivoire ; Vietnam ; Politique ; �tat/clerse/ ainsi que http://www.tem.ird.fr #12;Bazin & Selim, 2001. Diffractions politiques du marché (Côte- d'Ivoire

  9. Caitlyn Munson, '07 Marigat, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caitlyn Munson, '07 Marigat, Kenya My summer of service trip was to Marigat, Kenya. I went and Martina While in Kenya, we stayed with Franciscan sisters. These women graciously opened their home to us in Kenya for 56 years! She worked in the school on the compound. Sister Medrine spent most of her time

  10. Patrick Marinello, '08 Marigat, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick Marinello, '08 Marigat, Kenya "Ladies and Gentlemen please fasten your seatbelts and return this phrase recited many times before by flight attendants, but it had a different meaning for Kenya. We were headed for Marigat, Kenya ­ a small town of approximately 3,000 in Kenya's Rift Valley

  11. Daniel Sedhom, 2012 Marigat, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Sedhom, 2012 Marigat, Kenya The calendar turned to May 28 th , 2011, a day that would mark different from anywhere I have seen or even imagined before. Marigat, Kenya became my home for the next six the opportunity to visit this wonderful place. #12;I spent my time in Marigat, Kenya at a compound which consisted

  12. Alex Leahey, `06 Marigat, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Leahey, `06 Marigat, Kenya Liz and I had an unforgettable experience during our summer Kenya in East Africa . Marigat is a small town in the Baringo District of the Great Rift Valley about four hours from the fast pace and conveniences of a city like Nairobi; many people in Kenya didn't know

  13. Ramy Sedhom, `09 Marigat, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramy Sedhom, `09 Marigat, Kenya In the summer of May 2009, I was blessed enough to be given an opportunity to spend six weeks living and working amongst the company of Franciscan nuns in Kenya, in a small of Kenya and its people, made me happy to call it home during my time there. This is the city center

  14. Jeanna Auriemma, '07 Marigat, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanna Auriemma, '07 Marigat, Kenya I spent my summer with Caitlyn Munson and Sheena Tonkin in Marigat, Kenya at the Marigat Catholic Mission. We lived in a convent with three Franciscan Missionary enjoyed my trip to Kenya. Although it was difficult to see people living "in poverty", I've learned

  15. Christie Ziegler ,,12 Marigat, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christie Ziegler ,,12 Marigat, Kenya In the summer of 2011, I was given the opportunity to spend six weeks in Marigat, Kenya where I lived and worked with Franciscan nuns, along with two classmates immunizations before, it was a very scary experience but the people of Kenya were very understanding and patient

  16. Aman Shah, '08 Kabula, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aman Shah, '08 Kabula, Kenya During the summer of 2007, Heather Petrat and I had the once in a lifetime opportunity to travel to Kabula (a village town in the Western province of Kenya) and immerse these classes was the most rewarding of all the experiences Heather and I had in Kenya. Since most

  17. Dclinaison nominale en dan-gwtaa (groupe mand-sud, Cte-d'Ivoire)1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (où elles sont connues sous le nom « Gio ») et en Côte dIvoire (où ils sont appelés « Yacouba »). Le. Thomas Bearth, sans qui ce projet ne serait pas possible, aux membres de la SIL-Côte dIvoire (surtout à Margrit Bolli) dont lassistance nous a beaucoup facilité le travail de recherche en Côte dIvoire. Enfin

  18. Rpublique de Cte d'Ivoire Ministre de l'Enseignement Suprieur et de la

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    LA GESTION DES EAUX USEES A YOPOUGON (ABIDJAN, COTE D'IVOIRE) Présenté par : KOUAME Koffi Parfaiti République de Côte d'Ivoire ~~~~~~~~~~~~ Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche d'Ivoire (CSRS), acceptez mes sincères et vives reconnaissances pour plusieurs raisons. Vous avez su

  19. Bringing Visibility to Rural Users in Cote d'Ivoire Mariya Zheleva, Paul Schmitt, Morgan Vigil and Elizabeth Belding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M.

    from Cote d'Ivoire with an emphasis on understanding how population density impacts the use of cellularBringing Visibility to Rural Users in Cote d'Ivoire Mariya Zheleva, Paul Schmitt, Morgan Vigil a cellular traffic dataset provided by Orange in Cote d'Ivoire with the goal of identifying distinctions

  20. Interconnected Slums: Water, Sanitation and Health in Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Interconnected Slums: Water, Sanitation and Health in Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire BRIGIT OBRIST, GUE contributed to this paper are: Gue´ladio Cisse´ (Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques, Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire´tude de cas comparative, il examine les re´ponses aux proble`mes environnementaux dans un contexte aussi

  1. The Living Culture of Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biobaku, Saburi O.; Aniakor, Chike A.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ImK ~IE.W THE uv:rn:; aJLWRE OF NIGERIA edited by Saburi 0 .Lagos: Thanas Nelson (Nigeria) Ltd. , Color Illustrations,86 The Living Cu'lture of Nigeria edited by Professor Saburi

  2. Dictators, democrats, and development in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeVan, Arthur Carl

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Character and Federalism in Nigeria. Ed. Ekeh, Peter P. andas Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria. Ibadan: Heinemann.rule in southeastern Nigeria, 1891- 1929. London: Longman.

  3. Cutaneous cancers in Calabar, Southern Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asuquo, Maurice E; Ebughe, Godwin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Skin cancer in Zaria, Nigeria. Trop Doct 1995; 25(Suppl. ):Malignancies in Kano, Northern Nigeria: A histopathologicalequatorial rain forest of Nigeria. International Journal of

  4. University Governance in Nigeria: Conflict and Accountability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anyanwu, John C.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University Education 111 Nigeria (Lagos: Nat ionalin Odekunle. F (ed), Nigeria: Corruption in Development (Diamond, L ( 1991), "Nigeria's Search for a New Political

  5. The Cinema in Nigeria by Francoise Balagun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ukadike, Nwachukwu F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and great efficacy. The Cinema in Nigeria releases a usefulto the fIlm industry of Nigeria. Nwachukwu Frank Ukadikehonor them. The Cinema in Nigeria. Francoise Balogun, Enugu:

  6. Profil de poste Reprsentant de l'IRD en Cte d'Ivoire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Profil de poste N°14877 Représentant de l'IRD en Côte d'Ivoire Catégorie A - Directeur de recherche détachement sur un emploi de chercheur1 AFFECTATION STRUCTURELLE Le représentant de l'IRD en Côte d'Ivoire est déléguées. AFFECTATION GEOGRAPHIQUE Le représentant sera affecté à Abidjan (capitale économique de la Côte d'Ivoire

  7. Cote d'Ivoire IAEA Energy Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.pngRoofs and Heat Islands2007) | OpenCity,Cosmos|Cote d'Ivoire

  8. Potential Savings for Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal from BUENAS modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. , 2007. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption inCommercial Industry Air Conditioning Cooking Fans Lighting90% of the country air conditioning (AC) consumption 4 . We

  9. Potential Savings for Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal from BUENAS modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model that calculates energy demand at the technology levelcalculated by comparing energy demand in the “Business-As-4 We calculate final energy demand according to unit energy

  10. Christopher Smith `10 MARIGAT, KENYA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Smith `10 MARIGAT, KENYA As the airliner picked up speed and lifted from the tarmac working with them, eating dinner at their table, playing cards and watching television at night they never

  11. The Forestry Sector in Cte D'Ivoire: Current Status and Policy Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    The Forestry Sector in CĂ´te D'Ivoire: Current Status and Policy Implications Working Paper #22 in international forestry, it is important to understand current forest related issues and dynamics in producing

  12. Kenya & Tanzania: a ClassiC safari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor, Ed

    Kenya & Tanzania: a ClassiC safari A Special Departure August 15 ­ 27, 2012 for Johns Hopkins volcano; Bilila Lodge Serengeti in the heart of the northern Serengeti; the Fairmont Mount Kenya SafariMartinCenter,2ndFloor 3400N.CharlesStreet Baltimore,Maryland21218 Johns Hopkins Reservation Form ­ Kenya

  13. 2012 Summer of Service Marigat & Salawa, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012 Summer of Service Marigat & Salawa, Kenya Katie Williams In the summer of 2012 I had the privilege of spending 11 weeks working with the Mill Hill Sisters of Saint Francis in Western Kenya. While without electricity or running water. Homes in Kenya are much smaller as well and a family of six

  14. Energy sources for Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoroji, C.E.I.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A public consensus has developed on the need for national energy policies and better planning in the utilization of energy resources in Nigeria. A look at Nigeria's energy future is timely as a period of rapid technological growth and industrial development begins. At the present time, Nigeria exports a relatively high percentage (92%) of the petroleum produced annually. In addition, about 95% of all produced natural gas is flared. Only a relatively minor fraction of the coal produced is used and the rest exported to West African countries. Water power in Nigeria is not yet fully developed. Although the deposits of uranium and oil sand may be substantial, the reserves are not currently known. The proportions in which mineral fuels are used are not related to their relative abundance. Based on present production rates, domestic reserves of petroleum will last 20 years, those of natural gas 63 years, and those of coal 1503 years. Nigeria is not currently and is not likely to become self-sufficient in terms of energy requirements. During the past decade, Nigeria's population has increased by 28.4%. Of vital concern for the immediate future in Nigeria are the demands on energy consumption and mineral resources resulting from increasing population pressure.

  15. Traits Affecting Household Livestock Marketing Decisions in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traits Affecting Household Livestock Marketing Decisions in Rural Kenya Katherine L. Baldwin community of Central Kenya, we regressed household offtake rate of both cattle and smallstock against in Kenya. Because pastoralist economies depend almost exclusively upon livestock production, most recent

  16. Busted: Illegal Logging in Kenya Daily Nation Newswire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busted: Illegal Logging in Kenya Daily Nation Newswire Police and Kenya Wildlife Service personnel many merchants were using expired permits. Eighteen people have been arrested for illegal logging

  17. Kenya: Enrico Rogora, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Italy, and David M. Malonza and Leo Odongo, Kenyatta University, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Kenya: Enrico Rogora, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Italy, and David M. Malonza and Leo Odongo, Kenyatta University, Kenya General description of partner department The Department of Mathematics

  18. RECONSTRUCTION POST-CONFLIT VIOLENCE ET POLITIQUE EN COTE D'IVOIRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RECONSTRUCTION « POST-CONFLIT » VIOLENCE ET POLITIQUE EN COTE D'IVOIRE Richard Banégas* Marquée par plus 10 années de crise politico-militaire, la Côte d'Ivoire semble aujourd'hui renaître de ses cendres redéploiement de l'administration dans les régions du nord jusqu'alors sous contrôle des insurgés va bon train

  19. Post-War Writing in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emenyonu, Ernest Nneji

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    no threat to the people of Nigeria who, in a solemn oath ofvisits the right places in Nigeria, the visitor today mayhints of what happened in Nigeria between 1967 and 1970.

  20. The Greening of Capitalist Agriculture in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunmoye, R. Ayo

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shehu Shagari to the U. S. /Nigeria Joint Agricultural1975, pp. 245-261. 25 Nigeria: lJ'he 'l'hird NationalP. Olinger, "The World Bank in Nigeria," RAPE, No. 13, 1978,

  1. The State and Rural Development in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nwosu, Nereus I.A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    57. 15central Bank of Nigeria, Annuol Report ond Sl4tementThe Rise and Fall of Nigeria's Second Republic, 1979-84 (Development Programmes in Nigeria: an evaluation of the

  2. Kenya (Rpublique du) Admission 1 er

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montréal, Université de

    2014-04-14 Kenya (République du) Admission 1 er cycle Programmes à capacité d'accueil limitée : complément d'informations Seuils requis selon les programmes Détails sur le test Kenya Certificate

  3. Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nwokoma, M. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lekki (Nigeria)

    1998-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

  4. Marigat, Kenya In May of 2010, I was fortunate enough to travel to Marigat, Kenya for six weeks to work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marigat, Kenya In May of 2010, I was fortunate enough to travel to Marigat, Kenya for six weeks to work and live with Franciscan nuns. Marigat is a small town located in the Baringo district of Kenya or running water. A street in Marigat. #12;While in Kenya, I worked at a clinic with my classmate, Ben Di

  5. Caliban's Curse: The English Language and Nigeria's Underdevelopment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osundare, Niyi

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of English in Northern Nigeria (1900-1943)," InternationalLanguage Policy in Nigeria 1882-1952," International Journaland Politics in Colonial Nigeria (cambridge: POST, K. W. J.

  6. Imperialism and Underdevelopment in Nigeria: The Dialectics of Mass Poverty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owomero, Basil

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Underdevelopment in Nigeria: The Dialectics of Hassshow the structural sources of Nigeria's underdevelopment.He argues that Nigeria's underdevelopment must be understood

  7. Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Sallis, James F; Deforche, Benedicte; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008. Federal Republic of Nigeria. Available at: http://44:924–933. 40. National Population Commission of Nigeria:Nigeria Demographics and Health Survey 2003. Calverton, Md:

  8. Nigeria: Mapping the Shari`a Restorationist Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubeck, Paul M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through Sharia in Northern Nigeria. London: British Council.Judicial Practice in Nigeria: An Historical Perspective."Fourchard, Laurent. 2005. "Nigeria: A Missionary Nation." In

  9. Environmental factors associated with overweight among adults in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Adegoke, Babatunde O; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Deforche, Benedicte; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ORC Macro Maryland:activity among adults in Nigeria. Journal of Environmentaloverweight among adults in Nigeria. International Journal of

  10. Return to the Homeland: Travels in Nigeria by Ola Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amankulor, J. Ndukaku

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of America during her visit to Nigeria. The imponant thingshowed that she went to Nigeria having a positive attitudethe Homeland; Travels in Nigeria - No Snakes, No Monkeys, No

  11. Le Nigeria sous Obasanjo. Violences et dmocratie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    #12;5 LE DOSSIER Le Nigeria sous Obasanjo. Violences et démocratie Coordonné par Laurent Fourchard Nigeria Au Nigeria, de nombreux journalistes et chercheurs ont associé la réémer- gence de conflits'au Nigeria il soit ŕ peine plus aisé de compter les morts que de recenser les vivants2. La comparaison 1. Je

  12. Economic Adjustment and the Challenges for Higher Education in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godonoo, Prosper

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available Resources." In Nigeria: the Universities, /heEcooomic Stress: A Case for Nigeria. - In Ukejeet aJ {ed. }in Education: The Case oj Nigeria. Port Harcourt, Nigeria :

  13. Social Interactions, Ethnicity and Fertility in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyer, Sriya; Weeks, Melvyn

    Social Interactions, Ethnicity and Fertility in Kenya#3; Sriya Iyer Faculty of Economics University of Cambridge Melvyn Weeks Faculty of Economics University of Cambridge January 2009 #3;Acknowledgements: For helpful comments and discussions we... in Microeconomics, and St. Catharine?s College, Cambridge. We are especially grateful to Mrs. Zipporah Onchari and the Director of the Kenya Meteorological Services for giving us access to their rainfall data and for patiently answering our many questions. We...

  14. Does Abolishing Fees Reduce School Quality? Evidence from Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    Does Abolishing Fees Reduce School Quality? Evidence from Kenya Tessa Bold, Mwangi Kimenyi, Germano Mwabu and Justin Sandefur This Version: December 30, 2010 Abstract In 2003 Kenya abolished user fees

  15. The Great Transformation: Looking back on Kenya’s economy to examine the spaces for alternative economies today 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemdriksen, Kirri

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research is to make anthropological sense of the numerous movements that have occurred in Kenya’s small-scale tea industry through a reconstruction of Karl Polanyi’s theory of the ‘double movement’. ...

  16. Constructing a "New Kenya": National Unity and Reconciliation in the Wake of Kenya's 2007/2008 Post-Election Violence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harroff, Lindsay

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 30, 2007, moments after Kenya's electoral commission announced incumbent President Mwai Kibaki won the presidential election, violence erupted across Kenya in response to perceptions the election was rigged. Within weeks, 1,133 people...

  17. Connective Power: Solar Electrification and Social Change in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Arne

    Connective Power: Solar Electrification and Social Change in Kenya ARNE JACOBSON * Humboldt State development, Africa, Kenya 1. INTRODUCTION Solar electrification has emerged as a leading alternative to grid technology advocates, but my research in Kenya indicates that solar electrification is, at best, only loosely

  18. Deliberate Interactions: Characterizing Technology Use in Nairobi, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grinter, Rebecca Elizabeth

    Deliberate Interactions: Characterizing Technology Use in Nairobi, Kenya Susan P. Wyche, Thomas N from a qualitative study examining how professionals living and working in Nairobi, Kenya regularly use, Kenya, urban computing, everyday technology ACM Classification Keywords K.4.2 Social Issues

  19. Changing times, changing places: AIDS orphans in Kisumu District, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Changing times, changing places: AIDS orphans in Kisumu District, Kenya Prevalence of AIDS orphans in Kenya (2.6 million) had been orphaned by AIDS. In 1999, 46,732 children (17 years old care. Although Kenya has clear policies on prevention and management of HIV, it lacks a policy

  20. Aardvark hunt in Kenya Gaten B. Rat}rUin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I I i Aardvark hunt in Kenya Gaten B. Rat}rUin Dept of Omittrologr & Mamrnalogr, Catifomia Academy eactrirg science as a Peace Corps Volunteer at Mirogi $conOary Scnou in Sou*r Nyanza District or Kenya of Kenya in Nairobi. 14 #12;

  1. Kenya: Balazs Szendroi, University of Oxford, UK, and the Department of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, Maseno University, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szendröi, Balázs

    Kenya: Balazs Szendroi, University of Oxford, UK, and the Department of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, Maseno University, Kenya Contacts: Professor John Ogonji (Dean), Professor Omolo Ongati (Head was supported by local funds from MACKNET, the Maths And Computer science, Kenya, NETwork. The following

  2. Shelf circulation patterns off Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rider, Kelly Elizabeth

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    . Because of the limited knowledge of the oceanography of this region, the magnitude and direction of the drift were unexpected, hampering clean up efforts. This lack of information prompted the initiation of a joint industry project (JIP) to gain a... better understanding of the shelf currents offshore Nigeria. The study area defined in the JIP includes the rivers in and near the Niger Delta and the shallow-water region (to approximately 100-m depths) off the coast of Nigeria, roughly extending from...

  3. Nigeria 2007 Political, Social, and Economic Transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigeria 2007 Political, Social, and Economic Transitions 2­4 November 2006 Program of African written will match the ongoing saga of Nigeria, absolutely nothing." -- Wole Soyinka INTERNATIONAL.m. Continental breakfast 9 a.m. "Politics and Literature in Nigeria" Wendy Griswold, Northwestern

  4. Foreign Fishery Developments Nigeria Plans Large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foreign Fishery Developments Nigeria Plans Large Fishing Fleet Expansion Table 1.-Nigerian fishing reported deliveries. Development Program Nigeria's oil exports have enabled its Government to fInance Africa's most ambitious development program. Nigeria has the largest population of any country in Africa

  5. Below-ground root yield and distribution in natural and replanted mangrove forests at Gazi bay, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    , Kenya F. Tamooh a,b, *, M. Huxham d , M. Karachi a , M. Mencuccini e , J.G. Kairo c , B. Kirui d a Egerton University, P.O. Box 536, Njoro, Kenya b Kenya Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 82144-80100, Mombasa, Kenya c Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) P.O. Box 81651, Mombasa, Kenya d School

  6. The geography and carbon footprint of mobile phone use in Cote d'Ivoire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salnikov, Vsevolod; Youn, Hyejin; Lambiotte, Renaud; Gastner, Michael T

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The newly released Orange D4D mobile phone data base provides new insights into the use of mobile technology in a developing country. Here we perform a series of spatial data analyses that reveal important geographic aspects of mobile phone use in Cote d'Ivoire. We first map the locations of base stations with respect to the population distribution and the number and duration of calls at each base station. On this basis, we estimate the energy consumed by the mobile phone network. Finally, we perform an analysis of inter-city mobility, and identify high-traffic roads in the country.

  7. The Context of Film Production in Nigeria: The Colonial Heritage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okome, Onookome

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Folklori c Cinema in Nigeria" ( PhD Diuertation, Uni"policy in independent Nigeria has been the entrenchment of aCONTEXT OF FILM PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA: THE COLONIAL HERITAGE

  8. Democracy and the Performance of Power: Observations from Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochonu, Moses

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Confession," The G11ardia11 (Nigeria) June 11. Foucault,2002. "Abuse of Democracy," ThisDay (Nigeria) Nov. 26, 2001.Power: Observations from Nigeria Moses Ochonu Abstract Since

  9. The Currency of Revolution in Southern Nigeria: 1880-1948

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibekwe Ofonagoro, Walter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    144Ibid, p. 609. 145British rule in Nigeria ended in 1960.Revolution in South-West Nigeria in the Late Nineteenththe Historical Soceity of Nigeria, Vol. 2, No. 1, Dec. 1960,

  10. The Character of Popular Indigenous Cinema in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okome, Onookome

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    269. Ekwuazi, Hyginus. Film In Nigeria. Jos: Nigerian FilmOF POPULAR INDIGENOUS CINEMA IN NIGERIA I Onookome Okome Theindigenous film of Nigeria must be seen and discussed within

  11. The Political Economy of Health Care Problems in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ityavyar, Dennis A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the comparison between Nigeria and Tanzania are taken from:and Economic Changes in Nigeria and the Organization ofOF HEALTH CARE PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA by Dennis A. Ityavyar The

  12. The Currency Revolution in Southern Nigeria 1880-1948

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibekwe Ofonagoro, Walter

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    144Ibid, p. 609. 145British rule in Nigeria ended in 1960.Revolution in South-West Nigeria in the Late Nineteenththe Historical Soceity of Nigeria, Vol. 2, No. 1, Dec. 1960,

  13. Nigeria: Mapping the Shari`a Restorationist Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubeck, Paul M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the significance of Nigeria's energy sector. The UnitedU.S. Department of Energy. 2009. "Nigeria." http://energy security zone, one expected to supply 25 percent of American imports by 2025, with Nigeria

  14. Multimodal Transport Modeling for Nairobi, Kenya: Insights and Recommendations with an Evidence-Based Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Multimodal Transport Modeling for Nairobi, Kenya: Insights and Recommendations with an Evidence-5 August 2009 #12;Multimodal Transport Modeling for Nairobi, Kenya: Insights and Recommendations

  15. Energy conservation in Kenya: progress, potentials, problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schipper, L.; Hollander, J.M.; Milukas, M.; Alcamo, J.; Meyers, S.; Noll, S.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was carried out of the flows of commercial energy in the economy of Kenya. Indications were sought of the extent to which energy conservation, (i.e., increase in efficiency of energy use) has reduced the ratio of energy inputs to economic outputs, in the post-1973 years. An assessment was made of the potential for energy conservation to reduce the growth of Kenyan energy use in the future and of significant barriers to increasing energy efficiency. Consideration was given to the role of government policy and of international assistance in fostering energy conservation in Kenya and other developing countries. The study was performed by analyzing available energy data and statistics from the largest oil companies, the Kenyan electric utility, and the government. These sources were supplemented by conducting personal interviews with personnel of nearly 50 commercial firms in Kenya. Direct consumption of fuel accounts for 94% of the commercial energy use in Kenya, while electricity accounts for 6%. The sectoral division of fuel use is: transportation 53%, industry 21%, energy production 11%, agriculture 9%, buildings and residences 5%, and construction 1%. For electricity the division is: buildings and residences 48%, industry 45%, energy production 4%, agriculture 2%, and construction 1%. Recent progress in conservation is reported.

  16. Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D. [Thomas and Associates, Hastings (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.

  17. BIOTROPICA 37(4): 631640 2005 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2005.00080.x Factors Influencing Tree Phenology in Tai National Park, C^ote d'Ivoire1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Ta¨i National Park, C^ote d'Ivoire1 Dean P. Anderson2,6, Erik. V. Nordheim3, Timothy C. Moermond2 leaf phenology for 797 trees from 38 species in the Ta¨i National Park, C^ote d'Ivoire. We determined nouvelles feuilles pour 797 arbres de 38 esp`eces dans le Parc National de Ta¨i, C^ote d'Ivoire. Nous avons

  18. Energy demand and conservation in Kenya: initial appraisal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schipper, L.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing research into the use and conservation of energy in Kenya is reported briefly. A partial accounting of energy use in Kenya is presented, and evidence that some energy conservation has been taking place is discussed. A fuller accounting for all commercial energy flows is both possible and desirable. The work presented should serve as a basis for further data collection and analysis in Kenya, and can be used as a model for similar efforts in other countries. The author intends to continue much of this energy accounting in Kenya in the latter half of 1980.

  19. Kenya-Supporting Low Carbon Development and Climate Resilient...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Strategies" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleKenya-SupportingLowCarbonDevelopmentandClimateResilientStrategiesinAfrica&oldid700...

  20. Kenya-Standard Assessment of Mitigation Potential and Livelihoods...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Livelihoods in Smallholder Systems (SAMPLES) Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Standard Assessment of Mitigation Potential and Livelihoods in Smallholder Systems (SAMPLES)...

  1. Kenya-Bringing a Range of Supported Mitigation Activities in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website http:www.ecn.nldocslibrary Program Start 2011 Program End 2014 Country Kenya Eastern Africa References ECN1 Ecofys2 Program Overview This project runs from...

  2. Some dry season plants recommended as edible vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taiga, AKPOVUGHAYE Dr.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vegetables cultivated in Nigeria are: cabbage, lettuce,Community in Kogi State, Nigeria, there are inadequateGovernment Area, Kogi State, Nigeria. Each of the fresh

  3. Perceived crime and traffic safety is related to physical activity among adults in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Adegoke, Babatunde O; Sallis, James F; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    census. Federal republic of Nigeria: 2008. [http://Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ORC Macro. Maryland:of the Hausa version in Nigeria. BMC Med Res Methodol 2011,

  4. Artifacts as Social Conflict Resolution Mechanism in Traditional Urhobo Society of Nigeria's Niger Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diakparomre, Abel Mac

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State University in Abraka, Nigeria. He has a Master of FineNiger Delta region of Nigeria. Bibliography Aweto, Albertand Socialization Processes in Nigeria. ” Ethiope Research:

  5. Adjustment, Political Transition, and the Organization of Military Power in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihonvbere, Julius O.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Cambridge Universities in Nigeria, Lagos. May 1990. 44future after NOTES 1 "Nigeria: Taming the Army," AfricanPhillips, Economic Impact of Nigeria's Structural Adjustment

  6. Economic Crisis, Structural Adjustment, and Prospects for Political Stability in Nigeria's Third Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okolie, Andrew C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacturers Association of Nigeria (MAN) has consistentlyand Underdevelopment in Nigeria." in Julius lhonvbere (Capllllllsm and Crisis in Nigeria (Benin City: Jodah

  7. The Dancing History Collection: Cultural Dances, Part 1. Chapter 4: Nigeria, Olokun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Jill

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Dance. Owerri, Nigeria: AP Publications, cl993. Okwori,of the Idoma. Zaria, Nigeria: Instances Communicationsp. 355, ex. 53 lb. Nigeria 139 Deviation from the path. See

  8. Incidence of Negative Appendectomy: Experience From a Company Hospital in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osime, O C; Ajayi, P A

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From a Company Hospital in Nigeria OC Osime, FMCS, FICSHospital Benin City, Nigeria ABSTRACT Objective: The aim ofin a company hospital in Nigeria. Background: Appendicitis

  9. Women and Elections in Nigeria: Some Empirical Evidence from the December 1991 Elections in Enugu State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibeanu, Okechukwu

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Prebendal Politics in Nigeria (Cambridge: CambridgeGovernment Elections in Nigeria, Vol. 1, Lagos: NationalPolitical Participation in Nigeria," in Steady, F. (ed. ).

  10. Nigeria: Energy for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eleri, E.O. [Fridtjof Nansen Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Though an essentially contested concept, it is safe to acknowledge that the attainment of sustainable development requires that the growth and well-being of present generations are brought about in such ways that the ability of future people to meet their own needs will not be compromised. The availability of safe and sound energy as a factor of production is a key element in such a development process. Despite the abundance of energy resources, acute shortages of energy services have become endemic in Nigeria. This paper reassesses the common proposition that energy has fueled growth and development in Nigeria by its role as the chief source of state revenue and through its input into economic activities in the country. It is argued here, however, that conventional energy management in Nigeria has tended to create development flaws of its own. The article is divided into six sections: 1st, a general account of the energy and development linkages in Nigeria; 2nd, the failures of these linkages are assessed; 3rd, policy initiatives are considered that would be reconcilable to the nation`s sustainable development; 4th, the present reform agenda, its inadequacies and barriers are surveyed; 5th, the achievement of sustainable development, it is argued, will demand the re-institutionalization of the political economy of the energy sector in Nigeria, which will depend largely on the resolution of the dilemmas and conflicts in the country`s broader political and economic reforms; and 6th, an outlook is suggested for future policy development.

  11. Patterns of coalition formation by adult female baboons in Amboseli, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberts, Susan C

    Patterns of coalition formation by adult female baboons in Amboseli, Kenya JOAN B. SILK*, SUSAN CDepartment of Biology, Duke University zInstitute for Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya x, in Amboseli, Kenya. There is a broad consensus that, when ecological conditions favour collective defence

  12. Horticultural marketing in Kenya: conduct and performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutoka, Dickson Teyie

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the U. S. A. and relate them to the situation in Kenya. 4. analyze the pricing efficiency in the sub-sector CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Narket Performance Good market performance of an industry involves a balance of progressiveness..., efficiency, equity and stability. This applies to any economic system, but different societies apply different priorities or weights to balance these concepts. In a market oriented economy, the general rules of market operations mainly influence...

  13. Kenya International Radio Observatory Joseph Otieno Malo, University of Nairobi,Joseph Otieno Malo, University of Nairobi,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenya International Radio Observatory (KIRO) Joseph Otieno Malo, University of Nairobi,Joseph Otieno Malo, University of Nairobi, KenyaKenya Bo Thide, Uppsala University, SwedenBo Thide, Uppsala.environmental, and communications research. Located in northern Kenya, on the geomagnetic equator,Located in northern Kenya

  14. HumanWildlife Interactions 5(1):58, Spring 2011 Use of illegal methods in Kenya's rural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human­Wildlife Interactions 5(1):5­8, Spring 2011 Use of illegal methods in Kenya's rural.O. Box 5496-30100, Eldoret, Kenya nsifuna@ yahoo.com Key words: human­wildlife conflicts, Kenya Wildlife depredation in Laikipia, Kenya Kenya's Laikipia District is located on the equator in the central part

  15. The Perceived Role of Literacy and its Attendant Problems in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godonoo, Prosper

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    History of Education in Nigeria (London: Allen and Unwin,p. 67. I3Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Policy onEducatio n A ny Futu re in Nigeria? (Benin City, Nigeria:

  16. Structural style of the Turkana Rift, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunkelman, T.J.; Karson, J.A.; Rosendahl, B.R.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multifold seismic reflection and geologic mapping in part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift system of northern Kenya reveal a major rift structure containing at least 3 km of Neogene sediment fill beneath Lake Turkana. This includes a series of half-graben basins, with centrally located quaternary volcanic centers, which are linked end-to-end by structural accommodation zones. Whereas the geometry of rifting is similar to that of the nonvolcanic western branch of the East African Rift system, the Turkana half-grabens are much smaller and may reflect extension of a thinner lithosphere or development of more closely spaced fracture patterns during rift evolution, or both.

  17. Kenya's forests: going up in smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnett, G.W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closed forest and commercially valuable woodland account for at most 11,406 square miles in Kenya (about 5.2% of the country's area). Plantation forests, mainly of exotic conifers, cover more than 550 square miles, and it is hoped that exotic plantation species will entirely replace dependence on the indigenous forests for pulp, sawn timber and other roundwood. However, reliance on charcoal as a fuel has led to widespread deforestation, particularly along highways and within 20 miles of towns and major villages. Deforestation is likely to increase with increasing population pressure.

  18. Kenya SWERA-Country Report.pdf

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa:Washington: Energy Resources JumpKentwood,Becoming aKENYA

  19. Transnational movements, human rights and democracy : legal mobilization strategies and majoritarian constraints in Kenya, 1982-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeley, Maureen Catherine

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    contribut[ing] to [a] quantum leap in democracy” in Kenya. 3and “contributed to [a] quantum leap in democracy” in Kenya.

  20. Prospects for grid-connected solar PV in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Amy Michelle

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kenya's electric power system is heavily reliant on hydropower, leaving it vulnerable during recurring droughts. Supply shortfalls are currently met through the use of expensive leased diesel generation. Therefore, plans ...

  1. Transaction Networks: Evidence from Mobile Money in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jack, William

    Mobile money allows households in Kenya to spread risk more efficiently. In this paper we show that these efficiencies are achieved through deeper financial integration and expanded informal networks. Active networks are ...

  2. ENERGY DEMAND AND CONSERVATION IN KENYA: INITIAL APPRAISAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and commercial uses" of oil products as given by the 1978as net i.mports of oil products. Electric power productionfrom Kenya is refined oil products, energy for which is

  3. Popular Diplomacy in an Autocracy – Public Opinion and Foreign Policy Decision-Making under the Military in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojieh, Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Affairs with Macmillan Nigeria Publishers, 1986), 46. 5 Ole15 Jide Oluwajuyitan, Nigeria under The Generals (Lagos:v. 16 Tunde Babawale, Nigeria in the Crises of Governance

  4. A.E. Opubor and O.E. Nwuneli, The Development and Growth of the Film Industry in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cham, Mbye B.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and cultural imperialism in Nigeria and Africa today.dominate the film market in Nigeria in spite of politicaloriented film industry in Nigeria. Mbye B. Cham Associate ~

  5. Household catastrophic payments for tuberculosis care in Nigeria: incidence, determinants, and policy implications for universal health coverage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ukwaja, Kingsley; Alobu, Isaac; Abimbola, Seye; Hopewell, Philip

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for tuberculosis care in Nigeria: incidence, determinants,Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. 2 National TuberculosisAbakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. 3 National Primary Health

  6. Niger Delta play types, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akinpelu, A.O. [Chevron Nigeria Limited, Lagos (Nigeria)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

  7. Nigeria: after crude, the gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Misinterpretation of the laws of the marketplace have already brought Nigeria to the brink of a catastrophe in 1978, when the government had built up heavy stocks expecting a substantial increase in price. When it did not materialize and the production had to be dropped to 50% of the previous rate, in a country where crude constitutes 90% of the export revenues, the system was changed. The new plan is intended to reduce the dependence of Nigeria on oil exports. The production rate is set at between 2.2 and 2.5 million bpd. Due to a significant increase in domestic demand, the 2 existing refineries cannot fill the gap; 2 more refineries are planned. There also are substantial gas reserves; the associated gas, now flared, is to be recovered. A gas liquefaction plant also is in operation, with one-half of the output going to Europe and one-half to the US. Some of the oil and gas is earmarked for local petrochemical plants.

  8. Appraisal of the energy policy in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngoka, N.I.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a major oil producing and exporting country, Nigeria has acquired huge wealth from this resource. This has given rise to the purchase of energy consuming devices for households use and rapid industrialization. All these demand energy and assist in the improvement of the standard of living of the inhabitants. This paper examines Nigeria's energy problems and the policy which the government has adopted to solve them.

  9. Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya in Areas 105 and 131 on the Karari Ridge in the eastern Turkana Basin (Kenya). We identify the base

  10. Commentary on the Kenya Constitution (consolidation of 15 articles in the East African Standard)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Commentary on the Kenya Constitution (consolidation of 15 articles in the East African Standard) I in Kenya's history that the people will participate in a referendum. This is to be welcomed. A referendum

  11. Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya in Areas 105 and 131 on the Karari Ridge in the eastern Turkana Basin (Kenya). We identify the base

  12. A Resource Kit for Participatory Socio-technical Design in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Sriram

    A Resource Kit for Participatory Socio-technical Design in Rural Kenya Abstract We describe our, initially in two rural villages in Kenya. Mobile technologies are employed to bridge remote sensor networks

  13. The Lessons of the Military Coup in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Horace

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    n uf l abour . The i ss ue o f Nigeria sho ws that nei t herThE' fifth . n 1tary co up tn Nigeria on December 31. 1983African workers frQIII Nigeria , giving solace to racists

  14. SUSTAINABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT (An Overview of Nigeria Experience)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    SUSTAINABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT (An Overview of Nigeria Experience) By Asapo, E. S. (PhD) 20th Development. The Nigeria Experience. Conclusion. #12;Development that meets the needs of present generations, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda projected to increase

  15. INFORMATION NOTE United Nations/Nigeria Workshop on Space Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass, Ian S.

    1 INFORMATION NOTE United Nations/Nigeria Workshop on Space Law "Meeting international responsibilities and addressing domestic needs" Hosted by the Government of Nigeria 21-24 November 2005 Abuja, Nigeria Background Given the growing number of benefits derived from the use of space applications

  16. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    June 2014 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA Issues of access, quality, equity and impact Sara Humphreys with Lee Crawfurd #12;Review of the literature on basic education in Nigeria EDOREN ­ Education Data, Research and Evaluation in Nigeria i Acknowledgements Thanks are due to many individuals who

  17. STRATEGIC REVIEW OF THE SEXUAL TRANSMISSION PREVENTION PROGRAM IN NIGERIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Ophir

    STRATEGIC REVIEW OF THE SEXUAL TRANSMISSION PREVENTION PROGRAM IN NIGERIA Data Analysis Prevention Technical Working Group (TWG) in Nigeria, in dialogue with the Office of the Global AIDS prevention program in Nigeria. Specifically, the following needs were agreed: to evaluate the effectiveness

  18. Lessons Learned and Forgotten: The International Community and Electoral Conflict Management in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Xuhua

    in Kenya Stephen Brown Associate Professor School of Political Studies University of Ottawa brownGill-Queen's University Press, 2011, pp. 127-43. #12;1 The link between elections and violence in Kenya is quite different the role of "loyal" opposition and try once again to win the vote in the next elections. In Kenya

  19. SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABILITY: KENYA'S ENERGY PAST AND FUTURE, NOVEMBER 2006 SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABILITY: KENYA'S ENERGY PAST AND FUTURE, NOVEMBER 2006 1 SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABILITY KENYA'S ENERGY PAST AND FUTURE BY ROB BAILIS, CHARLES KIRUBI AND ARNE JACOBSON SEARCHING exceeds that of fossil fuels [7], but the starting point 25 years ago was miniscule. Kenya has benefited

  20. To identify tickborne viruses circulating in Kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abat-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, David

    To identify tickborne viruses circulating in Kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abat- toirs in Nairobi, Kenya. Species of ticks collected included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (56 the abundance of tick- borne arboviruses in Kenya and the surrounding region, we collected and tested ticks

  1. Magnetotelluric images of the crustal structure of Chyulu Hills volcanic field, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meju, Max

    Magnetotelluric images of the crustal structure of Chyulu Hills volcanic field, Kenya V. Sakkas volcanic chain on the eastern flank of the Kenya Rift in East Africa. Transient electromagnetic (TEM flank of the Kenya Rift deduced from wide-angle P-wave data. In: Fuchs, K., Altherr, R., Muller, B

  2. Last updated 6 May 2011 Kenya: Balazs Szendroi, University of Oxford, UK, and the Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Last updated 6 May 2011 Kenya: Balazs Szendroi, University of Oxford, UK, and the Department of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, Maseno University, Kenya Contacts: Professor John Ogonji (Dean), Professor, Kenya, NETwork. The following sessions were held during the course of the visit. (i) Five talks

  3. Dramatic change in local climate patterns in the Amboseli basin, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberts, Susan C

    Dramatic change in local climate patterns in the Amboseli basin, Kenya J. Altmann1,2,3,Ă? , S. C Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya; 4 Department of Biology, Duke University, Box Kenya, has experienced extensive changes in habitat since the early 1960's. The present report docu

  4. Deep sequencing reveals extensive variation in the gut microbiota of wild mosquitoes from Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiggins, Francis

    Deep sequencing reveals extensive variation in the gut microbiota of wild mosquitoes from Kenya J of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EH, UK, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, P.O. Box 428, Kilifi 80108, Kenya Abstract The mosquito midgut

  5. IT Education and Workforce Participation: A New Era for Women in Kenya?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kvasny, Lynette

    IT Education and Workforce Participation: A New Era for Women in Kenya? Victor W. A. Mbarika, Ph.814.865.6426 Atieno Amadi, Ph.D. School of Commerce Jomo Kenyatta University of Arts and Technology Kenya Submitted to Participation: A New Era for Women in Kenya?1 Abstract "ICTs are important tools that provide the [Sub

  6. Working with Communities to Improve Dignity: The Case of Improved Bio-Centres in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Working with Communities to Improve Dignity: The Case of Improved Bio-Centres in Kenya George, to redress the attendant problems. Introduction As is the case in many developing nations, Kenya's urban for in article 184 (Government of Kenya [GOK], 2010) that has enabled subsequent legislation through an Act

  7. Partial Cranium of Cercopithecoides kimeui Leakey, 1982 From Rawi Gully, Southwestern Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plummer, Thomas

    Partial Cranium of Cercopithecoides kimeui Leakey, 1982 From Rawi Gully, Southwestern Kenya Stephen The Rawi Gully, located on the Homa Peninsula in southwestern Kenya, has produced several fossil elements habitat than the other occurrences of C. kimeui at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and Koobi Fora, Kenya

  8. Learning to Export: Building farmers' capabilities through partnerships in Kenya LEARNING TO EXPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Learning to Export: Building farmers' capabilities through partnerships in Kenya Bolo, M.O LEARNING TO EXPORT: BUILDING FARMERS' CAPABILITIES THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS IN KENYA'S FLOWER INDUSTRY Maurice Ochieng in volume, value and acreage of cut flowers in Kenya ­ largely from large scale growers. In order to improve

  9. The central Kenya peralkaline province: Insights into the evolution of peralkaline salic magmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The central Kenya peralkaline province: Insights into the evolution of peralkaline salic magmas Ra rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans cedex 2, France Abstract The central Kenya peralkaline processes is summarized. Keywords: Kenya; Petrogenesis; Peralkaline magmas 1. Introduction In the central

  10. Inversion tectonics during continental rifting: The Turkana Cenozoic rifted zone, northern Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    Inversion tectonics during continental rifting: The Turkana Cenozoic rifted zone, northern Kenya B of inverted deformation within Miocene-Recent basins of the Turkana rift (northern Kenya) in the eastern: The Turkana Cenozoic rifted zone, northern Kenya, Tectonics, 24, TC2002, doi:10.1029/2004TC001637. 1

  11. How Technology Supports Family Communication in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    How Technology Supports Family Communication in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Kenya Erick Oduor1 communicate both within and between rural, suburban, and urban settings in Kenya. Our findings reveal the challenges that designers will face if creating or deploying family communication technologies in Kenya. ACM

  12. MINISTERE DES AFFAIRES ETRANGERES ET EUROPEENNES AMBASSADE DE FRANCE AU KENYA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hélein, Frédéric - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

    1 MINISTERE DES AFFAIRES ETRANGERES ET EUROPEENNES AMBASSADE DE FRANCE AU KENYA FICHE CURIE ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR KENYA I. Organisation de l'enseignement supérieur a. Management de l'enseignement technique Le Kenya compte de nombreuses institutions d'enseignement technique qui offrent en 1 à 4 ans des

  13. Sedimentation and recent history of a freshwater wetland in a semi-arid environment: Loboi Swamp, Kenya, East Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Kenya, East Africa G. M. ASHLEY*, J. MAITIMA MWORIA , A. M. MUASYAà, R. B. OWEN§, S. G. DRIESE­, V. C Livestock Research Institute, PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya àEast African Herbarium, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya §Department of Geography, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China

  14. Ethnicity, petroeconomy, and national integration in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeri-Obidake, E.Z.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among several related phenomena, this study presents as its focal points the examination of some of the variables that influence and shape the structure of sociopolitical, cultural and socioeconomic relations in the course of national integration in Nigeria. The exploitation of petroleum resources since 1958 in the Niger Delta has largely influenced the course of the political as well as the socioeconomic development of Nigeria. Due to its rich petroleum resources, the Rivers territory ranked high in the political calculus of both the Federal Government and secessionist Biafra. The central thesis of this study is that oil is the single glue that has held the Federation of Nigeria together in the last two decades, and prevented it from being balkanized. This study attempts to put into perspective the various eruptions and episodes of secessionist tendencies and agitations in Nigeria. The ebb and flow of separatist agitations seem to reflect the changing geoeconomic, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical environment of the country. Should the petroeconomy collapse, and/or oil losses its significance in the international economy, what will happen to Nigeria as a nation. The present study points up the need to develop other sources of economic interdependence via the proper utilization of the enormous oil revenues before it is written off as a lost opportunity.

  15. Distribution of Aspergillus section Flavi in soils of maize fields in three agroecological zones of Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotty, Peter J.

    of Nigeria Matthias Donner a , Joseph Atehnkeng b,c , Richard A. Sikora a , Ranajit Bandyopadhyay b , Peter J, Nigeria c Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria d USDA

  16. Nigeria: The Political Economy of the Bourgeois Restoration by Siddique Mohammed and Tony Edoh, Eds.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iweriebor, Ehiedu E.F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mohammed and Tony Edoh (eds). Nigeria: The Political EconomyBello University, Zaria, Nigeria in November 1983. It waswhich is sui generis to Nigeria. Analysts can then go on to

  17. The Challenge of Democratization in Nigeria: Involvement or Alienation of the Military

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amadife, Emmanuel N.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    71108. 20x.arry Diamond. "Nigeria in Search of Democracy,"Impending Demise of Nigeria's Forthcoming Third Republic,"system that has governed Nigeria for the most part since

  18. With McLuhan in Nigeria, Item I: An Eye for an Ear?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinner, Joseph

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has just r eturned from a year of field work in Nigeria . atpp. 112-113. Coleman, Nigeria, pp. 113-114. W.H. Whiteley, AEducation in Northern Nigeria, (lbadan, 1966), p. 101. See

  19. Skin cancer in albinos at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asuquo, M E; Otei, O O; Omotoso, J; Bassey, E E

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Okoro AN. Albinism in Nigeria. A clinical and social study.Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria M E Asuquo 1 , O O OteiHospital, Calabar, Nigeria. mauefas@yahoo.com Abstract We

  20. Oral Field Techniques and Women's History: The Case of Owan Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogbomo, Onaiwu W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TIlE CASE OF OWAN. NIGERIA Onaiwu W. Ogbomo Following theof Owan Communities, Nigeria c.1320-1900: Ph.D ThesisGovernment Anas) of Edo Swe, Nigeria. wan lies between the

  1. The Radical Alternative and the Dilemma of the Intellectual Dramatist in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Layiwola, Dele

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ogunbiyi, ed. , Drama and Theater in Nigeria: A CriticalSource Book (Lagos: Nigeria Magazine, 1981), pp. 333-353.theater uoupes in Western Nigeria. The former is famous for

  2. Nigeria`s rich resources for renewable energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayankoya, J.O.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been observed in Nigeria, that there is a correlation between the standard of living as measured by per capita GNP, and per capita energy consumption. As energy use per capita is tied to the importance of population increase it tends to drop during economic slow down. The per capita energy usage is put at 0.2 kw compared to 10 kw for USA and 4 kw for Europe respectively. Furthermore, analysis shows with the increase in population per year and a 2--5% growth in per capita GNP, require an increase of 5--8% in energy supply per year. The Country derives almost all its energy need from fossil fuels (petroleum, gas and coal), hydropower (the only renewable energy used for generating electricity at present) Wood, Animal, Human power and Wind. With the introduction of solar energy, wind energy, micro hydro power, ocean energy, geothermal energy, biomass conversion, and municipal waste energy, the generating of electricity is bound to take a new turn.

  3. Nigeria's internal petroleum problems: perspectives and choices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwayemi, A.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil-producing Nigeria has been hard hit by weakening oil markets, the replacement of the civilian government by a military regime, and sporadic but severe energy supply problems. The latter included shortages of petroleum products and irregular availability of electricity. These conditions will worsen unless Nigeria takes immediate action to introduce demand management, including efficient pricing and other conservation measures, and timely investment to expand domestic energy facilities, change the institutional and policy environment, and assure the availability of imported supplies. It is also important to encourage the development of renewable energy sources. 16 references, 2 tables.

  4. Nigeria: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Middle East events have renewed interest in Nigeria's proven and potentially productive oil basins and fueled an upsurge in exploration and production activity. Increased oil revenues during the Gulf crisis were a bonus that will help pay for projects to boost production. Official goals are to increase production from current levels to 2.2 million bopd by the end of 1991 and 2.5 million bopd by 1995, and to raise reserves to 22 billion bbl by 1995. Shell, the largest operator, will spend $6.6 billion over five years on exploration and production to up its capacity from 1 million bopd to 1.3 million bopd, primarily with a $750-million investment for four new fields in South Forcados permit. Shell also announced reserve estimates of 400 million bbl of crude and 500 Bcf of gas for the Gharan structure onshore in Rivers State north of Yenogoa. Initial discovery was in January 1967, but the field was considered to be gas until Gbaran 4 was drilled in May 1990.

  5. Convex Approaches to Text Summarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gawalt, Brian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    obama, reported violence, president, state, new, said, military, mr nigerian, nigerias, africa, kenya, angola, muslim,

  6. African Alumni of ISU (ISU-AA) "Statement of Intent"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass, Ian S.

    . Most countries in Africa: Kenya, Libya, South Africa, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroun, Algeria and others

  7. Democratic Transition and Political Violence in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obadare, Ebenezer

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Des temps coloniaux ŕ nos jours, l'activité politique a toujours été accompagnée d'un certain niveau de violence au Nigeria. Les deux tentatives d'instauration de la démocratie civile durant la premičre et seconde républiques se sont soldées par un...

  8. Can the Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) reduce adverse maternal outcomes from postpartum hemorrhage? Evidence from Egypt and Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hemorrhage? Evidence from Egypt and Nigeria. Reproductivehemorrhage? Evidence from Egypt and Nigeria Mohammed Mourad-in Nigeria and two in Egypt between 2004-2008. Entry

  9. Wood, energy and households: Perspectives on rural Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, C.; Ensminger, J.; O'Keefe, P.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents papers on the use of wood fuels in Kenya. Topics considered include domestic energy consumption, historical aspects, the Kenyan economy, ecology, supply and demand, forests, aspects of energy consumption in a pastoral ecosystem, estimation of present and future demand for wood fuels, and energy source development.

  10. abuja northern nigeria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Deployment of Fixed Wireless Access in South West Nigeria: Performance and Evaluation CERN Preprints Summary: Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) involves the use of wireless...

  11. The alternative of Chinese aid in Africa : impacts of China's development strategy through Chinese aid, finance, and firms in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullin, Deborah Wei

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the differences of Chinese and Western aid implementation and its effects in Africa though the case study of Chinese aid and finance for road development in Kenya. Today, Kenya receives tangible benefits ...

  12. Nigeria to step up tar sands activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nigerian government has directed its Ministry of Mines, Power and Steel to assume responsibility for the exploration and exploitation of tar sands deposits in Bendel, Ondo and Oyo States. The directive resulted from a survey report by the University of Ife's geological consultancy unit on bituminous sand deposits in the area. The statement said the government was satisfied that there were large commercial quantities of the sands in the three states. The survey had reported that Nigeria could recover between 31 and 40 billion barrels of heavy crude from the tar sand deposits. Exploration for hydrocarbons is currently going on in Anambra and Lake Chad basins as well as the Benue Trough. Apart from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Shell Petroleum and Gulf Oil have begun exploration activities in the Ondo area. Meanwhile, Nigeria has had to import heavy crude from Venezuela, for processing at the Kaduna refinery.

  13. Oyo-first field Deepwater Nigeria?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilletveit, R.; Nelson, L. [The Statoil and BP Alliance, Stavanger (Norway); Osahon, G. [Allied Energy Resources (Nig) Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oyo-1 well was drilled in 3Q95 in OPL 210. The partners in the block are Allied Energy (Operator) and the Statoil and BP Alliance. This well was the first well drilled in Deepwater Nigeria and is a reported hydrocarbon discovery. Although the well was within the Niger Delta depositional system, the deepwater play types drilled were quite different than anything previously tested on the Nigerian shelf or onshore. One year on, some of the questions to be asked are: (1) What did Oyo-1 discover? (2) What has been done to establish the commerciality, or otherwise, of the hydrocarbon pools encountered? (3) What impact does this discovery have on other prospects identified in the deepwater area? The answer to these questions will help to identify whether a new hydrocarbon province in the deepwater Nigeria area can be developed, or not.

  14. How Beneficial is Tourism? An Analysis of the Economic Impact of Tourism in Il N'gwesi, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How Beneficial is Tourism? An Analysis of the Economic Impact of Tourism in Il N'gwesi, Kenya of tourism in Il N'gwesi, Kenya. Il N'gwesi is a Maasai group ranch located near Mt. Kenya which is primarily

  15. Impact of monsoons, temperature, and CO2 on the rainfall and ecosystems of Mt. Kenya during the Common Era

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuille, Mathias

    Impact of monsoons, temperature, and CO2 on the rainfall and ecosystems of Mt. Kenya during Leaf waxes Glacial and early Holocene-age sediments from lakes on Mt. Kenya have documented strong and atmospheric CO2 concentra- tions. However, little is known about climate and ecosystem variations on Mt. Kenya

  16. the academy of sciences for the developing world tenable in developing countries such as Brazil, China, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    , China, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan and Thailand for scientists from developing countries year Age limit: 30 TWAS-icipe Fellowships for Postgraduate Research in Kenya The International Centre (other than Kenya) who wish to obtain a PhD in the natural sciences, especially focusing on integrated

  17. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2010 Kenya Water Well Drill Rig Redesign of Engine Drive Train System & Support Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2010 Kenya Water Well Drill Rig ­ Redesign the engine drive train system and support structure for a water drill rig to be used in Kenya. The original not replicable in Kenya. The original support structure also had design flaws as it failed during operation

  18. Development and transfer of conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) for small-holder farms in eastern Uganda and western Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norton, Jay B.

    -holder farms in eastern Uganda and western Kenya A proposal submitted to the SANREM CRSP Phase IV Long University, P.O. Box 1125 - 30100 Eldoret, Kenya Email: rokalebo@yahoo.com Tel: +254-(0)53-2063160 Fax: +254-00200 Nairobi, Kenya Email: emukhwan@uwyo.edu Tel: 307-460-1520 Fax: 307-766-6403 Emmanuel Omondi, Director

  19. Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya A comparative study of different farming systems in the Nyando district

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya A comparative study of different farming of Agricultural Sciences #12;2 Sugarcane and agroforestry farming in western Kenya - A comparative study.) intercropped with food crops in an agroforestry system, Kopere, Kenya. Photo: Ida Lindell Keywords

  20. Exploring the Potential Impact of Reforestation on the Hydrology of the Upper Tana River Catchment and the Masinga Dam, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catchment and the Masinga Dam, Kenya Jennifer Jacobs, Jay Angerer, Jeff Vitale Raghavan Srinivasan, Robert of the most critical resource areas of Kenya. The Masinga Reservoir, at the outlet of the basin, provides, collaborating technical policy analysts working for key government institutions in Kenya identified the need

  1. Phase equilibrium constraints on the production and storage of peralkaline silicic magmas: insights from Kenya and Pantelleria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    from Kenya and Pantelleria Bruno Scaillet : ISTO-CNRS, Orleans, France; bscaille@cnrs-orleans.fr Ray of the Kenya Rift Valley. There, a partial melting of crustal protoliths has been advocated on the basis from two key localities: one in Kenya, the Olkaria volcanic field near Naivasha lake, and one in Italy

  2. The habitat use and selection of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in a land use landscape in Kenya, Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    in Kenya, Africa Ashley Coe Ashley Coe (Corresponding author) Montana State University Bozeman, MT Email) to examine how land use and cover types affect the distribution of African elephants in Kenya (2, Kenya had approximately 23,353 ­ 31,636 individuals (Blanc 2007); mainly, savannah African elephants

  3. Community Perceptions and Priorities for Managing Water and Environmental Resources in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Njoro Watershed in Kenya M. W. Jenkins1 , F. K. Lelo2 , L.W. Chiuri2 , W. A. Shivoga2 and S. N. Miller3, respectively, in Environmental Science, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya; Tel (+254) 51 62085, emails: lelo@uwyo.edu Abstract The Njoro Watershed, typical of the semi-arid basins in the Rift Valley of Kenya, is undergoing

  4. Energy System Development inAfrica: The case of grid and off-grid power inKenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Energy System Development inAfrica: The case of grid and off-grid power inKenya By Katherine Deaton Development inAfrica: The case of grid and off-grid power inKenya Energy System Development inAfrica: The case of grid and off-grid power in Kenya by Katherine Steel Submitted to the Engineering Systems Division

  5. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adewusi, V.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (NG))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  6. A study of coal production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B.; Afonja, A.A.; Okejiri, E.C. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Lle-Lfe (Nigeria))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nigerian coal industry was studied. The focus was on the problems which have caused low production output of coal. More specifically, the study examined the present techniques of coal production, the causes of low production of coal, the coal production policy as it affected this study, and proposed policy measures to address the findings. It was discovered that some of the limiting factors to coal production in Nigeria could be attributed to the lack of the following: (i) clear and specific production-demand targets set for coal in Nigeria; (ii) adequate technological capability to mechanize coal mining operations in Nigeria; (iii) venture capital to invest in coal production; (iv) poor infrastructural facilities for coal production such as mining, storage, transportation, etc. It was also discovered that the dissatisfaction of the miners with their conditions of service influenced production capacity negatively. These findings point to the reality that coal is unlikely to play a major role in the country's energy equation in the near future unless serious efforts are made to address the above issues.

  7. Evolutionary sequences and hydrocarbon potential of Kenya sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cregg, A.K. (Western Atlas International, Inc., Carrollton, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kenya basins have evolved primarily through extension related to episodic continental rifting. In eastern Kenya, thick accumulations of sediments formed within grabens during the prerift phase (Precambrian to Carboniferous) of the Gondwana breakup. Synrift sedimentation (Late Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic) occurred within a north-south rift system, which included the Mandera basin, South Anza basin, and Lamu embayment. During the Early Jurassic, a marine transgression invaded the margins of the eastern Kenya rift basins, resulting in the deposition of platform carbonates and shales. A Callovian-aged salt basin formed in the offshore regions of the Lamu embayment. Intermittent tectonic activity and eustatic sea-level changes controlled sedimentation, which produced marine shales, carbonates or evaporites, and fluvio-deltaic to lacustrine sandstones. From the Early Cretaceous to recent, continental sediments were deposited within the North Anza and Turkana basins. These fluvial-lacustrine sediments are similar to the Lower Cretaceous sequences that have produced oil in the Mesozoic Sudanese Abu Gabra rift. Although exploration activities began in the early 1950s, significant occurrences of potential reservoir, source, and seal lithologies as well as trapping configurations remain in many areas. Favorable structures and sequences of reservoir sandstones and carbonates overlain by potentially sealing lacustrine or marine shales, evaporites, or volcanics have been noted. Potential source beds are believed to be present within shales of the lacustrine or marine depositional environments.

  8. Community-Based Electric Micro-Grids Can Contribute to Rural Development: Evidence from Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    an ability to charge and enforce cost-reflective tariffs and when electricity consumption is closely linked and distribute electricity in rural areas (Government of Kenya, 2006). As an incentive measure, systems below 3Community-Based Electric Micro-Grids Can Contribute to Rural Development: Evidence from Kenya

  9. The Politicisation of Trade Unionism: The Case of Labour/NCNC Alliance in Nigeria, 1940-1960

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajayi, Rotimi

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1987. "Trade Unionism in Nigeria: Challenges for the 2 1stin Trade Unionism in Nigeria: Challenges for the 21stlabour organisation in Nigeria. It was headed by T.A.

  10. Poliitical Parties and Women's Political Leadership in Nigeria: The Case of the PDFD, the ANPP, and the AD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badmus, Isiaka Alani

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PoUtlcal Leadership in Nigeria: The Case of the PDp, theof women political leadership in Nigeria by focusing on thedominant political parties of Nigeria s Fourth Republic. The

  11. John O. Hunwick, editor. Religion and National Integration in Africa: Islam, Christianity, and Politics in the Sudan and Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowd, Bob

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the authors who focus on Nigeria is that they do not simplyPolitics in the Sudan and Nigeria. (Chicago: NorthwesternIslam in the Sudan and Nigeria The papers were originally

  12. Nigeria: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpen EnergyNelsoniX LtdNew EnergyCityNigeria: Energy Resources

  13. Nigeria: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: Energy Resources Jump to:Nigeria: Energy Resources (Redirected from

  14. Bagasse-based cogeneration projects in Kenya. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenda, W.; Shrivastava, V.K.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Definitional Mission team evaluated the prospects of the US Trade and Development Program (TDP) funding a feasibility study that would assist the Government of Kenya in developing power cogeneration plants in three Kenyan sugar factories and possibly two more that are now in the planning stage or construction. The major Kenyan sugar producing region around Kisumu, on Lake Victoria has climatic conditions that permit cane growing operations ideally suitable for cogeneration of power in sugar factories. The total potentially available capacity from the proposed rehabilitation of the three mills will be approximately 25.15 MW, or 5.7 percent of total electricity production.

  15. Intermittent upwelling of asthenosphere beneath the Gregory Rift, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki (Univ. of Tasmania (Australia) Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Kimura, Nobukazu (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Itaya, Tetsumaru (Okayama Univ. of Science (Japan)); Koyaguchi, Takehiro (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)); Suwa, Kanenori (Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K-Ar dates and chemical compositions of basalts in the Gregory Rift, Kenya, demonstrate marked secular variation of lava chemistry. Two magmatic cycles characterized by incompatible element relative depletion are recognized; both occurring immediately after the peak of basaltic volcanism and coeval with both trachyte/phonolite volcanism and domal uplift of the region. These cycles may be attributed to increasing degree of partial melting of mantle source material in association with thinning of the lithosphere by thermal erosion through contact with hot upwelling asthenospheric mantle. Cyclic variation in asthenosphere upwelling may be considered an important controlling process in the evolution of the Gregory Rift.

  16. New geothermal power plants in Azores and Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahara, M.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two geothermal power plants were recently completed. One is 3 MW unit in Azores and another is 15 MW unit in Kenya. Both plants have very simple construction. For Azores, a packaged portable turbine generator is adopted to save the cost and installation term. 15 MW Olkaria plant which is adopted single flash cycle has produced first electricity by the geothermal energy in Africa. This turbine generator has been installed on a steel foundation. Special site conditions have been taken into consideration and both plants are successfully running with certification of the suitable design concept.

  17. Kenya geothermal private power project: A prefeasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-eight geothermal areas in Kenya were evaluated and prioritized for development. The prioritization was based on the potential size, resource temperature, level of exploration risk, location, and exploration/development costs for each geothermal area. Suswa, Eburru and Arus are found to offer the best short-term prospects for successful private power development. It was found that cost per kill developed are significantly lower for the larger (50MW) than for smaller-sized (10 or 20 NW) projects. In addition to plant size, the cost per kill developed is seen to be a function of resource temperature, generation mode (binary or flash cycle) and transmission distance.

  18. Microsoft Word - Kenya_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio:Menomonee| OpenMickey HotVII, Cologne, Germany, 29 June -ofKenya

  19. Negotiating culture: Christianity and the Ogo society in Amasiri, Nigeria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obinna, Elijah Oko

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been two key difficulties concerning the study of indigenous rituals, religious conversion and change among the Igbo of South-eastern Nigeria, both before and after the missionary upsurge of the mid-nineteenth ...

  20. Feasibility study for bagasse congeneration in Kenya. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Kenya's Ministry of Agriculture. The purpose of the report is to determine the economic, technical, and financial viability of implementing bagasse based cogeneration projects in Kenya. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Terms of Reference, (3) Bagasse Fuel for Generation, (4) The Electrical Power Situation in Kenya, (5) Export Electricity Potential from Nyando Sugar Belt, (6) Export Potential from Proposed New Sugar Factories; (7) Financial, (8) Project Financing, (9) Demonstration Project.

  1. Educational Developmentalism In Nigeria: Education For The Masses Or Just Mass -Education?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobern, William W.

    Educational Developmentalism In Nigeria: Education For The Masses Or Just Mass -Education? William of education in general is not lost oil the leaders of Nigeria and the rest of the developing world

  2. Combating Violent-Extremism and Insurgency in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Boko Haram Scourge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babalola, Oluwatosin Olayimika

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The most recent extremist group in Nigeria, Boko Haram, continues to grow, committing various extremist acts, such as sporadic suicide bombings and killing of innocent citizens and foreigners within the country. The current history of Nigeria is a...

  3. Lagos, Koolhaas and partisan politics in Nigeria1 Laurent Fourchard, Fondation nationale des sciences politiques,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lagos, Koolhaas and partisan politics in Nigeria1 Laurent Fourchard, Fondation nationale des was the only state in Southwestern Nigeria in the hands of the opposition. Governor Bola Tinubu warmly thanked

  4. Nigeria and Ghana Immigration Web Chat 24th July 2012 Source User Message

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakley, Jeremy

    Nigeria and Ghana Immigration Web Chat 24th July 2012 Source User Message Heather - International Hello and Welcome to the Nigeria and Ghana visa and pre-arrivals web chat Heather - International My

  5. Vol 442|6 July 2006 Multiple introductions of H5N1 in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Vol 442|6 July 2006 37 Multiple introductions of H5N1 in Nigeria Phylogenetic analysis reveals- try farming industry is second only to oil production in Nigeria and is particularly vulnerable the two flight paths that link Nigeria with the south- ern Russian region and Europe, and with western

  6. United Nations/Nigeria Workshop on Space Law "Meeting international responsibilities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass, Ian S.

    United Nations/Nigeria Workshop on Space Law "Meeting international responsibilities and addressing domestic needs" 21-24 November 2005 Abuja, Nigeria Rockview Hotel (Royale), Plot 374/789 Cad Zone A8, Adetokunbo Ademola Crescent, Wuse II Abuja, Nigeria PRELIMINARY DRAFT PROGRAMME (as at 03 August 2005

  7. Comparison, similarity and simulation in Zaar, a Chadic language of Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison, similarity and simulation in Zaar, a Chadic language of Nigeria Bernard CARON Llacan `similative' in Zaar, a Chadic language spoken south of Bauchi State, in Northern Nigeria. As the Zaar known as Saya, is spoken by about 150 000 speakers in the South of Bauchi State (Nigeria), in the Tafawa

  8. Movements of Palearctic and Afrotropical bird species during the dry season (NovemberFebruary) within Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Villiers, Marienne

    ­February) within Nigeria WILL CRESSWELL1, MARK BOYD2 & MATT STEVENS1 1AP Leventis Ornithological Research Institute, Jos, Nigeria & School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland. wrlc@st-and.ac.uk 2Afrotropical bird species during the dry season (November­February) within Nigeria. pp. 18­28. In: Harebottle, D

  9. Le luri : quelques notes sur une langue tchadique du Nigeria Bernard CARON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Le luri : quelques notes sur une langue tchadique du Nigeria Bernard CARON LLACAN (CNRS, INALCO arbres magnifiques de la savane du nord du Nigeria oů ruissellent les cours d'eau dans la tendre d'une langue tchadique non citée dans (Shimizu, 1978), le luri : « LURI : a language of Nigeria SIL

  10. A NEW SQUEAKER FROG (ARTHROLEPTIDAE: ARTHROLEPTIS) FROM THE MOUNTAINS OF CAMEROON AND NIGERIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A NEW SQUEAKER FROG (ARTHROLEPTIDAE: ARTHROLEPTIS) FROM THE MOUNTAINS OF CAMEROON AND NIGERIA DAVID Plateaus of eastern Nigeria. The known distribution suggests that it may eventually also be found throughout the Acha- Tugi Ridge that traverses the Cameroon­Nigeria border. More than 40 years ago

  11. Tropical timber import export Africa Asia volume Congo India Nigeria Papua New Guinea & the Solomon Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tropical timber import export Africa Asia volume Congo India Nigeria Papua New Guinea & the Solomon/14/2008 12:55:54 PM] #12;Tropical timber import export Africa Asia volume Congo India Nigeria Volume ('000 m3 import export Africa Asia volume Congo India Nigeria Papua New Guinea Reports (commissioned

  12. Multiple Social Interaction and Reproductive Externalities: An Investigation of Fertility Behaviour in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyer, Sriya; Weeks, Melvyn

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the impact of reproductive externalities on fertility behaviour in Kenya by quantifying the effects of group membership on the number of children born. We focus on the identification of structural forms of social interaction...

  13. Kenya-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries (SREP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries (SREP) AgencyCompany...

  14. Living Technology and Development: Agricultural Biotechnology and Civil Society in Kenya 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harsh, Matthew

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines relationships between science and technology and development, as dened and manifested by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Kenya whose work involves agricultural biotechnologies. Non-governmental ...

  15. Safe water storage in Kenya's modified clay pot : standardization, tap design, and cost recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Suzanne E

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main components necessary for providing safe drinking water for users who lack piped water in the home is the ability to safely store it in the home. Users in the Nyanza Province of Kenya frequently carry water ...

  16. Rethinking the Role of Dominant Paradigms in Kenya's Development Experience, 1963-2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makana, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dcvelopment in Kenya. At dle level of dleory, il rejectedand the de-regulation of dle economy in order to encourageprice indices for dle period 1980-1984 demol1strare dmt free

  17. Energy system development in Africa : the case of grid and off-grid power in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steel, Katherine Deaton

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research used a combination of a grounded theory approach and system dynamics to study the electric power system in Kenya and to model the feedback at work in the development of the system. The ethnographic study ...

  18. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007) “The Off-Grid Lighting Market in Western Kenya: LEDMills (2008) “Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget:The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Business in

  19. Mobil plans methanol plant in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobil Chemical (Houston) is in discussions with Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. (NNPC; Lagos) on a joint venture methanol plant at Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The U.S. firm has invited process owners to submit proposals for a 1-million m.t./year unit and hopes to select the technology by the end of this year. Three proposals have been submitted: Lurgi, offering its own low-pressure process; John Brown/Davy, with the ICI process; and M.W. Kellogg, proposing its own technology. Shareholding in the joint venture is yet to be decided, but it is likely to be a 50/50 tie-up. Marketing of Mobil's share or of the entire tonnage would be handled by Mobil Petrochemical International (Brussels). The plant could be onstream in late 1996.

  20. Planning implications of energy research in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osotimehin, S.O.A.; Benjamin, N.R.D.; Sanni, S.A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey of projects in research institutions and major public energy organizations was undertaken with a view to determining to what extent energy research activities are in consonance with national research objectives. Such a survey is also useful in developing an appropriate energy research policy for Nigeria. It appears that energy R and D efforts are concentrated in the area of alternative energy resources; this accounts for 66% of the total projects. Most of the local efforts are duplication of international research efforts. Even though the demand for energy research is well defined, the absence of proper coordination and adequate policy instruments have resulted in the unattainment of the research goals of the energy sector. Thus, the arguement adduced by some investigators that lack of demand for research is the main obstacle for designing and implementing a relevant science policy in a developing country does not hold for Nigerian conditions.

  1. Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adetoba, L.A.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

  2. Influence of browse availability on goat diets in an Acacia senagal savannah of South-Central Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamau, Peter Njenga

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -November) at Kiboko, Kenya, 1982 53 9 Monthly selection order across all canopy treatments of species found in diets of goats grazing an Acacia eenega7. savannah at Kiboko, Kenya, 1982 . 56 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Location of the National Range Research... to 1980 the population of Kenya rose from 8 million to 15, 8 million. Rangelands will become more important as alternative areas to supply surplus food needed to feed the nation. The savannahs of south-central Kenya exhibi t a wide ar ray of bush...

  3. In this study I explore the relationship between modern energy and economically productive activities in rural Kenya. Research is based on surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    productive activities in rural Kenya. Research is based on surveys done in Mpeketoni Village in Summer 2005-enterprises----- 3.3 Current rural electrification status and policy in Kenya--------------- 3.4 Key findings

  4. Solar electricity for Africa: The case of Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plas, R.J. van der

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of two recent World Bank efforts made in Kenya, Niger, and Cameroon to study the impact of two different renewable projects, one a Micro-Lights program involving about 500 lanterns and the second a survey of 410 households using solar electricity systems. The Micro-Lights program showed that users have distinct preferences in the style of the lamps, that they are willing to spend cash, and that they demand good quality. They may be initially satisfied, but rapidly want more from their purchases. The photoelectric system survey touched less than 1% of such households, and looked at user education, system size, satisfaction, expectations, age of system, appliances, and expectations.

  5. Crimes against Humanity at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia: Is a Connection with Armed Conflict Required?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Stuart

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    India, Kenya, Mexico, Mongolia, Nigeria, Philippines,Jamaica, Jordan, Ke- nya, Mongolia, Nigeria, Oman, Panama,Id. at 279. In 1985, Mongolia also blamed the "increased

  6. Attitudes and perceptions of urban households in sub-Saharan Africa on water sources, threats and sustainability: A study in Bondo, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    , threats and sustainability: A study in Bondo, Kenya Daniel M Nzengya School of Sustainability, Arizona growth is already happening in most of Kenya's cities and towns. In the Lake Victoria region, increasing the danger of water- and sanitation-related diseases. A survey was conducted in Bondo town, Kenya

  7. The Cleveland MuseuM of naTural hisTorY nuMber 56 GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF LEMUDONG'O, KENYA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hlusko, Leslea J.

    The Cleveland MuseuM of naTural hisTorY nuMber 56 GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF LEMUDONG'O, KENYA HISTORY OF PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE NAROK DISTRICT OF KENYA 1 Stanley H. Ambrose, Mwanzia David, A LATE MIOCENE TERRESTRIAL FOSSIL SITE IN SOUTHERN KENYA 38 Stanley H. Ambrose, Christopher J. Bell

  8. Book Review: Poetic Heritage: Igbo Traditional Verse. Compiled and translated with an introduction by Romanus N. Egudu and Donatus I. Nwoga. Enugu, Nigeria: Nwankwo-Ifejika & Co., 1971.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amankulor, N. N.

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Donatus I. Hwoga. Enugu, Nigeria: Nwankwo-lfejika & Co. ,2.50. GoZgotha. By Pol Ndu. Ife, Nigeria: Pan African Pocketat the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, do not claim to have

  9. Use of the Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) for Life-Threatening Obstetric Hemorrhage: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Egypt and Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    morbidity,% 7. Mortality,% Nigeria No NASG NASG No NASG NASG1]. Costs Egypt El Galaa Nigeria Assiut Average UCH Katsinaof 2 for Egypt and 78 for Nigeria. 21 Refer to Technical

  10. Can the Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) reduce adverse maternal outcomes from postpartum hemorrhage? Evidence from Egypt and Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evidence from Egypt and Nigeria. Reproductive Health 2010 7:Evidence from Egypt and Nigeria Mohammed Mourad-Youssif 1 ,four referral facilities in Nigeria and two in Egypt between

  11. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Cross River region of Nigeria. BMC Evolutionary Biologythe Cross River region of Nigeria Krishna R Veeramah 1,2* ,The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse

  12. LEDS GP Success Story: Fostering Coordinated LEDS Support in Kenya (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) strives to advance climate-resilient, low-emission development through catalyzing collaboration, information exchange, and action on the ground. The Government of Kenya is a key LEDS GP member and offers an inspiring example of how LEDS GP is having an impact globally. The 2012 LEDS Collaboration in Action workshop in London provided an interactive space for members to share experiences on cross-ministerial LEDS leadership and to learn about concrete development impacts of LEDS around the world. Inspired by these stories, the Kenya's Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 (MPND) began to collaborate closely with the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources to create strong links between climate change action and development in the country, culminating in the integration of Kenya's National Climate Change Action Plan and the country's Medium Term Development Plan.

  13. Waxy crude oil handling in Nigeria; Practices, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajienka, J.A.; Ikoku, C.U. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt (NG))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With case studies, the practices, problems, and prospects of handling waxy crude oils in Nigeria are discussed. Using a rotational viscometer, the temperature dependence of rheological properties and thixotropy of these crudes were determined. Suggestions are given on how to improve handling practices. These suggestions include adequate screening and ranking of wax inhibitors, taking into account pour-point depression, viscosity, and yield value.

  14. Complex gas/lift gathering system project in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Installing a gas lift and gathering system in Nigeria's Makaraba oil field proved a complex task because of the swampy site conditions and the influence of the tides on the water depths. All work required floating equipment, including a specially made lay barge and amphibious swamp buggies. The numerous well-head connections and link-ups further complicated the job.

  15. The diversity, distribution and feeding behavior of solifuges (arachnida; solifugae) in Kenya.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddick, Kristie Lynn

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    spent along the Sudan/Ugandan border in Lokichoggio Township, northwestern Kenya. 16 Sites were chosen based on the high percentage of arid/semi-arid lands and reflect as many different habitats in southern Kenya as possible. Sampling took place... over a six month period but solifuges were only collected over a period of approximately 3.5 months, from 28.V.2006-8.VI.2006 and 11.II.2007- 13.V.2007 from 8 different localities: Arabuko Sokoke Forest, Kimana Township, Lake Baringo National...

  16. Turkana Grits - a Cretaceous braided alluvial system in northern Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handford, C.R.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rather spotty but excellent exposures of the Cretaceous-age Turkana Grits occur near the western shore of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya. These very coarse to pebbly arkosic sandstones and sandy conglomerates were derived from and rest unconformably upon Precambrian metamorphic basement; they are overlain by late Tertiary basaltic flows that comprise much of the volcanics in the East African Rift Zone. The formation ranges up to 2000 ft thick in the Laburr Range. Several outcrops contain sauropod, crocodile, and tortoise remains as well as abundant trunks of petrified wood (Dryoxylon). Five major facies make up the Turkana Grits and record a major episode of continental fluvial deposition in basins flanked by Precambrian basement. Facies 1 is crudely stratified, cobble and boulder conglomerate (clast-supported); Facies 2 is crudely stratified pebble-cobble conglomerate and pebbly sandstone; Facies 3 is trough cross-bedded, very coarse sandstones containing fossils wood and vertebrate remains; Facies 4 is crudely stratified to massive sandstones with ironstone nodules; and Facies 5 is red, purple, and gray mudstone and mud shale with carbonate nodules. Facies 1 through 3 record deposition in proximal to medial braided-stream channel, longitudinal bar and dune complexes. Facies 4 is a lowland, hydromorphic paleosol, and Facies 5 represents overbank and abandoned channel-fill sedimentation in an alluvial plain.

  17. Public participation in and learning through SEA in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Heidi, E-mail: heidi.mwalker@yahoo.ca [Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, 303-70 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2M6 (Canada)] [Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, 303-70 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2M6 (Canada); Sinclair, A. John, E-mail: john.sinclair@ad.umanitoba.ca [Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, 303-70 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2M6 (Canada); Spaling, Harry, E-mail: harry.spaling@kingsu.ca [Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, The King's University College, 9125-50 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6B 2H3 (Canada)] [Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, The King's University College, 9125-50 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6B 2H3 (Canada)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Meaningful public engagement is a challenging, but promising, feature of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) due to its potential for integrating sustainability principles into policies, plans and programs in developing countries such as Kenya. This research examined two selected SEA case studies to identify the extent of participation, learning outcomes attributable to participation, and if any learning outcomes led to social action for sustainability at the community level. Strengths across the two cases were the inclusion of marginalized populations and consideration of socio-economic concerns. Consistent weaknesses included inadequate notice, document inaccessibility, lack of feedback and communication, and late analysis of alternatives. Despite some learning conditions being unfulfilled, examples of instrumental, communicative, and transformative learning were identified through a focus group and semi-structured interviews with community participants and public officials. Some of these learning outcomes led to individual and social actions that contribute to sustainability. -- Highlights: • The strengths and weaknesses of Kenyan SEA public participation processes were identified. • Multiple deficiencies in the SEA process likely frustrate meaningful public engagement. • Participant learning was observed despite process weaknesses. • Participant learning can lead to action for sustainability at the community level.

  18. Impacts of rural energy costs and availabilities in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jama, M.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study sought to examine energy-consumption patterns in a cross section of rural households in Kenya and to analyze how these use patterns relate to socio-economic, demographic, institutional, and energy market factors. The models specified were demands for fuelwood, charcoal, kerosene, commercial heat energy, and aggregate energy. For fuelwood, a probit analysis was utilized to determine the conditional probability of fuelwood consumption and a least-squares regression to determine quantity consumed. Ordinary regression was used to estimate demand for the other fuels. The research indicates that household incomes, family size, improved ceramic stoves, other fuels, and occupation are the most influential variables on consumption of various fuels. The quantities of fuelwood, charcoal, and kerosene consumed are not very responsive to changes in income. Aggregate energy is income-inelastic and a normal good, while woodfuel and kerosene are inferior products. The model indicates that redirection of a 10% increase in income, so that only the low-income households benefit, would cause only a small, 1% increase in fuelwood consumption.

  19. abuja nigeria 22-24: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CNS) Sarah Ferguson is a trader at Ronin 215 Printed in Nigeria COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE BACTEROCIN PRODUCING CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM SELECTED...

  20. Cobern, W. W. (1980, July). A proper attitude toward science. Paper presented at a departmental seminar of the Department of Education, University of Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobern, William W.

    seminar of the Department of Education, University of Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria. The attitude of a man

  1. Incidence of Oestrus ovis infestation in Borno-White Sahel goats in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Nigeria Abdullahi A. Biu Chukwunyere O. Nwosu Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria (Received 10 chez les chčvres blanches du Sahel dans la zone semi-aride du Nigeria. Les recherches menées sur l

  2. Distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus species isolated from maize kernels from three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotty, Peter J.

    -ecological zones in Nigeria Joseph Atehnkeng a,b , Peter S. Ojiambo a , Matthias Donner c , T. Ikotun b , Richard A (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria b Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria c University of Bonn, Institute for Plant Diseases, Phytopathology and Nematology in Soil

  3. MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Joel E.

    MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME ~ I T U D I N t of northern Nigeria included 8 baseline surveys a t approximately - AHS(1OS) subject classifications (1970 grant SOC76-17706 t o Columbia University. #12;JOEL E. COHEN AND BURTON SINGER UALARIA I N NIGERIA 10

  4. Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, E.L.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

  5. ADHERENCE TO TREATMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE PREVENTION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILD HIV TRANSMISSION IN KENYA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Kristine Frances

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Access to the most effective treatments is not universal and treatment coverage for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is still low in many countries, including Kenya (WHO, 2010a). To improve uptake of PMTCT to reduce perinatal...

  6. History of energy sources and their utilization in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogunsola, O.I. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt (NG))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nigeria, a major oil producer, is rich in other energy sources. These include wood, coal, gas, tar sands, and hydro power. Although oil has been the most popular, some other energy sources have a longer history. This article discusses the historical trends in the production and utilization of Nigerian energy sources. Wood has the longest history. However,its utilization was limited to domestic cooking. Imported coal was first used in 1896, but it was not discovered in Nigeria until 1909 and was first produced in 1916. Although oil exploration started in 1901, it was first discovered in commercial quantity in 1956 and produced in 1958. Oil thereafter took over the energy scene from coal until 1969, when hydro energy was first produced. Energy consumption has been mainly from hydro. Tar sands account for about 55% of total proven non-renewable reserves.

  7. L'IRD au BENIN, GHANA, NIGERIA et TOGO Rapport d'activit 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapport d'activité 2010 BENIN #12;L'IRD au BENIN, GHANA, NIGERIA et TOGO Rapport d'activité 2010 I'IRD AU NIGERIA p. 59 IV- L'IRD AU TOGO p. 61 Annexe 1 Publications Annexe 2 Organigramme Annexe 3 Budget

  8. Examining the adoption, usage and outcomes of mobile money services: the case of M-PESA in Kenya 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morawczynski, Olga

    2011-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis will examine the adoption, usage and outcomes of a mobile money service called MPESA. Since being launched in 2007, the service has seen phenomenal growth in Kenya. Over 7.5 million users, or 34% of the adult ...

  9. Seeking the optimal development of Kikuyu women: A qualitative examination of traditional sex roles in Maai Mahiu, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gripka, Abbey Alyssa Campbell

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , androcentrism, and biological essentialism. Other studies have used this theory to observe sex roles within Appalachia (Rezek, 2010), South Asian female immigrants (Talbani & Hasanali, 2000), and Kenya as a whole (Simiyu, 2007). Little is known, however, about...

  10. Extending broadband past the urban fringe with wireless mesh : a strategic analysis with policy implications for Kenya's Universal Service Fund

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkoben, Keith A. (Keith Alexander)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the competitive wholesale cost of bandwidth continues to plummet in Kenya, last-mile networks have become a bottleneck in the extension of affordable broadband outside major cities. In this work we explore the business ...

  11. Complex gas/lift gathering system project in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new gas lift and gathering system is located in the Makaraba oil field, Nigeria. It connects 12 wellheads to a flow station by a series of 6-in. pipelines and one 16-in. trunk-line. The complexity of the project was due to the swampy site conditions which necessitated all work being conducted with floating plant, including a specially made laybarge and amphibious swamp buggies.

  12. Water relations strategies of two grass and shrub species as influenced by prescribed burning in a semiarid ecosystem in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Ali Ramadhan

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WATER RELATIONS STRATEGIES OF TWO GRASS AND SHRUB SPECIES AS INFLUENCED BY PRESCRIBED BURNING IN A SEMIARID ECOSYSTEM IN KENYA A Thesis by ALI RAMADHAN ALI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Range Science WATER RELATIONS STRATEGIES OF TWO GRASS AND SHRUB SPECIES AS INFLUENCED BY PRESCRIBED BURNING IN A SEMIARID ECOSYSTEM IN KENYA A Thesis by ALI RAMADHAN ALI...

  13. Book Review: Christmas in Biafra and other Poems. By Chinua Achebe. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1973. Golgatha. By Pol Ndu. Ife, Nigeria: Pan African Pocket Poets, Vol. 4, 1971.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okwu, Edward C.

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.50. GoZgotha. By Pol Ndu. Ife, Nigeria: Pan African Pocketwas originally published in Nigeria by Nwamife and has sincecated hi s Poems from Nigeria (1961) to his students. 11ost

  14. Grass roots technology and energy policy: Solar ovens and wind turbines in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kammen, D.M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Kenya is said to be an ideal site for projects that promote renewable energy sources since it devotes over forty percent of its GNP to the purchase of imported coal and oil. The author presents a chronology of solar oven projects in Kenya and suggests that success of the program will be measured by the number of people who move on to wind turbine use. He discusses the role of renewable energy technology in reducing greenhouse gases and closes by recommending that industrialized nations that produce large amounts of carbon dioxide provide aid to develop projects that reduce carbon dioxide elsewhere in the world. At the same time they would receive credit towards their carbon dioxide quotas.

  15. Pre-feasibility power generation study for the Magadi Soda Company, Magadi, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to: (a) review the extensive published and unpublished literature on the geochemistry, hydrology and geology of Lake Magadi, Kenya, and its associated hot springs; (b) based on this review of field visits, estimate the temperature in the geothermal reservoir beneath the lake; and (c) from this, develop a plan to determine the potential for the development of geothermal electric power at Lake Magadi. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Numerical modeling of geothermal systems with applications to Krafla, Iceland and Olkaria, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of numerical models for the evaluation of the generating potential of high temperature geothermal fields has increased rapidly in recent years. In the present paper a unified numerical approach to the modeling of geothermal systems is discussed and the results of recent modeling of the Krafla geothermal field in Iceland and the Olkaria, Kenya, are described. Emphasis is placed on describing the methodology using examples from the two geothermal fields.

  17. The effects of cash cropping on household expediture patterns in rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Fred Ken

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the hypotheses tested from the general problem statement is in order. The first hypothesis tested was that the average total expenditure for both commercial and send. -subsistence households are the same. Given that total expenditures are regarded as a proxy.... , University of Zambia at Lusaka Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Carl E. Shafer The aims of the study are to determine significant differences in the patterns and levels of expenditure by semi-subsistence and commercial farm households in rural Kenya...

  18. Nigeria-IAEA Energy Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcerns Jump to:Neppelsource History(CTI PFAN) | Open EnergyNigeria

  19. Stimulating Nigeria's emerging real estate markets : investment opportunities through the public sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odusote, Oladimeji

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In its Global Economics Paper Nc.134, the Goldman Sachs Economics Group highlights the West African country of Nigeria as having the potential to be among the next generation of emerging markets around the world the next ...

  20. Structure of an African city : study of Ibadan, Nigeria : city structure and morphology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Stephan L. (Stephan Lane), 1971-

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of Ibadan, Nigeria was conducted to analyze how Colonization has altered, or not altered the structure of the traditional African city form of this Yoruba town. The study encompasses structural city form elements ...

  1. Pastoral Livelihoods and the Epidemiology of Emergent Trypanosomiasis on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majekodunmi, Ayodele

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    African trypanosomiasis is a widespread disease of livestock which is a major constraint to livestock production, mixed farming and the rural economy. The Jos Plateau in Nigeria was historically free of tsetse flies and ...

  2. Pastoral livelihoods and the epidemiology of emergent trypanosomiasis on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majekodunmi, Ayodele Oluwakemi

    2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    African trypanosomiasis is a widespread disease of livestock which is a major constraint to livestock production, mixed farming and the rural economy. The Jos Plateau in Nigeria was historically free of tsetse flies and ...

  3. Support Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhine, Kathryn Angela

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -positive women in northern Nigeria have appropriated a support group to facilitate their marriage arrangements. In this group, women negotiate the threats of stigma and the promises of respectable marriage through what I call the management of ambiguity...

  4. Perceived Parent-Child Interaction and Boys' Self-Esteem in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sijuwade, Philip O.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem under consideration in the present paper deals with the relationship between parent-child interaction patterns and the child self-esteem in a private high school in the city of Lagos, Nigeria. The relationship between these variables...

  5. Crude oil, conflict and Christian witness in Nigeria: Baptist and Pentecostal perspectives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osuigwe, Nkem Emerald

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : to investigate, describe and analyse Christian theological and socio-political consciousness within the context of oil and conflict in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria from Baptist and Pentecostal perspectives; and to use the data to test the veracity...

  6. An assessment of the mechanical stability of wells offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, J.P.; Ottesen, S.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1991 lost time due to stuck pipe related drilling problems accounted for approximately 18% of total drilling time in Mobil Producing Nigeria Ultd.`s (MPN) offshore operations. The primary cause of stuck pipe was identified as mechanical wellbore instability. This paper presents an assessment of the mechanical stability of MPN`s wells offshore Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to: (1) determine the magnitude of the in-situ principal stresses and material properties of the troublesome Intra-Biafra and Qua Iboe shale sequences; (2) quantify the drilling fluid densities required to drill mechanically stable wells through these formations; (3) review and recommend well planning and operational parameters which aid in minimizing wellbore stability-related drilling problems. The well-bore stability assessment was carried out with the aid of a 3-dimensional wellbore stability model using field derived data from the study area to corroborate the results. The collection and analysis of drilling data (borehole geometry and density logs, pore pressure, leak-off tests, local geology and other relevant well records) to determine the magnitude of the in-situ principal stresses, together with compressive strength tests on formation cores are discussed. Minimum safe drilling fluid densities to promote wellbore stability as a function of well geometry and depth are presented for the most troublesome shales drilled in the study area. Implementation of the results reduced wellbore stability related problems and associated trouble time to less than 5% in 1992.

  7. RETHINKING THE EFFECTS OF THE FOREIGN MISSIONARIES' MISSION TO AFRICA, FOCUSING ON THE CHURCH OF THE BRETHREN MISSONARIES AMONG THE MARGI UDZIRNGU IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birdling, Emmanuel Awidau

    2009-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Margi ethnic group occupies the geographical region of southern Borno and northern Adamawa states of the Republic of Nigeria. This study concentrates on the Margi Udzirngu subgroup who currently resides in North Eastern Nigeria. Margi Udzirngu...

  8. Use of the Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) for Life-Threatening Obstetric Hemorrhage: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Egypt and Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    anti-shock garment (NASG). Egypt 1. Number of women in studysite, 2010 (Int $ )[1]. Costs Egypt El Galaa Nigeria Assiutparity (PPP) factors of 2 for Egypt and 78 for Nigeria. 21

  9. Petroleum and structural change in a developing society: the case of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olayiwola, P.O.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study of Nigeria provides a multidimensional analysis of development. The Nigerian development experience is considered as the interrelation of: (a) economic development paradigm which guided development thinking; (b) the national planning model and apparatus employed; (c) the ideology of nationalism; and (d) the internal and external factors in Nigeria's environment that combined to influence its development strategies. As a society, Nigeria has undergone profound changes over the period of the last 25 years. It was transformed from a primarily agricultural society to an industrializing one. A key source of this change has been the emergence of the petroleum economy. Nigeria's GDP grew an extraordinary 81% per annum on average between 1960 and 1980. Yet, the aggregate performance of the petroleum economy was far better, adding to Nigerian economic wealth at an average rate of 7400% per annum. Judged on these terms, Nigeria's overall economic performance from independence to 1980 was spectacular; the performance of its petroleum economy astounding. Despite this performance, the structure of Nigeria's political economy is nearly the same as it was at independence. It remains one in which economic life depends critically upon world-market conditions and the level of trade with developed economies.

  10. Effects of burning on diet quality and associated production systems of cattle and goats in Acacia savannahs of Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mbui, Moses Kiruki

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF BURNING ON DIET DUALITY AND ASSOCIATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF CATTLE AND GOATS IN ACAC2A SAVANNAHS OF KENYA A Thesis by MOSES KIRUKI MBUI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Dedember 1985 Major Subject: Range Science EFFECTS OF BURNING ON DIET DUALITY AND ASSOCIATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF CATTLE AND GOATS IN ACAC1A SAVANNAHS OF KENYA A Thesis by MOSES KIRUKI MBUI Approves...

  11. Influence of herbage/browse allowance on nutritive intake of cattle grazing a Commiphora savannah in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mnene, William Ngoyawu

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INFLUENCE OF HERBAGE/BROWSE ALLOWANCE ON NUTRITIVE INTAKE OF CATTLE GRAZING A CDMMIMORA SAVANNAH IN KENYA A Thesis WILLIAN NGOYAWU NNENE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASH L'niversity in pa, tial fulfillment of the requirement... . or ne degree of MASTER OF SCIENCF Oecemoer 19BS I'!a?'or Subject: Range Science INFLUENCE OF HERBAGE/BROWSE ALLOWANCE ON NUTRITIVE INTAKE OF CATTLE GRAZING A COMM1THORA SAVANNAH IN KENYA A Thesis by WILLIAM NGOYAWU MNENE Approved as to style...

  12. A new name for an old practice: vigilante in South-western Nigeria By Laurent Fourchard, Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A new name for an old practice: vigilante in South-western Nigeria By Laurent Fourchard the historical forms of vigilantism in Nigeria. I also want to thank David Pratten, Vincent Foucher, the two and vigilante groups is blurring. #12;3 This is especially the case in Nigeria. This article would like

  13. MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 710, pp. 13, 3 figs. Chaerephon nigeriae. By Craig K. R. Willis, Jennifer M. Psyllakis, and Darren J. H. Sleep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayssen, Virginia

    MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 710, pp. 1­3, 3 figs. Chaerephon nigeriae. By Craig K. R. Willis, Jennifer M. Photographs of Chaerephon nigeriae, lateral view of adult from Sengwa, northwestern Zimbabwe and ventral view of adult female from Zimbabwe. Photographs by M. Brock Fenton. Used with permission. Chaerephon nigeriae

  14. Summary of modeling studies of the East Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Bjornsson, S.; Ojiambo, S.B.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed three-dimensional well-by-well model of the East Olkaria geothermal field in Kenya has been developed. The model matches reasonably well the flow rate and enthalpy data from all wells, as well as the overall pressure decline in the reservoir. The model is used to predict the generating capacity of the field, well decline, enthalpy behavior, the number of make-up wells needed and the effects of injection on well performance and overall reservoir depletion. 26 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Environmental impact assessment practices in the sub-Saharan Africa: cases from Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngunjiri, P.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim for this research is to review environmental impact assessment (EIA) practices in sub-Saharan Africa, drawing upon appropriate theoretical and methodological work on EIA. This study uses a comparative evaluation method to examine the extent of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in project analysis. It uses site and services low cost housing projects from Kenya. The research has three major components: (1) review of environmental practice in Sub-Saharan Africa through literature review and case studies; (2) review of general literature on EIA as practiced by international agencies and developed countries; and (3) formulation of more suitable guidelines for EIA procedures in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Lead contamination in street soils of Nairobi City and Mombasa Island, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onyari, J.M.; Wandiga, S.O.; Njenga, G.K.; Nyatebe, J.O. (Univ. of Nairobi (Kenya))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of modern industrialization and, in particular, the motor vehicle has witnessed dramatic increases in lead usage both as a component of lead-acid storage battery and from 1923 as organic lead alkyl anti-knock additive in petroleum. Several workers have established a correlation between increasing lead concentration in roadside soils and vehicular traffic density. Although researchers studied the heavy metal content in Lake Victoria sediments, no urban roadside soils were investigated. Since lead is used as a petrol additive in Kenya, it is necessary to document the extent and magnitude of lead contamination of roadside soils in inland and coastal urban environments and evaluate its environmental implications.

  17. Opaline cherts associated with sublacustrine hydrothermal springs at Lake Bogoria, Kenya Rift valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renaut, R.W.; Owen, R.B.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An unusual group of cherts found at saline, alkaline Lake Bogoria in the Kenya Rift differs from the Magadi-type cherts commonly associated with saline, alkaline lakes. The cherts are opaline, rich in diatoms, and formed from a siliceous, probably gelatinous, precursor that precipitated around submerged alkaline hot springs during a Holocene phase of high lake level. Silica precipitation resulted from rapid drop in the temperature of the spring waters and, possibly, pH. Lithification began before subaerial exposure. Ancient analogous cherts are likely to be localized deposits along fault lines.

  18. The Impact of Information Technology in Nigeria's Banking Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oluwatolani, Oluwagbemi; Philip, Achimugu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, information technology (IT) has become a key element in economic development and a backbone of knowledge-based economies in terms of operations, quality delivery of services and productivity of services. Therefore, taking advantage of information technologies (IT) is an increasing challenge for developing countries. There is now growing evidence that Knowledge-driven innovation is a decisive factor in the competitiveness of nations, industries, organizations and firms. Organizations like the banking sector have benefited substantially from e-banking, which is one among the IT applications for strengthening the competitiveness. This paper presents the current trend in the application of IT in the banking industries in Nigeria and gives an insight into how quality banking has been enhanced via IT. The paper further reveals that the deployment of IT facilities in the Nigerian Banking industry has brought about fundamental changes in the content and quality of banking business in the country. This analysis...

  19. Contamination of shallow wells in Nigeria from surface contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ademoroti, C.M.A. (Univ. of Benin (Nigeria))

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated wells, located in six south/western and western states of Nigeria, were sampled and analyzed for pollution characteristics. Results of analysis indicated migration of contaminants into the wells from places where there was a potential source. There was a significant microbiological population in the wells placed near domestic waste sites. Also, there were excessive levels of trace heavy metals in those placed near metal dumping sites. On the other hand, the contaminants were minimal in wells that were not close to polluting sources. The studies revealed that groundwater contamination occurred primarily by dumping of wastes, wrong placement of waste disposal facilities, and improper construction of wells. The groundwater sources (wells, etc.) are used when pipe-borne water facilities are inadequate.

  20. AAR in concrete of Asejire spillway (OYO state - Nigeria)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamaudiere, J.P.; Spaeti, F. [SGI INGENIERIE, Cointrin-Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Asejire dam at Ibadan, Nigeria was constructed in the late sixties for the purpose of providing water for the city of Ibadan (presently about 4,5 million inhabitants). It is located on the Oshun river approximately fifteen miles from the city. In 1982 cracks were observed on the wing walls and although these continued to develop, no attempt was made at that time to investigate their causes and no repair was carried out. In 1989 the SGI ENGINEERING Group of Geneva, Switzerland was appointed as the consultant for the complete refurbishment of the Asejire water scheme. The consortium Degremont-Poat-Clemessy was awarded the contract for the project. The African Development Bank and the Nigerian Government have provided the loan to finance the project.

  1. Management of oil pollution of natural resources in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikporukpo, C.O.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil spillages are prominent features of petroleum exploitation in Nigeria. For instance, within the decade 1970-1980, the country experienced 18 major spills. Oil pollution adversely affects the water and soil resources of the petroleum-producing Niger Delta. There have been attempts to manage the increasing menace of oil spills, and two strategies may be identified. These are the legislative and the project implementation approaches. The first approach relies on preventative laws, while the second, more or less curative, depends on the implementation of projects for the monitoring, control, and clearance of spilled oil. There are various problems in the effective operation of both strategies, and the persistence of spills, many of them avoidable, tends to indicate lapses in the management attempts. 12 references, 4 tables.

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution of urban topsoil in Ibadan city, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onianwa, P.C. [Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria)] [Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbon in topsoils from various parts of Ibadan city, Nigeria, was studied. Samples were selected from around the following zones: (a) railway tracks, (b) petrol stations, (c) refuse dumps, (d) residential areas, (e) high traffic density areas, (f) mechanical workshops, and (g) control zones. Contamination of the topsoil with hydrocarbons was significant only around petrol stations and mechanical workshops where the factors of accumulation were 10.1 and 4.72, respectively. The general trend in hydrocarbon levels was petrol station > mechanical workshop > refuse dumps > high traffic areas {ge} rail tracks > control residential areas. The results highlight the need to monitor urban environments that are remote from petroleum exploration activities for petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Petroleum geology of the Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braide, S.P. (Federal Univ., of Technology, Minna (Nigeria))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southern Bida basin is located in central Nigeria and is a major sedimentary area with a 3.5-km-thick sedimentary fill. However, it is the least understood of Nigeria's sedimentary basins because serious oil and gas exploration has not been undertaken in the basin. The surrounding Precambrian basement rocks experienced severe deformation during the Late Panafrican phase (600 {plus minus} 150 m.y.), and developed megashears that were reactivated during the Late Campanian-Maestrichtian. The ensuing wrenchfault tectonics formed the basin. The sedimentary fill, which comprises the Lokoja Formation are chiefly, if not wholly, nonmarine clastics. These have been characterized into facies that rapidly change from basin margin to basin axis, and have undergone only relatively mild tectonic distortion. Subsurface relations of the Lokoja Formation are postulated from outcrop study. The potential source rocks are most likely within the basinal axis fill and have not been deeply buried based on vitrinite reflectance of <0.65%. These findings, with the largely nonmarine depositional environment, suggest gas and condensate are the most likely hydrocarbons. Alluvial fans and deltaic facies that interfinger with lacustrine facies provide excellent reservoir capabilities. Potential traps for hydrocarbon accumulation were formed by a northwest-southeast-trending Campanian-Maestrichtian wrench system with associated northeast-southwest-oriented normal faults. The traps include strata in alluvial fans, fractured uplifted basement blocks, and arched strata over uplifted blocks. However, the size of hydrocarbon accumulations could be limited to some extent by a lack of effective hydrocarbon seal, because the dominant seals in the formation are unconformities.

  4. Water availability at farm household level a case study in the Nyando district in South-Western Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water availability at farm household level ­ a case study in the Nyando district in South of Crop Production Ecology Uppsala 2011 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences #12;2 Water: Women collecting water in a well, Onjiko, Kenya. Photo: Erika Näslund Keywords: Water availability

  5. Analysis of wood-energy production and consumption strategies among small-scale farmers in central Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on wood-energy production and consumption strategies among small-scale farm households in central Kenya. The specific objective were: (1) to determine how households had responded to specific wood-energy policies; (2) to identify factors associated with household adoption or non-adoption of the strategies. Different programs aimed at addressing wood-energy shortages in Kenya were initiated or strengthened during the 1980s: fuelwood or multipurpose tree planting; development and dissemination of improved stoves and fireplaces; promotion of increased accessibility to wood-energy substitutes. Household adoption levels for policy-supported strategies have remained low despite promotion. Survey data from two villages in Nyeri district were collected to determine the factors associated with adoption of the Kenya Ceramic Jiko, the [open quotes]Kuni Mbili[close quotes] stove/fireplace, kerosene stoves, electric cookers, and fuelwood or multipurpose tree planting. Adoption rates varied from as low as 1 percent for electricity to 43 percent for the Kenya Ceramic Jiko. Important policy variables included extension visits per year, income levels, years of formal education received by head of household, access to different fuels, area of farm-land owned, household size, and locational characteristics of the villages. Policy recommendations included: use of research results to direct policy; improvement of information flows between policy makers, extension agents, and technology-users; increased support of agroforestry; and better program coordination. Recommendations for further research included: examining more areas where efficiency gains in energy production and consumption can be made, extending the study to cover the drier parts of central Kenya, and conducting regular case studies in order to better understand the adoption process over time.

  6. What makes some campaigns more effective than others?: An analysis of three mass media PSI HIV/AIDS campaigns in Kenya.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mabachi, Natabhona Marianne

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study included interviews with campaign planners at a major social marketing organization in Kenya and an examination of three comprehensive HIV/AIDS health campaigns produced by the planners. Thematic and qualitative content analysis...

  7. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: Obstacles and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, Akinwale [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1SB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: cokerwale@yahoo.com; Sangodoyin, Abimbola [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Sridhar, Mynepalli [Division of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Booth, Colin; Olomolaiye, Paul; Hammond, Felix [School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1SB (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification and characterization of medical waste generated in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in a developing African nation has been conducted to provide insights into existing waste collection and disposal approaches, so as to provide sustainable avenues for institutional policy improvement. The study, in Ibadan city, Nigeria, entailed a representative classification of nearly 400 healthcare facilities, from 11 local government areas (LGA) of Ibadan, into tertiary, secondary, primary, and diagnostic HCFs, of which, 52 HCFs were strategically selected. Primary data sources included field measurements, waste sampling and analysis and a questionnaire, while secondary information sources included public and private records from hospitals and government ministries. Results indicate secondary HCFs generate the greatest amounts of medical waste (mean of 10,238 kg/day per facility) followed by tertiary, primary and diagnostic HCFs, respectively. Characterised waste revealed that only {approx}3% was deemed infectious and highlights opportunities for composting, reuse and recycling. Furthermore, the management practices in most facilities expose patients, staff, waste handlers and the populace to unnecessary health risks. This study proffers recommendations to include (i) a need for sustained cooperation among all key actors (government, hospitals and waste managers) in implementing a safe and reliable medical waste management strategy, not only in legislation and policy formation but also particularly in its monitoring and enforcement and (ii) an obligation for each HCF to ensure a safe and hygienic system of medical waste handling, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal, with minimal risk to handlers, public health and the environment.

  8. Managing CO{sub 2} emissions in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obioh, I.B.; Oluwole, A.F.; Akeredolu, F.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy resources in Nigeria are nearly equally divided between fossil fuels and biofuels. The increasing pressure on them, following expected increased population growth, may lead to substantial emissions of carbon into the atmosphere. Additionally agricultural and forestry management practices in vogue are those related to savannah burning and rotational bush fallow systems, which have been clearly implicated as important sources of CO{sub 2} and trace gases. An integrated model for the prediction of future CO{sub 2} emissions based on fossil fuels and biomass fuels requirements, rates of deforestation and other land-use indices is presented. This is further based on trends in population and economic growth up to the year 2025, with a base year in 1988. A coupled carbon cycle-climate model based on the contribution of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases is established from the proportions of integrated global warming effects for a 20-year averaging time using the product of global warming potential (GWP) and total emissions. An energy-technology inventory approach to optimal resources management is used as a tool for establishing the future scope of reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions through improved fossil fuel energy efficiencies. Scenarios for reduction based on gradual to swift shifts from biomass to fossil and renewable fuels are presented together with expected policy options required to effect them.

  9. Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghirardi, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goering, P.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of energy demand in the context of the general socio-economic background of the region. The study also examines energy supply and trade related to the energy sector. The analysis focuses on the study of commercial fuels. Although we have reviewed studies of wood, solar, wind, and agricultural residues, we leave out detailed discussions of these non-commercial energy forms. The first part of the report is an assessment of the trends in energy demand in the four study countries. We discuss the main factors driving energy demand sector by sector. This is followed by a review of the primary energy resources of the countries, and of the capacity for production of secondary fuels. The last section looks at energy trade, with particular emphasis on the role of the United States.

  10. Isotopic evidence for neogene hominid paleoenvironments in the Kenya Rift Valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, J.D.; Hill, A. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); Marino, B.D. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1994-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Bipedality, the definitive characteristic of the earliest hominids, has been regarded as an adaptive response to a transition from forested to more-open habitats in East Africa sometime between 12 million and 5 million years ago. Analyses of the stable carbon isotopic composition ([delta][sup 13]C) of paleosol carbonate and organic matter from the Tugen Hills succession in Kenya indicate that a heterogeneous environment with a mix of C3 and C4 plants has persisted for the last 15.5 million years. Open grasslands at no time dominated this portion of the rift valley. The observed [delta][sup 13]C values offer no evidence for a shift from more-closed C3 environments to C4 grasslands habitats. If hominids evolved in East Africa during the Late Miocene, they did so in an ecologically diverse setting.

  11. Quality and Performance of LED Flashlights in Kenya: Common End User Preferences and Complaints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jenny; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Flashlights that use LED technology have quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya. While flashlights do not normally provide a substitute for kerosene and other highly inefficient fuels, they are an important early manifestation of LED lighting in the developing world that can serve as a platform - or deterrent - to the diffusion of the technology into the broader off-grid lighting market. The lead acid batteries embedded in flashlights also represent an important source of hazardous waste, and flashlight durability is thus an important determinant of the rate of waste disposal. Low-cost LED flashlights with prices from $1 to $4 are now widely available in shops and markets throughout Kenya. The increased penetration of LED technology in the flashlight market is significant, as over half of all Kenyan households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). While this shift from conventional incandescent technology to modern LEDs may appear to be a promising development, end users that our research team interviewed expressed a number of complaints about the quality and performance of these new flashlights. This raises concerns about the interests of low-income flashlight users, and it may also indicate the onset of a broader market spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (Mills and Jacobson, 2008; Lighting Africa, 2007). The quality of low-cost LED flashlights can contribute to market spoiling because these products appear to represent the first contact that most Kenyans have with LED technology. In this report, our team uses interviews with 46 end users of flashlights to collect information about their experiences, perceptions, and preferences. We focus especially on highlighting common complaints from respondents about the flashlights that they have used, as well as on noting the features that they indicated were important when evaluating the quality of a flashlight. In previous laboratory tests, researchers from our team found a wide range of quality and performance among battery powered LED lights (Granderson, et al. 2008).

  12. Slide08 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Current Information Partners in WorldWideScience.org (cont.) Kenya Korea Lesotho Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Malawi Mauritius The Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Portugal Senegal South...

  13. 2011 Korean Government Scholarship Program Guideline for International Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auckland, University of

    Taipei, Belgium, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Mexico, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, New Zealand, Nigeria, Panama, Peru, Poland, Republic of South Africa, Romania

  14. G-2 and G-3 reservoirs, Delta South field, Nigeria - 2. Simulation of water injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakur, G.C.; Stanat, P.L.; Aruna, M.; Ajayi, S.A.; Poston, S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A description is given of a two-dimensional, three-phase, black-oil simulation of the G-2 and G-3 reservoirs in the Delta South field offshore Nigeria. The purpose of these studies was to investigate, from an engineering standpoint, various operating schemes for optimizing the oil recovery from each of these highly gravity-segregated reservoirs. 4 refs.

  15. Lithofacies, palynofacies, and sequence stratigraphy of Palaeogene strata in Southeastern Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    Francisca E. Oboh-Ikuenobe a,*, Chuks G. Obi b , Carlos A. Jaramillo c a Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409, USA b Department of Geology, University of Nigeria prospecting for oil and gas in the basin. Abstracts on Niger Delta studies abound in the literature, but only

  16. The triumph of pragmatism: Nigeria's role in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimah, A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formed in 1960, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) became a key participant in the international oil industry after the so-called oil shock in the early 1970s. OPEC's power in world trade increased tremendously during the 1970s and, as oil prices skyrocketed, literature on OPEC proliferated. Although OPEC's demise has often been predicted since its creation; it has, however, endured. Thus study examines OPEC from distinct vantage points: those of regime theory, oligopoly models, and cartel theory. The aim is to gain insight into the activities of the organization as a whole and in terms of the behavior of one of its members, the Government of Nigeria. The objective is to ascertain which of these theories, or aspects of the theories, best describes OPEC's activities and Nigeria's actions as a member. The review of OPEC and Nigeria's role in its demonstrates that OPEC is difficult to classify. It is more than anything, a fluid coalition of Third World countries seeking to improve their national economies by ensuring better prices for crude oil, their chief export product; and helping other Third World countries focus global awareness on the chronic political and economic inequities in the international system. Therefore, OPEC and Nigeria's role is best explained by coalition theory.

  17. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oke, I.A. [Civil Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)], E-mail: okeia@oauife.edu.ng

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  19. Fault seal analysis of Okan and Meren fields, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, R.A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States); Brenneman, R.J. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum Co., San Ramon, CA (United States); Adeogba, A.A. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sealing capacity and the dynamic seal behavior of faults between juxtaposed reservoirs were analyzed for Okan and Meren fields, offshore Nigeria. In both fields correlations were found between reservoir performance, juxtaposed fluid types, oil geochemistry, interpreted fluid contact relationships, fault sealing/leaking condition, and calculated smear gouge ratios. Integration of these data has been invaluable in quantifying fault seal risk and may effect depletion strategies for fault-juxtaposed reservoirs within these fields. Fault plane sections defined reservoir juxtapositions and aided visualization of potential cross-fault spill points. Smear gouge ratios calculated from E-logs were used to estimate the composition of fault-gouge materials between the juxtaposed reservoirs. These tools augmented interpretation of seal/nonseal character based on fluid contact relationships in proved reservoirs and, in addition, were used to quantify fault seal risk of untested fault-dependent closures in Okan. The results of these analyses were then used to interpret production-induced fault seal breakdown within the G-sands and also to risk seal integrity of fault dependent closures within the untested O-sands in an adjacent, upthrown fault block. Within this fault block the presence of potential fault intersection leak points and large areas of sand/sand juxtaposition with high smear gouge ratios (low sealing potential) limits potential reserves within the O-sand package. In Meren Field the E- and G-sands are juxtaposed, on different pressure decline, geochemically distinct, and are characterized by low smear gouge ratios. In contrast, specific G- and H-sands, juxtaposed across the same fault, contain similar OOWCs and are characterized by high smear gouge ratios. The cross-sealing and/or cross-leaking nature of compartment boundaries at Meren is related to fault displacement variation and the composition of displaced stratigraphy.

  20. Skeletal crystals of calcite and trona from hot-spring deposits in Kenya and New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Skeletal crystals are hollow crystals that develop because their outer walls grow before their cores. The presence of skeletal crystals of calcite (three types--trigonal prisms, hexagonal prisms, and plates) and trona in hot (> 90 C) spring deposits in New Zealand (Waikite Springs and Ohaaki Pool) and Kenya (Lorusio hot springs) shows that they can form in natural sedimentary regimes. Analysis of samples from these deposits shows that this crystal morphology develops under disequilibrium conditions that are unrelated to a specific environmental or diagenetic setting. Skeletal crystals transform into solid crystals when subsequent precipitation fills their hollow cores. In some cases, this may involve precipitation of crystalline material that has a sieve-like texture. In other examples, the skeletal crystal provides a framework upon which other materials can be precipitated. Walls in the skeletal trigonal calcite prisms from Waikite Springs are formed of subcrystals that mimic the shape of the parent crystal. Similarly, plate-like skeletal crystals from Lorusio are formed of densely packed subcrystals that are < 0.5 {micro}m long. Conversely, the walls of the skeletal hexagonal calcite crystals from Ohaaki Pool and the skeletal trona crystals from Lorusio are not formed of subcrystals. Recognition of skeletal crystals is important because they represent growth that follows the reverse pattern of normal growth. Failure to recognize that crystal growth followed the skeletal motif may lead to false interpretations concerning the growth of a crystal.

  1. Hydrothermal alteration in the EPF replacement wells, Olkaria Geothermal field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mungania, J. [Kenya Power & Lighting Co. Ltd., Naivasha (Kenya)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Olkaria Geothermal area is located in the central sector of the Kenya, Rift Valley. A 45MW Geothermal power station has been operational at Olkaria since 1985 supplied by 22 of the 26 wells drilled in the Eastern production field (EPF). Between 1988 and 1993, eight more wells referred to as {open_quote}replacement wells{close_quote} were drilled in the same field to boost steam supply to the station. Petrographic analyses of the drill cuttings is usually done to determine detail stratigraphy of the field, extends of hydrothermal activity, subsurface structures and other parameters which may influence production potential of a well. Analyses of the drill cuttings from the EPF wells show that: Variations in the whole rock alteration intensities correlate with differences in rocktypes. Permeable horizons, especially the productive feeder zones are well marked by enhanced hydrothermal minerals depositions, mainly quartz, calcite, pyrite and epidote. Other aspects of state of reservoir like boiling are signified by presence of bladed calcite.

  2. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. (National Oil Corp. of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  3. Something to buy paraffin with: an investigation into domestic energy consumption in rural Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosier, R.H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, two government agencies have surveyed energy consumption in Kenya. These two studies yielded conflicting results, necessitating that a third, more carefully conducted survey be used as the basis for this study. The survey instrument used was designed by the author and included questions regarding the types and quantities of fuels used, income information, and demographic data; 572 households were surveyed. The results are first aggregated by ecological zone and compared with the responses of the same households from the 1979 energy survey. Two findings emerge. First, wood consumption is lower in the high and medium potential lands. Fuelwood scarcity appears to be caused by high population density, not low ecological potential. Second, consumption of fuelwood and paraffin (i.e., kerosene) has decreased significantly over the past two years, due mainly to the increased price of the latter and the increased scarcity of the former. Next, the survey results are analyzed by way of a farm-type classification system which classifies the respondents into five groups: non-surplus farmers, surplus farmers, cash-surplus farmers, cash crop farmers, and wage workers. Finally, the analysis takes a relational perspective relying upon regression analysis. Income serves as a determinant of kerosene consumption, but not of fuelwood consumption.

  4. Energy flows in a secondary city: a case study of Nakuru, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milukas, M.V.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary cities are currently seen as an important focus for promoting a more spatially-equitable pattern of economic infrastructure in developing countries, but their energy needs have not been considered. To test the thesis of this work - that the present pattern of energy demand in secondary cities differs, in important ways, from that of primary cities - a case study was conducted in the East African city of Nakuru, Kenya. Energy supplies used in Nakuru fall into two categories: industrial sources (electricity and petroleum) and traditional sources (wood, charcoal, and agricultural residues). This analysis of Nakuru's use of industrial sources is introduced by a historical discussion of nationwide patterns of distribution, use, and pricing of electricity and petroleum products, and is followed by data gathered from Nakuru's suppliers of these energy sources. The portrait of energy use in Nakuru is completed with an analysis of the demand for traditional energy sources. Surveys were conducted to estimate the total quantities of charcoal, wood, and agricultural resides used in Nakuru. The cornerstone of this effort was a residential energy survey stratified according to income. Nakuru is shown to rely on biomass fuels (charcoal) to a much greater degree than Nairobi, thereby proving the thesis.

  5. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. [National Oil Corp. of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  6. Noncrystallographic calcite dendrites from hot-spring deposits at Lake Bogoria, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1995-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex calcite crystals are an integral component of precipitates that form around the orifices of the Loburu and Mawe Moto hot springs on the shores of Lake bogoria, Kenya. Two types of large (up to 4 cm long) noncrystallographic dendrites are important components of these deposits. Feather dendrites are characterized by multiple levels of branching with individual branches developed through crystal splitting and spherulitic growth. Scandulitic (from Latin meaning shingle) dendrites are formed of stacked calcite crystals and are generally more compact than feather dendrites. These developed through the incremental stacking of rectangular-shaped calcite crystals that initially grew as skeletal crystals. Feather and scandulitic dendrites precipitated from the same waters in the same springs. The difference in morphology is therefore related to microenvironments in which they grew. Feather dendrites grew in any direction in pools of free-standing water provided that they were in constant contact with the solute. Conversely, scandulitic dendrites grew on rims of dams where water flowed over the surface in concert with the pulses of spring water. Thus, each calcite crystal in these dendrites represents one episode of crystal growth. The orientation of the component crystals in scandulitic dendrites is controlled by the topography of the dam or surface, not crystallographic criteria. The noncrystallographic dendrites formed from spring waters with initial temperatures of 90--99 C. Surficial water cooling, loss of CO{sub 2}, and presence of other elements that can interfere with crystal growth contributed to the formation of these unusual crystals.

  7. Forecasting petroleum discoveries in sparsely drilled areas: Nigeria and the North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decline function methods for projecting future discoveries generally capture the crowding effects of wildcat wells on the discovery rate. However, these methods do not accommodate easily situations where exploration areas and horizons are expanding. In this paper, a method is presented that uses a mapping algorithm for separating these often countervailing influences. The method is applied to Nigeria and the North Sea. For an amount of future drilling equivalent to past drilling (825 wildcat wells), future discoveries (in resources found) for Nigeria are expected to decline by 68% per well but still amount to 8.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). Similarly, for the total North Sea for an equivalent amount and mix among areas of past drilling (1322 wildcat wells), future discoveries are expected to amount to 17.9 billion BOE, whereas the average discovery rate per well is expected to decline by 71%.

  8. The role of coal in industrialization: A case study of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is a mineral matter found in layers or beds in sedimentary rocks. It is a very highly variable substance. In addition to the variations from lignite to bituminous and anthracite, there are vast differences in its heating value, amount of volatiles, sulfur, moisture and so on. The chemical and physical properties of coal make it an important industrial raw material. There is proven 639 million tonnes of coal reserves in Nigeria. This paper examines the potential and current role of coal in the industrialization of Nigeria. Industries are now dependent on fuel oil as a source of fuel because of its economic and technological advantages over coal. Coal is a source of industrial energy for the future after the known oil reserves might have been exhausted. In the short term, coal can be used as a material for chemicals, iron and steel production as well as a substitute for wood energy in the process of industrialization.

  9. Monetization of Nigeria coal by conversion to hydrocarbon fuels through Fischer-Tropsch process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oguejiofor, G.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the instability of crude oil prices and the disruptions in crude oil supply chains, this article offers a complementing investment proposal through diversification of Nigeria's energy source and dependence. Therefore, the following issues were examined and reported: A comparative survey of coal and hydrocarbon reserve bases in Nigeria was undertaken and presented. An excursion into the economic, environmental, and technological justifications for the proposed diversification and roll-back to coal-based resource was also undertaken and presented. The technology available for coal beneficiation for environmental pollution control was reviewed and reported. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and its advances into Sasol's slurry phase distillate process were reviewed. Specifically, the adoption of Sasol's advanced synthol process and the slurry phase distillate process were recommended as ways of processing the products of coal gasification. The article concludes by discussing all the above-mentioned issues with regard to value addition as a means of wealth creation and investment.

  10. Use Patterns of LED Flashlights in Kenya and a One-Year Cost Analysis of Flashlight Ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Flashlight usage is widespread across much of sub-Saharan Africa.1 In Kenya in particular, over half of all households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). Aside from household use, flashlights are also widely used to perform income-earning jobs in Kenya. Lumina Research Note No.4, the first report in this series documenting flashlight use in Kenya, highlights flashlight use patterns of night watchmen and bicycle taxi drivers. Both of these are occupations that rely on the use of flashlights on a nightly basis (Tracy et al., 2009). Also highlighted by Research Note No.4, flashlight users in Kenya have reported being highly dissatisfied with the quality of the low-cost LED flashlights that are available, and they identify several reoccurring problems they have faced as flashlight end-users (Tracy et al., 2009). The fact that there exists a substantial dependency upon flashlights in Kenya and that users are disgruntled with the available products suggests reasons for concern about flashlight quality. This concern is present despite two recent technological transitions in the flashlight market. First, LED technology has quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya, outpacing incandescent flashlights (Johnstone et al., 2009). LED technology has the potential to provide efficiency and performance benefits relative to incandescent bulbs, and low-cost LEDs have achieved price levels that make them cost competitive with conventional lighting sources for a number of applications (Mills, 2005). Second, rechargeable sealed-lead acid (SLA) batteries are also becoming more prevalent alternatives to disposable dry cell batteries. Flashlights using rechargeable SLA batteries tend to have a lower total cost of ownership over a two-year period than a flashlight using dry cell batteries (Radecsky, 2009); however, as this current report highlights, this may vary depending on the intensity of use patterns. To avoid a potential market spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (Mills and Jacobson, 2008; Lighting Africa, 2007) a better understanding of flashlight use-patterns is crucial (Tracy et al., 2009). In addition, the economic implications faced by rural flashlight end-users provide further incentive for a move toward higher quality low-cost flashlights. In this report, our team uses interviews with 46 end users of flashlights to collect information about their use patterns and costs associated with owning and operating flashlight products. While flashlights used in their portable mode typically do not represent a substitute for kerosene or other forms of fuel-based lighting, at times they are used in stationary applications in place of a fuel-based lamp. In either case, these products often represent end users first exposure to LED technology and rechargeable dry cell batteries, and thus stand to either provide a positive or negative impression of these technologies for a diversity of lighting applications.

  11. Lichens as bioindicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals in Zaria, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapu, M.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States) Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)); Ipaye, M.M.; Ega, R.A.I.; Balarabe, M.L. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)); Akanya, H.O. (Federal Univ. of Technology, Minna (Nigeria)); Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lichens and other epiphytic cryptogams possess efficient ion-exchange mechanisms which enable many species to accumulate airborne metals and which probably contribute to their tolerating metals at concentrations high enough to cause death to other plant species. A direct relationship between the distribution pattern of lichens and the trace metal content of the surrounding air has been demonstrated. The present study used lichens to assess the aerial fallout of heavy metals from traffic in Zaria, northern Nigeria.

  12. Engineering studies of g-1, g-2, and g-3 reservoirs, Meren field, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakur, G.C.; Haulenbeek, R.B.; Jain, A.; Koza, W.P.; Kurak, S.D.; Poston, S.W.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A description is given of an engineering study of two large reservoirs in the G sands of Meren field, offshore Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to investigate various operating schemes for optimizing oil recovery from each of these gravity-segragated reservoirs. Geologic evaluation, material-balance calculations, and three-phase, two-dimensional (2D) (areal and cross-sectional) reservoir simulation models were used. 7 refs.

  13. Levels of dissolved zinc and cadmium in some surface waters of western Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fatoki, O.S. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria)] [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolved zinc and cadmium in some surface waters of Western Nigeria were separated and quantified using anion exchange of their chloro-complexes and detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentrations of zinc and cadmium found in tested water samples ranged from 0.99 to 2.97 mg L{sup {minus}1} and 0.13 to 0.17 mg L{sup {minus}1}, respectively. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Nigeria (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePriceExpected FutureLeaseEquatorialNigeria

  15. High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babalola, O.O.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

  16. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, S.; Katz, J.; Wurtenberger, L.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate economy-wide policies and implementation plans designed to enable a country to meet its long-term development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A development impact assessment tool was developed to inform an analytically robust and transparent prioritization of LEDS actions based on their economic, social, and environmental impacts. The graphical tool helps policymakers communicate the development impacts of LEDS options and identify actions that help meet both emissions reduction and development goals. This paper summarizes the adaptation and piloting of the tool in Kenya and Montenegro. The paper highlights strengths of the tool and discusses key needs for improving it.

  17. Fecal nitrogen as an indicator of nutritional stress in steers in semi-arid rangelands of Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaabani, Salim B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Acknowledgments and special thanks are extended to Mr. M1chael Mwikya of the Food Habits Laboratory at the Kiboko National Range Research Station, all the staff of the Station in general, and members of the Ecology Section in part1 cular for their support... National Range Research Stion ~enya . . 55 10 12 Relationship of organic matter intake (kg) to fecal soluble to total nitrogen ratio of steers grazing in C~ommi hora Savannah 1n Ki boko National Range Research 3~aon, Kenya. . 'Relationship of organic...

  18. Deltaic sedimentation in saline, alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya: Response to environmental change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renaut, R.W. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Tiercelin, J.J. (Univ. Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Domaines Oceaniques)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Bogoria is a meromictic, saline (90 g/l TDS), alkaline (pH: 10.3) lake with Na-CO[sub 3]-Cl waters, located in a narrow half-graben in the central Kenya Rift. It is fed by hot springs, direct precipitation, and a series of ephemeral streams that discharge into the lake via small deltas and fan-deltas. Examination of the exposed deltas and >50 short cores from the lake floor, have revealed a wide range of deltaic and prodeltaic sediments, including turbidites and subaqueous debris-flow deposits. Studies of 3 long cores and the exposed delta stratigraphy have shown how the style of deltaic sedimentation has responded to environmental changes during the last 30,000 years. During humid periods when lake level is high the lake waters are fresher and less dense. Theoretically, high sediment yield and more constant discharge may promote underflow (hyperpycnal flow), generating low-density turbidity currents. In contrast, during low stages with dense brine, the less dense, inflowing waters carry fine sediment plumes toward the center of the lake where they settle from suspension (hypopycnal flow). Although applicable as a general model, the sediment record shows that reality is more complex. Variations in meromixis and level of the chemocline, together with local and temporal differences in sediment yield and discharge, may permit density flows even when the lake is under a predominant hypopycnal regime. During periods of aridity when sodium carbonate evaporites were forming, exposed delta plains were subject to desiccation with local development of calcrete and zeolitic paleosols.

  19. Origin of platy calcite crystals in hot-spring deposits in the Kenya Rift Valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renault, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Platy calcite crystals, which have their c axis parallel to their shortest length axis, are common components of travertine deposits found around some hot springs in the Kenya Rift Valley. They are composite crystals formed of numerous paper-thin subcrystals. Individual plates allowed to grow without obstruction develop a hexagonal motif. The Kenyan crystals typically form in hot (>75 C) waters that have a low Ca content (<10 mg/l), a high CO{sub 2} content, and a high rate of CO{sub 2} degassing. At Chemurkeu, aggregates of numerous small platy crystals collectively form lattice crystals that superficially resemble ray crystals. The walls of the lattice crystals are formed of large platy crystals that have their long and intermediate length axes aligned parallel to the plane of the long axis of the lattice crystal. Internally, the lattice crystals are formed of small platy calcite crystals arranged in a boxlike pattern that creates the appearance of a lattice when viewed in thin section. Lattice crystals are highly porous, with each pore being enclosed by platy crystals. At Lorusio, travertines are mainly formed of pseudodentrites that are constructed by numerous small platy crystals attached to a main stem which is a large platy crystal that commonly curves along its long axis. The pseudodentrites are the main construction blocks in ledges and lilypads that form in the vent pool and spring outflow channels, where the water is too hot for microbes other than hyperthermophiles. The platy calcite crystals in the Kenyan travertines are morphologically similar to platy calcite crystals that form as scale in pipes in the geothermal fields of New Zealand and hydrothermal angel wing calcite from the La Fe mine in Mexico. Comparison of the Kenyan and New Zealand crystals indicates that platy calcite crystals form from waters with a low Ca{sup 2+} content and a high CO{sub 3}/Ca ratio due to rapid rates of CO{sub 2} degassing.

  20. Model for trace metal exposure in filter-feeding flamingos at alkaline Rift Valley Lake, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Y.M.; DiSante, C.J.; Lion, L.W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Thampy, R.J.; Raini, J.A. [Worldwide Fund for Nature, Nakuru (Kenya). Lake Nakuru Conservation and Development Project; Motelin, G.K. [Egerton Univ., Njoro (Kenya). Dept. of Animal Health

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic trace metals have been implicated as a potential cause of recent flamingo kills at Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) have accumulated in the lake sediments as a result of unregulated discharges and because this alkaline lake has no natural outlet. Lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) at Lake Nakuru feed predominantly on the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, and because of their filter-feeding mechanism, they are susceptible to exposure to particle-bound metals. Trace metal adsorption isotherms to lake sediments and S. platensis were obtained under simulated lake conditions, and a mathematical model was developed to predict metal exposure via filter feeding based on predicted trace metal phase distribution. Metal adsorption to suspended solids followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cr > Cu, and isotherms were linear up to 60 {micro}g/L. Adsorption to S. platensis cells followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cu > Cr and fit Langmuir isotherms for Cr, Cu and Zn and a linear isotherm for Pb. Predicted phase distributions indicated that Cr and Pb in Lake Nakuru are predominantly associated with suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn are distributed more evenly between the dissolved phase and particulate phases of both S. platensis and suspended solids. Based on established flamingo feeding rates and particle size selection, predicted Cr and Pb exposure occurs predominantly through ingestion of suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn exposure occurs through ingestion of both suspended solids and S. platensis. For the lake conditions at the time of sampling, predicted ingestion rates based on measured metal concentrations in lake suspended solids were 0.71, 6.2, 0.81, and 13 mg/kg-d for Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively.

  1. The origin of hydrothermal and other gases in the Kenya Rift Valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, W.G. [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom)] [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Griesshaber, E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Andrews, J.N. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); and others

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kenya Rift Valley (KRV) is part of a major continental rift system from which much outgassing is presently occurring. Previous research on gases in the KRV has tended to concentrate on their geothermal implications; the present paper is an attempt to broaden the interpretation by consideration of new data including helium and carbon isotope analyses from a wide cross-section of sites. In order to do this, gases have been divided into categories dependent on origin. N{sub 2} and noble gases are for the most part atmospherically derived, although their relative concentrations may be altered from ASW ratios by various physical processes. Reduced carbon (CH{sub 4} and homologues) appears to be exclusively derived from the shallow crust, with thermogenic {delta}{sup 13}C values averaging -25{per_thousand} PDB for CH{sub 4}. H{sub 2} is likely also to be crustally formed. CO{sub 2}, generally a dominant constituent, has a narrow {delta}{sup 13}C range averaging -3.7{per_thousand} PDB, and is likely to be derived with little modification from the upper mantle. Consideration of the ratio C/{sup 3}He supports this view in most cases. Sulphur probably also originates there. Ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He reach a MORB-like maximum of 8.0 R/R{sub A} and provide the best indication of an upper mantle source of gases beneath the KRV. A correlation between {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and the hydrocarbon parameter log (C{sub 1}/{Sigma}C{sub 2-4}) appears to be primarily temperature related. The highest {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in spring waters are associated with basalts, perhaps because of the leaching of basalt glasses. There may be a structural control on {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in the KRV as a whole.

  2. Stratigraphy and rifting history of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Anza rift, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winn, R.D. Jr.; Steinmetz, J.C. (Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (United States)); Kerekgyarto, W.L. (Marathon Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithological and compositional relationships, thicknesses, and palynological data from drilling cuttings from five wells in the Anza rift, Kenya, indicate active rifting during the Late Cretaceous and Eocene-Oligocene. The earlier rifting possibly started in the Santonian-Coniacian, primarily occurred in the Campanian, and probably extended into the Maastrichtian. Anza rift sedimentation was in lacustrine, lacustrine-deltaic, fluvial, and flood-basin environments. Inferred synrift intervals in wells are shalier, thicker, more compositionally immature, and more poorly sorted than Lower Cretaceous ( )-lower Upper Cretaceous and upper Oligocene( )-Miocene interrift deposits. Synrift sandstone is mostly feldspathic or arkosic wacke. Sandstone deposited in the Anza basin during nonrift periods is mostly quartz arenite, and is coarser and has a high proportion of probable fluvial deposits relative to other facies. Volcanic debris is absent in sedimentary strata older than Pliocene-Holocene, although small Cretaceous intrusions are present in the basin. Cretaceous sandstone is cemented in places by laumontite, possibly recording Campanian extension. Early Cretaceous history of the Anza basin is poorly known because of the limited strata sampled; Jurassic units were not reached. Cretaceous rifting in the Anza basin was synchronous with rifting in Sudan and with the breakup and separation of South America and Africa; these events likely were related. Eocene-Oligocene extension in the Anza basin reflects different stresses. The transition from active rifting to passive subsidence in the Anza basin at the end of the Neogene, in turn, records a reconfigured response of east African plates to stresses and is correlated with formation of the East Africa rift.

  3. Comparison of emissions and residential exposure from traditional and improved cookstoves in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezzati, M.; Mbinda, B.M.; Kammen, D.M.

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Suspended particulate matter and carbon emissions from the combustion of biomass, in addition to their environmental consequences, have been causally associated with the incidence of respiratory and eye infections. Improved stoves offer the potential for emissions reduction. The authors compare the emissions of suspended particulate matter and carbon monoxide from traditional and improved biofuel stoves in Kenya under the actual conditions of household use. Data for analysis is from 137 14-h days of continuous real-time emission concentration monitoring in a total of 38 households. Their analysis shows that improved (ceramic) wood-burning stoves reduce daily average suspended particulate matter concentration by 48% during the active burning period and by 77% during the smoldering phase. Ceramic stoves also reduce the median and the 75th and 95th percentiles of daily emission concentration during the burning period and the 95th percentile during the smoldering phase, and therefore shift the overall emission profile downward. Improved charcoal-burning stoves also offer reductions in indoor air pollution compared to the traditional metal stove, but these are not statistically significant. The greatest reduction in emission concentration is achieved as a result of transition from wood to charcoal where mean emission concentrations drop by 87% during the burning period and by 92% when smoldering as well as large reductions in the median and 75th and 95th percentiles. These results indicate that transition to charcoal, followed by the use of improved wood stoves, are viable options for reduction of human exposure to indoor air pollution in many developing nations.

  4. An analysis of the production and manufacture of the modified clay pot at the Oriang Women's Pottery Group, the Amilo-Rangwe Pottery Group, and the Kinda E Teko Pottery Group in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pihulic, Michael P. (Michael Phillip), 1982-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the growing demands for safe water supplies and the absence of a central infrastructure capable of meeting those demands, CARE-Kenya has implemented a safe water storage program at the household level. Central ...

  5. Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kofoworola, O.F. [Environment Division, Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: sholafemi28@yahoo.com

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the city's residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. Efforts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.

  6. Trace metal content of fish and shellfishes of the Niger delta area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakulu, S.E.; Osibanjo, O.; Ajayi, S.O.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The trace metal contents of various fish and shellfishes from the Niger delta area of Nigeria were determined. The levels in the shellfishes were higher than those in the fish, which could be due to their being bottom feeders. The levels of fish varied from <0.01-0.10 ..mu..g/g for Cd, < 0.05-3.69 ..mu..g/g for Cu, 0.49-16.52 ..mu..g/g for Fe, and 0.08-6.90 ..mu..g/g for Zn. 15 references, 1 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gbodi, T.A.; Atawodi, S.E.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  8. Sedimentary Basins: Origin, Depositional Histories, and Petroleum Systems 1 Multiage Plays in Offshore Nigeria: Hidden Plays of Neogene Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connors, Christopher D.

    in Offshore Nigeria: Hidden Plays of Neogene Shale Structures, and Robust Lower Miocene to Paleogene Akata Shale and structural styles of mobile shale features and focuses new atten- tion towards sets showing only thick sections of seismi- cally opaque facies commonly interpreted as shale `diapirs

  9. Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Businesses in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radecsky, Kristen; Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2008-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    superior lighting services to low income people in off-grid areas of developing countries, many of whom currently rely on fuel based lighting sources such as kerosene. If this potential is to be achieved in the near term, however, manufacturers must produce off-grid lighting products that are inexpensive, perform well, and meet the needs of potential end users. At present, relatively few products meet all three of these goals. In this article, we report results from a detailed study of lighting use by micro-enterprises in two small towns in Kenya's Rift Valley Province. The work included a survey about lighting use by 50 small businesses, careful measurements of kerosene lighting use patterns and associated costs for 23 of these businesses, and a subsequent field trial in which 14 of the 23 businesses purchased and used low cost LED lamps over a number of months.

  10. Combining MSS and AVHRR imagery to assess vegetation biomass and dynamics in an arid pastoral ecosystem, Turkana District, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, J.E.; Swift, D.M.; Hart, T.C.; Dick, O.B.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) imagery was used to develop a vegetation type-biomass map of the 84,000 Km/sup 2/ Turkana District, Kenya. NOAA satellite advanced very high resolution radiometry (AVHRR) imagery was overlaid on the MSS map to trace the seasonal and annual dynamics of vegetation communities used by Turkana pastoral nomads, 1981-1984. Four regions (sub-sectional territories) were compared with respect to peak herbaceous biomass, woody canopy cover, and seasonal fluxes in total green biomass. Results demonstrated major variations among regions and between wet and dry season ranges within regions. Pastoral land use patterns appear to minimize effects of seasonal vegetation fluxes on livestock herds.

  11. Trans-Sahara pipe line would deliver Nigeria gas to Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenzler, M.H.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bechtel has made an in-house study of a natural gas transmission line extending from Nigeria to the Mediterranean and then on into Europe. Based upon the analysis, the pipeline project appears sufficiently viable to warrant further study. Perhaps the single most important element in design of pipelines crossing international borders is the political aspects involved in constructing, owning, and operating the line. These considerations not only effect the location of the pipeline, the manner of financing and ownership, but also whether the line will be constructed. The line crosses several international boundaries, depending upon the route selected. Each route crosses Niger. Case A crosses Algeria and into Tunisia where it ultimately would cross the Strait of Sicily into Italy. Case B crosses the Niger- Algerian border and then traverses Algeria to the Mediterranean where it is planned to connect to the Segamo pipeline and to link with the pipeline network in Spain. Case C crosses the countries of Niger, Mali, Mauritania, and into Morocco, and ultimately crosses the Mediterranean Sea close to the Strait of Gibraltar. Nigeria has proven natural gas reserves estimated to range from 2.5 to 4 trillion cu m (38 to 140 tcf).

  12. Electronic waste (e-waste): Material flows and management practices in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nnorom, Innocent Chidi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State (Nigeria)], E-mail: chidiabsu@yahoo.co.uk; Osibanjo, Oladele [Basel Convention Regional Coordinating Center for Africa for Training and Technology Transfer, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan (Nigeria)], E-mail: osibanjo@baselnigeria.com

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) production and consumption has been exponential in the last two decades. This has been as a result of the rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities, decrease in prices, and the growth in internet use. This creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete electrical and electronic devices (e-waste) in developed countries. There is high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as secondhand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal advancement in information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigeria, most of which rely on imported secondhand devices. This paper attempts to review the material flow of secondhand/scrap electronic devices into Nigeria, the current management practices for e-waste and the environmental and health implications of such low-end management practices. Establishment of formal recycling facilities, introduction of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste and the confirmation of the functionality of secondhand EEE prior to importation are some of the options available to the government in dealing with this difficult issue.

  13. Metals in fish from the Upper Benue River and lakes Geriyo and Njuwa in northeastern Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eromosele, C.O.; Eromosele, I.C.; Muktar, S.L.M.; Birdling, S.A. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Yola (Nigeria)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lakes Geriyo and Njuwa occupy natural depressions near the upper Benue River in northeastern Nigeria. The lakes are flooded by the river during the rainy season spanning the months of May to September. Fishing activities on the lakes and river provide fish for consumption by the local communities. Industrial activity around the upper Benue River and the lakes is low and there is no information on other activities with the potential for polluting the Benue River as it flows from neighboring Cameroon. However, an unconfirmed report indicated high levels of lead in the upper Benue River, generally speculated as arising from biogeometrical factors. Trace elements, some of which are toxic, may accumulate in edible marine organisms to levels which may be deleterious to human health. For the upper Benue River and its associate lakes, Geriyo and Njuwa, there is yet no report of a systematic study to assess the levels of metals in fish found in these waters. This paper presents the results of a study on metal levels in fish collected from Lakes Geriyo and Njuwa and upper Benue River in northeastern Nigeria. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Development and Deployment of Fixed Wireless Access in South West Nigeria: Performance and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeniran, Oluwaranti

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) involves the use of wireless technology to replace copper to connect subscribers to the telephone network. It is a variant of wireless broadband which provides an alternative in the so-called 'last mile' connectivity between the subscriber and the fixed telecommunications network. FWA could either be narrowband or broadband and it is predominantly deployed using the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. In assessing the extent of development and deployment of FWA, the perspective of the operators and users was elicited primarily through the use of questionnaires. Issues like setup cost, tax, Government incentive, availability of infrastructure and manpower applied to the operators while on the users' part factors like quality of service, signal strength as well as call rate were considered. The South western zone of Nigeria is regarded as one of the most urbanized regions in the south of Sahara, this is not out of place considering the fact that Lagos which is the nation...

  15. Heavy metal contents of epiphytic acrocarpous mosses within inhabited sites in southwest Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onianwa, P.C.; Ajayi, S.O.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The levels of the metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Fe accumulated in acrocarpous mosses within inhabited parts of villages and towns in the southwest region of Nigeria were determined, and then used for a classification of the area into relative pollution zones. Ibadan City was found to be the most polluted in the study area. Other zones of low and medium polluted villages and towns were identified. The zonations based on metal levels in these mosses were to some extent similar to that already obtained in a separate study of the same area with epiphytic forest mosses. The enrichment factors show that the gradients between zones of different pollution levels were higher in mosses within the inhabited sites.

  16. Classical seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation of intraslope basin fill: Deepwater Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, E.A. [BP Exploration Operating Co., Ltd., Stavanger (Norway)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed interpretation of seismic facies patterns performed within the workstation environment provides an observation based methodology for constructing depositional models of turbidite and other reservoir bearing systems expected in deepwater Nigeria. The increased fidelity of the workstation allows greater detail and accuracy to be imposed onto depositional model construction by vastly improving the discrimination of depositional from structural seismic reflection geometries. In deepwater Nigeria interslope basins, depositional cyclicity is clearly indicated by vertical seismic facies successions in the same way as can be recognized in bed thickness trends from outcrop or well log data. The recognition of the seismic facies successions appears to break the stratigraphy into at least fourth and fifth order scale sequences. Highly {open_quotes}zoomed{close_quotes} instantaneous phase displays enhance the reflection character so that near outcrop scale (resolution less than 50 mters) interpretations of depositional facies can be made. Common seismic facies and geologic interpretation include: (1) low angle erosional surfaces as channel scour or mass wasting detachment; (2) low relief mounds, often in compensation cycle overlapping stacks reflecting compacted channelbelt fill; (3) unidirectional, low angle clinoform sets suggesting laterial accretion within a channel belt or possible contourite mounds; (4) abrupt, shingled blocks illustrating tilted fault blocks of small scale intraformation slumping; and (5) high reflection amplitude and continuous, parallel reflections of pelagic and hemipelagic condensed sections. There are other subtle seismic facies resolvable given the incraesed fidelity of the workstation interpretation. Mapping and translation of these geometries into more robust stratigraphic predictions should have positive impact on exploration and development success.

  17. Absentee herd owners and part-time pastoralists: the political economy of resource use in northern Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, P.D.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prevalence of absentee herd ownership in Africa's pastoral areas is increasing. Its presence has important implications both for local resource management systems and for research programs that address pastoral ecology and related topics. This paper examines patterns of absentee herd ownership in the Baringo District of northern Kenya. This region has been the source of much debate regarding herder ''mismanagement'' of range lands. Three categories of absentee herd owners are discussed in the paper: (1) ranchers, (2) livestock traders, and (3) townsmen. It is suggested that the blame for some of the apparent resource mismanagement in the region may lie more with actors in these categories than with the pastoralists themselves. Data collected during an 18-month period in 1980-1981 on pastoral ecology, grazing patterns, and tenure institutions are presented in support of the argument. The paper concludes with a comparative analysis of contemporary resource management strategies in pastoral Africa, emphasizing that: (1) the Baringo case is not an isolated anomaly, and (2) a new orientation toward pastoral studies is warranted.

  18. Sediment infill within rift basins: Facies distribution and effects of deformation: Examples from the Kenya and Tanganyika Rifts, East Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Lezzar, K.E. (Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)); Richert, J.P. (Elf Aquitaine, Pau (France))

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil is known from lacustrine basins of the east African rift. The geology of such basins is complex and different depending on location in the eastern and western branches. The western branch has little volcanism, leading to long-lived basins, such as Lake Tanganyika, whereas a large quantity of volcanics results in the eastern branch characterized by ephemeral basins, as the Baringo-Bogoria basin in Kenya. The Baringo-Bogoria basin is a north-south half graben formed in the middle Pleistocene and presently occupied by the hypersaline Lake Bogoria and the freshwater Lake Baringo. Lake Bogoria is fed by hot springs and ephemeral streams controlled by grid faults bounding the basin to the west. The sedimentary fill is formed by cycles of organic oozes having a good petroleum potential and evaporites. On the other hand, and as a consequence of the grid faults, Lake Baringo is fed by permanent streams bringing into the basin large quantities of terrigenous sediments. Lake Tanganyika is a meromictic lake 1470 m deep and 700 km long, of middle Miocene age. It is subdivided into seven asymmetric half grabens separated by transverse ridges. The sedimentary fill is thick and formed by organic oozes having a very good petroleum potential. In contrast to Bogoria, the lateral distribution of organic matter is characterized by considerable heterogeneity due to the existence of structural blocks or to redepositional processes.

  19. Single-crystal sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar dating of the Olorgesailie Formation, southern Kenya rift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deino, A. (Geochronology Center of the Inst. of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Potts, R. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States))

    1990-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-crystal laser fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analyses and several conventional bulk fusion {sup 40}K- {sup 40}Ar dates have been used to determine the age of volcaniclastic strata within the Olorgesailie Formation and of associated volcanic and sedimentary units of the southern Kenya rift. In the principal exposures along the southern edge of the Legemunge Plain, the formation spans the interval from approximately 500 to 1,000 ka. Deposition continued to the east along the Ol Keju Nyiro river where a tuff near the top of the formation has been dated at 215 ka. In these exposures, the formation is unconformably overlain by sediments dated at 49 ka. A possible source for the Olorgesailie tephra, the Ol Doinyo Nyokie volcanic complex, contains as ash flow dated at {approximately} 1 Ma, extending the known age range of this complex to encompass that of virtually the entire Olorgesailie Formation in the Legemunge Plain. These geologic examples illustrate the importance of the single-crystal {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating technique whereby contaminant, altered, or otherwise aberrant grains can be identified and eliminated from the determination of eruptive ages for reworked or altered pyroclastic deposits. The authors have presented a computer-modeling procedure based on an inverse-isochron analysis that promotes a more objective approach to trimming {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar isotope data sets of this type.

  20. Measurements and interpretation of delta C sup 13 of methane from termites, rice paddies, and wetlands in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, S.C.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Cumberbatch, C.; Greenberg, J.P.; Westberg, C. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (USA))

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ratios of C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} have been measured in methane from a variety of sources in tropical Kenya. Ranges of delta-C{sup 13} in CH{sub 4} for termites (most values range from {minus}56 to {minus}64{per thousand}, one is at {minus}44{per thousand}), one is at approximately {minus}73{per thousand}, rice paddies (range {minus}57 to {minus}63{per thousand}), and wetlands (range-45 to {minus}50{per thousand} for Lake Baringo, approximately {minus}55{per thousand} in the Moloi River, approximately {minus}62{per thousand} and approximately {minus}31{per thousand} in two swamp areas) are presented. The data are interpreted with the help of additional measurements of delta-C{sup 13} of CO{sub 2} gas, and organic carbon in plant material, termite bodies, and termite fungus combs. The implications of these findings are related to the problem of studying the atmospheric methane budget. 40 refs., 2 figs. 5 tabs.

  1. sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar age calibration of the litho- and paleomagnetic stratigraphies of the Ngorora Formation, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deino, A.; Drake, R. (Institute of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (USA)); Tauxe, L. (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Monaghan, M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise eruptive ages have been determined by the laser-fusion, single-crystal {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar method for juvenile volcanic feldspars from reworked and contaminated volcaniclastic rocks of the middle Miocene Ngorora Formation, Kenya Rift Valley. These ages range from 13.06 Ma at the base to 10.51 Ma toward the top of the type section near Kabarsero. Correlation of the local paleomagnetic stratigraphies with the geomagnetic reversal time scale yields magnetochronologic age estimates that are younger than the isotopic ages by an average of 0.18 Ma. Much of the discrepancy can be eliminated if an inferred change in sea-floor spreading rate occurred at 13 Ma or earlier, rather than at 10.42 Ma as previously suggested. Sedimentation rates at Kabarsero calculated from the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results decrease from initial values of {approximately}25 cm/1,000 yr to {approximately}5 cm/1,000 yr toward the top of the section. The initial rapid sedimentation rates characterize the first 0.1 to 0.3 m.y. following emplacement of the underlying, voluminous, basin-filling Tiim Phonolites, indicating that the Baringo Basin at this time may not have existed as a rift valley created by extensional tectonics, but instead may have been a subsidence feature formed in response to removal of large volumes of magma from the lithosphere. A premolar tentatively identified as Proconsul sp. indet. found in the Ngorora Formation near the village of Bartabwa has been dated at {approximately}12.42 Ma, representing perhaps the last known occurrence of this genus in the fossil record.

  2. Education about environmental issues, conservation, and management: a study of form four secondary school pupils' concerns about environmental issues in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghenda, W.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to develop and administer a questionnaire designed to determine Kenyan students' concerns about environmental issues; second to investigate the primary environmental factors facing the country; and finally, to utilize the findings of the study to develop a conceptual framework for environmental education in Kenya. To develop an environmental education framework for Kenya, baseline data was obtained from a survey of Form IV secondary school students' concerns about environmental issues. A split-half technique was used to establish the reliability of the questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to test the construct validity of the questionnaire and as a data reduction method. This technique resulted in reducing the 81 items developed for the study to eight Factor as follows: (F1) Land use and health stresses; (F2) Community environmental risks; (F3) National environmental problems; (F4) Careless land use practices at community level; (F5) Socioeconomic elements; (F6) Sources of environmental information; (F7) Careless land use at national level; and (F8) Primary population pressures. Results are presented briefly.

  3. Legal and institutional framework of environmental impact assessment in Nigeria: An initial assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olokesusi, F. [Nigerian Inst. of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan, Oyo (Nigeria)] [Nigerian Inst. of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan, Oyo (Nigeria)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has high rates of urbanization and industrialization. Until recently, decisions on most large-scale projects such as expressways, harbors, industries, dams, and irrigation were considered with an emphasis on traditional technical and cost-benefit analysis. Spurred by massive environmental degradation and persistent community agitation in oil producing areas, environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation was passed in late 1992. The main purpose of this article is to review and assess the content of this legislation and the guidelines produced by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), the institution responsible for EIA administration. Some EIA reports have been prepared and reviewed by FEPA since 1994. There are some positive outcomes and expectations, but some problems have been identified as well, including: deliberate restriction of public involvement and participation by proponents and/or their consultants, interagency conflict leading to high cost and project delays especially in the oil industry, and restriction of public access to final EIA reports. These are discussed, and recommendations for improving the process are made.

  4. Reservoir description and future development plans for the Unam/Mfem Fields, OML 67, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kofron, B.M.; Jenkinson, J.T.; Maxwell, G.S. [Mobil Exploration and Producing Technology Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Unam/Mfem fields, which are currently produced from three platforms, are, located 25 km offshore (southeastern Nigeria) in water depths of 60 feet to 100 feet. Over 100 MMBO have been produced to date from both unconformity bounded and fault trap reservoirs in the Upper and Middle Biafra Sands. These structural and stratigraphic geometries define at least eleven different reservoirs that are not interconnected. STOIIP for all eleven reservoirs is estimated to exceed 900 MMBO based on a recently completed reservoir characterization study. A two year reservoir description study followed the acquisition of a 1991 3-D seismic survey and resulted in the drilling of six successful wells and two sidetracks. A 3-D model of reservoir geometries and fluid flow properties was generated by integrating geologic, geophysical, and reservoir engineering data. These diverse data sets were interpreted using a combination of workstations, software packages, and displays that included Landmark, IREX, wireline log and seismic correlation charts. A detailed stratigraphic zonation scheme with 28 zones was defined and correlated field wide and subregionally to build the reservoir framework. Twenty seismic horizons were created. More than 300 critical compute, generated grids were then used to calculate STOIIP volumes. This study led to the identification of new pay zones along with a much better understanding of the spatial distribution of all pays within the fields. A revised exploitation strategy has subsequently been proposed which calls for 5 new platforms and the drilling of 21 additional wells over the next few years.

  5. Hourly global and diffuse radiation of Lagos, Nigeria-correlation with some atmospheric parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chendo, M.A.C.; Maduekwe, A.A.L. (Univ. of Lagos, Akoka (Nigeria))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of four climatic parameters on the hourly diffuse fraction in Lagos, Nigeria, has been studied. Using data for two years, new correlations were established. The standard error of the Liu and Jordan-type equation was reduced by 12.83% when solar elevation, ambient temperature, and relative humidity were used together as predictor variables for the entire data set. Ambient temperature and relative humidity proved to be very important variables for predicting the diffuse fraction of the solar radiation passing through the humid atmosphere of the coastal and tropic city of Lagos. Seasonal analysis carried out with the data showed improvements on the standard errors for the new seasonal correlations. In the case of the dry season, the improvement was 18.37%, whole for the wet season, this was 12.37%. Comparison with existing correlations showed that the performance of the one parameter model (namely K[sub t]), of Orgill and Hollands and Reindl, Beckman, and Duffie were very different from the Liu and Jordan-type model obtained for Lagos.

  6. An interdisciplinary approach to reservoir management: The Malu Field, West Niger Delta, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, B.A.; Bluhm, C.T. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum, San Ramon, CA (United States); Adokpaye, E.U. [Chevron Nigeria Limited, Lekki (Nigeria)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Malu Field is 175 kilometers southeast of Lagos, offshore Nigeria. The field was discovered in 1967 and brought on stream in 1971. Peak production reached 31,300 barrels per day in 1972. Twenty-six wells have been drilled in the thirty-six square kilometer size field. In 1990 original-oil-in-place was estimated at 345 million barrels with cumulative production of 109 million barrels and an estimated 40 million barrels of remaining reserves. The Main Field review was initiated in 1994 to resolve structural and production inconsistencies and therefore improve reservoir performance. The tools used include reprocessed three-dimensional seismic, oil chemistry (primarily gas chromatography), and production data. The complexly faulted field is subdivided into seven different fault blocks. Growth faults generally trend northwest to southeast and are downthrown to the west. Twenty-five different hydrocarbon-bearing sands have been identified within the field. These sands are separated into sixty-three different reservoirs by the series of southeast trending growth faults. Most sands are laterally continuous within mapped fault blocks except in east Malu. Cross-fault communication of oils occurs among several of the shallow reservoirs in west Malu allowing wells to deplete unintended horizons. In addition, three of the dual string completions are producing oil only from only the upper sands. The integration of seismic, oil chemistry, and production data allows more efficient management of production by providing accurate structure maps, reserve estimates, drainage pathways, and justification for workovers and future development drilling.

  7. Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A. (Univ. of Lagos (Nigeria))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature, all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.

  8. Forms and pedogenic distribution of extractable manganese in some soils of south-western Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayanlaja, S.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The contents of various forms of manganese in 10 profiles from S.W. Nigeria was determined by selective extraction methods: dithionite (total), oxalate (amorphous), hydroquinone (easily reducible) and pyrophosphate (organic). All forms were generally highest in the surface horizon and decreased down the profile. Amorphous Mn is the dominant form, being between 80-100% of the total Mn. This indicates that a high proportion of the total soil Mn is potentially available to plant. The active Mn ratio remains fairly constant through most of the profiles suggesting that a dynamic equilibrium exists between the crystalline and the amorphous forms. X-ray diffraction analysis of the manganese concretions picked out from the soils revealed birnessite as the prevalent crystalline form, and the formula derived for birnessite by chemical and thermogravimetric analyses is: (Mn/sub 6.37/, Co/sub 0.16/, Na/sub 1.52/, Ni/sub 0.03/, Ca/sub 0.02/, K/sub 0.06/, Cu/sub 0.01/, Mg/ sub 0.07/) O/sub 14/.4H/sub 2/O.

  9. Environmental risk management and preparations for the first deep water well in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, F.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Statoil is among the leaders in protecting health, environment and safety in all aspects of the business. The evaluations of business opportunities and development of blocks opened by authorities for petroleum exploration, are assessed in accordance with the goals for environmental protection. Progressive improvement of environmental performance is secured through proper environmental risk management. In 1995, Statoil, the technical operator on Block 210 off the Nigerian coast, was the first company to drill in deep waters in this area. An exploration well was drilled in a water depth of about 320 meters. The drilling preparations included environmental assessment, drillers Hazop, oil spill drift calculations, oil spill response plans and environmental risk analysis. In the environmental preparations for the well, Statoil adhered to local and national government legislation, as well as to international guidelines and company standards. Special attention was paid to the environmental sensitivity of potentially affected areas. Statoil co-operated with experienced local companies, with the authorities and other international and national oil companies. This being the first deep water well offshore Nigeria, it was a challenge to co-operate with other operators in the area. The preparations that were carried out, will set the standard for future environmental work in the area. Co-operation difficulties in the beginning were turned positively into a attitude to the environmental challenge.

  10. Sedimentation and tectonics in the southern Bida Basin, Nigeria: depositional response to varying tectonic context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braide, S.P. (Federal Univ. of Technology, Minna (Nigeria))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upper Cretaceous Bida basin of central Nigeria is sandwiched between the Precambrian schist belts of the Northern Nigerian massif and the West African craton. Of interest is the southern part of the basin, which developed in continental settings, because the facies architecture of the sedimentary fill suggests a close relation between sedimentation dynamics and basin margin tectonics. This relationship is significant to an understanding of the basin's origin, which has been controversial. A simple sag and rift origin has been suggested, and consequently dominated the negative thinking on the hydrocarbon prospects of the basin which were considered poor. This detailed study of the facies indicates rapid basin-wide changes from various alluvial fan facies through flood-basin and deltaic facies to lacustrine facies. Paleogeographic reconstruction suggests lacustrine environments were widespread and elongate. Lacustrine environments occurred at the basin's axis and close to the margins. This suggests the depocenter must have migrated during the basin's depositional history and subsided rapidly to accommodate the 3.5-km-thick sedimentary fill. Although distinguishing pull-apart basins from rift basins, based solely on sedimentologic grounds, may be difficult, the temporal migration of the depocenter, as well as the basin architecture of upward coarsening cyclicity, show a strong tectonic and structural overprint that suggests a tectonic framework for the Southern Bida basin similar in origin to a pull-apart basin.

  11. Public budgeting, public policy, and the politics of resource allocation in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ugorji, E.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of determining who gets what in terms of allocating the nation's resources has plagued Nigerian leaders since independence. It is in this context that this dissertation is focused on the politics of the federal governments's use of the budget as an effective mechanism for mobilizing and constructively utilizing the nation's human and material resources to improve the general well-being of all segments of the Nigerian society. This study was conducted through direct interviews and discussions with some federal government officials and some Nigerian scholars concerned about the problems of development in Nigeria. From the findings, it is concluded that the federal budget process has not functioned efficiently and effectively as a vehicle for moving the nation forward in the direction of sustained and balanced economic progress. Whereas the above situation can be attributed to some structural deficiencies in the budgetary process, it can also be argued that bribery and corruption, fraud and misuse of public funds by politicians and top government officials, be they civilians or military, have undermined all efforts at using the budget as an instrument for accomplishing development objectives.

  12. Analysis of information use by scientists and engineers in the petroleum industry in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nkereuwem, E.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information sources used by various groups of people have been the subject of examination especially in the developed countries from numerous perspectives. These have ranged from an effort to determine their information needs to an attempt to establish the correlation between information and national development. This study is concerned with the petroleum industry in Nigeria. It was found that there was no significant difference between the scientists and engineers in the frequency of use of published information sources, but engineers used interpersonal sources more frequently than the scientists. There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of published and interpersonal sources in meeting information needs of both groups. Scientists used libraries more frequently than engineers; libraries mainly used could not meet the information needs of scientists and engineers. There was no absolute correlation between frequency of library use and perception of users in adequacy of libraries in meeting thier information needs. Computers were not used for information retrieval in libraries mainly used by the respondents.

  13. Evaluation of oil palm research and the dissemination of its results in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agiobenebo, T.J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation evaluates public investment in oil palm research and the dissemination of research results in Nigeria using the economic surplus technique adapted to suit the specific setting in which these activities are carried out. The issues raised include: (1) development of appropriate test of investment effectiveness suitable for appraising public investment in hybrid palm research and extension; (2) specification and econometric estimation of supply and demand functions for oil and kernels; (3) computation of the social returns to research; (4) sensitivity of returns to variations in extraction rates for both oil and kernels; (5) sensitivity of returns to research to types of supply shift; and (6) isolation of qualitative implications for public policy with respect to maximum exploitation of the economic opportunities offered by the knowledge generated by oil palm research. The author found that investments in hybrid palm research and extension are socially profitable under a wide range of conditions. The returns to research and related activities were computed and reported by periods according to the data situation and accrued, expected and total benefits over the investment.

  14. Power Africa's Beyond the Grid Increasing Access through Small...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in November 2013, of 600K in grant funding for renewable energy business models in Kenya and Nigeria. Formally launched by President Obama in June 2013, Power Africa is the...

  15. Draft January 13, (ver 12) Africas technology leap are we part of the development?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Examples are countries like South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria and Angola. A driving factor has been Brazilian, ABB, Head of Public Affairs - Sweden and Northern Europe Region "Sun-energy project Sub Saharan Africa

  16. The 2006 Naval S&T Partnership Conference is presented by NDIA with technical support from ONR The Naval Postgraduate School's Role

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Directed Energy Systems · Software Engineering · Combat System Physics · Electronic Warfare · SIGINT 1 Kenya 1 Nigeria 1 Rwanda 1 Senegal 1 Tanzania 1 Tunisia 4 11 #12;The 2006 Naval S&T Partnership

  17. Lead and other metals distribution in local cooking salt from the Fofi salt- spring in Akwana, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dim, L.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; Munyithya, J.M.; Adetunji, J. (Centre for Nuclear Science Techniques, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nairobi (Kenya))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique has been used to determine the concentrations of lead(Pb) and other heavy metals in local cooking salts (LCS) from Akwana village, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. The comparison of the distribution of these metals in LCS, fake salt (FS) and the usual common salts (CS) are given. Lead was found to be enriched in LCS by factor exceeding 200 times compared to the other salts. The origin of Pb contamination in the LCS is examined and its effects on the inhabitants of the village are considered.

  18. Integrated fault seal analysis and risk assessemt: Okan and Meren Fields, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, R.A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology, Co., La Habra, CA (United States); Brenneman, R.J. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum Co., San Ramon, CA (United States); Adepoju, A.A. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Integration of production, geochemical, seismic, well log, and structural data provides important constraints on the sealing capacity and dynamic behavior of fault juxtaposed reservoirs in Okan and Meren fields, offshore Nigeria. Correlations were found between pressure decline histories, juxtaposed fluid types, oil composition, fluid contact relationships, fault sealing/leaking condition, and estimates of the composition of the fault gouge. Fault plane sections defined reservoir juxtapositions and potential cross-fault spill points. Smear gouge ratios calculated from E-logs were used to estimate the composition of fault-gouge materials between juxtaposed reservoirs. These tools augmented interpretation of seal/nonseal character in proved reservoirs and were used to quantify fault seal risk of untested, fault-dependent closures. In the Okan Field juxtapositions of the G-, H, L-, M, and O-sands were analyzed. Smear gouge ratios correlated to fluid contact relationships and pressure decline histories within these juxtaposed reservoirs empirically calibrate sealing potential. The results of these analyses were then used to interpret production-induced fault seal breakdown within the G-sands and to risk seal integrity of fault-dependent closures within the untested 0-sands in an adjacent, upthrown fault block. Within this fault block the presence of potential fault intersection leak points and large areas of sand/sand juxtaposition with high smear gouge ratios (low sealing potential) limits column heights and potential reserves within the O-sand package. In the Meren Field the E- and G-sands are juxtaposed, on different pressure decline, geochemically distinct, and are characterized by low smear gouge ratios. In contrast, the G- and H-sands, juxtaposed across the same fault, contain similar OOWCs and are characterized by high smear gouge ratios.

  19. Reservoir compartmentalization of deep-water Intra Qua Iboe sand (Pliocene), Edop field, offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermance, W.E.; Olaifa, J.O. [Mobile Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria); Shanmugam, G. [Mobile Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integration of 3-D seismic and sedimentological information provides a basis for recognizing and mapping individual flow units within the Intra Qua Iboe (IQI) reservoir (Pliocene), Edop Field, offshore Nigeria. Core examination show the following depositional facies: A-Sandy slump/mass flow, B-Muddy slump/mass flow, C. Bottom current reworking. D-Non-channelized turbidity currents, E. Channelized (coalesced) turbidity currents. F-Channelized (isolated) turbidity currents, G-Pelagic/hemipelagic, H-Levee, I-Reworked slope, J-Wave dominated, and K-Tide dominated facies. With the exception of facies J and K, all these facies are of deep-water affinity. The IQI was deposited on an upper slope environment in close proximity to the shelf edge. Through time, as the shelf edge migrated scaward, deposition began with a channel dominated deep-water system (IQI 1 and 2) and progressed through a slump/debris flow dominated deep-water system (IQI 3, the principle reservoir) to a tide and wave dominated shallow-water system (IQI 4). Compositional and textural similarities between the deep-water facies result in similar log motifs. Furthermore, these depositional facies are not readily apparent as distinct seismic facies. Deep-water facies A, D, E, and F are reservoir facies, whereas facies B, C, G, H, and I are non-reservoir facies. However, Facies G is useful as a seismically mappable event throughout the study area. Mapping of these non-reservoir events provides the framework for understanding gross reservoir architecture. This study has resulted in seven defined reservoir units within the IQI, which serves as the architectural framework for ongoing reservoir characterization.

  20. Slump dominated upper slope reservoir facies, Intra Qua Iboe (Pliocene), Edop Field, offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugam, G. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States); Hermance, W.E.; Olaifa, J.O. [Mobil Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integration of sedimentologic and 3D seismic data provides a basis for unraveling complex depositional processes and sand distribution of the Intra Qua Iboe (IQI) reservoir (Pliocene), Edop Field, offshore Nigeria. Nearly 3,000 feet of conventional core was examined in interpreting slump/slide/debris flow, bottom current, turbidity current, pelagic/hemipelagic, wave and tide dominated facies. The IQI was deposited on an upper slope in close proximity to the shelf edge. Through time, as the shelf edge migrated seaward, deposition began with a turbidite channel dominated slope system (IQI 1 and 2) and progressed through a slump/debris flow dominated slope system (IQI 3, the principal reservoir) to a tide and wave dominated, collapsed shelf-edge deltaic system (IQI 4). Using seismic time slices and corresponding depositional facies in the core, a sandy {open_quotes}fairway{open_quotes} has been delineated in the IQI 3. Because of differences in stacking patterns of sandy and muddy slump intervals, seismic facies show: (1) both sheet-like and mounded external forms (geometries), and (2) parallel/continuous as well as chaotic/hummocky internal reflections. In wireline logs, slump facies exhibits blocky, coarsening-up, fining-up, and serrated motifs. In the absence of conventional core, slump facies may be misinterpreted and even miscorrelated because seismic facies and log motifs of slumps and debris flows tend to mimic properties of turbidite fan deposits. The slump dominated reservoir facies is composed of unconsolidated fine-grained sand. Thickness of individual units varies from 1 to 34 feet, but amalgamated intervals reach a thickness of up to 70 feet and apparently form connected sand bodies. Porosity commonly ranges from 20 to 35%. Horizontal permeability commonly ranges from 1,000 to 3,000 md.

  1. Integrated fault seal analysis and risk assessemt: Okan and Meren Fields, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, R.A. (Chevron Petroleum Technology, Co., La Habra, CA (United States)); Brenneman, R.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Co., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Adepoju, A.A. (Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integration of production, geochemical, seismic, well log, and structural data provides important constraints on the sealing capacity and dynamic behavior of fault juxtaposed reservoirs in Okan and Meren fields, offshore Nigeria. Correlations were found between pressure decline histories, juxtaposed fluid types, oil composition, fluid contact relationships, fault sealing/leaking condition, and estimates of the composition of the fault gouge. Fault plane sections defined reservoir juxtapositions and potential cross-fault spill points. Smear gouge ratios calculated from E-logs were used to estimate the composition of fault-gouge materials between juxtaposed reservoirs. These tools augmented interpretation of seal/nonseal character in proved reservoirs and were used to quantify fault seal risk of untested, fault-dependent closures. In the Okan Field juxtapositions of the G-, H, L-, M, and O-sands were analyzed. Smear gouge ratios correlated to fluid contact relationships and pressure decline histories within these juxtaposed reservoirs empirically calibrate sealing potential. The results of these analyses were then used to interpret production-induced fault seal breakdown within the G-sands and to risk seal integrity of fault-dependent closures within the untested 0-sands in an adjacent, upthrown fault block. Within this fault block the presence of potential fault intersection leak points and large areas of sand/sand juxtaposition with high smear gouge ratios (low sealing potential) limits column heights and potential reserves within the O-sand package. In the Meren Field the E- and G-sands are juxtaposed, on different pressure decline, geochemically distinct, and are characterized by low smear gouge ratios. In contrast, the G- and H-sands, juxtaposed across the same fault, contain similar OOWCs and are characterized by high smear gouge ratios.

  2. Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Compared to Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Mumbi, Maina

    2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion of"productive use" is often invoked in discussions about whether new technologies improve productivity or otherwise enhance commerce in developing-country contexts. It an elusive concept,especially when quantitative measures are sought. Improved and more energy efficient illumination systems for off-gridapplication--the focus of the Lumina Project--provide a case in which a significant productivity benefit can be imagined, given the importance of light to the successful performance of many tasks, and the very low quality of baseline illumination provided by flame-based source. This Research Note summarizes self-reported quantitative and qualitative impacts of switching to LED lighting technology on the prosperity of night-market business owners and operators. The information was gathered in the context of our 2008 market testing field work in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province, which was performed in the towns of Maai Mahiu and Karagita by Arne Jacobson, Kristen Radecsky, Peter Johnstone, Maina Mumbi, and others. Maai Mahiu is a crossroads town; provision of services to travelers and freight carriers is a primary income source for the residents. In contrast, the primary income for Karagita's residents is from work in the large, factory style flower farms on the eastern shores of Lake Naivasha that specialize in producing cut flowers for export to the European market. According to residents, both towns had populations of 6,000 to 8,000 people in June 2008. We focused on quantifying the economics of fuel-based and LED lighting technology in the context of business use by night market vendors and shop keepers. Our research activities with the business owners and operators included baseline measurement of their fuel-based lighting use, an initial survey, offering for sale data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring the adoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.

  3. Biotechnology research in Nigeria: A socio-economic analysis of the organication of agricultural research system's response to biotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duru, G.C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many agricultural development experts and social scientists argue that a lack of appropriate technology was a limiting factor in the efforts by developing countries to expand their agricultural productivity. Biotechnology is now advanced as a technology that could meet these needs. Agricultural and social scientists maintain that the new biotechnology, if realistically applied, could assist a developing nation such as Nigeria to solve its agricultural problems. But one concern is the private character of biotechnology which limits its transferability to the LDCs. This situation will impose unusual constraints on national agricultural development programs and increase dependence if national research capability is weak. The basic finding of this field research was that the Nigerian national agricultural research system was weak, which meant that the potentials and promises of biotechnology will elude the country's desire to improve its agriculture in the immediate future. The primary weakness rested in inadequate funding and infrastructural deficiencies.

  4. Kenya's New Constitution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramon, Eric

    On 4 August 2010, Kenyans voted to adopt a new constitution, culminating a process that began as part of a resolution to the violent conflict that followed the December 2007 elections. By reducing executive power, devolving ...

  5. 3-D visualisation and interpretation of seismic attributes extracted from large 3-D seismic datasets: Subregional and prospect evaluation, deepwater Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sola, M.; Haakon Nordby, L.; Dailey, D.V.; Duncan, E.A. [BP and Statoil Alliance, Stavanger (Norway)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution 3-D visualization of horizon interpretation and seismic attributes from large 3-D seismic surveys in deepwater Nigeria has greatly enhanced the exploration team`s ability to quickly recognize prospective segments of subregional and prospect specific scale areas. Integrated workstation generated structure, isopach and extracted horizon consistent, interval and windowed attributes are particularly useful in illustrating the complex structural and stratigraphical prospectivity of deepwater Nigeria. Large 3-D seismic volumes acquired over 750 square kilometers can be manipulated within the visualization system with attribute tracking capability that allows for real time data interrogation and interpretation. As in classical seismic stratigraphic studies, pattern recognition is fundamental to effective depositions facies interpretation and reservoir model construction. The 3-D perspective enhances the data interpretation through clear representation of relative scale, spatial distribution and magnitude of attributes. In deepwater Nigeria, many prospective traps rely on an interplay between syndepositional structure and slope turbidite depositional systems. Reservoir systems in many prospects appear to be dominated by unconfined to moderately focused slope feeder channel facies. These units have spatially complex facies architecture with feeder channel axes separated by extensive interchannel areas. Structural culminations generally have a history of initial compressional folding with late in extensional collapse and accommodation faulting. The resulting complex trap configurations often have stacked reservoirs over intervals as thick as 1500 meters. Exploration, appraisal and development scenarios in these settings can be optimized by taking full advantage of integrating high resolution 3-D visualization and seismic workstation interpretation.

  6. 3-D visualisation and interpretation of seismic attributes extracted from large 3-D seismic datasets: Subregional and prospect evaluation, deepwater Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sola, M.; Haakon Nordby, L.; Dailey, D.V.; Duncan, E.A. (BP and Statoil Alliance, Stavanger (Norway))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution 3-D visualization of horizon interpretation and seismic attributes from large 3-D seismic surveys in deepwater Nigeria has greatly enhanced the exploration team's ability to quickly recognize prospective segments of subregional and prospect specific scale areas. Integrated workstation generated structure, isopach and extracted horizon consistent, interval and windowed attributes are particularly useful in illustrating the complex structural and stratigraphical prospectivity of deepwater Nigeria. Large 3-D seismic volumes acquired over 750 square kilometers can be manipulated within the visualization system with attribute tracking capability that allows for real time data interrogation and interpretation. As in classical seismic stratigraphic studies, pattern recognition is fundamental to effective depositions facies interpretation and reservoir model construction. The 3-D perspective enhances the data interpretation through clear representation of relative scale, spatial distribution and magnitude of attributes. In deepwater Nigeria, many prospective traps rely on an interplay between syndepositional structure and slope turbidite depositional systems. Reservoir systems in many prospects appear to be dominated by unconfined to moderately focused slope feeder channel facies. These units have spatially complex facies architecture with feeder channel axes separated by extensive interchannel areas. Structural culminations generally have a history of initial compressional folding with late in extensional collapse and accommodation faulting. The resulting complex trap configurations often have stacked reservoirs over intervals as thick as 1500 meters. Exploration, appraisal and development scenarios in these settings can be optimized by taking full advantage of integrating high resolution 3-D visualization and seismic workstation interpretation.

  7. Application of an inverse method for calculating three-dimensional fault geometries and clip vectors, Nun River Field, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, H.G.; White, N. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general, automatic method for determining the three-dimensional geometry of a normal fault of any shape and size is applied to a three-dimensional seismic reflection data set from the Nun River field, Nigeria. In addition to calculating fault geometry, the method also automatically retrieves the extension direction without requiring any previous information about either the fault shape or the extension direction. Solutions are found by minimizing the misfit between sets of faults that are calculated from the observed geometries of two or more hanging-wall beds. In the example discussed here, the predicted fault surface is in excellent agreement with the shape of the seismically imaged fault. Although the calculated extension direction is oblique to the average strike of the fault, the value of this parameter is not well resolved. Our approach differs markedly from standard section-balancing models in two important ways. First, we do not assume that the extension direction is known, and second, the use of inverse theory ensures that formal confidence bounds can be determined for calculated fault geometries. This ability has important implications for a range of geological problems encountered at both exploration and production scales. In particular, once the three-dimensional displacement field has been constrained, the difficult but important problem of three-dimensional palinspastic restoration of hanging-wall structures becomes tractable.

  8. The use of exploration 3D seismic data to optimise oil exploration in OPL 210 deepwater, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.C.; Lilletveit, R.; Sandvoll, T. [Statoil and BP Alliance, Stavanger (Norway)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Allied Energy and the Statoil and BP Alliance are currently partners in the OPL 210 license, in deepwater Nigeria. The license has a 5 year initial exploration phase which carries a two well commitment. To optimize the location of these wells in this challenging and costly drilling environment the partnership has decided to acquire extensive exploration 3D seismic data within the block. Interpretation of the first of two planned 3D surveys has led to a much clearer understanding of: (a) The structural segmentation of the prospect and thus a clearer idea of the likely hydrocarbon pool size. (b) The distribution of amplitude anomalies and thus, hopefully, a superior understanding of reservoir distribution and hydrocarbons. Here the limiting factor is clearly the lack of deepwater geophysical calibration, due to the absence of wells. Consequently, conclusions at this stage, are qualitative either than quantative. Combined with detailed seismic stratigraphic and high tech geophysical analysis, these two aspects will assist in the highgrading of segments in the prospect, prior to final decisions on the well locations. The first well, planned for 1995, will be one of the first wells drilled in the Nigerian deepwater area. Examples of both 2D and 3D data will be used to demonstrate the above and some of the first well results will be integrated into our interpretation to highlight how some of our perceptions may have changed.

  9. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  10. Comparative analysis of Nigerian international oil marketing model (NIOMM) and the models of four selected OPEC members; and a proposed new model for Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Udeke, O.O.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrates that NIOMM has deficiencies and, as a result, has affected the progress of Nigeria's political and socio-economic development. One finding is that Nigeria is beset with ineffective planning, lack of marketing expertise, and inadequate marketing strategies. Other findings show that: (1) the Nigerian oil industry (HOI) is suffering from mismanagement stemming from corruption, tribalism, Federal Character Policy, and lack of dedication and patriotism by the Nigerian workers; (2) there is inefficiency in the Nigerian national petroleum corporation (NNPC) but, at the same time, the inefficiency is partly because of the government policies, conflicts, interference by high government officials and politicians, and the enormous size of the oil industry; (3) oil revenues are improperly utilized; (4) neither the multinational oil corporations (MNOCs) nor multinational corporations (MNCs) are assisting the oil producing nations (OPNs) or developing countries (DCs) in their economic development, and MNOCs and MNCs are interested in profit maximization; and (5) MNCs do not transfer the type of technology that meets the needs of DCs, and sometimes the technology creates problems for DCs which ultimately results into conflicts between MNCs and DCs. The inverse of these problems has been a sine qua non for success in the IOMMs of the four OPEC member, especially in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Material flows of mobile phones and accessories in Nigeria: Environmental implications and sound end-of-life management options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osibanjo, Oladele [Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)], E-mail: osibanjo@baselnigeria.org; Nnorom, Innocent Chidi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University Uturu (Nigeria)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Presently, Nigeria is one of the fastest growing Telecom markets in the world. The country's teledensity increased from a mere 0.4 in 1999 to 10 in 2005 following the liberalization of the Telecom sector in 2001. More than 25 million new digital mobile lines have been connected by June 2006. Large quantities of mobile phones and accessories including secondhand and remanufactured products are being imported to meet the pent-up demand. This improvement in mobile telecom services resulted in the preference of mobile telecom services to fixed lines. Consequently, the contribution of fixed lines decreased from about 95% in year 2000 to less than 10% in March 2005. This phenomenal progress in information technology has resulted in the generation of large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) in the country. Abandoned fixed line telephone sets estimated at 120,000 units are either disposed or stockpiled. Increasing quantities of waste mobile phones estimated at 8 million units by 2007, and accessories will be generated. With no material recovery facility for e-waste and/or appropriate solid waste management infrastructure in place, these waste materials end up in open dumps and unlined landfills. These practices create the potential for the release of toxic metals and halocarbons from batteries, printed wiring boards, liquid crystal display and plastic housing units. This paper presents an overview of the developments in the Nigerian Telecom sector, the material in-flow of mobile phones, and the implications of the management practices for wastes from the Telecom sector in the country.

  12. Concentrations of trace and other elements in the organs of wild rats and birds from the Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapu, M.M.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States)); Akanya, H.O. (Federal Univ. of Technology, Minna (Nigeria)); Ega, R.A.; Olofu, E.O.; Balarabe, M.L. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)); Chafe, U.M. (Usmanu Danfodiyo Univ., Sokota (Nigeria))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In regions of human activities, where metal enter local aquatic ecosystems from the atmosphere and through wastewater outfalls, metal concentrations in food chains can exceed natural background levels and be above the threshold levels for sensitive species. Accordingly, metal levels in the organs and tissues of livestock and wildlife have been extensively studied. However, there are no reports of metal concentrations in the organs and tissues of wild animals from the Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. The mole rat (Africanthus niloticus, L) and village weaver bird (Ploceus cucullatus, L) contribute significantly to farm crop losses from sowing to harvest. Because there are no industries capable of causing metal contamination in the study area, the present study was undertaken to determine the natural baseline levels of metals for wild rats and birds from this environment.

  13. Zero Order Draft Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN) Summary for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Zero Order Draft Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN) Summary for Policymakers Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. 5-8 May 2011. #12;Final Plenary Special Report Renewable Energy Sources), Christoph von Stechow (Germany), Aviel Verbruggen (Belgium), Kevin Urama (Kenya/Nigeria), Ryan Wiser (USA

  14. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  15. Charles N. Rotimi, PhD Director: Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Sites Charles Rotimi - crggh.nih.gov Africa: 1)Nigeria 2)Ghana 3) Kenya 4) Ethiopia China: Suizhou Era Charles Rotimi - crggh.nih.gov #12;http://crggh.nih.gov The mission of the Center for Research Charles Rotimi - crggh.nih.gov #12;· Addressing social factors that contribute to health disparities

  16. Impact of 3-D seismic data on the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture development drilling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quam, S. (Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lagos (Nigeria))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture has been acquiring three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data over its concessions since 1984. To date, 1700 km[sup 2] have been recorded and processed at a cumulative cost of US $39 million. During 1991 - 1992, 20 development wells were drilled based directly on new 3-D seismic interpretations. These wells have added 148 million bbl of oil in new recoverable reserves, and to date have added 37,000 bbl/day to the joint venture's production. In addition, the 3-D interpretations have resulted in a sizable inventory of wells for future development drilling. The new 3-D interpretations provided more accurate pictures of fault patterns, fluid contacts, channel trends, stratigraphic continuity, and velocity/amplitude anomalies. In addition, the 3-D data were invaluable in designing low risk, directional well trajectories to tap relatively thin oil legs under large gas caps. Wells often were programmed to hit several objectives at their respective gas/oil contacts, resulting in maximized net oil sand pays and reducing the risk of gas production. In order to do this, directional [open quotes]sharpshooting,[close quotes] accurate depth conversion of the seismic time maps, was critical. By using the 3-D seismic, checkshot, and sonic data to develop a variable velocity space, well-top prognoses within 50 ft at depths of 6,000-10,000 ft were possible, and were key to the success of the program. As the joint venture acreage becomes more mature, development wells will be drilled for smaller numbers of stacked objectives, and sometimes for single sands. Highly accurate 3-D interpretations and depth conversions will become even more critical in order to tap thinner pay zones in a cost-effect manner.

  17. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  18. Nigeria`s oil production behavior: Tests of alternative hypotheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awokuse, T.O.; Jones, C.T.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The sudden quadrupling of world oil prices in 1973-1974 marked the beginning of several formal inquiries by economists into the production behavior of members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Interest in the organization was further heightened in 1979 when nominal oil prices further doubled. However, oil market analysts have differed in their evaluation of OPEC`s role in the determination of world oil prices. Most energy economists have modeled OPEC as a cartel. Morris Adelman has suggested that OPEC`s true nature lies somewhere between two polar cases of a dominant-firm industry and an imperfect, market-sharing cartel. In the former case, one large, dominant firm (i.e., Saudi Arabia) serves as the {open_quotes}swing producer,{close_quotes} allowing other cartel members and non-OPEC oil producers to produce whatever they wished, controlling the market price by itself through its own output adjustments. The latter case of an imperfect market-sharing cartel is a loose collusive arrangement in which all members agree on an acceptable price level and individual output shares for each producer. Adelman believes that OPEC wobbles between these two cases, depending upon market conditions.

  19. Horticultural marketing in Kenya: conduct and performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutoka, Dickson Teyie

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption points) trade showed more efficiency. Large scale merchandizing, good road linkage and better information flow were credited for the better performance. This was in contrast with the rural wholesale trade which is characterized by poor roads... services like the establishment of standards in the trade and a market information system were also recommended Recommendations to improve the situation emphasized developments that will reduce the cost of collecting produce from widely dispersed areas...

  20. Commercial Law and Development in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutunga, Willy

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    communalism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism and communism.the ruins of British feudalism . The bourgeoisie thereafterof commercial law. While under feudalism it had functioned

  1. Campaigns and ethnic polarization in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Jeremy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electricity, and water Table 4.3 Performance Messages (percentages) PNU ODM pos neg pos neg Education

  2. Kenya-DLR Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa:Washington: Energy ResourcesAerospace Center (DLR) Sector

  3. Kenya-GEF Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,Kas FarmssourceGEF Projects

  4. Nairobi, Kenya: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLu anMicrogreenMoonNASA/AmesNS Solar05 JumpNYSEGNageNahar

  5. Kenya: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl

  6. Brandeis University International Student & Scholar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    India 69 India 22 Saudi Arabia 27 Canada 13 Taiwan 24 Israel 12 Israel 18 Vietnam 10 Nigeria 16 Turkey 8/Kenya/Spain/Thailand/Venezuela 4 Pakistan 11 Top 10 Countries for Scholars P.R. China 49 India 26 Israel 20 Germany 17 Canada 13/Television/Interactive Media 1 1 Finance 64 23 87 Genetic Counseling 3 3 General Studies/Undeclared 282 1 283 Health Policy

  7. Abidjan, CĂ´te d'Ivoire: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind6:00-06:00 U.S.ratiosAbernathy, Texas: EnergyAbidjan,

  8. Dictators, democrats, and development in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeVan, Arthur Carl

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Senate in May 2005. U.S. Representative John Conyers, Jr. (passed by the House of Representatives in 2004 and by theensure that policy making is representative of the country’s

  9. The State and Rural Development in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nwosu, Nereus I.A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to benefit from rural electrification programme. The BenueInspection Team on rural electrification, Professor Nduka to

  10. U.S. LNG Imports from Nigeria

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX El Paso, TX Galvan Ranch, TX Hidalgo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX LNG Imports from Algeria Cove Point, MD Everett, MA Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from...

  11. Now Nigeria looked at fiscal terms, prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofurhie, M.A.; Amaechi, M.C.; Idowu, A.O. (Nigerian National Petroleum Corp., Lagos (NG))

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The allocation of funds among investment possibilities must of necessity include evaluation and ranking of alternatives. An essential prerequisite is a geophysical/geological evaluation followed by a reservoir/production analysis resulting in the prediction of recoverable reserves, reservoir performance, optimum method of development, and initial offtake return. An economic model of a typical Niger delta medium cost field with reserves of about 100 million bbl of oil under the royalty/tax system reveals that it is difficult to develop such a field when located offshore. This paper examines case histories involving smaller and larger field developments.

  12. U.S. LNG Imports from Nigeria

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayNov-14 Dec-147-2015 Liquefied Natural

  13. Wedotebary Nigeria Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmweltVillageGraph HomeWaranaWaterEnergy

  14. Clonal population structure and genetic diversity of Candida albicans in AIDS patients from Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4, A), G7 (1, B) G3 (5, A) G8 (5, A) G9 (1, A), G10 (1, A),KTZ NYS AMB AMB G7 (5, B) G8 (5, A) G18 (5, A) G19 (5, A)Aat Fk G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 G11 G12 G13 G14 G15

  15. Antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with advanced HIV disease and pregnancy outcomes in Abidjan, Cte d'Ivoire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs (ICAP), Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia head: Maternal HAART and pregnancy outcomes * Article HALAuthormanuscriptinserm-00285869,version1inserm Becquet was a fellow of the French Ministry of Education, Research and Technology and is now funded

  16. WHO Technical Manual on Tobacco Tax Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, New Zealand, Papua Newonly Gambia Ghana Kenya Kyrgyzstan Malawi Nepal Papua New

  17. Vascular plant flora of Kiboko Range Research Station, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ndiang'ui, Ndegwa Wa

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . They are generally referred to as Regosol. (2) Soils of Lava Flows These include both Lithosols and rock-outcrops. They tend to be well drained, very shallow, black to very dark greyish brown, stony to very rocky. Some areas also have silty clay derived from... developed on olivine basalt and include the chromic vertisols that are imperfectly drained, very deep, dark grey, firm, cracking, and moderately calcareous silty clay to clay. These form the floodplain along the Greater Kiboko River Basin, which...

  18. Post-Independence Literature of Kenya and Uganda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hower, Edward

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND UGANDA by Edward Hower The Experience of Independence InNovember, 1960) KA~ I EDWARD HOWER is a g~aduate student in

  19. Epidemiology of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in western Kenya 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Lian Francesca

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic helminth which is thought to be one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium cysticercosis infections in pigs and humans and human taeniasis were diagnosed ...

  20. Design and field testing of a Savonius windpump in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalera, A.; Kammen, D.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One important means of improving water availability and reducing disease exposure from polluted or stagnant sources involves the design and diffusion of inexpensive and reliable water pumps. Modernized versions of the decades-old Savonius vertical axis windmill present one technology that can play an important role in this effort. To be successful, these systems must be tailored to exploit the local wind and hydrological resources, constructed and managed locally, and inexpensive to operate and maintain. We report here on our design efforts and cooperative field research with several Kenyan development organizations. Performance tests from 10-15 meter deep water pumping applications at two field sites are presented, as well as preliminary results of an analysis of the steps involved in disseminating such technology. Our research suggests that the combination of reliability and performance offered by the Savonius design make it a useful resource for community managed energy initiatives, particularly in developing nation settings.

  1. A dynamic model of industrial energy demand in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haji, S.H.H. [Gothenburg Univ. (Sweden)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyses the effects of input price movements, technology changes, capacity utilization and dynamic mechanisms on energy demand structures in the Kenyan industry. This is done with the help of a variant of the second generation dynamic factor demand (econometric) model. This interrelated disequilibrium dynamic input demand econometric model is based on a long-term cost function representing production function possibilities and takes into account the asymmetry between variable inputs (electricity, other-fuels and Tabour) and quasi-fixed input (capital) by imposing restrictions on the adjustment process. Variations in capacity utilization and slow substitution process invoked by the relative input price movement justifies the nature of input demand disequilibrium. The model is estimated on two ISIS digit Kenyan industry time series data (1961 - 1988) using the Iterative Zellner generalized least square method. 31 refs., 8 tabs.

  2. Electrical resistivity investigations at the Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhogal, P.S.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bipole-dipole, Schlumberger and in line dipole-dipole electrical resistivity configurations were used to delineate the Olkaria geothermal reservoir with the view to site boreholes for the production of electric power using the geopressurized hot water. The dipole-dipole resistivity data provided the least ambiguous and most usable data for assessing the resource. Deep drilling into two of the anomalies outlined by this survey has proved the existence of high-temperature reservoirs and a 15MW power station is under construction.

  3. Barriers to Electrification for "Under Grid" Households in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the unelectrified are “off grid,” or too far away toand small, stand-alone off-grid solutions will be requiredgrowing support for off-grid, distributed energy approaches,

  4. Barriers to Electrification for "Under Grid" Households in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    small, stand-alone off-grid solutions will be required forand commercialize off-grid solutions that can provide ruralof organizations promote off-grid solutions—such as solar

  5. Slum upgrading in India and Kenya: investigating the sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Victoria Louise Molly

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    I – Government of India HUDCO – Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited IoG – Institute of Governance JNNURM – Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission KP – Kamgar Putla LDCs – Least Developed Countries MASHAL – Maharashtra Area Social... -up approaches. The case studies are of varying ages and were implemented via partnerships with differing agents including government, NGO, CBO, private developer and donors. The influence and design of the delivery model upon the upgrading sustainability...

  6. ENERGY DEMAND AND CONSERVATION IN KENYA: INITIAL APPRAISAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Railway Corp, from heavy fuel oil to lighter diesel oil,NAIROBI FUEL OIL DIESEL OIL (HEAVY) If GAS OIL (LIGHT MOTOROil Crude & Prod. , Stock 15800 Net Kerosene LPG (Cylinders) Prem I Heavy :!!?

  7. Barriers to Electrification for "Under Grid" Households in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefits most from rural electrification? Evidence in India.The Effects of Rural Electrification on Employment: NewSpatial Impact of the Rural Electrification Administration

  8. The So-Called National Bourgeoisie in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Horace

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ primitive camumism, slavery, feudalism and capitalism wasrot based on slavery or feudalism. This characterisation

  9. Surrogates for Government? NGOs and the State in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brass, Jennifer Naomi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    writing from New Public Management in public administration,scholars writings from the New Public Management in public1998) or public management – certainly not a new phenomenon.

  10. Background Paper: Politics and Interactive Media in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitullah, Winnie V.; Mudhai, Okoth Fred; Mwangi, Sammy

    2015-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    with Safaricom. Any CSP intending to relay a political message was required to wait for 48 hours for Safaricom to vet the content of message to ensure compliance with CCK guidelines. While CCK guidelines are more categorical on political messages and hate...

  11. Kenya Becoming a Geothermal Powerhouse | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa:Washington: Energy Resources JumpKentwood,Becoming a

  12. Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa:Washington: Energy ResourcesAerospace Center (DLR)

  13. Kenya-Climate Technology Initiative Private Financing Advisory Network (CTI

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,Kas Farmssource HistoryKenworth

  14. Kenya-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,Kas Farmssource

  15. Kenya-Standard Assessment of Mitigation Potential and Livelihoods in

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,Kas FarmssourceGEF Projects(SREP) |

  16. Kenya-World Bank Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,Kas FarmssourceGEF Projects(SREP)

  17. Kenya-Capital Markets Climate Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl Jump to:KentuckyEnergyForum

  18. Kenya-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl Jump

  19. Kenya-LEDS Tier I Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl Jump

  20. Kenya-UNDP Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl JumpOpen EnergyOpenUN

  1. Kenya-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl JumpOpen

  2. Kenya-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl JumpOpenInformation

  3. Drowning out the Silence: Nigerian Civil War Literature and the Politics of Gender-Based Violence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hancock, Lynn

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UNDP). Abuja, Nigeria. Nigeria Human Development Report (Programme (UNDP). Abuja, Nigeria. Akinfolarin, W. A. (and the dearth of books in Nigeria. Publishing Research

  4. Essays in Open Economy Monetary Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro, Pedro

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costa Rica Cote dIvoire Croatia Jordan Denmark KazakhstanCosta Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Denmark Dominican RepublicArgentina China Costa Rica Croatia Egypt India Jordan

  5. International reserves management and the current account

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Republic of Côte d'Ivoire Croatia Dominica Ecuador EritreaBotswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominicaof Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic

  6. abidjan cote divoire: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    768 OMAN 2 COLOMBIA 78 PAKISTAN 95 COSTA RICA 16 PANAMA 23 COTE D'IVOIRE Y3 PARAGUA 1 CROATIA 5 PAKISTAN 5 COLOMBIA 5 162 PANAMA COSTA RICA 10 PARAGUAY 1 COTE D'IVOIRE 12 PERU 0...

  7. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea (DPRK) Korea (Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea (DPRK) Korea (Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea (DPRK) Korea (

  8. Essays on International Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cravino, Javier Pablo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Italy Japan Kenya Korea Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania MalawiItaly Japan Kenya Korea Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Malawi

  9. Acceptability of formula-feeding to prevent HIV postnatal transmission, Abidjan, Cte d'Ivoire, 01-04: ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame-Plus Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Acceptability of formula-feeding to prevent HIV postnatal transmission, Abidjan, Côte d: Acceptability of formula feeding in Africa inserm-00177042,version1-13Jun2008 #12;3 Abstract Objective: To describe the maternal acceptability of formula-feeding proposed to reduce postnatal HIV transmission

  10. Sequence stratigraphy of Niger Delta, Delta field, offshore Nigeria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owoyemi, Ajibola Olaoluwa

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Niger Delta clastic wedge formed along the West Africa passive margin. This wedge has been divided into three formations that reflect long-term progradation: 1) pro-delta shales of the Akata Formation (Paleocene to Recent), 2) deltaic...

  11. Sequence stratigraphy of Niger Delta, Robertkiri field, onshore Nigeria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magbagbeola, Olusola Akintayo

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    progress upward from fine-grained prodelta and deep water shales of the Akata Formation through paralic sandstone-shale units of the Agbada Formation and finally to sandy non-marine deposits of the Benin Formation. The Agbada Formation is divided into six...

  12. The Currency of Revolution in Southern Nigeria: 1880-1948

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibekwe Ofonagoro, Walter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    may be gained from the stock-taking exercises effected byTreasury. The first stock-taking on March 2.2, 1880,Chilean dollars A second stock-taking on April 28, 1880,

  13. angola iran nigeria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the Question of Street Politics Illinois at Chicago, University of 12 Angola Croatia Iceland Nepal Sri Lanka Antigua & Barbuda Cuba India Netherlands St. Kitts & Nevis...

  14. anambra state nigeria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    study area. Results revealed that the axes of maximum electrical anisotropy correlated well with the measured strikes of the geologic formations and the azimuth-frequency...

  15. Sequence stratigraphic framework of Neogene strata in offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacht, J.A. [Seis Strat Services, Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States); Bowen, B.E.; Hall, D.J. [Excalibur Consulting, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The western portion of the Nigerian continental margin (Dahomey Basin) exhibits stable to moderately unstable progradation. Systems tracts are similar to those described by Vail for stable progradational margins. In contrast, strata off the central and eastern portions of the Nigerian coast (Niger Delta Complex) exhibit highly unstable progradation, and systems tracts are similar to those in Neogene strata of the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Lowstand basin floor fans in both areas are defined by a well-developed upper reflection. This reflection downlaps along the sequence boundary or abuts against the downthrown side of a growth fault surface. Most lower lowstand (slope fan) strata exhibit discontinuous to semi-continuous subparallel reflections. However, this systems tract also contains channel complexes characterized by chaotic bedding with small bright spots and less common large channels, which exhibit concave-upward reflections. In the western portion of the study area, lower lowstand deposits commonly pinch out on the slope. Deposition occurred largely from point sources. In contrast, contemporaneous shallow-water facies are developed in lower lowstand systems tracts in the Niger Delta Complex. Deposition occurred along a line source. Large amplitude anomalies in the upper lowstand (prograding wedge) suggest well-developed sheet sands occur in shallow-water and deep-water in the Niger Delta complex. However, in the Dahomey Basin there is little evidence of deep-water sands in this interval. The transgressive and highstand systems tracts are usually very thin in outer shelf to basin floor strata in both areas. Both the Dahomey Basin and Niger Delta Complex exhibit different stratigraphic geometries, and therefore, require different exploration strategies.

  16. The secondary recovery project at Ogharefe Field, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aron, D.; Ashbourne, T.J.; Oloketuyi, D.O.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary recovery project involving water injection and gas-lift facilities was installed in the Ogharefe field in 1979 following detailed reservoir simulation studies. Two years' operation provides the opportunity to discuss the progress of the project so far.

  17. City design and social exclusion : Abuja, Nigeria in review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebo, Ifeoma Nkemdilim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigation explores the relationship between city design and social exclusion, and more specifically, how modernist principles of urban design and development policy have contributed to social exclusion in ...

  18. Analysis of solar radiation data for Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuye, A. (Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria)); Jagtap, S.S. (International Inst. of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The data on global irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Port Harcourt during the 13-year period 1977-1989 are analyzed and shown to vary with the climatic changes of the year. The range of variation is found to be greatest in August. Based on the calculated average monthly clearness index values only five seasonal patterns are identified for Port Harcourt. The percentage of days with duration of sunshine less than 1.5 h is 28.3% while that greater than 9 h is 4.3%. The Angstrom type of regression model relating total global irradiation to sunshine duration has been found to be reasonably adequate only if long-term average monthly values are used.

  19. Heavy metal distribution in sediments from Calabar River, southeastern Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ntekim, E.E.U.; Ekwere, S.J.; Ukpong, E.E. [Univ. of Calabar (Nigeria)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration and areal distribution of selected metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Fe, and Cr) in the sediments of the Calabar River were studied to determine the extent of anthropogenic input and to estimate the effects of dumping industrial waste materials into the river. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu indicate relatively moderate pollution mainly on the left-hand side of the river while Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, and Fe levels are below values found to have adverse effects on the lives of marine biota. High metal contents are found close to industrial establishments and so enhanced metal concentrations are related to industrial sewage and metal leaching from garbage and solid waste dumps. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Biodiesel as an Alternative Energy Resource in Southwest Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajide O. O

    The Nigerian state faces unique issues that may provide an opportunity for rural economic growth. One of such is that major urban areas in the southwest of the country are beginning to have population increase and hence air quality problems that will require actions to reduce sources of pollution. One major pollution source is from exhaust emissions from cars and trucks. The use of alternative fuel sources such as biodiesel can make a significant reduction in certain exhaust emissions thus reducing pollution and improving air quality. The opportunity for economic growth in a single product economy like ours could lie in the processing of soybean oil and other suitable feedstocks produced within the country into biodiesel. The new fuel can be used by vehicles traversing the country thus reduce air pollution and providing another market for agricultural feedstocks while creating a value added market for animal fats and spent oils from industrial facilities. The benefits of biodiesel go far beyond the clean burning nature of the product. Bio diesel is a renewable resource helping to reduce the dependence of the economy on limited resources and imports, create a market for farmers and reduce the amount of waste oil, fat and grease being dumped into landfills and sewers.

  1. Maa-Bara : catalyzing change in Nigeria's Niger delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okiomah, Ogheneruno E. (Ogheneruno Elo)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Can architecture catalyze economic growth? This thesis serves as a design contribution to the war against poverty by proving that small-scale architectural interventions can propagate large-scale economic growth. It ...

  2. Sequence stratigraphy of Niger Delta, Delta field, offshore Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owoyemi, Ajibola Olaoluwa

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Niger Delta clastic wedge formed along the West Africa passive margin. This wedge has been divided into three formations that reflect long-term progradation: 1) pro-delta shales of the Akata Formation (Paleocene to Recent), 2) deltaic...

  3. Petroleum geology of Benue trough and southeastern Chad basin, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petters, S.W.; Ekweozor, C.M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cretaceous cyclic sedimentation in the southern Benue trough, together with unconformities, provide a tripartite subdivision of the sedimentary succession into (1) the Albian Asu River Group, (2) the late Cenomanian to early Santonian Cross River Group (new name) and interfingering marginal marine sandstones, and (3) the post-Santonian coal measures sequence. Most of the Albian to Eocene marine shales in the Benue trough and the Turonian shales in the southern Chad basin contain well over 0.5% total organic carbon, with values of up to 7.4% in Turonian anaerobic shales. Based on the high content of soluble organic matter, thermal maturity, and the predominantly terrigenous character of the Late Cretaceous shales, mostly natural gas was probably generated in both basins. The late Santonian folding and uplift would have disrupted petroleum reservoirs. Also, crude oil accumulations which were not dissipated by tectonism would be relocated at relatively shallow depths and hence become accessible to invading meteoric waters.

  4. The secondary recovery project at the Ogharefe Field, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aron, D.; Ashbourne, T.J.; Oloketuyi, D.O.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary recovery project involving water injection and gas lift facilities was installed in the Ogharefe Field in 1979 following detailed reservoir simulation studies. Two years of operation provide the opportunity to discuss the progress of the project so far.

  5. arab jamahiriya nigeria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    renewable energy policy in hydrocarbons-wealthy Arab states. Integrating elements of energy policy analysis, Middle Eastern studies and sociotechnical governance theory, the...

  6. Sequence stratigraphy of Niger Delta, Robertkiri field, onshore Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magbagbeola, Olusola Akintayo

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    progress upward from fine-grained prodelta and deep water shales of the Akata Formation through paralic sandstone-shale units of the Agbada Formation and finally to sandy non-marine deposits of the Benin Formation. The Agbada Formation is divided into six...

  7. area southwestern nigeria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    globally concentrations in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon basin Trent Wade Biggs,1 Thomas Dunne,2 Tomas Ferreira in the wet season in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon...

  8. MHK Projects/Akwanga Nigeria SHP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: EnergyMAREC Jump to:2MHKMHKMHKReturn

  9. MHK Projects/Akwanga Nigeria SHP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: EnergyMAREC Jump to:2MHKMHKMHKReturn

  10. Nigeria-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcerns Jump to:Neppelsource History

  11. Nigeria-Climate Technology Initiative Private Financing Advisory Network

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcerns Jump to:Neppelsource History(CTI PFAN) | Open Energy

  12. Une haie-vive : qu'est-ce que c'est ? Une haie est compose de buissons,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nord de la Cote d'Ivoire D.Louppe Créer une haie vive Principales espèces concernées Actuellement, les haies concernent essentiellement les zones de savanes du Nord de la Côte d'Ivoire où il peut y avoir des. En Côte d'Ivoire, on multiplie aisément les espèces suivantes : Erythrina senegalensis, Euphorbia

  13. Chinua Achebe. There Was a Country

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milstein, Emily

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the state of affairs in present day Nigeria, for what heperceives to be Nigeria’ s rampant cor- ruption, poorhis own prescription for Nigeria’s ills and ends the book on

  14. Slide07 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Algeria Australia Argentina Botswana Brazil Burkina Faso Cameroon Canada Chile Colombia Congo, DR Cote d'Ivoire Denmark Egypt Finland France Germany Ghana India Japan...

  15. A performance study of ceramic candle filters in Kenya including tests for coliphage removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz, Amber, 1982-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 80% of all diseases in the developing world are caused by contaminated water (GDRC, 1999). In response to this crisis, decentralized point-of-use systems, such as ceramic candle filters, have emerged as viable ...

  16. Toward Open Source Kenya: Creating and Sharing a GIS Database of Nairobi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcello, Elizabeth

    To make good decisions about the future direction of cities we need data to contextualize and make recommendations that are based on past results and potential models for the future. Yet access to information including ...

  17. Essays on Dynamics of Cattle Prices in Three Developing Countries of Mali, Kenya, and Tanzania 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bizimana, Jean-Claude

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the growing agricultural subsectors in developing countries is livestock. Livestock and livestock products account for a third of the agricultural gross output. However, the lack of viable livestock market information systems to increase...

  18. Estimating the above-ground biomass of mangrove forests in Kenya 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Rachel

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Robust estimates of forest above-ground biomass (AGB) are needed in order to constrain the uncertainty in regional and global carbon budgets, predictions of global climate change and remote sensing efforts to monitor ...

  19. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we performed a market trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, arural Kenyan town. Our goals were to assess consumer demand and consumer preferences with respect to off-grid lighting systems and to gain feedback from off-grid lighting users at the point of purchase and after they have used to products for some time.

  20. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

  1. Results of injection and tracer tests in Olkaria north east field in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karingithi, C.W. [Kenya Power Company Ltd., Naivasha (Kenya)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracer and injection tests were performed in the Olkaria North East Field with the objective to reduce uncertainty in the engineering design and to determine the suitability of well OW-704 as a re-injection well for the waste brine from the steam field during production. An organic dye (sodium fluorescein) was injected into well OW-704 as a slug. The tracer returns were observed in well OW-M2 which is 580 m deep, 620 m from well OW-704 and well OW-716 which is 900 m from well OW-704. The other wells on discharge, OW-714, and OW-725 did not show any tracer returns. However, other chemical constituents suggested., that well OW-716 experienced a chemical breakthrough earlier than OW-M2. Tracer return velocities of 0.31 m/hr and 1.3 m/hr were observed. Results of the tracer and injection tests indicate that OW-704 may be used as a re-injection well provided a close monitoring program is put in place.

  2. Supporting Self-Help Efforts: CanDo, a Japanese NGO in Kenya 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Yuki

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are now key players in international development, but their activities have also been facing a large volume of criticism since around the turn of the century. The role of Northern ...

  3. Stratigraphic context of fossil hominids from the Omo group deposits: northern Turkana Basin, Kenya and Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feibel, C.S.; Brown, F.H.; McDougall, I.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chronometric framework developed for Plio-Pleistocene deposits of the northern Turkana Basin is reviewed in light of recent advances in lithostratigraphy, geochemical correlation, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, and isotopic dating. The sequence is tightly controlled by 20 precise ages on volcanic materials. These ages are internally consistent but are at variance with estimates for the boundaries of the magnetic polarity time scale by about 0.07 my. This discrepancy can be only partially resolved at present. Based on the established chronometric framework and stratigraphic sequences, depositional ages can be estimated for significant marker beds. These ages can in turn be used to constrain the 449 hominid specimens thus far reported from the basin. Ages for most hominid specimens can be estimated with a precision of +/- 0.05 my. In addition, the chronometric framework will be applicable to other paleontological collections, archeological excavations, and future discoveries in the basin.

  4. Pore water chemistry of an alkaline rift valley lake: Lake Turkana, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerling, T.E.; Johnson, T.C.; Halfman, J.D.; Lister, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Turkana is the largest closed basin lake in the African rift system. It has evolved through the past 5000 years to become a moderately alkaline lake. Previous mass balance argument suggest that sulfate is removed from the lake by sulfate reduction in the sediments, and that the lake is accumulating in chloride, sodium, and alkalinity. Studies of pore water from 12 meter cores collected in November 1984 show that sulfate is reduced in the sediment column with a net production of alkalinity. Some sodium is lost from the lake and diffuses into the sediment to maintain charge balance. At several meters depth, organic matter is destroyed by methanogenic bacteria, as shown by the high delta /sup 13/C values for dissolved inorganic carbon. Magnesium and calcium molar ratios change with depth; chloride, sodium, and alkalinity also change with depth.

  5. Peer Effects, Teacher Incentives, and the Impact of Tracking: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duflo, Esther

    To the extent that students benefit from high-achieving peers, tracking will help strong students and hurt weak ones. However, all students may benefit if tracking allows teachers to better tailor their instruction level. ...

  6. Geomorphic controls on hydrology and vegetation in an arid basin: Turkana district, northern Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppinger, K.D.; Doehring, D.O.; Schimel, D.S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a broad ecological study of Kenyan pastoralist adaptation to periodic drought, a study was done to determine how arid region geomorphology affects hydrology and subsequently vegetative patterns. In this study area, 100 kilometers south of Lake Turkana, it appears that irregular precipitation is stored in bajada sediments and is available to deeply rooted vegetation over long periods of time. This vegetation provides a relatively constant food source for people's herds of browsers, the camels and goats, whereas cattle, which graze mainly on grasses, are significant producers only during wet seasons. Field observations suggest that the mountain and abutting pediment soils are too shallow to store appreciable water. However, greater quantities of water are stored in the deeper bajada sediments adjacent to the pediment where pastoralists dig temporary wells in ephemeral channels during wet seasons. Density of tree growth is greater along channels, and highest canopy cover values are found about the pediment-bajada interface. Geohydrologic processes in this area provide the basis for continuous occupation by the desert people, in contrast to recurring famines in adjacent areas, by enhancing the growth of woody vegetation.

  7. Biomass and nutrient accumulation in young Prosopis Juliflora at Mombasa, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghembe, J.A.; Kariuki, E.M.; Haller, R.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are presented for 6-yr old P. juliflora, grown for quarry reclamation on: biomass of stems, large branches, small branches and leaves; height and volume of stems and large branches. All were calculated from regressions on based diameter. Volume was 209 cubic m/ha (stems), 75 cubic m/ha (large branches). Total biomass was 216 t/ha (77% in stems and large branches). Leaves plus small branches (22.6% of biomass) contained over 50% of the pool of nutrients N, P, K and Mg. Implications are discussed for site depletion as a result of total tree use for fuelwood and fodder. 25 references.

  8. Geological control on the reservoir characteristics of Olkaria West Geothermal Field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omenda, Peter A.

    1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The reservoir of the West Olkaria Geothermal Field is hosted within tuffs and the reservoir fluid is characterized by higher concentrations of reservoir CO{sub 2} (10,000-100,000 mg/kg) but lower chloride concentrations of about 200 mg/kg than the East and North East Fields. The West Field is in the outflow and main recharge area of the Olkaria geothermal system. Permeability is generally low in the West Field and its distribution is strongly controlled by the structures. Fault zones show higher permeability with wells drilled within the structures havin larger total mass outputs. However, N-S and NW-SE faults are mainly channels for cold water downflow into the reservoir. Well feeder zones occur mostly at lava-tuff contacts; within fractured lava flows and at the contacts of intrusives and host rocks.

  9. Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duflo, Esther

    We model farmers as facing small fixed costs of purchasing fertilizer and assume some are stochastically present biased and not fully sophisticated about this bias. Such farmers may procrastinate, postponing fertilizer ...

  10. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for SmallProject includes an Off-Grid Lighting Technology Assessmentand the market success of off-grid lighting solutions for

  11. Quality and Performance of LED Flashlights in Kenya: Common End User Preferences and Complaints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jenny

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at ensure the success of the off-grid lighting market. Theand E. Mills. 2008. "Measured Off? Grid LED Lighting Systemtechnology into the broader off-grid lighting market. The

  12. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Jacobson (2007) “The Off-Grid Lighting Market in WesternBudget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small6 Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural

  13. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lamp purchasing customers who bought a solar charger and anAll customers chose to purchase the accompanying solar panelsolar charge option and three of the products also had an AC grid charging option. Customers

  14. Geopolitical influences on German development policies in Africa and AIDS policies in Kenya 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachmann, Veit

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    War II, I came to the conclusion that all German foreign policies aim at promoting a civilianized international system. I am arguing that development policies are part of broader foreign policies and thus pursue this goal with respect to developing...

  15. Modest additive effects of integrated vector control measures on malaria prevalence and transmission in western Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this article as: Zhou et al. : Modest additive effects ofRESEARCH Open Access Modest additive effects of integratedin 2010 but the impact was modest in 2011. The effect of IRS

  16. Triple L -Land, Livestock and Livelihood Dynamics in Dryland Systems, West Pokot, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    range of cultural and socio-economic contexts. However, as yet there seems to be no conclusive answer to lack of individual incentives to restrict one's individual resource access, a process that eventually access while at the same time providing individual incentives for investing rather than overexploiting

  17. Peer Effects and the Impact of Tracking: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Score Initial Attainment Percentile Tracking Schools Non-Score Initial Attainment Percentile Tracking Schools Non-assignment at the 50 th percentile for most Note that the

  18. Causes and Consequences of Employee Turnover in a Financial Institution in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obiero, Dan

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of loss of quality human capital and cost, and that management should act to resolve the problem since 67.5% of the turnovers were avoidable. v DEDICATION To my parents vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my... committee co-chairs, Dr. Fredrick Nafukho and Dr. Homer Tolson, for the exceptional attention they assigned to guiding my research work. I acknowledge that this was very important for me to achieve the results within the timeframe available to me. I...

  19. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring theadoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.s kiosk illuminated by an LED lamp Radecsky, K. , P.

  20. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    34 Appendix C. LED Lamp Salesthe grid-rechargeable LED lamp at a cheaper price withoutof buyers reported that the LED lamp fully replaced a pre-

  1. Choosing and Using Safe Water Technologies: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luoto, Jill Emily

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We test whether lack of awareness about water quality ishouseholds lack information about their water quality (thei.e. , they lack information that contaminated water leads

  2. Predation efficiency of Anopheles gambiae larvae by aquatic predators in western Kenya highlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quadriannulatus resistance to DDT in South Africa. Med VetM: Control of pyrethroid and DDT-resistant Anopheles gambiaetrichloroethane (DDT) * Correspondence: pat.kweka@gmail.com

  3. Modest additive effects of integrated vector control measures on malaria prevalence and transmission in western Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H-G, Yao F: Functional additive models. J Am Stat Assocas: Zhou et al. : Modest additive effects of integratedRESEARCH Open Access Modest additive effects of integrated

  4. Quality and Performance of LED Flashlights in Kenya: Common End User Preferences and Complaints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jenny

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    grid lighting market. The lead acid batteries embedded inrechargeable sealed lead-acid batteries are the most popularlead-acid (SLA) battery, LED flashlights powered by dry cell batteries,

  5. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    choice to not purchase the solar panel. Each of the productsaccompanying polycrystalline solar panel varied considerablyBattery Capacity (mAh) 4 Solar Panel Rating (watts) 6 (H)

  6. Orma livelihoods in Tana River district, Kenya: a study of constraints, adaptation and innovation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pattison, James Lee

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on the constraints, adaptations and innovations in the livelihoods of Orma pastoralists. The fieldwork took place with families around Tiltila, Waldena and Kalalani over a period of 9 months in 2007/08. ...

  7. On self-help in a site and services project in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soni, Praful Naran

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of self-help in a site and services project is based on the assumption that given the security of land tenureship_, an owner-builder can manage the whole process of house implementation. Generally, in any ...

  8. Establishment and evaluation of a livestock early warning system for Laikipia, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Zola

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new zone was added to the existing Livestock Early Warning System (LEWS), which is a subproject of the USAID Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program. LEWS uses the PHYGROW model and satellite imagery of weather and vegetation...

  9. Effects of prescribed seasonal burning on a Combretum-Commiphora plant community in South Central Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinyamario, Jenesio Ikindu

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) I NRRS Headquarters Kiboko z B eb Nairobi referee N. R. R. S TANZANIA 0 000 K Mombasa 0 oq 2'20'5 NATIONAL RANGE RESEARCH STATION 0 oi oi Z 0 Z D 0 Aug Control Nov Reserve BLOCK I Jan Jul Mar X e 0 0 5 37'50'E Jut... Reserve Jul Msr 0 s o N Jan Cofilrol Reserve Aug Aug Nov Jan Nov Z ei Z c 37 50'E Plot~s 2' 20'S Experimental BLOCK III Mar Control BLOCK II Experimental plots 200 180 160 140 A verage Rainfall ~ tace CZ2 t904-t990 Average...

  10. File:DIA Kenya 0906 lw (2).pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEurope BVEnergy3(2009).pdf JumpLab.pdf JumpWordsearch.pdfDIA

  11. Essays on Dynamics of Cattle Prices in Three Developing Countries of Mali, Kenya, and Tanzania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bizimana, Jean-Claude

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the growing agricultural subsectors in developing countries is livestock. Livestock and livestock products account for a third of the agricultural gross output. However, the lack of viable livestock market information systems to increase...

  12. Risk Sharing and Transactions Costs: Evidence from Kenya's Mobile Money Revolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jack, William

    We explore the impact of reduced transaction costs on risk sharing by estimating the effects of a mobile money innovation on consumption. In our panel sample, adoption of the innovation increased from 43 to 70 percent. We ...

  13. Kenya-Action Plan for National Climate Change Response Strategy | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa:Washington: Energy Resources JumpKentwood,Becoming

  14. Kenya-Bringing a Range of Supported Mitigation Activities in Selected

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa:Washington: Energy Resources

  15. Kenya-Joint Programme on Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa:Washington: Energy ResourcesAerospace Center (DLR)in

  16. Kenya-Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro Hydro Project

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,Kas Farmssource HistoryKenworth Jump

  17. Kenya-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,Kas Farmssource HistoryKenworthLEDS in

  18. Kenya-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,Kas Farmssource HistoryKenworthLEDS

  19. Kenya-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,Kas FarmssourceGEF Projects(SREP) | Open

  20. Kenya-Action Plan for National Climate Change Response Strategy | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl Jump to:KentuckyEnergy

  1. Kenya-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl Jump

  2. Kenya-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl Jump

  3. Kenya-Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change(StARCK) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl JumpOpen Energy

  4. Kenya-Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change(StARCK) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl JumpOpen EnergyOpen Energy

  5. Kenya-Supporting Low Carbon Development and Climate Resilient Strategies in

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistec Srl JumpOpen EnergyOpen

  6. An Integrated Geophysical Analysis Of The Upper Crust Of The Southern Kenya

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan BlanchAmiteIn The Artesian-City Area,Rift | Open

  7. An Integrated Geophysical Study Of The Northern Kenya Rift | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan BlanchAmiteIn The Artesian-City Area,Rift

  8. Society to 2050 AD: Anthropological Forecasts Extrapolating Correlates of Modernization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denton, Trevor

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Dev elop V1Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Soc NumJamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati V678 Rec V744

  9. Do tests devised to detect recent HIV-1 infection provide reliable estimates of incidence in Sakarovitch C.1,5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hospitalier Universitaire de Treichville, Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 3 Health Protection Agency Centre-CI, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Treichville, Abidjan, Cote D`Ivoire, 5 INSERM Unité 593, Institut de A. Minga Biological coordination: Drs F. Rouet and T.A. Toni Data management: Mr A. Coulibaly Field

  10. Climate Variability and Change--Hydrological Impacts (Proceedings of the Fifth FRIEND World Conference held at Havana, Cuba, November 2006), IAHS Publ. 308, 2006.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Benjamin

    'habitats (déforestation, aménagements hydro-agricoles, extension des cultures) sur la santé des populations rurales: cas entre la prévalence de l'ulcčre de Buruli et plusieurs variables du milieu physique en Cote d'Ivoire. L, particuličrement dans la partie centrale du pays. Mots clef Cote d'ivoire; ulcčre du Buruli; facteurs

  11. UNIVERSITE PARIS-EST DROIT EUROPE ET SOCIETE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BONNE GOUVERNANCE ET DES REALITES SOCIOPOLITIQUES EN AFRIQUE : LE CAS DE LA COTE D'IVOIRE Jury Madame Gbagbo, le père de la démocratie en Côte d'ivoire, toute la famille Krizoua Enfin. Ma pensée va à tous

  12. au burkina faso: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CAMBODGE LAOS VIETNAM COLOMBIA KENYA SOUTH AFRICA BRAZIL CHILE THAILANDE BOLIVIE MAROC TUNISIE TANZANIE VENEZUELA CAMBODGE LAOS VIETNAM COLOMBIE KENYA AFRIQUE DU SUD 17 La...

  13. Community-wide benefits of targeted indoor residual spray for malaria control in the Western Kenya Highland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Minakawa, Noboru; Yan, Guiyun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ecological settings [4]. Among those control measures, insecticide- treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual-house

  14. Effects of defoliation frequency and intensity on production of four burned and unburned bushed grassland communities in south central Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Too, Daniel Kipkoech

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Esti- mated bush/tree cover of the exclosure was less than 3%. The top 30 cm of soil is firm dark reddish sandy clay loam. Below this level the soil turns reddish brown sandy clay. Gravel and rock occur at 120 cm and below. Runoff is minimal because...

  15. High-resolution record of cyclic climatic change during the past 4 ka from Lake Turkana, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halfman, J.D.; Johnson, T.C.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Profiles of carbonate content and lamination thickness in an 11.3 m core from Lake Turkana are interpreted as a record of climatic change for the past 4 ka. On a time scale of millennia, the data agree with other paleohydrologic records from sub-Saharan east Africa. Time-series analysis of both data sets reveal periods of about 270, 200, 165, and 100 yr. The thickness data suggest additional periods of about 78, 44, 31, 25, and possibly 20 yr. The sediments consist of laminated light and dark couplets, which are interpreted as a response to an average 4-yr variability in the hydrology of the Ethiopian Plateau. The authors suggest that this may be a feedback from the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.

  16. Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Businesses in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing for Emerging Off-grid White-LED Illumination SystemsBudget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for SmallProject includes an Off-Grid Lighting Technology Assessment

  17. Use Patterns of LED Flashlights in Kenya and a One-Year Cost Analysis of Flashlight Ownership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project includes an Off-Grid Lighting Technology Assessmentand the market success of off-grid lighting solutions formarket spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based

  18. Donors versus dictators : the impact of multilateral aid conditionality on democratization : Kenya and Malawi in comparative context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clinkenbeard, Steven E., 1958-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Donors versus Dictators examines the "exporting democracy debate" and the related issue of "nation-building" as manifested in the foreign aid relationship in the post-Cold War era. This dissertation centers on two in-depth ...

  19. Estimate of genetic and phenotypic parameters for the Dorper, Red Masai and their crosses in Naivasha (OL'Magogo), Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiriro, Philip Macharia Muthami

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lambing. Lambs were weighed, navel cord disinfected, identified and sex and type of birth recorded. Docking was done using a rubber ring one wk after birth. The orphan lambs were fostered and all the lambs were weighed monthly until they were 1 yr..., ewe identification for each mating group, sires used and the 27 year. Iamb in g Iambs were identified at birth and birth weight, birth date, month and year, sex, type of birth and still births were recorded. Difficult lambing and abortions were...

  20. Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Businesses in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report #3 Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget:The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Businesses inProject includes an Off-Grid Lighting Technology Assessment