Sample records for issues global climate

  1. Issued March 2004 Global Climate & Energy Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    University Objective The objective of this project is to develop optimized nanocomposite materials for high of the project Design of Nanotube-Metal Nanocluster Complex Meeting the Hydrogen Storage Material RequirementsIssued March 2004 Global Climate & Energy Project STANFORD UNIVERSITY Nanomaterials Engineering

  2. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  3. Global climatic catastrophes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budyko, M.I.; Golitsyn, G.S.; Izrael, A

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work inquires into global climatic catastrophes of the past, presenting data not easily available outside of the Socialist Countries, and applies these results to the study of future climatic developments, especially as they threaten in case of Nuclear Warfare - Nuclear Winter. The authors discuss probable after effects from the Soviet point of view on the basis of research, stressing the need to avoid all conflict which might lead to the next and final Global Climatic Catastrophy.

  4. Economics issues in global climate change: Agriculture forestry and natural resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reilly, J.; Anderson, M. (eds.)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book is a collection of 26 papers from a 1990 conference concerning the interface between greenhouse warming and agriculture and forestry. Areas of particular emphasis include methane's importance as a greenhouse gas and agricultural production of methane; agriculture's importance as a response to climatic change; forestry as a potentially powerful abatement method, because forests sequester carbon as part of their natural growth. The book is divided into three parts. First, the implications of examining the full set of greenhouse gases versus just looking at carbon dioxide are discussed. Second, the role of agriculture and forestry in producing greenhouse gases is covered. Third, a series of articles tackles the difficult task of measuring the damages to agriculture that would result if climates do change.

  5. Global Climate & Catastrophic Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Global Climate & Catastrophic Risk Forum 2012 A Joint Program with LA RIMS Education Day Rethinking Catastrophic Risk in Risk Management: Earthquake-Related Challenges Featuring: Keynote Speaker Dr. Frank Beuthin, Willis Group Holdings Plc. Yohei Miyamoto, Aon Risk Solutions Curtis deVera, Marsh

  6. UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

  7. Conservation and Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

  8. Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polz, Martin

    Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

  9. Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    Hot Topics Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change Green Building Hydraulic Fracturing Nuclear to global warming. The UKgovernment has just announced it is investing $1 billion in their development Green Living Industry Regulation Remediation Research and Technology Sustainability Waste Water Products

  10. Global Climate Change: Opinions and Perceptions of Rural Nebraskans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Global Climate Change: Opinions and Perceptions of Rural Nebraskans 2008 Nebraska Rural Poll that they understand the issue of global climate change either fairly or very well. #12;Most rural Nebraskans believe climate change is already happening. #12;Most rural Nebraskans believe that our actions contribute

  11. AWI Conference on Global Climate Change Conference Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    » slides (ppt) 10:15 » Break 10:45 » Food and Agriculture Issues How will climate change impact foodAWI Conference on Global Climate Change Conference Program APRU World Institute Workshop on Climate Board 2:30 » Climate Changes Overview Richard C.J. SOMERVILLE, Distinguished Professor, Scripps

  12. ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.2 Anthropogenic climate change studies: scenario experiments (96) : : : : : : : : : 7 2 following its creation, the ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' team had to make its proofs in order

  13. Global climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

  14. Sources for Global Climate Change Information (updated: March 17, 2011) The following information is provided for those who wish to learn more about this issue. These

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    of the role of greenhouse gases in maintaining Earth's energy balance, and the role of additional of Global Climate Change on the United States (NRC, 2008) http://www.ostp.gov/galleriesINSTC Reports/Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change on the United States.pdf (copy this into browser) http

  15. ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change of the tropical climate : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.2 Short­term variability studies : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.3 Climate drift sensitivity studies

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates of Second Key Atmospheric Component On May 1, 2013, in Analysis, Capabilities, Climate, CRF, Energy, Facilities, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling & Analysis, News, News &...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20, 2013, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Energy Efficiency, Facilities, Global Climate & Energy, Materials Science, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, Partnership, Research &...

  18. Rangeland ecology: Key global research issues & questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Rangeland ecology: Key global research issues & questions Robin Reid1 and Maria Fernandez Ecology Lab 2Associate Professor Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA Global Issues and Questions in Rangeland Ecology · Despite the focus here on global issues, we need to recognize that Mongolia

  19. Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

  20. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New...

  1. Improving the Water Component of an Agricultural Climate Change Assessment : Issues from the Standpoint of Agricultural Economists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Improving the Water Component of an Agricultural Climate Change Assessment : Issues from The National Global Climate Change Research Program is supporting appraisals of water and agriculture among assessment. Key Terms; Economics, Climate Change Assessment, Agriculture, Irrigation, Water use tradeoffs

  2. Sandia Energy - Global Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatingsUltra-High-Voltage SiliconEnergyFailureGlobal Climate Models Home

  3. Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feddema, Johannes J.; Freire, Sergio Carneiro

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will demonstrate one methodology for assessing the potential large-scale impacts of soil degradation on African climates and water resources. In addition it will compare and contrast these impacts to those expected from global warming and compare impacts for differ...- ent watershed regions on the continent. 2. METHODS In order to make a similar comparison between pro- jected climate change scenarios due to global warming © Inter-Research 2001 *E-mail: feddema@ku.edu Soil degradation, global warming and climate...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to address the most challenging and demanding climate-change issues. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) is designed to accel-erate the development and applica-tion of...

  5. Global Climate Change: Environment, Technology and Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mumby, Peter J.

    . Appreciate the main aspects of hydropower resource estimation, turbine design, deployment and environmental AND ASSESSMENTS Global Climate Change: Environment, Technology and Society I am a Civil Hydraulic

  6. A High-Resolution Global Climate Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P B

    2001-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A major factor limiting the quality and usefulness of global climate models is the coarse spatial resolution of these models. Global climate models today are typically run at resolutions of {approx}300 km (or even coarser) meaning that the smallest features represented are 300 km across. As Figure 1 shows, this resolution does not allow adequate representation of small or even large topographic features (e.g. the Sierra Nevada mountains). As a result of this and other problems, coarse-resolution global models do not come close to accurately simulating climate on regional spatial scales (e.g. within California). Results on continental and larger sales are much more realistic. An important consequence of this inability to simulate regional climate is that global climate model results cannot be used as the basis of assessments of potential societal impacts of climate change (e.g. effects on agriculture in the Central Valley, on management of water resources, etc.).

  7. Global air quality and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of Chemistry- Climate Models 5, 2010. 320 S. Wu,and R. Van Dorland, in Climate Change 2007: The PhysicalInter- governmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. D. Qin, M.

  8. IPCC Makes Climate A Human Rights Issue | newmatilda.com https://newmatilda.com/2014/04/01/ipcc-makes-climate-human-rights-issue[2/04/2014 10:05:17 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botea, Adi

    -human-rights-issue[2/04/2014 10:05:17 AM] Climate change is an issue for public health, law, poverty and even human Phelan The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published its latest report upon the impacts of global warming, highlighting the pernicious impact of climate change upon public health, well

  9. CLIMATE CHANGE GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE CHANGE · GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy Today's report on deep efforts of independent experts from 15 countries to find national pathways to making economies based-zero emissions sometime in the second half of this century. This deep cut should occur in a growing world economy

  10. WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global?................................................................10 When you think of global warming / climate change, what comes first to mind

  11. Global climate change and international security.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

  12. Global Climate Change Alliance Training Workshops on Mainstreaming...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alliance Training Workshops on Mainstreaming Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Climate Change Alliance Training Workshop on...

  13. Hisham Zerriffi Liu Institute for Global Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Christopher

    Hisham Zerriffi Liu Institute for Global Issues Raul Pacheco-Vega Department of Political Science and energy poverty #12;Water Poverty Index #12;Water Access Poverty #12;Electricity Access Poverty #12, 2007 Notes: Based on UNDP's classification of developing countries. China's estimates are calculations

  14. Rangeland ecology: Key global research issues & questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Rangeland ecology: Key global research issues & questions Robin Reid and Maria Fernandez-Gimenez This paper discusses developments in our understanding about rangeland ecology and rangeland dynamics in the last 20 years. Before the late 1980's, the mainstream view in range ecology was that livestock

  15. Comments on: Global Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate,CobaltColdin679April

  16. Global fish production and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brander, K.M. [International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Current global fisheries production of {approx}160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but there is low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are giverned by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipiation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the pricipal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change.

  17. Parameterization of Urban Characteristics for Global Climate Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Trisha L.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    of varying scales and effects of climate change on urban populations, urbanization must be included in global climate models (GCMs). To properly capture the spatial variability in urban areas, GCMs require global databases of urban extent and characteristics...

  18. Energy and Climate Change: 15th National Conference and Global...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Climate Change: 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment Energy and Climate Change: 15th National Conference and Global Forum on...

  19. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  20. The economics of long-term global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is intended to provide an overview of economic issues and research relevant to possible, long-term global climate change. It is primarily a critical survey, not a statement of Administration or Department policy. This report should serve to indicate that economic analysis of global change is in its infancy few assertions about costs or benefits can be made with confidence. The state of the literature precludes any attempt to produce anything like a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis. Moreover, almost all the quantitative estimates regarding physical and economic effects in this report, as well as many of the qualitative assertions, are controversial. Section I provides background on greenhouse gas emissions and their likely climatic effects and on available policy instruments. Section II considers the costs of living with global change, assuming no substantial efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Section III considers costs of reducing these emissions, though the available literature does not contain estimates of the costs of policies that would, on the assumptions of current climate models, prevent climate change altogether. The individual sections are not entirely compartmentalized, but can be read independently if necessary.

  1. Global warming and Arctic climate. Raymond S. Bradley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Global warming and Arctic climate. Raymond S. Bradley Climate System Research Center University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;How have global temperatures changed & why? 1. Average instrumental records from around the world; express all as anomalies from 1961-90 average #12;#12;Overall trend is upward ("global

  2. Issued March 2012 Global Climate & Energy Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straight, Aaron

    , thereby speeding up the formation of carbonates for permanent underground storage. Background About 60 underground. The research team will focus on understanding the chemical reactions that occur when CO2 is injected into silicate rocks rich in magnesium and calcium. Using field studies and laboratory analyses

  3. Illegal logging threatens Congo's forests, global climate Illegal logging threatens Congo's forests, global climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contracts with logging companies covering more than 15 million hectares of forest," the report stated with logging companies instead giving villages gifts of salt and beer worth less than $100. "In a contextIllegal logging threatens Congo's forests, global climate Illegal logging threatens Congo's forests

  4. THE IMPACT OF THERMAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, Patrick [Arizona State University; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Otanicar, Todd [University of Tulsa; Phelan, Bernadette [Phelan Research Solutions, Inc.; Prasher, Ravi [Arizona State University; Taylor, Robert [University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Tyagi, Himanshu [Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, India

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global climate change is recognized by many people around the world as being one of the most pressing issues facing our society today. The thermal engineering research community clearly plays an important role in addressing this critical issue, but what kind of thermal engineering research is, or will be, most impactful? In other words, in what directions should thermal engineering research be targeted in order to derive the greatest benefit with respect to global climate change? To answer this question we consider the potential reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, coupled with potential economic impacts, resulting from thermal engineering research. Here a new model framework is introduced that allows a technological, sector-by-sector analysis of GHG emissions avoidance. For each sector, we consider the maximum reduction in CO2 emissions due to such research, and the cost effectiveness of the new efficient technologies. The results are normalized on a country-by-country basis, where we consider the USA, the European Union, China, India, and Australia as representative countries or regions. Among energy supply-side technologies, improvements in coal-burning power generation are seen as having the most beneficial CO2 and economic impacts. The one demand-side technology considered, residential space cooling, offers positive but limited impacts. The proposed framework can be extended to include additional technologies and impacts, such as water consumption.

  5. alternative global climate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Sciences Websites Summary: A Statistical Analysis of Global Inter-Annual Climate Anomalies in Monthly Sea Surface Temperature Records. Jian Huang and Finbarr...

  6. U.S. Global Change Research Program publishes "National Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    U.S. Global Change Research Program publishes "National Climate Assessment" report for United States Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's picture Submitted by...

  7. Global Climate Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector Global Climate Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector 2002 DEER Conference...

  8. White House Conference on Global Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    President Clinton has directed the White House office on Environmental Policy to coordinate an interagency process to develop a plan to fulfill the commitment he made in his Earth Day address on April 21, 1993. This plan will become the cornerstone of the Climate Change Plan that will be completed shortly after the Rio Accord enters into force. The Office on Environmental Policy established the Interagency Climate Change Mitigation Group to draw on the expertise of federal agencies including the National Economic Council; the Council of Economic Advisors; the Office of Science and Technology Policy; the Office of Management and Budget; the National Security Council; the Domestic Policy Council; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, Treasury, Commerce, and State. Working groups have been established to examine six key policy areas: energy demand, energy supply, joint implementation, methane and other gases, sinks, and transportation. The purpose of the White House Conference on Global Climate Change was to ``tap the real-world experiences`` of diverse participants and seek ideas and information for meeting the President`s goals. During the opening session, senior administration officials defined the challenge ahead and encouraged open and frank conversation about the best possible ways to meet it.

  9. Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W. [and others

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  10. 15.023J / 12.848J / ESD.128J Global Climate Change: Economics, Science, and Policy, Spring 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    Introduces scientific, economic, and ecological issues underlying the threat of global climate change, and the institutions engaged in negotiating an international response. Develops an integrated approach to analysis of ...

  11. 15.023J / 12.848J / ESD.128J Global Climate Change: Economics, Science, and Policy, Spring 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    Introduces scientific, economic, and ecological issues underlying the threat of global climate change, and the institutions engaged in negotiating an international response. Develops an integrated approach to analysis of ...

  12. Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty Quantification, the Next Frontier The Role Played by Oceans in Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restrepo, Juan M.

    Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty Quantification, the Next Department University of Arizona October 11, 2008 #12;Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate, Undergraduate Students: 2. UQGQG #12;Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty

  13. Global Ice and Land Climate Studies Using Scatterometer Image Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    1 Global Ice and Land Climate Studies Using Scatterometer Image Data David G. Long Brigham Young CA 91109 ben@pacific.jpl.nasa.gov Sasan.Saatchi@jpl.nasa.gov Cheryl Bertoia U. S. National Ice Center: Long, D. G., M. R. Drinkwater, B. Holt, S. Saatchi, and C. Bertoia, Global ice and land climate studies

  14. Global Climate Change: Why Understanding the Scientific Enterprise Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Global Climate Change: Why Understanding the Scientific Enterprise Matters Ellen MosleyPolar/ByrdPolarhttp://bprc.osu.edu/ Understanding Climate Change Risks and Identifying Opportunities for Mitigation & Adaptation in Ohio Ohio State University, May 15, 2014 #12;Key Points Earth's climate is changing - the world is warming ­ that debate

  15. Expanding Global Cooperation on Climate Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    in evaluating the financial architecture necessary to support just and sustainable climate interventions

  16. Overlooked Issues in theOverlooked Issues in the Climate Change DebateClimate Change Debate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the environment change as well. Decision makers need assessments of how climate vulnerability has changed. 2 of ClimateViews of Climate Change ScienceChange Science #12;Climate change including regional impacts can of rioting and nuclear war; Britain will be 'Siberian' in less than 20 years; Threat to the world is greater

  17. Chapter 1 Climate monitoring The European Commission strategy for global climate change studies and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Chapter 1 Climate monitoring The European Commission strategy for global climate change studies, Jerusalem, Israel Precipitation as a centerpiece in Climate Change Water is the lifeblood of our livelihood on Earth. Temperature-driven inhabitable areas are due to too cold temperatures, and not due to excessively

  18. RICCI Sophie Global Change and Climate Modeling Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RICCI Sophie Global Change and Climate Modeling Team CERFACS - Toulouse, FRANCE Technical Report TR covariance matrix#17;. This hypothesis stems from the T S water mass properties conservation over long term

  19. Global Climate Change Assessment Report Shows Nations Not Doing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Climate Change Assessment Report Shows Nations Not Doing Enough Home > Blogs > Dc's blog Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(107) Contributor 5 November, 2014 - 14:49 The latest...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from improved climate models to performance models for underground waste storage to 3D printing and digital rock physics. Marianne Walck (Director ... Sandia Participated in the...

  1. Circular Retribution: The Effects of Climate Change on U .S. and Global Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prescher, Hannes

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of global climate change on U.S. agriculture. JournalClimate Change and the Global Harvest: Potential Impacts of the Greenhouse Effect on Agriculture. ”ensuing change in climate patterns, are making agriculture a

  2. International Forestry and Global Issues 18 May 2010, Nancy, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May 2010, Nancy, France Why deforestation? Conversion to other uses: agriculture, palm oil, pastureInternational Forestry and Global Issues 18 May 2010, Nancy, France Global Wood Markets: Consumption, Production and Trade By Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber Section

  3. Global Services Sourcing: Issues of Cost and Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Services Sourcing: Issues of Cost and Quality Nirupam Bajpai, Jeffrey Sachs, Rohit Arora Services Sourcing: Issues of Cost and Quality Nirupam Bajpai Nirupam.bajpai@columbia.edu Jeffrey D. Sachs for cost, stayed for quality" about moving processes outside the company (in some cases outside the country

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Director of Sandia's Geoscience, Climate, and Consequence Effects Center, spoke on "Hydraulic Fracturing: The Role of Government-Sponsored R&D" as part of a session on "The...

  5. Global Climate Projections Coordinating Lead Authors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olver, Peter

    (UK), G.-K. Plattner (Switzerland), J. Räisänen (Finland), A. Rinke (Germany), E. Roeckner (Germany in the 21st Century ............. 764 10.3.3 Changes in Ocean/Ice and High-Latitude Climate

  6. Local Action: Global Impact A Global Issues Conference for Students in Grades 6, 7 & 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    . Environmental Sustainability Issues: Food · Water · Energy · Transportation · Climate · Waste · Land Use by Public Partnerships & Outreach, Office of the Provost and the Office of Sustainability at Texas A thinking and inquiry and leads to understanding of environmental sustainability issues that impact our

  7. Climate Policies and the Power Sector: Challenges and Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Chung-Li

    in combatting global warming. However, one ongoing debate among the scientific communities is to what extent production merit order by forcing generators to take emissions costs into consideration. In the long run to underinvestment in CDM projects. For this special issue, Implications of CO2 Emissions Policies on the Electric

  8. Emissions Pricing to Stabilize Global Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR). These two centers bridge many key areas an interdisciplinary group from two established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS that are most relevant to economic, social, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas

  9. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron-Gafford, Greg

    PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BE USED TO PREDICT in photosynthesis, and thus substrate supply, influence the rate of ecosystem respiration (Re). Further- more in photosynthesis might result in concomitant changes in both the rate, and temperature-sensitivity, of Re. Re

  10. Global Food Shortage Linked to Biofuel Use -Part III -U.S. Backlash | Climate Science & Politics Climate Science & Politics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Food Shortage Linked to Biofuel Use - Part III - U.S. Backlash | Climate Science & Politics Climate Science & Politics Home About the Site Global Food Shortage Linked to Biofuel Use - Part III - U.S. Backlash Posted in May 24th, 2008 by Climate Patrol in Biofuel, Food Crisis, Sustainability In the last few

  11. Local and Seasonal Effects in the U.S. of Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Though the facts of global climate change are beyond doubt, there has been relatively limited information about its local consequences. Global climate models and their derivatives have provided often differing and unspecific ...

  12. Global Priority Conservation Areas in the Face of 21st Century Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Junsheng; Lin, Xin; Chen, Anping; Peterson, A. Townsend; Ma, Keping; Bertzky, Monika; Ciais, Philippe; Kapos, Valerie; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin

    2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In an era when global biodiversity is increasingly impacted by rapidly changing climate, efforts to conserve global biodiversity may be compromised if we do not consider the uneven distribution of climate-induced threats. Here, via a novel...

  13. February 6, 2001 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    February 6, 2001 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE Bruce A McCarl, Texas A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Agriculture and Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.1 Climate Change Effects on Agricultural Productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2

  14. Global and Sahel Regional Biophysical Processes, Vegetation Dynamics, and Climate Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Guoqiong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling processes . 137 A.2 Dynamicand dynamic VBP over global land, but the climate-carbon coupling process,

  15. How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    and physical climate system in a global warming scenario is studied using an Earth system model including

  16. perspective: The responses of tropical forest species to global climate change: acclimate, adapt, migrate, or go extinct?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Rehm, Evan M; Machovina, Brian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    maps.  Nature Climate Change, 2, 182–185.   Bacles, S.   (1998)  Global  climate  change  and  tropical  forest 2011) Impacts  of  climate  change  on  the  world's  most 

  17. Role of Bioethanol in Global Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has supported a research and development program for the establishment of renewable, biomass-derived, liquid fuels for the better part of the last twenty years. These 'biofuels' represent opportunities to respond to uncertainties about our energy security and the future health of our environment. Throughout its history, the Biofuels program has experienced an ongoing fiscal 'roller coaster'. Funding has ebbed and flowed with changing political and public attitudes about energy. The program was initiated in a flood of funding in the late 1970s related to the energy shortages experienced in that period. The flooding turned rapidly to drought as falling oil prices dissipated public concern about energy supplies. In the late 1980s, funding for the program slowly increased, driven by national security issues.

  18. Global climate change and the mitigation challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Princiotta [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, very likely the primary cause of the 0.8{sup o}C warming the Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. This paper examines forces driving CO{sub 2} emissions, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and research and development (R&D) priorities. To constrain warming to below approximately 2.5{sup o}C in 2100, the recent annual 3% CO{sub 2} emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Furthermore, the current generation of energy generation and end-use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs fall far short of what is required. 20 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Financing a Global Deal on Climate Change | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife Energy Park at MethilGlobal Climate Changea Global

  20. Climate Models from the Joint Global Change Research Institute

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Staff at the Joint Institute develop and use models to simulate the economic and physical impacts of global change policy options. The GCAM, for example, gives analysts insight into how regional and national economies might respond to climate change mitigation policies including carbon taxes, carbon trading, and accelerated deployment of energy technology. Three available models are Phoenix, GCAM, and EPIC. Phoenix is a global, dynamic recursive, computable general equilibrium model that is solved in five-year time steps from 2005 through 2100 and divides the world into twenty-four regions. Each region includes twenty-six industrial sectors. Particular attention is paid to energy production in Phoenix. There are nine electricity-generating technologies (coal, natural gas, oil, biomass, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, and geothermal) and four additional energy commodities: crude oil, refined oil products, coal, and natural gas. Phoenix is designed to answer economic questions related to international climate and energy policy and international trade. Phoenix replaces the Second Generation Model (SGM) that was formerly used for general equilibrium analysis at JGCRI. GCAM is the Global Change Assessment Model, a partial equilibrium model of the world with 14 regions. GCAM operates in 5 year time steps from 1990 to 2095 and is designed to examine long-term changes in the coupled energy, agriculture/land-use, and climate system. GCAM includes a 151-region agriculture land-use module and a reduced form carbon cycle and climate module in addition to its incorporation of demographics, resources, energy production and consumption. The model has been used extensively in a number of assessment and modeling activities such as the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF), the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program, and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and IPCC assessment reports. GCAM is now freely available as a community model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) Model is a process-based agricultural systems model composed of simulation components for weather, hydrology, nutrient cycling, pesticide fate, tillage, crop growth, soil erosion, crop and soil management and economics. Staff at PNNL have been involved in the development of this model by integrating new sub-models for soil carbon dynamics and nitrogen cycling.

  1. Structural Design Feasibility Study for the Global Climate Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewin,K.F.; Nagy, J.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neon, Inc. is proposing to establish a Global Change Experiment (GCE) Facility to increase our understanding of how ecological systems differ in their vulnerability to changes in climate and other relevant global change drivers, as well as provide the mechanistic basis for forecasting ecological change in the future. The experimental design was initially envisioned to consist of two complementary components; (A) a multi-factor experiment manipulating CO{sub 2}, temperature and water availability and (B) a water balance experiment. As the design analysis and cost estimates progressed, it became clear that (1) the technical difficulties of obtaining tight temperature control and maintaining elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels within an enclosure were greater than had been expected and (2) the envisioned study would not fit into the expected budget envelope if this was done in a partially or completely enclosed structure. After discussions between NEON management, the GCE science team, and Keith Lewin, NEON, Inc. requested Keith Lewin to expand the scope of this design study to include open-field exposure systems. In order to develop the GCE design to the point where it can be presented within a proposal for funding, a feasibility study of climate manipulation structures must be conducted to determine design approaches and rough cost estimates, and to identify advantages and disadvantages of these approaches including the associated experimental artifacts. NEON, Inc requested this design study in order to develop concepts for the climate manipulation structures to support the NEON Global Climate Experiment. This study summarizes the design concepts considered for constructing and operating the GCE Facility and their associated construction, maintenance and operations costs. Comparisons and comments about experimental artifacts, construction challenges and operational uncertainties are provided to assist in selecting the final facility design. The overall goal of this report is to provide a cost and technological basis for selection of the appropriate GCE Facility design.

  2. Integrating chemistry into 3D climate models: Detailed kinetics in the troposphere and stratosphere of a global climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Elliott, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.; Turco, R.P.; Zhao, X. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The motivation for the project is to create the first complete, three-dimensional climate model that enfolds atmospheric photochemistry. The LANL chemical global climate model (GCM) not only distributes the trace greenhouse gases and modifies their concentrations within the detailed photochemical web, but also permits them to influence the radiation field and so force their own transport. Both atmospheric chemistry and fluid dynamics are nonlinear and zonally asymmetric phenomena. They can only be adequately modeled in three dimensions on the global grid. The kinetics-augmented GCM is the only program within the atmospheric community capable of investigating interaction involving chemistry and transport. The authors have conducted case studies of timely three-dimensional chemistry issues. Examples include ozone production from biomass burning plumes, kinetic feedbacks in zonally asymmetric transport phenomena with month- to year-long time scales, and volcano sulfate aerosols with respect to their potential effects on tropospheric ozone depletion.

  3. Conceptual understanding of climate change with a globally resolved energy balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dommenget, Dietmar

    Conceptual understanding of climate change with a globally resolved energy balance model Dietmar on the surface energy balance by very simple repre- sentations of solar and thermal radiation, the atmospheric and cold regions to warm more than other regions. Keywords Climate dynamics Á Climate change Á Climate

  4. DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE AND ENVIRONMENT? By Michael E. Mann I. Introduction The subjects of "global warming" and "climate change" have become parts of both the popular lexicon and the public discourse. Discussions of global warming often evoke passionate

  5. Same Science, Differing Policies; The Saga of Global Climate Change Eugene B. Skolnikoff *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and the E.U. itself. The possibility of global warming that raises this fear of unacceptable levels of science. The global warming that it is feared may lead to climate change is not yet observable in everydaySame Science, Differing Policies; The Saga of Global Climate Change Eugene B. Skolnikoff

  6. Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist The Herald" and must reflect, at least in part, the climate system response to the increase in global warming. What if we wanted to prevent global warming. This is just doomsday speaking of the same type that he

  7. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huey, Raymond B.

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming Michael E. Dillon and projected climate warming2,13,14 . Global warming is probably having profound and diverse effects phenology3,4 , community interactions5 , genetics3,6 and extinctions7 have been attributed to recent global

  8. A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming Paul N. Edwards models, climate data, and the politics of global warming / Paul N. Edwards. p. cm. Includes. Climatology--History. 3. Meteorology--History. 4. Climatology--Technological innovation. 5. Global temperature

  9. Agricultural Mitigation and Offsets: Policy Issues, Progress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agricultural Mitigation and Offsets: Policy Issues, Progress Purdue Climate Change Research Center, 2010 #12;Agricultural Mitigation and Offsets: Policy Issues, Progress Presentation Overview: Global Climate Change...and Agriculture Policy Landscape: US and International Agricultural Offsets and Policy

  10. Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General System@utep.edu Abstract While global warming is a statistically confirmed long-term phenomenon, its most visible than the global warming itself. 1 Formulation of the Problem What is global warming. The term "global

  11. Climate denier, skeptic, or contrarian? Assigning credibility or expertise is a fraught issue, particularly in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    issue, particularly in a wicked phenomenon like climate change--as Anderegg et al. (1) discussed or skeptic, the term climate denier is listed in their key terms. Using the language of denialism brings a moralistic tone into the climate change debate that we would do well to avoid. Further, labeling views

  12. Climate change and agriculture : global and regional effects using an economic model of international trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John M.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical estimates of the economic welfare implications of the impact of climate change on global agricultural production are made. Agricultural yield changes resulting from climate scenarios associated with a doubling ...

  13. Preliminary global assessment of terrestrial biodiversity consequences of sea level rise mediated by climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Shaily; Soberó n, Jorge; Li, Xingong; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerable attention has focused on the climatic effects of global climate change on biodiversity, but few analyses and no broad assessments have evaluated the effects of sea level rise on biodiversity. Taking advantage of new maps of marine...

  14. Financing Global Climate Change Mitigation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife Energy Park at MethilGlobal Climate Change

  15. Some Mathematical and Numerical Issues in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics and Climate Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianping Li; Shouhong Wang

    2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we address both recent advances and open questions in some mathematical and computational issues in geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) and climate dynamics. The main focus is on 1) the primitive equations (PEs) models and their related mathematical and computational issues, 2) climate variability, predictability and successive bifurcation, and 3) a new dynamical systems theory and its applications to GFD and climate dynamics.

  16. Biogeophysical effects of CO2-fertilization on global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C; Phillips, T J

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2}-fertilization affects plant growth, which modifies surface physical properties, altering the surface albedo, and fluxes of sensible and latent heat. We investigate how such CO{sub 2}-fertilization effects on vegetation and surface properties would affect the climate system. Using a global three-dimensional climate-carbon model that simulates vegetation dynamics, we compare two multi-century simulations: a ''Control'' simulation with no emissions, and a ''Physiol-noGHG'' simulation where physiological changes occur as a result of prescribed CO{sub 2} emissions, but where CO{sub 2}-induced greenhouse warming is not included. In our simulations, CO{sub 2}-fertilization produces warming; we obtain an annual- and global-mean warming of about 0.65 K (and land-only warming of 1.4 K) after 430 years. This century-scale warming is mostly due to a decreased surface albedo associated with the expansion of the Northern Hemisphere boreal forests. On decadal time scales, the CO{sub 2} uptake by afforestation should produce a cooling effect that exceeds this albedo-based warming; but if the forests remain in place, the CO{sub 2}-enhanced-greenhouse effect would diminish as the ocean equilibrates with the atmosphere, whereas the albedo effect would persist. Thus, on century time scales, there is the prospect for net warming from CO{sub 2}-fertilization of the land biosphere. Further study is needed to confirm and better quantify our results.

  17. Pace of shifts in climate regions increases with global temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahlstein, Irina

    Human-induced climate change causes significant changes in local climates, which in turn lead to changes in regional climate zones. Large shifts in the world distribution of Köppen–Geiger climate classifications by the end ...

  18. Energy Conclave 2010 The global energy concerns of depleting fossil fuels and climate change have put

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    at the rapidly increasing energy demand, the limited supply of fossil fuels and the increased concern over globalEnergy Conclave 2010 8th - 15th The global energy concerns of depleting fossil fuels and climate

  19. The role of US agricultural and forest activities in global climate change mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, En

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2005 the highest global surface temperature ever was recorded. A virtual consensus exists today among scientists that global warming is underway and that human greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a significant cause. Possible mitigation of climate...

  20. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  1. Global Development Our Responsibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of expertise cover urgent global issues such as food production, energy supply, climate change, biodiversity e ort to address urgent global issues particularly a ecting developing countries e.g. climate change of Communication, 2012 · Project Leader: Karin Nilsson · Graphic Design: Viktor Wrange & Michael Kvick Cover Photo

  2. Opinion: Canada's efforts accelerate a global tragedy of the climate commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Opinion: Canada's efforts accelerate a global tragedy of the climate commons BY MAUREEN RYAN, KEN's statement that Canada "won't take `no' for an answer" regarding the impending U.S. decision about, Financial Post Opinion: Canada's efforts accelerate a global tragedy of the climate... http

  3. Climatic Impact of Global-Scale Deforestation: Radiative versus Nonradiative Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Climatic Impact of Global-Scale Deforestation: Radiative versus Nonradiative Processes EDOUARD L­ocean­atmosphere GCM is used to explore the biogeophysical impact of large-scale deforestation on surface climate that the surface albedo increase owing to deforestation has a cooling effect of 21.36 K globally. On the other hand

  4. Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpasuvan, Varavut

    Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change? Dennis L. Hartmann of Climate Change (IPCC) assess- ment of the status of global warming, which reported that winter stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse warming are possible. These interactions may be responsible

  5. Global climate processes: Role of cirrus clouds for present and future PI: Ulrike Lohmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    26 P 2.2 CCC Global climate processes: Role of cirrus clouds for present and future climate PI nuclei affect cirrus clouds in the present and future climate? Does mineral dust lead to cirrus clouds the longwave radiation and could lead to a net cooling. Thus, it is important to better understand the role

  6. Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    1 Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis of how, Andrew J. Dougill and Piers M. Forster August 2010 Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 29 #12;2 The Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP) was established

  7. Global climate change and the scientific consensus Stephen Mulkey, PhD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    1 Global climate change and the scientific consensus Stephen Mulkey, PhD Director of Research scientists. As scientists, our job is to present the data on climate change and to propose plausible recreate the Earth's climate in a laboratory bottle and change its composition to see what happens. Instead

  8. Global climate change is currently affecting many ecological systems and may have large impacts on agri-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be crucial in the tropics, where most agriculture is in rain-fed systems and climate change has a potentially of Biological Sciences. Synergies between Agricultural Intensification and Climate Change Could CreateArticles Global climate change is currently affecting many ecological systems and may have large

  9. GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Buffered climate change effects in a Mediterranean pine species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Buffered climate change effects in a Mediterranean pine Abstract Within-range effects of climatic change on tree growth at the sub-regional scale remain poorly- growth responses to climate change, the role of drought becomes even more complex in shaping communities

  10. Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which values terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to lead to increased demand for water for agricultural systems (+200%), even in the absence of climate change. In general policies to mitigate climate change will increase agricultural demands for water, regardless of whether or not terrestrial carbon is valued or not. Burgeoning demands for water are driven by the demand for bioenergy in response to emissions mitigation policies. We also find that the policy matters. Increases in the demand for water when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-prices are vastly larger than when terrestrial system carbon emissions are prices at the same rate as fossil fuel and industrial emissions. Our estimates for increased water demands when terrestrial carbon systems go un-priced are larger than earlier studies. We find that the deployment of improved irrigation delivery systems could mitigate some of the increase in water demands, but cannot reverse the increases in water demands when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-priced. Finally we estimates that the geospatial pattern of water demands could stress some parts of the world, e.g. China, India and other countries in south and east Asia, earlier and more intensely than in other parts of the world, e.g. North America.

  11. Collaborative Proposal: Transforming How Climate System Models are Used: A Global, Multi-Resolution Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estep, Donald

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the great interest in regional modeling for both weather and climate applications, regional modeling is not yet at the stage that it can be used routinely and effectively for climate modeling of the ocean. The overarching goal of this project is to transform how climate models are used by developing and implementing a robust, efficient, and accurate global approach to regional ocean modeling. To achieve this goal, we will use theoretical and computational means to resolve several basic modeling and algorithmic issues. The first task is to develop techniques for transitioning between parameterized and high-fidelity regional ocean models as the discretization grid transitions from coarse to fine regions. The second task is to develop estimates for the error in scientifically relevant quantities of interest that provide a systematic way to automatically determine where refinement is needed in order to obtain accurate simulations of dynamic and tracer transport in regional ocean models. The third task is to develop efficient, accurate, and robust time-stepping schemes for variable spatial resolution discretizations used in regional ocean models of dynamics and tracer transport. The fourth task is to develop frequency-dependent eddy viscosity finite element and discontinuous Galerkin methods and study their performance and effectiveness for simulation of dynamics and tracer transport in regional ocean models. These four projects share common difficulties and will be approach using a common computational and mathematical toolbox. This is a multidisciplinary project involving faculty and postdocs from Colorado State University, Florida State University, and Penn State University along with scientists from Los Alamos National Laboratory. The completion of the tasks listed within the discussion of the four sub-projects will go a long way towards meeting our goal of developing superior regional ocean models that will transform how climate system models are used.

  12. Intercomparison of the Cloud Water Phase among Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komurcu, Muge; Storelvmo, Trude; Tan, Ivy; Lohmann, U.; Yun, Yuxing; Penner, Joyce E.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong; Takemura, T.

    2014-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed-phase clouds (clouds that consist of both cloud droplets and ice crystals) are frequently present in the Earth’s atmosphere and influence the Earth’s energy budget through their radiative properties, which are highly dependent on the cloud water phase. In this study, the phase partitioning of cloud water is compared among six global climate models (GCMs) and with Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization retrievals. It is found that the GCMs predict vastly different distributions of cloud phase for a given temperature, and none of them are capable of reproducing the spatial distribution or magnitude of the observed phase partitioning. While some GCMs produced liquid water paths comparable to satellite observations, they all failed to preserve sufficient liquid water at mixed-phase cloud temperatures. Our results suggest that validating GCMs using only the vertically integrated water contents could lead to amplified differences in cloud radiative feedback. The sensitivity of the simulated cloud phase in GCMs to the choice of heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization is also investigated. The response to a change in ice nucleation is quite different for each GCM, and the implementation of the same ice nucleation parameterization in all models does not reduce the spread in simulated phase among GCMs. The results suggest that processes subsequent to ice nucleation are at least as important in determining phase and should be the focus of future studies aimed at understanding and reducing differences among the models.

  13. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  14. Assessing the effects of ocean diffusivity and climate sensitivity on the rate of global climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittner, Andreas

    sensitivity and ocean heat uptake on the rate of future climate change. We apply a range of values for climate a significant effect on the rate of transient climate change for high values of climate sensitivity, while values of climate sensitivity and low values of ocean diffusivity. Such high rates of change could

  15. Urban climate resilience : a global assessment of city adaptation plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katich, Kristina Noel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As policy makers accept climate change as an irrefutable threat, adaptation planning has emerged as a necessary action for countries, states, and municipalities. This thesis explores adaptive responses to climate change ...

  16. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s Fourth National Communication on Climate Change. A Reportclimate change can be assessed using data from national communicationscommunication were also reflected in the working drafts of the Spanish Climate Change

  17. How will changes in global climate influence California?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weare, B C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    future climate change impacts on water for agriculture andclimate change that will be important for California agriculture

  18. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results in 4° C global warming, sea level rise, specieslevels of greenhouse gases are responsible for incremental global warming.levels as that of the developing countries, the world would not today have faced the threat of global warming.

  19. Issues and Perspectives The Importance of Assessing Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    prioritizes attention on a small subset of ``special status'' species at high risk of extinction, but actions identification of species at risk of extinction. We compared climate change vulnerability and lists of special status species to examine the adequacy of current lists to represent species at risk of extinction

  20. An examination of urban heat island characteristics in a global climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleson, Keith W.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Jackson, Trisha L.

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A parameterization for urban surfaces has been incorporated into the Community Land Model as part of the Community Climate System Model. The parameterization allows global simulation of the urban environment, in particular the temperature of cities...

  1. GLOBAL HYDRLOGIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE MID-CRETACEOUS GREENHOUSE CLIMATE (APTIAN-ALBIAN)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suarez, Marina B.

    2009-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation examines the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse climate in the Aptian-Albian through the perspective of the global hydrologic cycle. Stable isotopic compositions of pedogenic and exposure surface carbonates presented ...

  2. Climate Change Influences on Global Distributions of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus Vectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Lindsay P.; Luther, Caylor; Moo-Llanes, David; Ramsey, Janine M.; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This packet presents raster data files that accompany a manuscript submitted for publication to Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, titled “Climate Change Influences on Global Vector Distributions for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses...

  3. Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ." #12;Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation Sources in Minnesota A Study gas (GHG) emissions from Minnesota's transportation sector. #12;Research Study Team UniversityBackground: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems

  4. Sensitivity of Climate to Diapycnal Diffusivity: Part I. Equilibrium State; Part II. Global Warming Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalan, Fabio.

    Part I: The diapycnal diffusivity in the ocean is one of the least known parameters in current climate models. Measurements of this diffusivity are sparse and insufficient for compiling a global map. Inferences from inverse ...

  5. CO Capture, Reuse, and Storage Technologies2 for Mitigating Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO Capture, Reuse, and Storage Technologies2 for Mitigating Global Climate Change A White Paper Final Report DOE Order No. DE-AF22-96PC01257 Energy Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5. Geological Storage Technology

  6. Detection and Attribution of Climate Change : From global mean temperature change to climate extremes and high impact weather.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This talk will describe how evidence has grown in recent years for a human influence on climate and explain how the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that it is extremely likely (>95% probability) that human influence on climate has been the dominant cause of the observed global-mean warming since the mid-20th century. The fingerprint of human activities has also been detected in warming of the ocean, in changes in the global water cycle, in reductions in snow and ice, and in changes in some climate extremes. The strengthening of evidence for the effects of human influence on climate extremes is in line with long-held basic understanding of the consequences of mean warming for temperature extremes and for atmospheric moisture. Despite such compelling evidence this does not mean that every instance of high impact weather can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change, because climate variability is often a major factor in many locations, especially for rain...

  7. Extinction Risk, Ecological Stress and Climate Change: How Species Respond to Changes in Global Biodiversity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Extinction Risk, Ecological Stress and Climate Change: How Species Respond to Changes in Global subordinate species less intelligent than us, at risk of extinction. In other words, anthropogenic activities have made other species sensitive to changes in climate and habitat vulnerable to extinction [Parry et

  8. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

  9. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

  10. THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND THE GLOBAL CLIMATE SYSTEM: A REVIEW OF THE MAXIMUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    to absorption of solar radiation in the climate system is found to be irrelevant to the maximized prop- erties from hot to cold places, thereby producing the kinetic energy of the fluid itself. His generalTHE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND THE GLOBAL CLIMATE SYSTEM: A REVIEW OF THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY

  11. National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment Energy and Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change will develop and advance partnerships that focus on transitioning the world to a new "low carbon" and "climate resilient" energy system. It will emphasize putting ideas into action - moving forward on policy and practice.

  12. How will changes in global climate influence California?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weare, B C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, UC Davis.climate change impacts on water for agriculture and otherincreased flooding and reduced water availability, higher

  13. adopting global climate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and biomass which are environmentally clean is aimed at diversification of the energy matrix, mitigating against climate change and providing alternatives to the use of...

  14. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  15. Projecting Impacts of Global Climate Change on the U.S. Forest and Agriculture Sectors and Carbon Budgets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Projecting Impacts of Global Climate Change on the U.S. Forest and Agriculture Sectors and Carbon Impacts of Global Climate Change on the U.S. Forest and Agriculture Sectors and Carbon Budgets of possible deleterious effects of climate change on agricultural and forest productivity has been raised

  16. RISNEWS DECEMBER2007NO Global climate and energy challenges can be solved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RISØNEWSNO 22007PAGE1 RISØNEWS DECEMBER2007NO 2 Global climate and energy challenges can be solved). Within the field of sustainable energy, we conduct research into bioenergy, fuel cells and hydrogen, emerging energy tech- nologies, society and systems, and wind power. If we wish to limit the global

  17. Project EARTH-12-SHELL1: Global expression of climatic and palaeoceanographic events in black shales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    geochronology, the expression of the global Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T- OAE) ­ a major black shale eventProject EARTH-12-SHELL1: Global expression of climatic and palaeoceanographic events in black shales: generation of new high-resolution records from the Jurassic of the Neuquen Basin, Argentina

  18. Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well? Reto Knutti1 global surface warming so well?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18704, doi:10.1029/ 2008GL034932. 1 models reproduce the observed surface warming better than one would expect given the uncertainties

  19. Global impacts of abrupt climate change: an initial assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    in progress". Whilst they are commented on by Tyndall researchers, they have not been subject to a full peer that the climate system has in the last few thousand years undergone a number of rapid or step changes, at regional of such abrupt climate changes1 include: · regional cooling following a shutdown of the thermohaline circulation

  20. Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

  1. Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR, AND MARK A. CANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR to global warming is investigated using model outputs submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate equatorial Indian Ocean warm more than the SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean under global warming

  2. 1997 SPECIAL ISSUE A Neural Global Workspace Model for Conscious Attention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memphis, University of

    1997 SPECIAL ISSUE A Neural Global Workspace Model for Conscious Attention James Newman,1 Bernard J and 3 Department of Computer Science, Yonsei University (Received 9 July 1996; accepted 24 April 1997 neural network principles. 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. Keywords--Attention, Binding, Consciousness, Global

  3. www.GlobalStudiesJournal.com Volume 4, Issue 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's economic expansion into South America? and 2) How has Ecuador responded to China's political and economic growth and political power, China's growing economy has catapulted this historically self-reliant country into the global political spotlight over the last three decades. While China's seemingly insatiable need

  4. Implications of Climate Science for Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, H.D.

    2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change presents the greatest challenge ever faced by our domestic and international institutions, and a great deal of the difficulty lies in the science of the issue. Because human influence on global climate differs ...

  5. REVIEW Open Access Climate-smart agriculture global research agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    , William R Horwath2 , Bryan M Jenkins10 , Ermias Kebreab11 , Rik Leemans12 , Leslie Lipper13 , Mark N Wollenberg23 , Lovell S Jarvis24 and Louise E Jackson2 Abstract Background: Climate-smart agriculture (CSA

  6. Linking local air pollution to global chemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Monika.; Wang, Chien.; Webster, Mort David.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    We have incorporated a reduced-form urban air chemistry model in MIT's 2D-LO coupled chemistry-climate model. The computationally efficient reduced-form urban model is derived from the California Institute of Technology-Carnegie ...

  7. ebate over climate change frequently conflates issues of science and politics. Because of their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    D ebate over climate change frequently conflates issues of science and politics. Because Mearns, of the National Center for Atmospher- ic Research (NCAR), aptly characterizes this context, and hurricane impacts. AFFILIATIONS: PIELKE--Center for Science and Technology Policy Research, University

  8. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on International Emissions Trading. Global Envi- ronmentalTask Group on Emissions Trading. Final Report: Introductionand Crawshaw, David. 2006. Emissions Trading Inquiry a Joke:

  9. Issues Brief #1: Clarity over the Global Warming "Hiatus" December 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    could reverse heat penetration into the ocean. When this happens, the global average surface temperature per cent) is being absorbed by the ocean. As demonstrated by climate models, the long- term trend reflect sunlight and modify clouds. An important third factor has been the uptake of heat by the ocean

  10. New Directions: A facelift for the picture of the global energy balance Earth's climate is largely regulated by the global energy balance,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    New Directions: A facelift for the picture of the global energy balance Earth's climate is largely regulated by the global energy balance, which considers the energy flows within the climate system a perturbation of this energy balance, through a modification of the energy flows in the polluted atmosphere

  11. The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucenna, Ahmed

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. The oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a long period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mil...

  12. An Integrated Assessment Framework for Uncertainty Studies in Global and Regional Climate Change: The IGSM-CAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monier, Erwan

    2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an integrated assessment framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), ...

  13. The contribution of future agricultural trends in the US Midwest to global climate change mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Bandaru, Varaprasad; West, Tristram O.; Wise, Marshall A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Land use change is a complex response to changing environmental and socioeconomic systems. Historical drivers of land use change include changes in the natural resource availability of a region, changes in economic conditions for production of certain products and changing policies. Most recently, introduction of policy incentives for biofuel production have influenced land use change in the US Midwest, leading to concerns that bioenergy production systems may compete with food production and land conservation. Here we explore how land use may be impacted by future climate mitigation measures by nesting a high resolution agricultural model (EPIC – Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) for the US Midwest within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM – Global Change Assessment Model). This approach is designed to provide greater spatial resolution and detailed agricultural practice information by focusing on the climate mitigation potential of agriculture and land use in a specific region, while retaining the global economic context necessary to understand the far ranging effects of climate mitigation targets. We find that until the simulated carbon prices are very high, the US Midwest has a comparative advantage in producing traditional food and feed crops over bioenergy crops. Overall, the model responds to multiple pressures by adopting a mix of future responses. We also find that the GCAM model is capable of simulations at multiple spatial scales and agricultural technology resolution, which provides the capability to examine regional response to global policy and economic conditions in the context of climate mitigation.

  14. Global vegetation model diversity and the risks of climate-driven ecosystem shifts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change is modifying global biogeochemical cycles, and is expected to exert increasingly large effects in the future. How these changes will in turn affect and interact with the structure and function of particular ecosystems is unclear, however, both because of scientific uncertainties and the very diversity of global vegetation models in use. Writing in Environmental Research Letters, Warszawski et al. (1) aggregate results from a group of models, across a range of emissions scenarios and climate data, to investigate these risks. Although the models frequently disagree about which specific regions are at risk, they consistently predict a greater chance of ecosystem restructuring with more warming; this risk roughly doubles between 2 and 3 °C increases in global mean temperature. The innovative work of Warszawski et al. represents an important first step towards fully consistent multi-model, multi-scenario assessments of the future risks to global ecosystems.

  15. Accounting for Global Climate Model Projection Uncertainty in Modern Statistical Downscaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johannesson, G

    2010-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Future climate change has emerged as a national and a global security threat. To carry out the needed adaptation and mitigation steps, a quantification of the expected level of climate change is needed, both at the global and the regional scale; in the end, the impact of climate change is felt at the local/regional level. An important part of such climate change assessment is uncertainty quantification. Decision and policy makers are not only interested in 'best guesses' of expected climate change, but rather probabilistic quantification (e.g., Rougier, 2007). For example, consider the following question: What is the probability that the average summer temperature will increase by at least 4 C in region R if global CO{sub 2} emission increases by P% from current levels by time T? It is a simple question, but one that remains very difficult to answer. It is answering these kind of questions that is the focus of this effort. The uncertainty associated with future climate change can be attributed to three major factors: (1) Uncertainty about future emission of green house gasses (GHG). (2) Given a future GHG emission scenario, what is its impact on the global climate? (3) Given a particular evolution of the global climate, what does it mean for a particular location/region? In what follows, we assume a particular GHG emission scenario has been selected. Given the GHG emission scenario, the current batch of the state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) is used to simulate future climate under this scenario, yielding an ensemble of future climate projections (which reflect, to some degree our uncertainty of being able to simulate future climate give a particular GHG scenario). Due to the coarse-resolution nature of the GCM projections, they need to be spatially downscaled for regional impact assessments. To downscale a given GCM projection, two methods have emerged: dynamical downscaling and statistical (empirical) downscaling (SDS). Dynamic downscaling involves configuring and running a regional climate model (RCM) nested within a given GCM projection (i.e., the GCM provides bounder conditions for the RCM). On the other hand, statistical downscaling aims at establishing a statistical relationship between observed local/regional climate variables of interest and synoptic (GCM-scale) climate predictors. The resulting empirical relationship is then applied to future GCM projections. A comparison of the pros and cons of dynamical versus statistical downscaling is outside the scope of this effort, but has been extensively studied and the reader is referred to Wilby et al. (1998); Murphy (1999); Wood et al. (2004); Benestad et al. (2007); Fowler et al. (2007), and references within those. The scope of this effort is to study methodology, a statistical framework, to propagate and account for GCM uncertainty in regional statistical downscaling assessment. In particular, we will explore how to leverage an ensemble of GCM projections to quantify the impact of the GCM uncertainty in such an assessment. There are three main component to this effort: (1) gather the necessary climate-related data for a regional SDS study, including multiple GCM projections, (2) carry out SDS, and (3) assess the uncertainty. The first step is carried out using tools written in the Python programming language, while analysis tools were developed in the statistical programming language R; see Figure 1.

  16. Sensitivity of China's ozone air quality to 2000-2050 global changes of1 climate and emissions2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    1 Sensitivity of China's ozone air quality to 2000-2050 global changes of1 climate and emissions2 3 emissions of ozone precursors. The climate and16 emission effect in combination will increase afternoon mean increases18 in global (excluding China) anthropogenic emissions, 37% to Chinese emission19 increases

  17. Local Response to Global Climate Change: The Role of Local Development Plans in Climate Change Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Himanshu

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change is possibly the greatest threat facing human society in this century. The response to this challenge has been dominated by international negotiations for controlling greenhouse gas emissions. More recently there are efforts...

  18. Understanding Global Climate Change: 2011 (an instructional DVD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    science, and ecology. · Is based on reliable information from the National Aeronautics and Space the Earth 2. Earth's Grand Cycles 3. Energy in the Global System 4. Historical Perspective 5. Remote Sensing the National Science Foundation's Science and Technology Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CRe

  19. Global situational awareness and early warning of high-consequence climate change.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backus, George A.; Carr, Martin J.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global monitoring systems that have high spatial and temporal resolution, with long observational baselines, are needed to provide situational awareness of the Earth's climate system. Continuous monitoring is required for early warning of high-consequence climate change and to help anticipate and minimize the threat. Global climate has changed abruptly in the past and will almost certainly do so again, even in the absence of anthropogenic interference. It is possible that the Earth's climate could change dramatically and suddenly within a few years. An unexpected loss of climate stability would be equivalent to the failure of an engineered system on a grand scale, and would affect billions of people by causing agricultural, economic, and environmental collapses that would cascade throughout the world. The probability of such an abrupt change happening in the near future may be small, but it is nonzero. Because the consequences would be catastrophic, we argue that the problem should be treated with science-informed engineering conservatism, which focuses on various ways a system can fail and emphasizes inspection and early detection. Such an approach will require high-fidelity continuous global monitoring, informed by scientific modeling.

  20. Climate mitigation’s impact on global and regional electric power sector water use in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the course of this coming century, global electricity use is expected to grow at least five fold and if stringent greenhouse gas emissions controls are in place the growth could be more than seven fold from current levels. Given that the electric power sector represents the second largest anthropogenic use of water and given growing concerns about the nature and extent of future water scarcity driven by population growth and a changing climate, significant concern has been expressed about the electricity sector’s use of water going forward. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that an often overlooked but absolutely critical issue that needs to be taken into account in discussions about the sustainability of the electric sector’s water use going forward is the tremendous turn over in electricity capital stock that will occur over the course of this century; i.e., in the scenarios examined here more than 80% of global electricity production in the year 2050 is from facilities that have not yet been built. The authors show that because of the large scale changes in the global electricity system, the water withdrawal intensity of electricity production is likely to drop precipitously with the result being relatively constant water withdrawals over the course of the century even in the face of the large growth in electricity usage. The ability to cost effectively reduce the water intensity of power plants with carbon dioxide capture and storage systems in particular is key to constraining overall global water use.

  1. YEAR PROGRESS REPORT TITLE: Global Modeling of Tropospheric Aerosols and Their Contribution to Climate Variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as CCN would cool the climate system by about ­1.16 W m-2 , while carbonaceous aerosols from fossil fuel combustion acting alone may cool the system by about ­0.52 W m-2 (see Table 1). However, because-1- GACP 2nd YEAR PROGRESS REPORT TITLE: Global Modeling of Tropospheric Aerosols

  2. Arctic ice export events and their potential impact on global climate during the late Pleistocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darby, Dennis

    Arctic ice export events and their potential impact on global climate during the late Pleistocene export events are identified from the Laurentide and the Innuitian ice sheets, between 14 and 34 ka, the Arctic export events appear to occur prior to Heinrich events. INDEX TERMS: 4207 Oceanography: General

  3. Sea Ice in the Global Climate System Kenneth M. Golden1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    Sea Ice in the Global Climate System Kenneth M. Golden1 , Elizabeth Hunke2 , Cecilia Bitz3 Figure 2. The Antarctic sea ice pack with an open lead in the distance. (K. M. Golden) Figure 1. Pancake ice in the Southern Ocean off the coast of East Antarctica. (K. M. Golden

  4. Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population: Received 22 September 2011 Received in revised form 16 December 2011 Accepted 26 January 2012 Available availability a b s t r a c t Human populations are profoundly affected by water stress, or the lack

  5. Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change S I M O, Australia Abstract Elevated ocean temperatures can cause coral bleaching, the loss of colour from reef- building corals because of a breakdown of the symbiosis with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium. Recent

  6. ENERGY INVESTMENTS UNDER CLIMATE POLICY: A COMPARISON OF GLOBAL MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCollum, David; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; Marangoni, Giacomo; Calvin, Katherine V.; Pietzcker, Robert; Van Vliet, Jasper; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The levels of investment needed to mobilize an energy system transformation and mitigate climate change are not known with certainty. This paper aims to inform the ongoing dialogue and in so doing to guide public policy and strategic corporate decision making. Within the framework of the LIMITS integrated assessment model comparison exercise, we analyze a multi-IAM ensemble of long-term energy and greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Our study provides insight into several critical but uncertain areas related to the future investment environment, for example in terms of where capital expenditures may need to flow regionally, into which sectors they might be concentrated, and what policies could be helpful in spurring these financial resources. We find that stringent climate policies consistent with a 2°C climate change target would require a considerable upscaling of investments into low-carbon energy and energy efficiency, reaching approximately $45 trillion (range: $30–$75 trillion) cumulative between 2010 and 2050, or about $1.1 trillion annually. This represents an increase of some $30 trillion ($10–$55 trillion), or $0.8 trillion per year, beyond what investments might otherwise be in a reference scenario that assumes the continuation of present and planned emissions-reducing policies throughout the world. In other words, a substantial "clean-energy investment gap" of some $800 billion/yr exists — notably on the same order of magnitude as present-day subsidies for fossil energy and electricity worldwide ($523 billion). Unless the gap is filled rather quickly, the 2°C target could potentially become out of reach.

  7. Global Climate and Energy Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting Jump to:Echo, Maryland:Glenwillow,OpenEIGlobal Climate and

  8. Global simulations of smoke from Kuwaiti oil fires and possible effects on climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C.; Kao, C.Y.J.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos Global Climate Model has bee used to simulate the global evolution of the Kuwaiti oil fire smoke and its potential effects on the climate. The initial simulations were done shortly before the fires were lit in January 1991. They indicated that such an event would not result in a ``Mini Nuclear Winter`` as some people were suggesting. Further simulations during the year suggested that the smoke could be responsible for subtle regional climate changes in the spring such as a 5 degree centigrade decrease in the surface temperature in Kuwait, a 10% decrease in precipitation in Saudi Arabia and a 10% increase in precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau region. These results are in qualitative agreement with the observations this year.

  9. Global simulations of smoke from Kuwaiti oil fires and possible effects on climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C.; Kao, C.Y.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos Global Climate Model has bee used to simulate the global evolution of the Kuwaiti oil fire smoke and its potential effects on the climate. The initial simulations were done shortly before the fires were lit in January 1991. They indicated that such an event would not result in a Mini Nuclear Winter'' as some people were suggesting. Further simulations during the year suggested that the smoke could be responsible for subtle regional climate changes in the spring such as a 5 degree centigrade decrease in the surface temperature in Kuwait, a 10% decrease in precipitation in Saudi Arabia and a 10% increase in precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau region. These results are in qualitative agreement with the observations this year.

  10. Pew Center on Global Climate Change | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergy International Limited JumpPetbowPew Center on Global

  11. The dilemma of fossil fuel use and global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkins, R.R.; Fulkerson, W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Sanghvi, M.K. (Amoco Corp., Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of fossil fuels and relationship to climate change is discussed. As the use of fossil fuels has grown, the problems of protecting the environment and human health and safety have also grown, providing a continuing challenge to technological and managerial innovation. Today that challenge is to control atmospheric emissions from combustion, particularly those emissions that cause acidic deposition, urban pollution, and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Technology for reducing acidic deposition is available and needs only to be adopted, and the remedies for urban pollution are being developed and tested. How effective or expensive these will be remains to be determined. The control of emissions of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}, seems possible only be reducing the total amounts of fossil fuels used worldwide, and by substituting efficient natural gas technologies for coal. Long before physical depletion forces the transition away from fossil fuels, it is at least plausible and even likely that the greenhouse effect will impose a show-stopping constraint. If such a transition were soon to be necessary, the costs would be very high because substitute energy sources are either limited or expensive or undesirable for other reasons. Furthermore, the costs would be unevenly felt and would be more oppressive for developing nations because they would be least able to pay and, on average, their use rates of fossil fuels are growing much faster than those of many industrialized countries. It is prudent, therefore, to try to manage the use of fossil fuels as if a greenhouse constraint is an important possibility.

  12. Local Response to Global Climate Change: The Role of Local Development Plans in Climate Change Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Himanshu

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    in managing threats from natural hazards (Berke & Beatley, 1992; Brody, 2003a; Nelson & Steven), managing land use distribution (Kent & Jones, 1990), enhancing ecosystem management (Brody, 2003c; Brody, Carrasco, & Highfield, 2003; Brody, Highfield... & Godschalk, 2008; Brody, 2003b; Brody, Carrasco, et al., 2003; Burby, 1999; Burby, French, & Nelson, 1998; Burby & May, 1997; Dalton & Burby, 1994; Godschalk, Beatley, Berke, Brower, & Kaiser, 1999). Similarly, climate change researchers have identified...

  13. Improved Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in Global Climate Stabilization Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arent, D.; Sullivan, P.; Heimiller, D.; Lopez, A.; Eurek, K.; Badger, J.; Jorgensen, H. E.; Kelly, M.; Clarke, L.; Luckow, P.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces a technique for digesting geospatial wind-speed data into areally defined -- country-level, in this case -- wind resource supply curves. We combined gridded wind-vector data for ocean areas with bathymetry maps, country exclusive economic zones, wind turbine power curves, and other datasets and relevant parameters to build supply curves that estimate a country's offshore wind resource defined by resource quality, depth, and distance-from-shore. We include a single set of supply curves -- for a particular assumption set -- and study some implications of including it in a global energy model. We also discuss the importance of downscaling gridded wind vector data to capturing the full resource potential, especially over land areas with complex terrain. This paper includes motivation and background for a statistical downscaling methodology to account for terrain effects with a low computational burden. Finally, we use this forum to sketch a framework for building synthetic electric networks to estimate transmission accessibility of renewable resource sites in remote areas.

  14. Global Ecology and Biogeography, (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) (2013) 22, 470482, DOI: 10.1111/geb.12012 Soil water balance performs better than climatic water variables in tree species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Global Ecology and Biogeography, (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) (2013) 22, 470­482, DOI: 10.1111/geb water balance indices to predict the ecological niches of forest tree species. Location: France Methods aiming to determine the ecological niches of plant species and their responses to climate change. Key

  15. Project title: Global environmental change: biomineral proxies of ocean chemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    #8; FINAL PROJECT REPORT Please remember to provide CMI with electronic copies of any outputs that you have generated. This might include papers, presentations, patents, course material, attendance lists, website addresses, etc. Project... CMI Project Review: Project Name Global Environmental Change: Biomineral Proxies of Ocean Chemistry and Climate Number 003/P Report Period 22 June 2001- 30 April 2004 Project Name Cambridge PI, affiliation Harry Elderfield (Earth...

  16. The Thermodynamic Influence of Subgrid Orography in a Global Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Bian, Xindi; Hunt, Allen G.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessments of the impacts of climate change typically require information at scales of 10 km or less. Such a resolution will not be achieved by global climate models for many years. We have developed an alternative to explicit resolution that can meet the needs of climate change impact assessment now. We have applied to a global climate model a physically-based subgrid-scale treatment of the influence of orography on temperature, clouds, precipitation, and land surface hydrology. The treatment represents subgrid variations in surface elevation in terms of fractional area distributions of discrete elevation classes. For each class it calculates the height rise/descent of air parcels traveling through the grid cell, and applies the influence of the rise/descent to the temperature and humidity profiles of the elevation class. Cloud, radiative, and surface processes are calculated separately for each elevation class using the same physical parameterizations used by the model without the subgrid parameterization. The simulated climate fields for each elevation class can then be distributed in post-processing according to the spatial distribution of surface elevation within each grid cell. Parallel 10-year simulations with and without the subgrid treatment have been performed. The simulated temperature, precipitation and snow water are mapped to 2.5 minute (~5 km) resolution and compared with gridded analyses of station measurements. The simulation with the subgrid scheme produces a much more realistic distribution of snow water and significantly more realistic distributions of temperature and precipitation than the simulation without the subgrid scheme. Moreover, the grid cell means of most other fields are virtually unchanged by the subgrid scheme. This suggests that the tuning of the climate model without the subgrid scheme is also applicable to the model with the scheme.

  17. A Preliminary Proposal UWM Climate Change and Sustainable Development Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    . As these examples illustrate, the effects of global warming/climate change are wide-ranging, frightening, and continuing, which point to the critical need to understand human impact on climate change and what needs in issues associated with global warming can help address these complex issues. Institute Overview: Over

  18. Energy and Climate Change: 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change will develop and advance partnerships that focus on transitioning the world to a new ...

  19. Physically-Based Global Downscaling: Climate Change Projections for a Full Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A global atmosphere/land model with an embedded subgrid orography scheme is used to simulate the period 1977-2100 using ocean surface conditions and radiative constituent concentrations for a climate change scenario. Climate variables simulated for multiple elevation classes are mapping according to the high-resolution of topography in ten regions with complex terrain. Analysis of changes in the simulated climate lead to the following conclusions. Changes in precipitation vary widely, with precipitation increasing more with increasing altitude in some region, decreasing more with altitude in others, and changing little in still others. In some regions the sign of the precipitation change depends on surface elevation. Changes in surface air temperature are rather uniform, with at most a two-fold difference between the largest and smallest changes within a region. In most cases the warming increases with altitude. Changes in snow water are highly dependent on altitude. Absolute changes usually increase with altitude, while relative changes decrease. In places where snow accumulates, an artificial upper bound on snow water limits the sensitivity of snow water to climate change considerably. The simulated impact of climate change on regional mean snow water varies widely, with little impact in regions in which the upper bound on snow water is the dominant snow water sink, moderate impact in regions with a mixture of seasonal and permanent snow, and profound impacts on regions with little permanent snow.

  20. Physically-Based Global Downscaling Climate Change Projections for a Full Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A global atmosphere/land model with an embedded subgrid orography scheme is used to simulate the period 1977-2100 using ocean surface conditions and radiative constituent concentrations for a climate change scenario. Climate variables simulated for multiple elevation classes are mapping according to a high-resolution elevation dataset in ten regions with complex terrain. Analysis of changes in the simulated climate leads to the following conclusions. Changes in precipitation vary widely, with precipitation increasing more with increasing altitude in some region, decreasing more with altitude in others, and changing little in still others. In some regions the sign of the precipitation change depends on surface elevation. Changes in surface air temperature are rather uniform, with at most a two-fold difference between the largest and smallest changes within a region; in most cases the warming increases with altitude. Changes in snow water are highly dependent on altitude. Absolute changes usually increase with altitude, while relative changes decrease. In places where snow accumulates, an artificial upper bound on snow water limits the sensitivity of snow water to climate change considerably. The simulated impact of climate change on regional mean snow water varies widely, with little impact in regions in which the upper bound on snow water is the dominant snow water sink, moderate impact in regions with a mixture of seasonal and permanent snow, and profound impacts on regions with little permanent snow.

  1. Agriculture and Climate Change in Global Scenarios: Why Don't the Models Agree

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Gerald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Calvin, Katherine V.; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; Mueller, C.; Reilly, J. M.; Robertson, Richard; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agriculture is unique among economic sectors in the nature of impacts from climate change. The production activity that transforms inputs into agricultural outputs makes direct use of weather inputs. Previous studies of the impacts of climate change on agriculture have reported substantial differences in outcomes of key variables such as prices, production, and trade. These divergent outcomes arise from differences in model inputs and model specification. The goal of this paper is to review climate change results and underlying determinants from a model comparison exercise with 10 of the leading global economic models that include significant representation of agriculture. By providing common productivity drivers that include climate change effects, differences in model outcomes are reduced. All models show higher prices in 2050 because of negative productivity shocks from climate change. The magnitude of the price increases, and the adaptation responses, differ significantly across the various models. Substantial differences exist in the structural parameters affecting demand, area, and yield, and should be a topic for future research.

  2. Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kodra, Evan [Northeastern University; Ganguly, Auroop R [Northeastern University; Steinhaeuser, Karsten [University of Minnesota

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human populations are profoundly affected by water stress, or the lack of sufficient per capita available freshwater. Water stress can result from overuse of available freshwater resources or from a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We present a simple methodology developed to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios are used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes according to several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines are used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections are then combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by watershed and political unit. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, notably including the identification of the globe s most vulnerable regions in need of more detailed analysis and the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population change storylines.

  3. Recent Climate Changes in Precipitable Water in the Global Tropics as Revealed in NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    1 Recent Climate Changes in Precipitable Water in the Global Tropics as Revealed in NCEP: 1 (808) 956-2877 Email: chu@hawaii.edu #12;2 Abstract For the first time, long-term climate changes/NCAR Reanalysis Igor I. Zveryaev and Pao-Shin Chu* P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, Moscow, Russia

  4. Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Pacific Storm Track Using a Multiscale Global Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Renyi; Ghan, Steven J.; Lin, Yun; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Levy, Misti; Jiang, Jonathan; Molina, Mario J.

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric aerosols impact weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track using a multi-scale global aerosol-climate model (GCM). Simulations of two aerosol scenarios corresponding to the present day and pre-industrial conditions reveal long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols across the north Pacific and large resulting changes in the aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud and ice water paths. Shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere are changed by - 2.5 and + 1.3 W m-2, respectively, by emission changes from pre-industrial to present day, and an increased cloud-top height indicates invigorated mid-latitude cyclones. The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. Hence, this work provides for the first time a global perspective of the impacts of Asian pollution outflows from GCMs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the multi-scale modeling framework is essential in producing the aerosol invigoration effect of deep convective clouds on the global scale.

  5. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program. A comprehensive plan. Part I. The global carbon cycle and climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initial plans for research of the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) and climate issue were prepared in 1978 and were reviewed extensively at that time by federal agencies and members of the scientific community. Since then the plans have been used to guide early phases of the Department of Energy's and the nation's efforts related to this issue. This document represents a revision of the 1978 plan to (a) reflect recent ideas and strategies for carbon cycle research, and (b) expand the scope of research on climatic responses to increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO/sub 2/. The revised plan takes into account a number of investigations already being supported by various agencies, and it attempts to build on or add to existing research where there is a crucial need for information directly related to the CO/sub 2/ issue. It should be recognized that this document is the first section of a comprehensive plan on the overall consequences of increasing concentrations of CO/sub 2/, and includes guidelines for research on the Global Carbon Cycle and Climatic Effects of Increasing CO/sub 2/.

  6. Climate Change Modeling and Downscaling Issues and Methodological Perspectives for the U.S. National Climate Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Collins, William D.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah; Hayhoe, Katharine; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Hurtt, George

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the full workshop report for the modeling workshop we did for the National Climate Assessment, with DOE support.

  7. A Global View on the Wind Sea and Swell Climate and Variability from ERA-40 ALVARO SEMEDO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    A Global View on the Wind Sea and Swell Climate and Variability from ERA-40 ALVARO SEMEDO 2010) ABSTRACT In this paper a detailed global climatology of wind-sea and swell parameters, based on the 45-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40) wave reanalysis

  8. Accounting for global-mean warming and scaling uncertainties in climate change impact studies Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(3), 12071226, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Accounting for global-mean warming and scaling uncertainties in climate change impact studies 1207(s) 2007. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Accounting for global-mean warming from a few regional climate model runs are scaled, based on different global-mean warming projections

  9. Probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming and uncertain scaling relationship Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(3), 10971114, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming of probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming and an uncertain/precipitation per degree global mean warming. Each scaling variable is assumed to be normally distributed

  10. Managing the global commons decision making and conflict resolution in response to climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Naegeli, W.; Lund, P. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop was convened to develop a better understanding of decision-making matters concerning management of the global commons and to resolve conflicts in response to climate change. This workshop report does not provide a narrative of the proceedings. The workshop program is included, as are the abstracts of the papers that were presented. Only the introductory paper on social science research by William Riebsame and the closing summary by Richard Rockwell are reprinted here. This brief report focuses instead on the deliberations of the working groups that developed during the workshop. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The world we now live in is confronted with various challenges. Environmental issues caused by global warming, and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    #12;The world we now live in is confronted with various challenges. Environmental issues caused by global warming, and the intensification of international competition over access to resources, energy by a single nation; rather, each country must work together for global solutions to tackle these environmental

  12. Commonality Among Unique Indigenous Communities: An Introduction to Climate Change and Its Impacts on Indigenous Peoples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abate, Randall S.; Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article is part of a special issue of the Tulane Environmental Law Journal exploring how climate change affects the rights of indigenous peoples. Climate change is a global environmental problem caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Indigenous...

  13. Long-Term Predictions of Global Climate Using the Ocean Conveyor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, P.; Wilson, J.R.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many have attributed the Great Ocean Conveyor as a major driver of global climate change over millennia as well as a possible explanation for shorter (multidecadal) oscillations. The conveyor is thought to have a cycle time on the order of 1000 years, however recent research has suggested that it is much faster than previously believed (about 100 years). A faster conveyor leads to the possibility of the conveyor's role in even shorter oscillations such as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The conveyor is primarily density driven. In this study the salty outflow of the Red Sea is used to predict its behavior ten years into the future. A successful model could lead to a long-term prediction (ten years) of El Ninos, Atlantic hurricane season intensity, as well as global temperature and precipitation patterns.

  14. Testing for the Possible Influence of Unknown Climate Forcings upon Global Temperature Increases from 1950-2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce T.; Knight, Jeff R.; Ringer, Mark A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Cherchi, Annalisa

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Global-scale variations in the climate system over the last half of the twentieth century, including long-term increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures, are consistent with concurrent human-induced emissions of radiatively active gases and aerosols. However, such consistency does not preclude the possible influence of other forcing agents, including internal modes of climate variability or unaccounted for aerosol effects. To test whether other unknown forcing agents may have contributed to multidecadal increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures from 1950 to 2000, data pertaining to observed changes in global-scale sea surface temperatures and observed changes in radiatively active atmospheric constituents are incorporated into numerical global climate models. Results indicate that the radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trends in sea surface temperatures—and global-mean near-surface temperatures—is provided predominantly by known changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols. Further, results indicate that less than 10% of the long-term historical increase in global-mean near-surface temperatures over the last half of the twentieth century could have been the result of internal climate variability. In addition, they indicate that less than 25%of the total radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trend in global-mean near-surface temperatures could have been provided by changes in net radiative forcing from unknown sources (either positive or negative). These results, which are derived from simple energy balance requirements, emphasize the important role humans have played in modifying the global climate over the last half of the twentieth century.

  15. Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Dooley, James J.; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Globally, electricity generation accounts for a large and potentially growing water demand, and as such is an important component to assessments of global and regional water scarcity. However, the current suite—as well as potential future suites—of thermoelectric generation technologies has a very wide range of water demand intensities, spanning two orders of magnitude. As such, the evolution of the generation mix is important for the future water demands of the sector. This study uses GCAM, an integrated assessment model, to analyze the global electric sector’s water demands in three futures of climate change mitigation policy and two technology strategies. We find that despite five- to seven-fold expansion of the electric sector as a whole from 2005 to 2095, global electric sector water withdrawals remain relatively stable, due to the retirement of existing power plants with water-intensive once-through flow cooling systems. In the scenarios examined here, climate policies lead to the large-scale deployment of advanced, low-emissions technologies such as carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), concentrating solar power, and engineered geothermal systems. In particular, we find that the large-scale deployment of CCS technologies does not increase long-term water consumption from hydrocarbon-fueled power generation as compared with a no-policy scenario without CCS. Moreover, in sensitivity scenarios where low-emissions electricity technologies are required to use dry cooling systems, we find that the consequent additional costs and efficiency reductions do not limit the utility of these technologies in achieving cost-effective whole-system emissions mitigation.

  16. Solar Physics (2004) 224: 34 C Springer 2005 The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Solar Physics (2004) 224: 3­4 C Springer 2005 PREFACE The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of Long-Term Solar Activity" is based on contributions presented at the First of solar activity, and their effects in the near-Earth environment and technoculture. As an analogy

  17. Climatic Change -Special Issue on Climate and Ocean Fisheries manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Adaptation Program (PACCSAP), a program managed by the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency/SPICE. Part of the research was conducted with the support of the Pa- cific Australia Climate Change Science, Sydney Australia #12;2 Ganachaud et al. Abstract Future physical and chemical changes to the ocean

  18. Sensitivity of global tropical climate to land surface processes: Mean state and interannual variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Xiao, Heng; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the sensitivity of global tropical climate to land surface processes (LSP) using an atmospheric general circulation model both uncoupled (with prescribed SSTs) and coupled to an oceanic general circulation model. The emphasis is on the interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes, which have first order influence on the surface energy and water budgets. The sensitivity to those processes is represented by the differences between model simulations, in which two land surface schemes are considered: 1) a simple land scheme that specifies surface albedo and soil moisture availability, and 2) the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (SSiB), which allows for consideration of interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical process. Observational datasets are also employed to assess the reality of model-revealed sensitivity. The mean state sensitivity to different LSP is stronger in the coupled mode, especially in the tropical Pacific. Furthermore, seasonal cycle of SSTs in the equatorial Pacific, as well as ENSO frequency, amplitude, and locking to the seasonal cycle of SSTs are significantly modified and more realistic with SSiB. This outstanding sensitivity of the atmosphere-ocean system develops through changes in the intensity of equatorial Pacific trades modified by convection over land. Our results further demonstrate that the direct impact of land-atmosphere interactions on the tropical climate is modified by feedbacks associated with perturbed oceanic conditions ("indirect effect" of LSP). The magnitude of such indirect effect is strong enough to suggest that comprehensive studies on the importance of LSP on the global climate have to be made in a system that allows for atmosphere-ocean interactions.

  19. An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monier, Erwan

    This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model ...

  20. LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

  1. Estimates of the long-term U.S. economic impacts of global climate change-induced drought.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Loose, Verne W.; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While climate-change models have done a reasonable job of forecasting changes in global climate conditions over the past decades, recent data indicate that actual climate change may be much more severe. To better understand some of the potential economic impacts of these severe climate changes, Sandia economists estimated the impacts to the U.S. economy of climate change-induced impacts to U.S. precipitation over the 2010 to 2050 time period. The economists developed an impact methodology that converts changes in precipitation and water availability to changes in economic activity, and conducted simulations of economic impacts using a large-scale macroeconomic model of the U.S. economy.

  2. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O'Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes), changes in climate and related environmental conditions (e.g., sea level), and evolution of societal capability to respond to climate change. This wide range of scenarios is needed because the implications of climate change for the environment and society depend not only on changes in climate themselves, but also on human responses. This degree of breadth introduces and number of challenges for communication and research.

  3. Little Ice Age Glaciation in Alaska: A record of recent global climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calkin, P.E.; Wiles, G.C.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    General global cooling and temperature fluctuation accompanied by expansion of mountain glaciers characterized the Little Ice Age of about A.D. 1200 through A.D. 1900. The effects of such temperature changes appear first and are strongest at high latitudes. Therefore the Little Ice Age record of glacial fluctuation in Alaska may provide a good proxy for these events and a test for models of future climatic change. Holocene expansions began here as early as 7000 B.P. and locally show a periodicity of 350 years after about 4500 years B.P. The Little Ice Age followed a late Holocene interval of minor ice advance and a subsequent period of ice margin recession lasting one to seven centuries. The timing of expansions since about A.D. 1200 have often varied between glaciers, but these are the most pervasive glacial events of the Holocene in Alaska and frequently represent ice marginal maxima for this interval. At least two major expansions are, apparent in forefields of both land-terminating and fjord-calving glaciers, but the former display the most reliable and detailed climatic record. Major maxima occurred by the 16th century and into the mid-18th century. Culmination of advances occurred throughout Alaska during the 19th century followed within a few decades by general glacial retreat. Concurrently, equilibrium line altitudes have been raised 100-400 m, representing a rise of 2-3 deg C in mean summer temperature.

  4. James E. Hansen Columbia Univesity Earth Institute, Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    in the 1980s that helped raise awareness of global warming. He is a member of the U.S. National Academy awareness of the global warming issue. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1995 the human impact on global climate. He is best known for his testimony on climate change to Congress

  5. James E. Hansen Columbia University Earth Institute, Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    in the 1980s that helped raise awareness of global warming. He is a member of the U.S. National Academy awareness of the global warming issue. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1995 the human impact on global climate. He is best known for his testimony on climate change to Congress

  6. Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 20% and 27% of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in areas (grid cells) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  7. The Role of Stratification-Dependent Mixing for the Stability of the Atlantic Overturning in a Global Climate Model*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzeion, Ben

    in a Global Climate Model* BEN MARZEION Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, and Bjerknes Centre oceanic heat transport. Subsequently, and in opposition to results from previous studies, the overturning, as seen, for example, in temperature reconstructions from Greenland ice cores, are often ex- plained

  8. Global well-posedness of strong solutions to a tropical climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jinkai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we consider the Cauchy problem to the TROPIC CLIMATE MODEL derived by Frierson-Majda-Pauluis in [Comm. Math. Sci, Vol. 2 (2004)] which is a coupled system of the barotropic and the first baroclinic modes of the velocity and the typical midtropospheric temperature. The system considered in this paper has viscosities in the momentum equations, but no diffusivity in the temperature equation. We establish here the global well-posedness of strong solutions to this model. In proving the global existence of strong solutions, to overcome the difficulty caused by the absence of the diffusivity in the temperature equation, we introduce a new velocity $w$ (called the pseudo baroclinic velocity), which has more regularities than the original baroclinic mode of the velocity. An auxiliary function $\\phi$, which looks like the effective viscous flux for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, is also introduced to obtain the $L^\\infty$ bound of the temperature. Regarding the uniqueness, we use the idea of p...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MonitoringClimate Security Climate Security Climate Security Global reductions in greenhouse gases will eventually be motivated by an international climate treaty and will entail...

  10. Scientist warns against overselling climate change Climate change forecasters should admit that they cannot predict how global warming will affect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Paul

    that they cannot predict how global warming will affect individual countries, a leading physicist has said-of-deaths-from-ozone-predicted.html) Antarctic sea floor gives clues about effects of future global warming (/earth/environment/climatechange /5279223/Antarctic-sea-floor-gives-clues-about-affects-of-future-global-warming.html) The Vanishing Face

  11. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops.

  12. Global trade in dairy products involves complex and con-tentious issues. Viewed broadly from the perspective of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    Global trade in dairy products involves complex and con- tentious issues. Viewed broadly from the perspective of "society," there are large benefits from liberalizing trade. Viewed narrowly from the perspective of dairy producers, liberalized trade is desirable only if it expands exports and reduces imports

  13. Human-Made Climate Change: A Moral, Political and Legal Issue Dr. James E. Hansen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    kilometers deep, and the ice sheets, which are two to three kilometers thick, the climate system responds. #12;Climate Tipping Points 1. Ice Sheet Disintegration - Ocean Warming Ice Shelves Melt Ice Streams Interdependencies 3. Methane Hydrate ,,frozen methane - In Tundra & On Continental Shelves - Depends On Ocean & Ice

  14. The role of carbon in climate change: a lifecyclethinking approach to a complex issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Exchange pool: · The primary source of carbon to the atmosphere is outgassing from the Earth's interior carbonate rock forma>on (largely biogenic) The Carbon Cycle 6 UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change Climate records #12;Source: J.R. Petit, J. Jouzel. et. al

  15. Evaluating Clouds, Aerosols, and their Interactions in Three Global Climate Models using COSP and Satellite Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, George; Jin, Ling; Bauer, S.; Bennartz, Ralph; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Ming, Yi; Guo, Huan; Jiang, Jonathan

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurately representing aerosol-cloud interactions in global climate models is challenging. As parameterizations evolve, it is important to evaluate their performance with appropriate use of observations. In this work we compare aerosols, clouds, and their interactions in three climate models (AM3, CAM5, ModelE) to MODIS satellite observations. Modeled cloud properties were diagnosed using the CFMIP Observations Simulator Package (COSP). Cloud droplet number concentrations (N) were derived using the same algorithm for both satellite-simulated model values and observations. We find that aerosol optical depth tau simulated by models is similar to observations. For N, AM3 and CAM5 capture the observed spatial pattern of higher values in near-coast versus remote ocean regions, though modeled values in general are higher than observed. In contrast, ModelE simulates lower N in most near-coast versus remote regions. Aerosol- cloud interactions were computed as the sensitivity of N to tau for marine liquid clouds off the coasts of South Africa and Eastern Asia where aerosol pollution varies in time. AM3 and CAM5 are in most cases more sensitive than observations, while the sensitivity for ModelE is statistically insignificant. This widely used sensitivity could be subject to misinterpretation due to the confounding influence of meteorology on both aerosols and clouds. A simple framework for assessing the N – tau sensitivity at constant meteorology illustrates that observed sensitivity can change from positive to statistically insignificant when including the confounding influence of relative humidity. Satellite simulated values of N were compared to standard model output and found to be higher with a bias of 83 cm-3.

  16. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory interests and capabilities for research on the ecological effects of global climatic and atmospheric change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amthor, J.S.; Houpis, J.L.; Kercher, J.R.; Ledebuhr, A.; Miller, N.L.; Penner, J.E.; Robison, W.L.; Taylor, K.E.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has interests and capabilities in all three types of research that must be conducted in order to understand and predict effects of global atmospheric and climatic (i.e., environmental) changes on ecological systems and their functions (ecosystem function is perhaps most conveniently defined as mass and energy exchange and storage). These three types of research are: (1) manipulative experiments with plants and ecosystems; (2) monitoring of present ecosystem, landscape, and global exchanges and pools of energy, elements, and compounds that play important roles in ecosystem function or the physical climate system, and (3) mechanistic (i.e., hierarchic and explanatory) modeling of plant and ecosystem responses to global environmental change. Specific experimental programs, monitoring plans, and modeling activities related to evaluation of ecological effects of global environmental change that are of interest to, and that can be carried out by LLNL scientists are outlined. Several projects have the distinction of integrating modeling with empirical studies resulting in an Integrated Product (a model or set of models) that DOE or any federal policy maker could use to assess ecological effects. The authors note that any scheme for evaluating ecological effects of atmospheric and climatic change should take into account exceptional or sensitive species, in particular, rare, threatened, or endangered species.

  17. Local action for the global environment : municipal government participation in a voluntary climate protection program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravin, Amelia L., 1977-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cities for Climate ProtectionTM (CCP) campaign is a voluntary environmental program for municipalities, which is increasingly being applied around the world by local governments taking action on climate change. This ...

  18. EE x96 Writing Assignment Global, Societal, and Contemporary Issues Galen Sasaki August 26, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Galen H.

    of the socalled globalization of the economy. But also engineering solutions can significantly affect people. · Section 2. Global Economy: Discuss how the EE and/or computer profession may change over the next 20 years due to the global economy. In your discussion, identify at least three ways how the profession

  19. European-Led Climate Policy versus Global Mitigation Action: Implications on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC) Isola di San Giorgio Maggiore, 30124 Venezia, Italy, Amit Kanudia, Sergey Paltsev, Ronald D. Sands and Katja Schumacher *Reprinted from Climate Change and predictions of the risks of climate change and the challenges of limiting human influence on the environment

  20. Interactions between wetlands CH4 emissions and climate at global scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    emissions? Observations Introduction Tool Wetlands emissions [CH4 ]atmo Feedback Conclusion #12;[CO2 ]atmo e.g.: Climate (T) CO2 anthropogenic emissions wetlands CH4 emissions Under future climate change, Shindell et al. (2004) => +78% under climate change generated by 2xCO2 Introduction Tool Wetlands emissions [CH4

  1. A Global Land System Framework for Integrated Climate-Change Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlosser, C. Adam

    Land ecosystems play a major role in the global cycles of energy, water, carbon and nutrients. A Global Land System (GLS) framework has been developed for the Integrated Global Systems Model Version 2 (IGSM2) to simulate ...

  2. The Contribution of Biomass to Emissions Mitigation under a Global Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winchester, N.

    What will large-scale global bioenergy production look like? We investigate this question by developing a detailed representation of bioenergy in a global economy-wide model. We develop a scenario with a global carbon ...

  3. Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of Writing About Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of WritingMcKibben, Bill, ed. The Global Warming Reader: A Century ofrecord of no action on global warming. Those who have done

  4. Global warming from chlorofluorocarbons and their alternatives: Time scales of chemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Malcolm K.W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Molnar, Gyula; Prather, Michael J

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and their replacements on global warming. Nature Hansen J. ,gas emissions to global warming. Nature London Amendment toNature 315, 649-652, Global warming time scales WMO (World

  5. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 11: Climate Change Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    demand and change precipitation patterns, river flows, and hydroelectric generation. Second, policies-reduction goals. The issue of potential changes to electricity demand and hydroelectric generation is discussed

  6. Remarks in the National Assembly of France The European Climate Foundation kindly helped arrange a discussion about global climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Remarks in the National Assembly of France The European Climate Foundation kindly helped arrange not go after every drop of oil/gas on the planet. Reality. Governments worldwide are ignoring on their internal consumption of fossil fuels. Why would China agree: to avoid fossil fuel addiction, clean up its

  7. Tales from the climate-change crossroads Four books by prominent global-warming pundits illustrate that exhortation and authority are not

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and for questionable behaviour revealed in e-mail disclosures the climate crisis". He provides a colourful overview of low-carbon technologies -- wind, solar, nuclear behavior and thinking". Again, he does not say how a new global consciousness is to be delivered. Instead

  8. The impact of tropical cyclones (TC) on global climate is still debated. They rapidly mix the water column beneath them, bringing cold water to the surface.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    of Climate, 21, 638 Sriver & Huber, 2007, Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropicalThe impact of tropical cyclones (TC) on global climate is still debated. They rapidly mix the water column beneath them, bringing cold water to the surface. One way to parameterise this process

  9. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, Brett; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplanktonproduced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS{sup -}) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS{sup -} (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ngm{sup -3}, with values up to 400 ngm{sup -3} over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases and decreases in the concentration of CCN over different parts of the ocean. The sign of the CCN change due to the addition of marine organics to seasalt aerosol is determined by the relative significance of the increase in mean modal diameter due to addition of mass, and the decrease in particle hygroscopicity due to compositional changes in marine aerosol. Based on emerging evidence for increased CCN concentration over biologically active surface ocean areas/periods, our study suggests that treatment of sea spray in global climate models (GCMs) as an internal mixture of marine organic aerosols and sea-salt will likely lead to an underestimation in CCN number concentration.

  10. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications, III aerosols: Issue 164

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Ssivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents abstracts in Russian and translated into English of important Russian-language literature concerning aerosols as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  11. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  12. Issue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 Investigation Peer ReviewIronNuclear Physics »ImpactIssue

  13. Post-2020 climate agreements in the major economies assessed in the light of global models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tavoni, Massimo; Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Aboumahboub, Tino; Bowen, Alex; Calvin, Katherine V.; Campiglio, Emanuele; Kober, Tom; Jewell, Jessica; Luderer, Gunnar; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David; van Sluisveld, Mariesse; Zimmer, Anne; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated assessment models can help in quantifying the implications of international climate agreements and regional climate action. This paper reviews scenario results from model intercomparison projects to explore different possible outcomes of post-2020 climate negotiations, recently announced pledges and their relation to the 2°C target. We provide key information for all the major economies, such as the year of emission peaking, regional carbon budgets and emissions allowances. We highlight the distributional consequences of climate policies, and discuss the role of carbon markets for financing clean energy investments, and achieving efficiency and equity.

  14. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  15. Project EARTH-13-SHELLSPH1: Global expression of climatic and palaeoceanographic events in black shales: generation of new high-resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    geochronology, the expression of the global Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T- OAE) ­ a major black shale event of other black shale events known from NW Europe, such as those at the Sinemurian- Pliensbachian boundaryProject EARTH-13-SHELLSPH1: Global expression of climatic and palaeoceanographic events in black

  16. Climate change and marine mammals peter g.h. evans1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Graham

    1990s (Woolf et al., 2002). Climate changes have also been reported from the Mediterranean Sea, a semiFOREWORD Climate change and marine mammals peter g.h. evans1,2 , graham j. pierce3,4 and simone Milano, Italy Climate change is now widely recognized as a global issue (IPCC, 2007). Whereas the Earth

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Accelerated Climate Modeling for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy New Project Is the ACME of Computer Science to Address Climate Change On December 3, 2014, in Analysis, Climate, Global Climate & Energy,...

  18. How Do We Know that Human Activities Have Influenced Global Climate?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santer, Benjamin D.

    2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Human activities have significantly altered not only the chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere, but also the climate system. Human influences have led to increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases, decreases in stratospheric ozone, and changes in the atmospheric burdens of sulfate and soot aerosols. All of these atmospheric constituents interact with incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation. Human-induced changes in the concentrations of these constituents modify the natural radiative balance of Earth's atmosphere, and therefore perturb climate. Quantifying the size of the human effect on climate is a difficult statistical problem. 'Fingerprint' methods are typically used for this purpose. These methods involve rigorous statistical comparisons of modeled and observed climate change patterns. Fingerprinting assumes that each individual influence on climate has a unique signature in climate records. The climate fingerprints in response to different forcing factors are typically estimated with computer models, which can be used to perform the controlled experiments that we cannot conduct in the real world. One criticism of the findings of previous scientific assessments is that they have relied heavily on fingerprint studies involving changes in near-surface temperature. Recent fingerprint work, however, has considered a variety of other climate variables, such as ocean heat content, stratospheric temperatures, Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent, sea level pressure, atmospheric water vapor, and the height of the tropopause. These studies illustrate that a human-induced climate change signal is identifiable in many different variables and geographic regions, and that the climate system is telling us an internally- and physically-consistent story.

  19. How Do We Know That Human Activities Have Influenced Global Climate?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Benjamin D. Santer

    2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Human activities have significantly altered not only the chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere, but also the climate system. Human influences have led to increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases, decreases in stratospheric ozone, and changes in the atmospheric burdens of sulfate and soot aerosols. All of these atmospheric constituents interact with incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation. Human-induced changes in the concentrations of these constituents modify the natural radiative balance of Earth's atmosphere, and therefore perturb climate. Quantifying the size of the human effect on climate is a difficult statistical problem. "Fingerprint" methods are typically used for this purpose. These methods involve rigorous statistical comparisons of modeled and observed climate change patterns. Fingerprinting assumes that each individual influence on climate has a unique signature in climate records. The climate fingerprints in response to different forcing factors are typically estimated with computer models, which can be used to perform the controlled experiments that we cannot conduct in the real world. One criticism of the findings of previous scientific assessments is that they have relied heavily on fingerprint studies involving changes in near-surface temperature. Recent fingerprint work, however, has considered a variety of other climate variables, such as ocean heat content, stratospheric temperatures, Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent, sea level pressure, atmospheric water vapor, and the height of the tropopause. These studies illustrate that a human-induced climate change signal is identifiable in many different variables and geographic regions, and that the climate system is telling us an internally- and physically-consistent story.

  20. Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in response to future climate, emissions, and land use change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, C. L.; Henze, D. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Lamarque, J. F.; Guenther, A.; Hess, P. G.; Vitt, F.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Fung, I.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of chemical and physical environ- ments represented by these studies suggests that the mech- anisms and precursors contributing to SOA formation are diverse. In light of these discrepancies, previous estimates of the global source of SOA (12–40 Tg C a#2... and results are averaged to estimate the effect of interannual climate variability. 2.2. Anthropogenic Emissions [17] Emissions of both gas and aerosol phase species for the years 2000 and 2100 are taken from Horowitz [2006]. Present-day (2000) fossil fuel...

  1. The climate impacts of high-speed rail and air transportation : a global comparative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clewlow, Regina Ruby Lee

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growing concerns about the energy use and climate impacts of the transportation sector have prompted policymakers to consider a variety of options to meet the future mobility needs of the world's population, while ...

  2. Crop water stress under climate change uncertainty : global policy and regional risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gueneau, Arthur

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fourty percent of all crops grown in the world today are grown using irrigation, and shifting precipitation patterns due to climate change are viewed as a major threat to food security. This thesis examines, in the framework ...

  3. The economic impact of global climate and tropospheric oxone on world agricultural production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaodu

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of my thesis is to analyze the economic impact on agriculture production from changes in climate and tropospheric ozone, and related policy interventions. The analysis makes use of the Emissions Prediction ...

  4. SWS 5182: Earth System Analysis Catalogue Description: Analysis of global-scale interdependences between climate, biogeochemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    System Model Carbon sequestration and climate mitigation potential of vegetation and soils 12 - 13 Earth fuel 11 Terrestrial biogeochemistry Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 Account for land carbon cycle in your Earth

  5. A review of global ocean temperature observations: Implications for ocean heat content estimates and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and communications, in Ocean Engineering Planning and Designmicropro?ler, Engineering in the Ocean Environment, Ocean ’engineering diagnostic data will be transmitted. 5. GLOBAL OCEAN

  6. A review of global ocean temperature observations: Implications for ocean heat content estimates and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transports from ocean to land and global energy ?ows inof Earth energy imbal- ance, ocean warming, and thermostericthe ther- mal energy of the ocean, it remains a challenging

  7. Loss of Cherished Places -- Global Climate Change in Maryland: Loss at the Margins of Place

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting species extinction in response to global warminghave led to species extinction. Above: The Appalachian Trailspecies may have less chance to migrate, and may face extinction.

  8. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Building a Global Infrastructure for Climate Change Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ahrens, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ananthakrishnan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bell, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bharathi, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Brown, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chervenak, A. L. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Cinquini, L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, CA (United States); Drach, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fox, P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Hankin, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Harper, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Hook, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Jones, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, D. E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Miller, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nienhouse, E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Schweitzer, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Schuler, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Shipman, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siebenlist, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strand, W. G. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilcox, H. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wilhelmi, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Established within DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-) 2 program, with support from ASCR and BER, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) is a consortium of seven laboratories (Argonne National Laboratory [ANL], Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL], Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], National Center for Atmospheric Research [NCAR], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], and Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory [PMEL]), and two institutes (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [RPI] and the University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute [USC/ISI]). The consortium’s mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with a science gateway to access data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to evaluate extreme-scale data sets. Its stated goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing collaborative technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet the specific needs that national and international climate projects have for distributed databases, data access, and data movement; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad-based multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide range of climate data-analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. To this end, the ESG-CET is working to integrate all highly publicized climate data sets—from climate simulations to observations—using distributed storage management, remote high-performance units, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and user desktop platforms in a collaborative problem-solving environment.

  9. Global Climate Change, Developing Countries and Transport Sector Options in South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    South Africa (MSA) Action Agenda (May 1999) 36 Main policy thrusts .36 Key strategic issues..37 Key initiatives38 White Paper on Energy Policy (

  10. Is There Still Time to Avoid `Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference' with Global Climate?*#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    curve', measuring both the pulse of Nature and a steadily rising human impact on atmospheric composition's temperature, with rapid global warming over the past 30 years, is now passing through the peak level infrastructure that may be built within a decade will make it impractical to keep further global warming under 1

  11. Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: Extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biological productivity, melting of the oceanic ice would also have induced a cyanobacterial bloom, leading iron formations and cap carbonates. Although global glaciation would have dras- tically curtailed glaciation: An ice-albedo feedback will drive a run-away glaciation (8) resulting in 500­1,500 m of global

  12. Water-use efficiency for alternative cooling technologies in arid climates Energy and Buildings, Volume 43, Issues 23, FebruaryMarch 2011, Pages 631-638

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Water-use efficiency for alternative cooling technologies in arid climates Energy and Buildings, Volume 43, Issues 2­3, February­March 2011, Pages 631-638 Theresa Pistochini, Mark Modera 1 Water-site water use and the impact of poor water quality on their performance. While compressor-based systems do

  13. Global Climatic and Stable Isotopic Correlations During the Early Permian (Cisuralian)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noret, Jordan R.

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    for environmental policy decisions. 1.1 Significance of the early Permian climate During the early Permian (~300-270 Ma), Earth?s climate shifted from one similar to the present day to one much warmer, from having abundant glaciers to having few or possibly... at Texas A&M University, USA, with the help of Dr. Boris Chuvashov, a geologist with the Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Specimens collected were assigned to stratigraphic ?horizons?, roughly the Russian equivalent to U.S. formations...

  14. Climate Action Plan (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recognizing the profound implications that global warming and climate variation could have on the economy, environment and quality of life in Montana, the Climate Change Advisory Committee (CCAC)...

  15. Vol. 16, No. 2 May 2006Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment World Climate Research Programme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's climate system is an energy cycle that converts absorbed solar radiation into heat and associated, its rapid rotation, and its elliptical orbit about the sun, the solar heating is neither uniform nor ARE A NET SINK OF ENERGY Left panel shows zonal, seasonal average generation of available potential energy

  16. o meet the challenges of global climate change, greenhouse-gas emissions must

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    . Emissions from fossil fuels are the largest contributor to the anthropo- genic greenhouse effect, so . In my view, it is therefore an attractive target for energy subsidies and for inclusion in the global

  17. Post-doctoral Position Title Quantify the net global climate impacts of past and future land-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pouyanne, Nicolas

    objective is to make this protocol widely available so that other earth system modeling groups outside uses and land use changes in global earth system models, and test the impact of various implementation

  18. Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate

  19. Global Climate network evolves with North Atlantic Oscillation phases: Coupling to Southern Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guez, Oded; Berezin, Yehiel; Wang, Yang; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a network from climate records of atmospheric temperature at surface level, at different geographical sites in the globe, using reanalysis data from years 1948-2010. We find that the network correlates with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), both locally in the north Atlantic, and through coupling to the southern Pacific Ocean. The existence of tele-connection links between those areas and their stability over time allows us to suggest a possible physical explanation for this phenomenon.

  20. Climate Change Economics and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, Daniela

    AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate

  1. Global Climate Modeling of the Martian water cycle with improved microphysics and radiatively active water ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro, Thomas; Forget, François; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Montmessin, Franck

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative effects of water ice clouds have noteworthy consequences on the Martian atmosphere, its thermal structure and circulation. Accordingly, the inclusion of such effects in the LMD Mars Global Climate Model (GCM) greatly modifies the simulated Martian water cycle. The intent of this paper is to address the impact of radiatively active clouds on atmospheric water vapor and ice in the GCM and improve its representation. We propose a new enhanced modeling of the water cycle, consisting of detailed cloud microphysics with dynamic condensation nuclei and a better implementation of perennial surface water ice. This physical modeling is based on tunable parameters. This new version of the GCM is compared to the Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations of the water cycle. Satisfying results are reached for both vapor and cloud opacities. However, simulations yield a lack of water vapor in the tropics after Ls=180{\\deg} which is persistent in simulations compared to observations, as a consequence of aphelion c...

  2. current issues in international rural development published by the swedish university of agricultural sciences december 2008 CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of agricultural sciences · december 2008 CLIMATE CHANGE LOCAL ADAPTATION UNDER FURTHER STRESS 44/45 #12;2 currents Climate change, but not turning warmer. other photos: Johan Toborn, unless stated otherwise. No direct link to the respective article is intended, but rather reminds us of our own imminent climate change

  3. The Tropical Atmospheric El Nio Signal in Satellite Precipitation Data and a Global Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ABSTRACT Aspects of the tropical atmospheric response to El Niño related to the global energy and water and the Advanced Micro- wave Scanning Radiometer-E and simulations from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies are highly correlated, but anomalies in stratiform­convective rainfall partitioning in the two datasets

  4. A simple object-oriented and open source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system–Hector v1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; Link, Robert P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simple climate models play an integral role in policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global scale earth system processes. Hector has three main carbon pools: an atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model’s terrestrial carbon cycle includes respiration and primary production, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector’s actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways with high correlations (R >0.7) with current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5. Hector is freely available under an open source license, and its modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.

  5. A look at the ocean in the EC-Earth climate model Andreas Sterl Richard Bintanja Laurent Brodeau Emily Gleeson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    to the special issue on EC-Earth, a global climate and earth system model based on the seasonal forecast system-011-1239-2 #12;phytoplankton) processes are involved. To study such complex interactions, Earth System Models

  6. Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

  7. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE | VOL 2 | NOVEMBER 2012 | www.nature.com/natureclimatechange 775 vidence is clear that Earth's global average climate has warmed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE | VOL 2 | NOVEMBER 2012 | www.nature.com/natureclimatechange 775 E vidence anthropogenic climate change on timescales of a few decades and spatial scales smaller than continen- tal2 in climate change projections are due to model shortcomings, and it is sometimes confidently asserted

  8. Sensitivity of Remote Aerosol Distributions to Representation of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in a Global Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun; Vinoj, V.

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Many global aerosol and climate models, including the widely used Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), have large biases in predicting aerosols in remote regions such as upper troposphere and high latitudes. In this study, we conduct CAM5 sensitivity simulations to understand the role of key processes associated with aerosol transformation and wet removal affecting the vertical and horizontal long-range transport of aerosols to the remote regions. Improvements are made to processes that are currently not well represented in CAM5, which are guided by surface and aircraft measurements together with results from a multi-scale aerosol-climate model (PNNL-MMF) that explicitly represents convection and aerosol-cloud interactions at cloud-resolving scales. We pay particular attention to black carbon (BC) due to its importance in the Earth system and the availability of measurements. We introduce into CAM5 a new unified scheme for convective transport and aerosol wet removal with explicit aerosol activation above convective cloud base. This new implementation reduces the excessive BC aloft to better simulate observed BC profiles that show decreasing mixing ratios in the mid- to upper-troposphere. After implementing this new unified convective scheme, we examine wet removal of submicron aerosols that occurs primarily through cloud processes. The wet removal depends strongly on the sub-grid scale liquid cloud fraction and the rate of conversion of liquid water to precipitation. These processes lead to very strong wet removal of BC and other aerosols over mid- to high latitudes during winter months. With our improvements, the Arctic BC burden has a10-fold (5-fold) increase in the winter (summer) months, resulting in a much better simulation of the BC seasonal cycle as well. Arctic sulphate and other aerosol species also increase but to a lesser extent. An explicit treatment of BC aging with slower aging assumptions produces an additional 30-fold (5-fold) increase in the Arctic winter (summer) BC burden. This BC aging treatment, however, has minimal effect on other under-predicted species. Interestingly, our modifications to CAM5 that aim at improving prediction of high-latitude and upper tropospheric aerosols also produce much better AOD and AAOD over various other regions globally when compared to multi-year AERONET retrievals. The improved aerosol distributions have impacts on other aspects of CAM5, improving the simulation of global mean liquid water path and cloud forcing.

  9. Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, Arpad

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the global warming effect associated with electricityin Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potentialin Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential

  10. Incorporating Urban Systems in Global Climate Models: The Role of GIScience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feddema, Johannes J.

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    0.92 brick 0.7 1360.0 0.3 1700 800 0.9 mud 1.0 1456.0 0.3 1820 800 0.9 wood 0.1 1127.5 0.5 550 2050 0.87 glass 0.9 2100.0 0.08 2500 840 0.91 stone 2.6 2310.0 0.275 2750 840 0.92 adobe 1.0 1456.0 0.3 1820 800 0.91 rubble 0.8 950 0.275 1900 500 0..., Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02- 97ER62402, by the National Science Foundation grant numbers ATM-0107404, and ATM-0413540, the NCAR Weather and Climate Impact Assessment Science Initiative, and the University of Kansas, Center for Research. Motivation...

  11. U.S. Global Change Research Program publishes "National Climate Assessment"

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global Energy LLC Place: Dallas, Texas2022WindUProject | OpenU.S.report

  12. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: SOME IMPLICATIONS, OPPORTUNITIES. AND CHALLENGES FOR U.S. FORESTRY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFunding OpportunityF G F ! ( !|ResearchGLOBAL

  13. Invited Paper, Conference on Global Change: Economic Issues in Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources. Washington, D.C. November 19-21, 1990.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    * Invited Paper, Conference on Global Change: Economic Issues in Agriculture, Forestry and Natural of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Oregon State University; Ching-Cheng Chang and Bruce McCarl are Visiting Assistant Professor and Professor, respectively, Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University

  14. Do Coupled Climate Models Correctly SImulate the Upward Branch of the Deept Ocean Global Conveyor?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmiento, Jorge L; Downes, Stephanie; Bianchi, Daniele

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The large-scale meridional overturning circulation (MOC) connects the deep ocean, a major reservoir of carbon, to the other components of the climate system and must therefore be accurately represented in Earth System Models. Our project aims to address the specific question of the pathways and mechanisms controlling the upwelling branch of the MOC, a subject of significant disagreement between models and observational syntheses, and among general circulation models. Observations of these pathways are limited, particularly in regions of complex hydrography such as the Southern Ocean. As such, we rely on models to examine theories of the overturning circulation, both physically and biogeochemically. This grant focused on a particular aspect of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) where there is currently significant disagreement between models and observationally based analyses of the MOC, and amongst general circulation models. In particular, the research focused on addressing the following questions: 1. Where does the deep water that sinks in the polar regions rise to the surface? 2. What processes are responsible for this rise? 3. Do state-of-the-art coupled GCMs capture these processes? Our research had three key components: observational synthesis, model development and model analysis. In this final report we outline the key results from these areas of research for the 2007 to 2012 grant period. The research described here was carried out primarily by graduate student, Daniele Bianchi (now a Postdoc at McGill University, Canada), and Postdoc Stephanie Downes (now a Research Fellow at The Australian national University, Australia). Additional support was provided for programmers Jennifer Simeon as well as Rick Slater.

  15. Utilization of Science-Based Information on Climate Change in Decision Making and the Public Policy Process - Phase 2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vedlitz, Arnold; Lindquist, Eric; Liu, Xinsheng; Zahran, Sammy; Wood, B. Dan; Alston, Letitia T.; North, Gerald

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Media ......................................................................................... 19 Figure 10. Number of News Articles Linking Climate Change to Other Issues .......................... 20 Figure 11. Solutions Proposed in News Articles... 1. Concern about Climate Change Compared to Other Key Issues ISSUE Level of Concern War in Iraq/Afghanistan 8.33 Energy 7.90 Environment 7.80 Moral Values 7.77 Terrorism 7.66 Social Security 7.59 U.S. Economy 7.45 Global Warming...

  16. Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gantt, Brett; Xu, Jun; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a 7-mode Modal Aerosol Model were conducted to assess the changes in cloud microphysical properties and radiative forcing resulting from marine organic aerosols. Model simulations show that the anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) predicted by CAM5 is decreased in absolute magnitude by up to 0.09 Wm{sup -2} (7 %) when marine organic aerosols are included. Changes in the AIF from marine organic aerosols are associated with small global increases in low-level incloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path of 1.3 cm{sup -3} (1.5 %) and 0.22 gm{sup -2} (0.5 %), respectively. Areas especially sensitive to changes in cloud properties due to marine organic aerosol include the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and North Atlantic Ocean, all of which are characterized by high marine organic emission rates. As climate models are particularly sensitive to the background aerosol concentration, this small but non-negligible change in the AIF due to marine organic aerosols provides a notable link for ocean-ecosystem marine low-level cloud interactions and may be a candidate for consideration in future earth system models.

  17. A Cross-model Comparison of Global Long-term Technology Diffusion under a 2?C Climate Change Control Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Rosler, Hilke; Kober, Tom; Aboumahboub, Tino; Calvin, Katherine V.; Gernaat, David; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the long-term global energy technology diffusion patterns required to reach a stringent climate change target with a maximum average atmospheric temperature increase of 2°C. If the anthropogenic temperature increase is to be limited to 2°C, total CO2 emissions have to be reduced massively, so as to reach substantial negative values during the second half of the century. Particularly power sector CO2 emissions should become negative from around 2050 onwards according to most models used for this analysis in order to compensate for GHG emissions in other sectors where abatement is more costly. The annual additional capacity deployment intensity (expressed in GW/yr) for solar and wind energy until 2030 needs to be around that recently observed for coal-based power plants, and will have to be several times higher in the period 2030–2050. Relatively high agreement exists across models in terms of the aggregated low-carbon energy system cost requirements on the supply side until 2050, which amount to about 50 trillion US$.

  18. Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) Interdisciplinary Science Workshop: Decadal Climate Prediction; Aspen, CO; June 22-28, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzenberger, John

    2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Decadal prediction lies between seasonal/interannual forecasting and longer-term climate change projections, and focuses on time-evolving regional climate conditions over the next 10?30 yr. Numerous assessments of climate information user needs have identified this time scale as being important to infrastructure planners, water resource managers, and many others. It is central to the information portfolio required to adapt effectively to and through climatic changes.

  19. Climate Change Mitigation: Climate, Health, and Equity Implications of the Visible and the Hidden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shonkoff, Seth Berrin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008). "Accountability of networked climate governance: Therise of transnational climate partnerships." GlobalBoard. CARB (2008d). Climate change proposed scoping plan: a

  20. Bringing climate change down to earth : science and participation in Canadian and Australian climate change campaigns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padolsky, Miriam Elana

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    about Global Climate Change. Public Understanding of ScienceFoundation. 2005a. Climate Change: A Matter of SurvivalFoundation. 2005b. Climate Change > Actions 2005 [cited 10

  1. The impact of climate, CO2, nitrogen deposition and land use change on simulated contemporary global river flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    The impact of climate, CO2, nitrogen deposition and land use change on simulated contemporary., 38, L08704, doi:10.1029/ 2011GL046773. 1. Introduction [2] Climate change and human activities and Fung [2008] found that climate and land use change play more important roles than the stomatal closure

  2. CO2 threshold for millennial-scale oscillations in the climate system: implications for global warming scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meissner, Katrin Juliane

    conditions, some records of the recent climate history indicate that millennial oscillations are also part intervals (Bond et al. 1997). The cause of these abrupt changes in climate is still under investigation: whereas most climate scientists see changes in the strength of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation

  3. What does the 2°C Target Imply for a Global Climate Agreement in 2020? The LIMITS Study on Durban Action Platform Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Tavoni, Massimo; Aboumahboub, Tino; Luderer, Gunnar; Calvin, Katherine V.; DeMaere, Gauthier; Krey, Volker; Riahi, Keywan; Rosler, Hilke; Schaeffer, Michiel; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a novel and comprehensive model?based assessment of possible outcomes of the Durban Platform negotiations with a focus on emissions reduction requirements, the consistency with the 2°C target and global economic impacts. The Durban Action scenarios investigated in the LIMITS study—all assuming the implementation of comprehensive global emission reductions after 2020, but assuming different 2020 emission reduction levels and different long?term stabilization targets—show that the probability of exceeding the 2°C limit increases with stabilization target from below one third for 450?470 ppm to 40?60% for 490?510 ppm in 2100. Global time?averaged economic costs of the Durban Action scenarios are limited across models, and are largely unaffected by the stringency of 2020 pledges. By contrast, the economic impact of delaying action beyond 2030 is much stronger on transitional costs. The main significance of short term action in the period 2010?2030 lies in preparing the ground for steep emissions reductions thereafter by inducing global emissions to peak and decline. The institutional challenges of all scenarios with fragmented near?term climate policy can be expected to be high as reflected in a steep rise of carbon prices and decarbonization rates until 2040. We conclude that an agreement on comprehensive emissions reductions to be implemented from 2020 onwards has particular significance for meeting long term climate policy objectives.

  4. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  5. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    1 Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011 J. Hansen, M. Sato, coincident with increased global warming. The most dramatic and important change of the climate dice change is the natural variability of climate. How can a person discern long-term climate change, given

  6. Regional-Scale Climate Change: Observations and Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This collaborative proposal addressed key issues in understanding the Earthâ??s climate system, as highlighted by the U.S. Climate Science Program. The research focused on documenting past climatic changes and on assessing future climatic changes based on suites of global and regional climate models. Geographically, our emphasis was on the mountainous regions of the world, with a particular focus on the Neotropics of Central America and the Hawaiian Islands. Mountain regions are zones where large variations in ecosystems occur due to the strong climate zonation forced by the topography. These areas are particularly susceptible to changes in critical ecological thresholds, and we conducted studies of changes in phonological indicators based on various climatic thresholds.

  7. Changing Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and a wide range of academic areas are investigating the different compo- nents. More recently, they are taking information gleaned from the global climate models and applying them to research questions pertaining to Texas. Dr. Bruce Mc...Carl, Regents Professor of agricultural economics at Texas A&M University, has researched the economics of climate change for the last 20 years. McCarl, as a lead CHANGING CLIMATES tx H2O | pg. McCarl ] tx H2O | pg. 4 Changing Climates author...

  8. programs in climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change

  9. 2007 Radiation & Climate GRC ( July 29-August 3, 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Collins

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theme of the fifth Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate is 'Integrating multiscale measurements and models for key climate questions'. The meeting will feature lectures, posters, and discussion regarding these issues. The meeting will focus on insights from new types of satellite and in situ data and from new approaches to modeling processes in the climate system. The program on measurements will highlight syntheses of new satellite data on cloud, aerosols, and chemistry and syntheses of satellite and sub-orbital observations from field programs. The program on modeling will address both the evaluation of cloud-resolving and regional aerosol models using new types of measurements and the evidence for processes and physics missing from global models. The Conference will focus on two key climate questions. First, what factors govern the radiative interactions of clouds and aerosols with regional and global climate? Second, how well do we understand the interaction of radiation with land surfaces and with the cryosphere?

  10. An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    One fundamental property and limitation of grid based models is their inability to identify spatial details smaller than the grid cell size. While decades of work have gone into developing sub-grid treatments for clouds and land surface processes in climate models, the quantitative understanding of sub-grid processes and variability for aerosols and their precursors is much poorer. In this study, WRF-Chem is used to simulate the trace gases and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenarios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid variability (SGV) of trace gases and aerosols within a typical global climate model grid cell, i.e. 75x75 km2. Our results suggest that a simulation with 3-km horizontal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols downwind of Mexico City, while 75-km horizontal grid spacing is insufficient to represent local emission and terrain-induced flows along the mountain ridge, subsequently affecting the transport and mixing of plumes from nearby sources. Therefore, the coarse model grid cell average may not correctly represent aerosol properties measured over polluted areas. Probability density functions (PDFs) for trace gases and aerosols show that secondary trace gases and aerosols, such as O3, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, are more likely to have a relatively uniform probability distribution (i.e. smaller SGV) over a narrow range of concentration values. Mostly inert and long-lived trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC, are more likely to have broad and skewed distributions (i.e. larger SGV) over polluted regions. Over remote areas, all trace gases and aerosols are more uniformly distributed compared to polluted areas. Both CO and O3 SGV vertical profiles are nearly constant within the PBL during daytime, indicating that trace gases are very efficiently transported and mixed vertically by turbulence. But, simulated horizontal variability indicates that trace gases and aerosols are not well mixed horizontally in the PBL. During nighttime the SGV for trace gases is maximum at the surface, and quickly decreases with height. Unlike the trace gases, the SGV of BC and secondary aerosols reaches a maximum at the PBL top during the day. The SGV decreases with distance away from the polluted urban area, has a more rapid decrease for long-lived trace gases and aerosols than for secondary ones, and is greater during daytime than nighttime. The SGV of trace gases and aerosols is generally larger than for meteorological quantities. Emissions can account for up to 50% of the SGV over urban areas such as Mexico City during daytime for less-reactive trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC. The impact of emission spatial variability on SGV decays with altitude in the PBL and is insignificant in the free troposphere. The emission variability affects SGV more significantly during daytime (rather than nighttime) and over urban (rather than rural or remote) areas. The terrain, through its impact on meteorological fields such as wind and the PBL structure, affects dispersion and transport of trace gases and aerosols and their SGV.

  11. Climate Leadership Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Climate Leadership Conference is your annual exchange for addressing global climate change through policy, innovation, and business solutions. Forward-thinking lead­ers from busi­ness, gov­ern...

  12. Geoengineering the Earth's Climate

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Google Tech Talks

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emergency preparedness is generally considered to be a good thing, yet there is no plan regarding what we might do should we be faced with a climate emergency. Such an emergency could take the form of a rapid shift in precipitation patterns, a collapse of the great ice sheets, the imminent triggering of strong climate system feedbacks, or perhaps the loss of valuable ecosystems. Over the past decade, we have used climate models to investigate the potential to reverse some of the effects of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by deflecting some incoming sunlight back to space. This would probably be most cost-effectively achieved with the placement of small particles in or above the stratosphere. Our model simulations indicate that such geoengineering approaches could potentially bring our climate closer to the state is was in prior to the introduction of greenhouse gases. This talk will present much of what is known about such geoengineering approaches, and raise a range of issues likely to stimulate lively discussion. Speaker: Ken Caldeira Ken Caldeira is a scientist at the Carnegie Institution Department of Global Ecology and a Professor (by courtesy) at the Stanford University Department of Environmental and Earth System Sciences. Previously, he worked for 12 years in the Energy and Environment Directorate at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Department of Energy). His research interests include the numerical simulation of Earth's climate, carbon, and biogeochemistry; ocean acidification; climate emergency response systems; evaluating approaches to supplying environmentally-friendly energy services; ocean carbon sequestration; long-term evolution of climate and geochemical cycles; and marine biogeochemical cycles. Caldeira has a B.A. in Philosophy from Rutgers College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from New York University.

  13. Long-Term Regional Climate Simulations Driven by Two Global Reanalyses and a GCM for the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai R.; Bian, Xindi; Qian, Yun

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To take advantage of recent development in the NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5), an effort has been organized to develop and evaluate an MM5-based community regional climate model. Several modifications such as the implementation of the PNNL subgrid parameterization of orographic precipitation, representation of cloud-radiation interaction, and additional output capabilities have been made to the recently released MM5 Version 3.4. To evaluate the model, several long-term simulations have been performed over the western U.S. These simulations were driven by the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses respectively for 20 and 13 years beginning at 1980. The western U.S. is marked by diverse topographic features and varied climate conditions such as the maritime climate in the coastal area and the semi-arid climate in the southwest. We will present results based on two domain configurations: a nested domain with a fine domain covering the western U.S. at 40 km resolution, and a single domain at 60 km resolution with the subgrid orographic precipitation scheme applied in the western U.S. Analyses are being performed to evaluate the simulations of the averaged climate and interannual variability and examine the model sensitivity to different boundary conditions. Our analyses focus on the relationships between large-scale circulation and regional climate features, surface energy and water budgets, orographic precipitation, and hydrologic conditions within selected river basins. Regional simulations are also being performed using large-scale conditions simulated by the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM). The regional model was used to downscale the ensemble PCM climate change scenarios for periods of 10-20 years in the current and future climate. Results will be analyzed to study the impacts of greenhouse warming on regional water resources in the western U.S.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to address the most challenging and demanding climate-change issues. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) is designed to accel-erate the development and applica-tion of...

  15. The Influence on Climate Change of Differing Scenarios for Future Development Analyzed Using the MIT Integrated Global System Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    A wide variety of scenarios for future development have played significant roles in climate policy discussions. This paper presents projections of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, sea level rise due to thermal expansion ...

  16. FOOTPRINTS OF IRELAND: HERITAGE AND LANDSCAPE Globally and nationally, we seem to be faced with significant challenges; climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 FOOTPRINTS OF IRELAND: HERITAGE AND LANDSCAPE Globally and nationally, we seem to be faced, religious and economic changes across time. Archaeological, historical and scientific research often reveals

  17. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  18. A simple evaluation of global and diffuse Luminous Efficacy for all sky conditions in tropical and humid climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A simple evaluation of global and diffuse Luminous Efficacy for all sky conditions in tropical to determine luminous efficacy under different sky conditions. A comparison between these empirical constants. Keywords Global and diffuse luminous efficacy, different sky conditions, solar irradiance, solar

  19. BPA prepares for a changing climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    both generally and as part of events such as El Nio. Evidence of global and regional climate change is mounting. The recently released National Climate Assessment confirmed...

  20. Environment News Service for the latest environmental news, current issues, climate, water, food, forests, species, energy, education. RSS feed. | | | | |Home About News Index Services My Account Events | Search February 2, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environment News Service for the latest environmental news, current issues, climate, water, food negotiation on the joint implementation agreement of ITER was concluded December 6, 2005, in Jeju, South Korea as in fitter) is based around a hydrogen plasma torus operating at over 100 million degrees Celsius

  1. THE APPLICATION OF A STATISTICAL DOWNSCALING PROCESS TO DERIVE 21{sup ST} CENTURY RIVER FLOW PREDICTIONS USING A GLOBAL CLIMATE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werth, D.; Chen, K. F.

    2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of water managers to maintain adequate supplies in coming decades depends, in part, on future weather conditions, as climate change has the potential to alter river flows from their current values, possibly rendering them unable to meet demand. Reliable climate projections are therefore critical to predicting the future water supply for the United States. These projections cannot be provided solely by global climate models (GCMs), however, as their resolution is too coarse to resolve the small-scale climate changes that can affect hydrology, and hence water supply, at regional to local scales. A process is needed to ‘downscale’ the GCM results to the smaller scales and feed this into a surface hydrology model to help determine the ability of rivers to provide adequate flow to meet future needs. We apply a statistical downscaling to GCM projections of precipitation and temperature through the use of a scaling method. This technique involves the correction of the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of the GCM-derived temperature and precipitation results for the 20{sup th} century, and the application of the same correction to 21{sup st} century GCM projections. This is done for three meteorological stations located within the Coosa River basin in northern Georgia, and is used to calculate future river flow statistics for the upper Coosa River. Results are compared to the historical Coosa River flow upstream from Georgia Power Company’s Hammond coal-fired power plant and to flows calculated with the original, unscaled GCM results to determine the impact of potential changes in meteorology on future flows.

  2. Response of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis to Current and Projected Environmental Conditions: Salinity and Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Errera, Reagan Michelle

    2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    , increasing production ?44%. Ecosystem changes due to climate change have increased the production of toxins in other HAB species; here we examined the impact on K. brevis. We have shown that modification of pCO2 level and temperature did not influence...

  3. Global Economic Effects of Changes in Crops, Pasture, and Forests due to Changing Climate, Carbon Dioxide, and Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John M.

    Multiple environmental changes will have consequences for global vegetation. To the extent that crop yields and pasture and forest productivity are affected there can be important economic consequences. We examine the ...

  4. Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, AR4) has resulted in a wider acceptance of global climate change climate extremes and change impacts. Uncertainties in process studies, climate models, and associated

  5. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Forest Products:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    agencies, interacting with the legislative branch on climate change issues affecting agriculture and forestry, and representing USDA on U.S. delegations to international climate...

  6. Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attari, Shahzeen Z.

    booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994 that will address climate change. Scientists tell us that the climate of the earth is warming, and that the warming into the foundation of the world economy and into the everyday things we do (driving) and use (electricity). Thus

  7. Bringing simulation to implementation: Presentation of a global approach in the design of passive solar buildings under humid tropical climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garde, François; Celaire, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 1995, a DSM pilot initiative has been launched in the French islands of Guadeloupe and Reunion through a partnership between several public and private partners (the French Public Utility EDF, the University of Reunion Island, low cost housing companies, architects, energy consultants, etc...) to set up standards to improve thermal design of new residential buildings in tropical climates. This partnership led to defining optimized bio-climatic urban planning and architectural designs featuring the use of passive cooling architectural principles (solar shading, natural ventilation) and components, as well as energy efficient systems and technologies. The design and sizing of each architectural component on internal thermal comfort in building has been assessed with a validated thermal and airflow building simulation software (CODYRUN). These technical specifications have been edited in a reference document which has been used to build over 300 new pilot dwellings through the years 1996-1998 in Reunion...

  8. Technology and international climate policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  9. QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND IS THIS CARBON DIOXIDE COMING FROM? Other sources are home heating and electric power production. WE ARE ALL

  10. S53juNE 2010STATE OFTHE CLIMATE IN 2009 | 3. GLOBAL OCEANS--J. M. Levy, ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khatiwala, Samar

    's energy budget. · Ocean heat fluxes played a dual role in the dynamics of large-scale SST anomalies Niño a considerable build up of heat was observed in the upper equatorial Pacific Ocean. Global integrals of upper-ocean heat content for the last several years have reached values consistently higher

  11. S53JULY 2010STATE OFTHE CLIMATE IN 2009 | 3. Global oceans--J. M. Levy, Ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's energy budget. · Ocean heat fluxes played a dual role in the dynamics of large-scale SST anomalies. Heat Niño a considerable build up of heat was observed in the upper equatorial Pacific Ocean. Global integrals of upper-ocean heat content for the last several years have reached values consistently higher

  12. An open letter to the 2008 presidential candidates: get the facts right on what's responsible for global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linden, Henry R.

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The two remaining presidential candidates have adopted policies for reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions that address factors that are mistakenly held responsible as the primary cause of global warming. Here's what they need to keep in mind in order to craft genuinely efficacious policies. (author)

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  14. Climate Change and Place Roundtable Discussion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Urban Development and Climate Change,” 2007. The fullThink about what runaway climate change would mean where youWorld Changing Seattle, WA Climate change is global in scale

  15. Introduction to Climate The Role Played by the Oceans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restrepo, Juan M.

    Introduction to Climate January 16, 2012 2 / 63 #12;Global Warming Abrupt Climate Change Ice Age: as a Consequence of Global Warming? Global warming is a contemporary fact. The Earth has undergone many sudden and abrupt Warming Abrupt Climate Change Ice Age: as a Consequence of Global Warming? Global warming

  16. Editors Kirsten Halsns & Amit Garg ENERGY, CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Editors Kirsten Halsnæs & Amit Garg ENERGY, CLIMATE Sustainable Development, Energy and Climate Development, Energy and Climate Exploring Synergies and Tradeoffs Methodological Issues and Case Studies from Brazil, China, India, South Africa, Bangladesh and Senegal Editors Kirsten Halsnæs & Amit Garg ENERGY

  17. Systems integration for global sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Le, A. Z. Khan, Improving integration for integrated coastal347 ISSUE 6225 Systems integration for global sustainabilitySUSTAINABILITY Systems integration for global sustainability

  18. Iowa Climate Change Briefing and Discussion -Monday February 16 The University of Iowa Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research and a variety of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debinski, Diane M.

    Iowa Climate Change Briefing and Discussion - Monday February 16 The University of Iowa Center to a climate change briefing and discussion to highlight the recent report of the Iowa Climate Change Advisory Council. The meeting will be an opportunity to learn more about climate change science its potential

  19. Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid Disastrous Human -Made Climate Change? i.e. Have We simulations. (B) Simulated and observed surface temperature change. #12;21st Century Global Warming Climate) Simulated Global Warming Warming

  20. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)���¢��������s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9�������°��������2.5�������° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1�������° x 1�������°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 �������µm. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4�������º by 5�������º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between ���¢��������clean marine���¢������� aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses

  1. GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE WORKING PAPER NO. 09-03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufts University

    poverty. Potential steps towards a more responsible, "strongly objective," and policy-useful economics are discussed. Keywords: economics, ethics, policy, methodology, climate change, financial crisis, poverty and broadly, the persistent issue of global poverty and inequality, recent addressed in popular writings

  2. Climate Action Plan (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recognizing the profound implications that global warming and climate variation could have on the economy, environment and quality of life in the Southwest, New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Climate change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research effort. Created to help resolve scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, ARM focuses on studying the role of clouds and aerosols in atmospheric and...

  4. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Yi

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include: 1) the distinctly different roles played by atmospheric dynamical processes in establishing surface temperature response to ENSO at tropics and extratropics (i.e., atmospheric dynamics disperses energy out of tropics during ENSO warm events and modulate surface temperature at mid-, high-latitudes through controlling downward longwave radiation); 2) the representations of ENSO-related temperature response in climate models fail to converge at the process-level particularly over extratropics (i.e., models produce the right temperature responses to ENSO but with wrong reasons); 3) water vapor feedback contributes substantially to the temperature anomalies found over U.S. during different phases of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which adds new insight to the traditional picture that cold/warm advective processes are the main drivers of local temperature responses to the NAM; 4) the overall land surface temperature biases in the latest NCAR model (CESM1) are caused by biases in surface albedo while the surface temperature biases over ocean are related to multiple factors including biases in model albedo, cloud and oceanic dynamics, and the temperature biases over different ocean basins are also induced by different process biases. These results provide a detailed guidance for process-level model turning and improvement, and thus contribute directly to the overall goal of reducing model uncertainty in projecting future changes in the Earth’s climate system, especially in the ENSO and AM variability.

  5. Climate Action Plan (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Governor Sanford issued Executive Order 2007-04 on February 16, 2007, establishing the South Carolina Climate, Energy and Commerce Advisory Committee (CECAC).

  6. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  7. Cool Farming: Climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    Cool Farming: Climate impacts of agriculture and mitigation potential greenpeace.org Campaigningfor meat categories as well as milk and selected plant products for comparison. 36 Figure 1: Total global

  8. Climate Action Plan (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recognizing the implications that global climate change may have on the economy, environment and quality of life in Minnesota, Governor Tim Pawlenty signed into law the 2007 Next Generation Energy...

  9. arm program climate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center is leading NOAA Center Veach-Baley Federal Building 151 Patton Avenue Asheville, North Carolina Climate Data Record 11 AWI Conference on Global Climate Change Conference...

  10. animations climate change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994 that will address climate...

  11. avoid climate change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes 12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature 12; Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing...

  12. Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contribute to changes in global climate patterns. Global warming can occur from a variety of causes, both, rainfall or winds) sustained over several decades or longer. Global Warming: An increase in the average natural and human induced. #12;7/23/2009 3 A Brief History of "Global Warming" Source: National Center

  13. Climate Action Plan (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 14, 2007, Governor Jennifer M. Granholm issued Executive Order No. 2007-42 establishing the Michigan Climate Action Council (MCAC). The Council is comprised of members representing...

  14. Nature Climate Change features Los Alamos forest research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nature Climate Change Features Forest Research Nature Climate Change features Los Alamos forest research The print issue features as its cover story the tree-stress research of...

  15. Development and application of WRF3.3-CLM4crop to study of agriculture - climate interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Yaqiong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global Climate Change and United-States Agriculture, Nature,climate modeling Land surface modeling Agriculture and climate interaction Land use change

  16. Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change

  17. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

    2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  18. President Issues Executive Order Aimed at Preparing for the Impacts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues Executive Order Aimed at Preparing for the Impacts of Climate Change; Tribal Leaders to Serve on Task Force President Issues Executive Order Aimed at Preparing for the...

  19. Global ClimateGlobal Climate meets dynamics inmeets dynamics in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    texture.texture. Here we will go to high latitudes for examples, whereHere we will go to high latitudes Arctic basin. From satellite passive microwave radiometer.meter. #12;Beneath the ocean surface, moisture flux, heat fluxwinds, moisture flux, heat flux meridionalmeridional energy transportenergy

  20. A sound understanding of environmental issues comes from a recognition of the interconnectedness of social and biophysical factors. As our comprehension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    , Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe and North America. They tackle global issues such as climate environments. You will be exposed to course work that covers Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, Asia change, renewable resources, green jobs and environmental workforce dynamics, environmental health

  1. Linear analysis of surface temperature dynamics and climate sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Wei

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral properties of global surface temperature and uncertainties of global climate sensitivity are explored in this work through the medium of Energy Balance Climate Models (EBCMs) and observational surface temperature data. In part I, a complete...

  2. Linear analysis of surface temperature dynamics and climate sensitivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Wei

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral properties of global surface temperature and uncertainties of global climate sensitivity are explored in this work through the medium of Energy Balance Climate Models (EBCMs) and observational surface temperature data. In part I, a complete...

  3. Sandia Energy - Global Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AtomisticFig1 Permalink Gallery Atomistic Molecular Dynamics of Ion-Containing Polymers Highlights - HPC Atomistic Molecular Dynamics of Ion-Containing Polymers In the quest...

  4. Sandia Energy - Global Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press ReleasesInAppliedEnergyGeothermal Home

  5. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  6. Climate impact metrics for energy technology evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Morgan Rae

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The climate change mitigation potential of energy technologies depends on how their lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions compare to global climate stabilization goals. Current methods for comparing technologies, which assess ...

  7. Challenges of Adapting to a Changing Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurd, Brian H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Global Climate Change on Agriculture: An Interpretiveon U.S. Agriculture, in THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THEclimate change and the potential roles for adaptation are more severe for ecosystems than they are for managed systems like agriculture.

  8. An iconic approach to representing climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    1 An iconic approach to representing climate change Saffron Jessica O'Neill A thesis submitted-experts to be meaningfully engaged with the issue of climate change. This thesis investigates the value of engaging non-experts with climate change at the individual level. Research demonstrates that individuals perceive climate change

  9. Using and losing land to feed a growing world It's taken a long time, but the issue of global climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Erle C.

    , changing dietary preferences, rising energy prices and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting

  10. Inside this issue: Introduction 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Clearinghouse · Global Climate Change and Society · New Directions in the Earth Sciences and the Humanities Publications · Center Introduces Two New Faculty Affiliates 4 5 6 6 Project News · Climate Services threats ­ be they from denial of service attacks, viruses, what have you. The development of high speed

  11. Some comments on the possible causes of climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Padget; J. Dunning-Davies

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change is an important current issue and there is much debate about the causes and effects. This article examines the changes in our climate, comparing the recent changes with those in the past. There have been changes in temperature, resulting in an average global rise over the last 300 years, as well as widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. There are many theories for the causes of the recent change in the climate, including some natural and some human influenced. The most widely believed cause of the climate change is increasing levels of Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and as the atmosphere plays an important role in making our planet inhabitable, it is important to understand it in order to protect it. However, there are other theories for the cause of climate change, the Sun and cosmic rays, for example, are felt by some to have a significant role to play. There is also well-established evidence that the three Milankovitch cycles change the amount and alter the distribution of sunlight over the Earth, heating and cooling it. There are many influences on our planet and they all have differing levels of impact. The purpose of this article is to review the present overall position and urge open, reasoned discussion of the problem.

  12. MATCH: Metadata Access Tool for Climate and Health Datasets

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    MATCH is a searchable clearinghouse of publicly available Federal metadata (i.e. data about data) and links to datasets. Most metadata on MATCH pertain to geospatial data sets ranging from local to global scales. The goals of MATCH are to: 1) Provide an easily accessible clearinghouse of relevant Federal metadata on climate and health that will increase efficiency in solving research problems; 2) Promote application of research and information to understand, mitigate, and adapt to the health effects of climate change; 3) Facilitate multidirectional communication among interested stakeholders to inform and shape Federal research directions; 4) Encourage collaboration among traditional and non-traditional partners in development of new initiatives to address emerging climate and health issues. [copied from http://match.globalchange.gov/geoportal/catalog/content/about.page

  13. Influence of Dynamic Land Use and Land Cover Change on Simulated Global Terrestrial Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles, Climate-carbon Cycle Feedbacks, and Interactions with Rising CO2 and Anthropogenic Nitrogen Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Hurtt, George C [University of Hew Hampshire

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous work has demonstrated the sensitivity of terrestrial net carbon exchange to disturbance history and land use patterns at the scale of individual sites or regions. Here we show the influence of land use and land cover dynamics over the historical period 1850-present on global-scale carbon, nutrient, water, and energy fluxes. We also explore the spatial and temporal details of interactions among land use and disturbance history, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide consentation, and increasing anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Our simulations show that these interactions are significant, and that their importance grows over time, expressed as a fraction of the independent forcing terms. We conclude with an analysis of the influence of these interactions on the sign and magnitude of global climate-carbon cycle feedbacks.

  14. Needed : a realistic strategy for global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Schmalensee, Richard.

    Through a brief look at the science and economics of climate, the authors show that if climate change turns out to be a serious threat, an effective response will require a substantial and very long-term global effort. ...

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leading magnesium producers and casting companies are working with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to alleviate the global environmental threat of climate...

  16. MSc Climate Change A cross-disciplinary degree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    MSc Climate Change A cross-disciplinary degree www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/climate LONDON'S GLOBAL of climatic change and to develop adaptation strategies. The UCL MSc Climate Change provides rigorous scientific and vocational training for the next generation of climate change professionals. Students

  17. Climate change-induced shifts in fire for Mediterranean ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Max A.

    RESEARCH PAPER Climate change-induced shifts in fire for Mediterranean ecosystems Enric Batllori1 Climate change, climate uncertainty, fire-climate relationship, fire shifts, Mediterranean biome Mediterranean biome and identify potential shifts in fire activity under an ensemble of global climate

  18. Effect of the potential melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the Meridional Overturning Circulation and global climate in the future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Weiqing

    Effect of the potential melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the Meridional Overturning February 2011 Keywords: Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Sea level Greenland Ice Sheet Global of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the mid-1990s. This increased ice sheet mass loss might be an evidence of global

  19. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  20. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Washington in February of 2002. The paper briefly describes the issues surrounding climate change and the Magnesium Industry, and gives an overview of the SF6 Emission...

  1. Debating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

  2. Perception of climate change James Hansena,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    the significance of human- made global warming. Actions to stem emissions of the gases that cause global warming the season when climate change will have its biggest impact on humanity. Global warming causes spring warmth global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher tempera

  3. Final Progress Report: Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M; Cote, J

    2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and applications important for the U.S. and Canadian public, business and policy decision makers, as well as for international collaborations on regional, and especially climate related issues.

  4. Climatic effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent findings by this group confirmed by workers in Europe, the US and the USSR, suggest that the long-term climatic effects of a major nuclear war are likely to be much severer and farther-reaching than had been supposed. In the aftermath of such a war vast areas of the earth could be subjected to prolonged darkness, abnormally low temperatures, violent windstorms, toxic smog and persistent radioactive fallout - in short, the combination of conditions that has come to be known as nuclear winter. In brief, the authors' initial results, published in Science in December, 1983, showed that the potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war...are serious. Significant hemispherical attenuation of the solar radiation flux and subfreezing land temperatures may be caused by fine dust raised in high-yield nuclear surface bursts and by smoke from city and forest fires ignited by airbursts of all yields. Subsequent studies, based on more powerful models of the general circulation of the earth's atmosphere, have tended to confirm both the validity of the authors' investgative approach and the main thrust of their findings. Most of this article is devoted to reviewing the current state of knowledge on this vital issue.

  5. "Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real or presumed developments is a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    "Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real of catastrophic global warming the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people" What is climate change we have ever seen" What is climate change? Lord Nicholas Stern, October 2006 #12;"Global warming

  6. Gordon Research Conference on Radiation & Climate in 2009, July 5 -10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiang Fu

    2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2009 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on the outstanding issues in global climate change with focus on the radiative forcing and sensitivity of the climate system and associated physical processes. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, including grand challenges in radiation and climate, radiative forcing, climate feedbacks, cloud processes in climate system, hydrological cycle in changing climate, absorbing aerosols and Asian monsoon, recent climate changes, and geo-engineering. The invited speakers will present the recent most important advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists especially junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  7. Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Nadir

    1 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes that the most genetically diverse populations are the ones most at risk from climate change, so that global warming will erode the species' genetic variability faster than it curtails the species' geographic

  8. Global warming elucidated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

  9. Global Change Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Global Change and Sustainability Center The GCSC is an inclusionary and interdisciplinary hub that promotes, coordinates, and conducts local to global environmental- and sustainability-related research to complex environmental and sustainability issues and challenges. 2012 Annual Report #12;1GCSC 2012 ANNUAL

  10. The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda CEPS Working Document No. 295/June 2008 Thomas L. Brewer Abstract Climate change, international trade, investment and technology transfer are all issues that have............................................................................ 6 3.2 Coverage of the Multilateral Climate and Trade Regimes

  11. CLIMATE RESEARCH Vol. 52: 6376, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurnaz, Levent

    CLIMATE RESEARCH Clim Res Vol. 52: 63­76, 2012 doi: 10.3354/cr01082 Published March 22 1. INTRODUCTION Climate tends to change on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather, today, climate change is a much more complex issue than it was be- fore the industrial revolution, due

  12. 194 / JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT / JULY/AUGUST 1999 INDICATORS OF IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    194 / JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT / JULY/AUGUST 1999 INDICATORS OF IMPACTS of the indicators, regional reservoir storage vulnerability, is a particularly useful index summarizing (U.S.) to investigate the integrated impacts of potential global warming on water resources. Impacts

  13. Climate change and water supply, management and use: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, L.H.; Draves, J.D.; Hunsaker, C.T.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is evidence that atmospheric concentrations Of C0{sub 2}, tropospheric 0{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4}, among other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect, have increased in recent decades, and that these changes may induce changes in global air temperatures and regional climate features in coming years. A literature review was conducted to sample the literature base on which our understanding of the water resource impacts of climate change rests. Water resource issues likely to be important include hydrologic response to climate change, the resilience of water supply systems to changing climatic and hydrologic conditions, and the effects of climate change on water quality and water uses (such as navigation and energy generation). A computer-assisted search of literature on the effects of climate change on these subjects was conducted. All studies were classified by type of paper (e.g., review, discussion, case study), region, water resource variable studied, and source of climate scenario. The resulting bibliography containing more than 200 references was largely annotated. Case studies of potential hydrologic impacts have been more common than studies of impacts on water management or water use, but this apparent research gap is decreasing. Case studies demonstrating methods of incorporating potential risks of climate change into water project planning and management have been performed. Considerable variability in regional coverage exists; the Great Lakes basin and California receive relatively more attention than such regions as New England and the Missouri River basin. General circulation model-based and hypothetical climate scenarios have been the dominant sources of climate scenarios used in case studies, although a variety of other methods for developing climate scenarios have been developed.

  14. A Hierarchical Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ringler, Todd; Collins, William D.; Taylor, Mark; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tools for predicting the evolution of the climate system. Through decades of development, GCMs have demonstrated useful skill in simulating climate at continental to global scales. However, large uncertainties remain in projecting climate change at regional scales, which limit our ability to inform decisions on climate change adaptation and mitigation. To bridge this gap, different modeling approaches including nested regional climate models (RCMs), global stretch-grid models, and global high-resolution atmospheric models have been used to provide regional climate simulations (Leung et al. 2003). In previous efforts to evaluate these approaches, isolating their relative merits was not possible because factors such as dynamical frameworks, physics parameterizations, and model resolutions were not systematically constrained. With advances in high performance computing, it is now feasible to run coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs at horizontal resolution comparable to what RCMs use today. Global models with local refinement using unstructured grids have become available for modeling regional climate (e.g., Rauscher et al. 2012; Ringler et al. 2013). While they offer opportunities to improve climate simulations, significant efforts are needed to test their veracity for regional-scale climate simulations.

  15. Knowledge Action Networks: Connecting regional climate change assessments to local action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennel, Charles; Daultrey, Sally

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impacts of Climate Change on Water In Africa, Cambridge (2009, a workshop of the Global Water Initiative. ConferenceCalifornia, San Diego; Global Water Initiative, University

  16. An Urban Parameterization for a Global Climate Model. Part II: Sensitivity to Input Parameters and the Simulated Urban Heat Island in Offline Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleson, Keith W.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Vertenstein, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tempera- tures of urban systems as impervious fraction increases. In general, these findings are in agreement with those observed for real urban ecosystems. Thus, the model appears to be a useful tool for examining the nature of the urban climate within... of the physical processes controlling energy and water fluxes and 2) the charac- terization of urban morphology and urban materials with respect to aerodynamic, radiative, and heat trans- fer properties (e.g., Terjung and O’Rourke 1980; Arn- field 2000; Masson...

  17. Severe global-scale effects of nuclear war reaffirmed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a statement of the issues raised at a special SCOPE workshop held in Bangkok February 9-12, 1987. The participants noted an improving range of research efforts designed to refine estimates of the physical and atmospheric consequences of a major nuclear war. The primary topics of the discussions were the volume and size of smoke particles which could be emmitted by the burning of wood, plastics, and petroleum products, the concepts of nuclear winter and nuclear autumn, and the effect that the smoke production and climate change could have on global food production.

  18. Global Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, Ben D

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1996). Globalization in Question: International Economy andGlobalization; Justice; Poverty; Underground Economy; United

  19. Commonality Among Unique Indigenous Communities: An Introduction to Climate Change and Its Impacts on Indigenous Peoples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abate, Randall S.; Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book (Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples: The Search for Legal Remedies) explores how climate change affects the rights of indigenous peoples. Climate change is a global environmental problem caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Although...

  20. The Economic Impacts of Climate Change: Evidence from Agricultural Profits and Random Fluctuations in Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deschenes, Olivier; Greenstone, Michael

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1989): “Global Climate Change and Agriculture: An Economicpart of climate change for agriculture. These predictedAgriculture,” in Robert Mendelsohn and James E. Neumann (editors), The Impact of Climate Change

  1. Climate Change: What Are We Arguing About? Professor Mike Hulme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Climate Change: What Are We Arguing About? Professor Mike Hulme School of Environmental Sciences climate change is serious, it is urgent and it is growing ... we will be judge by history Climate change thing If you could vote for a change of climate, you would always vote for a warmer one The global

  2. Introducing the climate change effects on Mediterranean forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gracia, Carlos

    357 Introducing the climate change effects on Mediterranean forest ecosystems: observation, Joan LLUSIÃ? & Jordi SARDANS Current and projected climate change trends in the Mediterranean region of climate change in the frame of global change If the combination of climate change, asso- ciated

  3. Watershed response and land energy feedbacks under climate change depend upon groundwater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, R M; Kollet, S J

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Human induced climate change will have a significant impact on the hydrologic cycle, creating changes in fresh water resources, land cover, and feedbacks that are difficult to characterize, which makes it an issue of global importance. Previous studies have not included subsurface storage in climate change simulations and feedbacks. A variably-saturated groundwater flow model with integrated overland flow and land surface model processes is used to examine the interplay between coupled water and energy processes under climate change conditions. A case study from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) USA, an important agricultural region that is susceptible to drought, is used as the basis for three scenarios simulations using a modified atmospheric forcing dataset to reflect predicted effects due to human-induced climate change. These scenarios include an increase in the atmospheric temperature and variations in rainfall amount and are compared to the present-day climate case. Changes in shallow soil saturation and groundwater levels are quantified as well as the corresponding energy fluxes at the land surface. Here we show that groundwater and subsurface lateral flow processes are critical in understanding hydrologic response and energy feedbacks to climate change and that certain regions are more susceptible to changes in temperature, while others to changes in precipitation. This groundwater control is critical for understanding recharge and drought processes, possible under future climate conditions.

  4. Studying the Causes of Recent Climate Change Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 Studying the Causes of Recent Climate Change Ben Santer Program for Climate Model Diagnosis of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate" "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities" "Most

  5. Climate Policy 3 (2003) 149157 The climatic impacts of land surface change and carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pielke, Roger A.

    recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere can reduce the build-up of carbon dioxide of the surface energy budget can affect the local, regional, and global climate. Given the goal of mitigatingClimate Policy 3 (2003) 149­157 The climatic impacts of land surface change and carbon management

  6. Funding for adaptation to climate change : the case of Surat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Toral

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for cities to adapt to climate change is widely acknowledged, yet the question of adaptation finance remains uncertain. Unable to access global climate funds, cities must seek out alternative sources to support ...

  7. Improving understanding of climate change dynamics using interactive simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Aguirre, Juan Francisco

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global climate change is one of the most complex problems that human kind will face during the 21st century. Long delays in changing greenhouse gas emissions and in the response of the climate to anthropogenic forcing mean ...

  8. Planning for mitigating climate change risk to metropolitan areas (USA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Himanshu

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last couple of decades, there has been increasing evidence of changes in global climate. With urban areas identified as the primary contributors to the climate change, there is an impetus for initiatives to persuade major contributors...

  9. Planning for mitigating climate change risk to metropolitan areas (USA) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Himanshu

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last couple of decades, there has been increasing evidence of changes in global climate. With urban areas identified as the primary contributors to the climate change, there is an impetus for initiatives to persuade major contributors...

  10. GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE WORKING PAPER NO. 08-03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufts University

    a Response to Climate Change Brian Roach July 2008 Tufts University Medford MA 02155, USA http to Climate Change Policies for Funding a Response to Climate Change Brian Roach Introduction Global emissions

  11. address global challenges: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (for example, by addressing issues of global health, poverty and equality, and sustainable living). The aim of this document Saunders, Mark 124 GLOBAL INITIATIVES AT...

  12. accident mitigation issues: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 CRED Newsletter Inside this issue: Adaptation and Mitigation Reponses to Climate Change: Complements or Substitutes? CiteSeer Summary: Traditionally these two responses to...

  13. Climate Change, Agriculture and Poverty Vulnerabilityand Poverty Vulnerability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change, Agriculture and Poverty Vulnerabilityand Poverty Vulnerability Presentation by-Medium-High productivity ­ Implications for agricultural production, trade and poverty · The issue of climate volatility ­ Impact of extreme climate events on poverty #12;Climate Science Debate Detection: - Little doubt about

  14. A Statistician's view of the Climate Douglas Nychka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nychka, Douglas

    . · Surface pressure. · Relative humidity, wind speed · Cloud cover, radiation. Coverage North America South · Weather vs. Climate · Issues of Climate Change · Earth's climate system: Green house effect, Thermohaline Statistician's climate system 9 Incoming radiation at the equator is transfered to the poles. Details ... #12

  15. Human Responses to Climate Change: Social Representation, Identity and Socio-Psychological Action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    and methodological approaches. Keywords: climate change; communication; social representation; identity; social representations and applies them to the issue of climate change communication, focusing in particularHuman Responses to Climate Change: Social Representation, Identity and Socio- Psychological Action

  16. The Apollo Alliance: How Global Warming Can Save

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    The Apollo Alliance: How Global Warming Can Save Democracy Joel Rogers UW-Madison, COWS, JR Commons. #12;I really wonder about power point sometimes #12;Global warming and Apollo #12;The end (orange) in recent years. Source: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment #12;Global Climate Disruption · Carbon

  17. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: most complete climate and Earth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to address the most challenging and demanding climate-change issues. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) is designed to accel-erate the development and applica-tion of...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: accurate climate-change prediction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to address the most challenging and demanding climate-change issues. Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) is designed to accel-erate the development and applica-tion of...

  20. Regulatory issues controlling carbon capture and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Adam (Adam M.), 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change is increasingly being recognized by governments, industry, the scientific community, and the public as an issue that must be dealt with. Parties are pursuing various strategies to reduce CO? emissions. ...

  1. Next Generation Climate Change Experiments Needed to Advance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Generation Climate Change Experiments Needed to Advance Knowledge and for Assessment of CMIP6 Re-direct Destination: The Aspen Global Change Institute hosted a technical...

  2. alaska arm climate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems. Includes societal impacts of weather worldwide and investigations into global climate change. (Prerequisite: High school level Wagner, Diane 2 Resilience of Athabascan...

  3. Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Management Under the New Climate Change Agreement-A Case Study in Cambodia AgencyCompany Organization United States Agency for International Development, Global...

  4. arctic climate change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: of global environment and energy challenges, thereby contributing to informed debate about climate change-Directors...

  5. RISNEWS JUNE 2007 NO Energy, climate and sustainable development in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RISØNEWSNO 12007PAGE1 RISØNEWS JUNE 2007 NO 1 Energy, climate and sustainable development in the global fight for sustainable development ..................................................4 New partnerships encourage sustainable development

  6. artificial climate experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    positively affects arbuscular Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: of global warming, responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to climate warm- ing are...

  7. assessing climate change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have rendered Debinski, Diane M. 23 Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change University of...

  8. assessment climate change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have rendered Debinski, Diane M. 23 Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change University of...

  9. Inside this issue: Around Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kidd, William S. F.

    version of the future as described in his new book, 2052: A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years. Will the climate problem hurt the US? 4. Will energy be more expensive? 5. Will the young generation calmly accept the debt and pen- sion burden of the old? 6. Will the passing of world leadership from the US to China

  10. An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro that the climate sensitivity never exceeds 6 C. Consequently, the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited be calculated in simple terms. Global warming is like that." However, there will be not a few physicists who do

  11. FY08 LDRD Final Report Regional Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, D C; Chin, H; Caldwell, P M

    2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated, multi-model capability for regional climate change simulation is needed to perform original analyses to understand and prepare for the impacts of climate change on the time and space scales that are critical to California's future environmental quality and economic prosperity. Our intent was to develop a very high resolution regional simulation capability to address consequences of climate change in California to complement the global modeling capability that is supported by DOE at LLNL and other institutions to inform national and international energy policies. The California state government, through the California Energy Commission (CEC), institutionalized the State's climate change assessment process through its biennial climate change reports. The bases for these reports, however, are global climate change simulations for future scenarios designed to inform international policy negotiations, and are primarily focused on the global to continental scale impacts of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. These simulations do not meet the needs of California public and private officials who will make major decisions in the next decade that require an understanding of climate change in California for the next thirty to fifty years and its effects on energy use, water utilization, air quality, agriculture and natural ecosystems. With the additional development of regional dynamical climate modeling capability, LLNL will be able to design and execute global simulations specifically for scenarios important to the state, then use those results to drive regional simulations of the impacts of the simulated climate change for regions as small as individual cities or watersheds. Through this project, we systematically studied the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling global model results with a regional mesoscale model to guide others, particularly university researchers, who are using the technique based on models with less complete parameterizations or coarser spatial resolution. Further, LLNL has now built a capability in state-of-the-science mesoscale climate modeling that complements that which it has in global climate simulation, providing potential sponsors with an end-to-end simulation and analysis program.

  12. Climate Change Science Program Issues Report on Climate Models | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613PortsmouthBartlesville EnergyDepartment. Cash 6-1Clay SellBoston,Oberlin,Compact, FLof

  13. 6. Have climate issues been addressed?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and replanting formerly forested areas can store additional carbon. Atmosphere pool Soil pool Water pool Forest in negative effects: Q Unsustainable harvesting for biomass Q Reduced carbon sequestration Q Distortion. Figure 7. Carbon pools and exchanges between pools Fossil fuel pool Combustion for harvesting

  14. Growth of climate change commitments from HFC banks and emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velders, G. J. M.

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are the primary cause of ozone depletion, and they also contribute to global climate change. With the global phaseout of CFCs and the coming phaseout of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), the ...

  15. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  16. atmospheric global electric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    global atmospheric iron cycle, and combustion this paper. Key Words aerosol deposition, climate change, deserts Abstract Atmospheric inputs of iron sources of iron are...

  17. Global Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Installation Market to be Propelled...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of humid climatic conditions and irregular intensities of solar radiations. The key companies operating in the global solar photovoltaic installation market are Trina Solar...

  18. Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

  19. Climate Change and Forest Disturbances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, Virginia H.; Joyce, Linda A.; McNulty, Steve; Neilson, Ronald P.; Ayres, Matthew P.; Flannigan, Michael D.; Hanson, Paul J.; Irland, Lloyd C.; Lugo, Ariel E.; Peterson, Chris J.; Simberloff, Daniel; Swanson, Frederick J.; Stocks, Brian J.; Wotton, B. Michael; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of disturbances caused by climate change (e.g., Ojima et al. 1991).Yet modeling studies indicate the im- portance of climate effects on disturbance regimes (He et al. 1999). Local, regional, and global changes in temperature and precipitation can influence... circulation models (GCMs)—one de- veloped by the Hadley Center in the United Kingdom (HADCM2SUL) and one by the Canadian Climate Center (CGCM1)—have been selected for this national assessment (MacCracken et al. 2000). These transient GCMs simulate at...

  20. Climate change and the conservation of marmots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armitage, Kenneth

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Climate change, an indirect human impact, threatens marmot survival through global warming and extreme weather events. Most marmot species occupy a harsh environment characterized by a short growing season and a long, cold season without food. Marmots cope...

  1. Uncertainty in emissions projections for climate models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort David.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Mayer, Monika.; Reilly, John M.; Harnisch, Jochen.; Hyman, Robert C.; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Wang, Chien.

    Future global climate projections are subject to large uncertainties. Major sources of this uncertainty are projections of anthropogenic emissions. We evaluate the uncertainty in future anthropogenic emissions using a ...

  2. The role of large-scale, extratropical dynamics in climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, T.G. [ed.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The climate modeling community has focused recently on improving our understanding of certain processes, such as cloud feedbacks and ocean circulation, that are deemed critical to climate-change prediction. Although attention to such processes is warranted, emphasis on these areas has diminished a general appreciation of the role played by the large-scale dynamics of the extratropical atmosphere. Lack of interest in extratropical dynamics may reflect the assumption that these dynamical processes are a non-problem as far as climate modeling is concerned, since general circulation models (GCMs) calculate motions on this scale from first principles. Nevertheless, serious shortcomings in our ability to understand and simulate large-scale dynamics exist. Partly due to a paucity of standard GCM diagnostic calculations of large-scale motions and their transports of heat, momentum, potential vorticity, and moisture, a comprehensive understanding of the role of large-scale dynamics in GCM climate simulations has not been developed. Uncertainties remain in our understanding and simulation of large-scale extratropical dynamics and their interaction with other climatic processes, such as cloud feedbacks, large-scale ocean circulation, moist convection, air-sea interaction and land-surface processes. To address some of these issues, the 17th Stanstead Seminar was convened at Bishop`s University in Lennoxville, Quebec. The purpose of the Seminar was to promote discussion of the role of large-scale extratropical dynamics in global climate change. Abstracts of the talks are included in this volume. On the basis of these talks, several key issues emerged concerning large-scale extratropical dynamics and their climatic role. Individual records are indexed separately for the database.

  3. Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuqing; Leung, Lai R.; McGregor, John L.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ding, Yihui; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional climate modeling with regional climate models (RCMs) has matured over the past decade and allows for meaningful utilization in a broad spectrum of applications. In this paper, latest progresses in regional climate modeling studies are reviewed, including RCM development, applications of RCMs to dynamical downscaling for climate change assessment, seasonal climate predictions and climate process studies, and the study of regional climate predictability. Challenges and potential directions of future research in this important area are discussed, with the focus on those to which less attention has been given previously, such as the importance of ensemble simulations, further development and improvement of regional climate modeling approach, modeling extreme climate events and sub-daily variation of clouds and precipitation, model evaluation and diagnostics, applications of RCMs to climate process studies and seasonal predictions, and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with both the demonstrated credibility of RCMs’ capability in reproducing not only monthly to seasonal mean climate and interannual variability but also the extreme climate events when driven by good quality reanalysis and the continuous improvements in the skill of global general circulation models (GCMs) in simulating large-scale atmospheric circulation, regional climate modeling will remain an important dynamical downscaling tool for providing the needed information for assessing climate change impacts and seasonal climate predictions, and a powerful tool for improving our understanding of regional climate processes. An internationally coordinated effort can be developed with different focuses by different groups to advance regional climate modeling studies. It is also recognized that since the final quality of the results from nested RCMs depends in part on the realism of the large-scale forcing provided by GCMs, the reduction of errors and improvement in physics parameterizations in both GCMs and RCMs remain a priority for climate modeling community.

  4. Globalization Nationalized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazlish, Bruce

    Globalism and globalization have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing global history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests ...

  5. The Role of China in Mitigating Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, S.

    We explore short- and long-term implications of several energy scenarios of China’s role in efforts to mitigate global climate risk. The focus is on the impacts on China’s energy system and GDP growth, and on global climate ...

  6. Parameterization of contrail radiative properties for climate studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    the current and potential effect on global climate change. The line-shaped artificial clouds often visible radiation and absorb infrared radiation emitted from the Earth and atmosphere, and the effect on the global climate change requires a cloud model that statistically represents contrail radiative properties

  7. Hydrologic Response to Climate Variability, Climate Change, and Climate Extreme in the U.S.: Climate Model Evaluation and Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Lai R.; Qian, Yun

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water resources are sensitive to climate variability and change; predictions of seasonal to interannual climate variations and projections of long-term climate trends can provide significant values in managing water resources. This study examines the control (1975–1995) and future (1995–2100) climate simulated by a global climate model (GCM) and a regional climate simulation driven by the GCM control simulation for the U.S. Comparison of the regional climate simulation with observations across 13 subregions showed that the simulation captured the seasonality and the distributions of precipitation rate quite well. The GCM control and climate change simulations showed that, as a result of a 1% increase in greenhouse gas concentrations per year, there will be a warming of 2–3°C across the U.S. from 2000 to 2100. Although precipitation is not projected to change during this century, the warming trend will increase evapotranspiration to reduce annual basin mean runoff over five subregions along the coastal and south-central U.S.

  8. Climate change: Update on international negotiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Policy

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines the following: United Nations` framework convention on climatic change; the United States` climate change action plan; current issues to be resolved (targets/timetables, policies, advancing commitments of all parties, and compliance); and implications for clean coal technologies.

  9. Climate Multi-model Regression Using Spatial Smoothing Karthik Subbian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Arindam

    Climate Multi-model Regression Using Spatial Smoothing Karthik Subbian Arindam Banerjee Abstract There are several Global Climate Models (GCMs) reported by var- ious countries to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Due to the varied nature of the GCM assumptions, the fu- ture projections

  10. MARS CLIMATE DATABASE v5.1 USER MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    MARS CLIMATE DATABASE v5.1 USER MANUAL (ESTEC Contract 11369/95/NL/JG "Mars Climate Database for version 5.1 of the Mars Climate Database (MCD) de- veloped by LMD (Paris), AOPP (Oxford), Dept. Physics and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. This is a database of atmospheric statistics compiled from Global Cli

  11. Climate Science and Public Policy in Iowa The productive soils and favorable climate of Iowa underpin the economy of our State.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debinski, Diane M.

    Climate Science and Public Policy in Iowa The productive soils and favorable climate of Iowa in our contributions to national and global food security. Changes in rainfall patterns and other climate and livelihoods. Subtle changes in climate can have large effects on agriculture, making it a sensitive indicator

  12. Climate, Environmental, and Socioeconomic Change Weighing up the Balance in Vector-Borne Disease Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parham, Paul [University of Liverpool; Waldock, Johanna [Imperial College, London; Christophides, George [Imperial College, London; Hemming, Deborah [Met Office Hadley Centre, UK; Agusto, Folashade [Austin Peay State University; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Fefferman, Nina [Rutgers University; Gaff, Holly [Old Dominion University; Gumel, Abba [Arizona State University; LaDeau, Shannon [The University of Tennessee; Lenhart, Suzanne [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mickens, Ronald [Clark Atlanta University; Naumova, Elena [Tufts University; Ostfeld, Richard [Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, New York; Ready, Paul [Natural History Museum; Thomas, Matthew [Pennsylvania State University; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Edwin, Michael [University of Notre Dame, IN

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is due not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but, perhaps most crucially, the multitude of epidemiological, ecological, and socioeconomic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the last 10-15 years. In this article, and Theme Issue, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions, and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field moving forwards. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. This Theme Issue seeks to cover both, reflected in the breadth and depth of the topics and VBD-systems considered, itself strongly indicative of the challenging, but necessary, multidisciplinary nature of this research field.

  13. CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    ://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve #12;OUTLINE Earth's energy balance Perturbations Keyquestions Influence of aerosols Climate research ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter Schwartz, 1996, modified sensitivity can result in huge averted costs. #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO

  14. Prospects for Future Climate Change and the Reasons for Early Action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgerton, Sylvia A.

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Never before in human history has the global community collectively faced an environmental issue as complex as climate change. Left unchecked, the rapidly growing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are projected to change the world we live in to one that is likely to have longer and more severe droughts and water shortages, more intense storms, flooding of coastal communities, worsening of air pollution,migration of forests, and loss of valuable ecosystems.1 The scenario of this world presents presents a bleak future for our children and grandchildren.

  15. 1 Global Change Research for Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    , ecological zones are shifting, the seas are warming and ice caps are melting. Forced adaptation to climate several countries or regions of the world are affected. Most promi- nent among these processes is climate change, which is often perceived as today's most important global threat, affecting the environment

  16. Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. High resolution RCM simulation of eastern Mediterranean climate and its expected changes to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    High resolution RCM simulation of eastern Mediterranean climate and its expected changes to 2050. Modern global climate change evaluations usually based on application of coupled atmosphere-ocean global by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A number of different anthropogenic emission scenarios have been

  18. book reviews Climate Changeon the Great Lakes Basin. 1992.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,personal communication). The second paper, "Effects of Climate Change on the Water Resources of the Great is a compilation of five papers presented at the Symposium of Climate Change on the Great Lakes Basin held as part- ested in learning more a out climate change issues andstudiesintheGreatL kesisadvisedtoconsultthe

  19. The Scientific and Social Challenges of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiehl, Jeff

    ) · Snow cover (decrease) · Sea ice cover (decrease) · Ocean heat (increase) · Ocean acidity (increase) (AD 2200-2300?) High Climate Sensitivity Low Climate Sensitivity (Geol. Data) (No Arctic/Greenland ice in Technology · Changes in Consumption #12;10/16/07 30 US is 5% of global population, but 25% of global

  20. Overview of different aspects of climate change effects on soils.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change [i.e., high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (?400 ppm); increasing air temperatures (2-4°C or greater); significant and/or abrupt changes in daily, seasonal, and inter-annual temperature; changes in the wet/dry cycles; intensive rainfall and/or heavy storms; extended periods of drought; extreme frost; heat waves and increased fire frequency] is and will significantly affect soil properties and fertility, water resources, food quantity and quality, and environmental quality. Biotic processes that consume atmospheric CO2 and create organic carbon (C) that is either reprocessed to CO2 or stored in soils, are the subject of active current investigations with great concern over the influence of climate change. In addition, abiotic C cycling and its influence on the inorganic C pool in soils is a fundamental global process in which acidic atmospheric CO2 participates in the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, ultimately delivering bicarbonate and Ca2+ or other cations that precipitate in the form of carbonates in soils or are transported to the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Soil responses to climate change will be complex, and there are many uncertainties and unresolved issues. The objective of the review is to initiate and further stimulate a discussion about some important and challenging aspects of climate-change effects on soils, such as accelerated weathering of soil minerals and resulting C and elemental fluxes in and out of soils, soil/geo-engineering methods used to increase C sequestration in soils, soil organic matter (SOM) protection, transformation and mineralization, and SOM temperature sensitivity. This review reports recent discoveries and identifies key research needs required to understand the effects of climate change on soils.

  1. Global Climate Change Alliance Training Workshops on Mainstreaming Climate

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting Jump to:Echo, Maryland:Glenwillow,

  2. Propaganda about Climate Change: Is anyone really

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCready, Mark J.

    ://tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/03/06/global-warming- payola/ http://www.opinionjournal.com/extra/?id=110008220 #12;mjm to uncontrolled forcings (solar changes, variations in orbit or changes in carbon dioxide levels) On the global available. #12;mjm@nd.edu What definitive things can be said about the climate? Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels

  3. Contributed Paper Climate Change, Elevational Range Shifts,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekercioglu, Cagan Hakki

    assessments of terrestrial species and will help identify species that are most vulnerable to global climate: biodiversity, avian biogeography, extinction likelihood, GIS, global warming, lapse rates, macroe- cology, escenarios de p´erdida de h´abitat de la Evaluaci´on 4 Milenio y una estimaci´on intermedia de calentamiento

  4. Climate Change Basics: Science, Adaptation, & Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    Science Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have increased from ice cores spanning many thousands of years. The global increases in carbon dioxide concentrationClimate Change Basics: Science, Adaptation, & Mitigation with a Family Forest Perspective Baylor

  5. A Right to Enjoy Culture in Face of Climate Change: Implications for “Climate Migrants”

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wewerinke, Margaretha

    sustainability while allowing for global economic development. This includes strategies for carbon emissions reduction, sequestration of carbon in vegetation and improved resilience of the built environment, economies and social institutions to climate impacts...

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming impact on the dominant precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    is then used to simulate the changes due to global warming over the twenty-first century. The regional climate to potentially negative impacts of climate change while decreasing the likelihood of successful region-wide adaptation strategies emerging. While much of the region has a Mediterranean-type climate, the region spans

  7. Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet 2050 global climate goals This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    and light trucks) should complement fuel efficiency and carbon intensity improvements in order to meet international greenhouse gas emission and climate targets for the year 2050. Keywords: transportation systems require fundamental change to meet greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and climate reduction goals

  8. Global Climate Dialogue Prepared by Kershney Naidoo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    floods in the Soweto Township changed the lives of many poverty stricken South Africans, leaving them in order to save the planet for future generations. The dialogue ended in a commemorative tree planting

  9. Understanding Climate Change: The Global Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Matthew D. Brown

    events in Japan) of our total fuel production. #12;http (along with Solar Intensity and Orbital Changes). (From Mann and Kump, 2009) As Mary Schweitzer Showed Us CO2, human activities (e.g., fossil fuel burning, deforestation) have increased levels > 100 ppm

  10. Global Climate Change and Demand for Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    -CARES) Washington University in St. Louis #12;9 Jun ­ Jul ­ Aug Temperature Anomaly Distribution Frequency of air and water temperatures Losses of ice from Greenland and Antarctica Sea-level rise Energy demands 169 390 327 90 16 H2O, CO2, O3 Earth receives visible light from hot Sun and Earth radiates to space

  11. Understanding Global Climate November 1, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    and Mexico (May 14, 1998) #12;February 2007 Blue ­ natural forcings only Pink ­ natural & anthropogenic 250 300 350 400 450 500 1850 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 Year EJ/year Gas Oil Coal Nuclear Hydro cap, Peru Annual layers #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Quelccaya 2003, Summit Core #12;77 new cores

  12. Global Climate Change and National Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    experience/expertise · S&T, Exchanges, Exercises · Update CONOPS, TTPs · Strengthen Partnerships NATIONAL DOD

  13. Global Climate Change Electric Power Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    gas, and the generation of electric power accounts for an important share of the CO2 emissions of the electricity sector because of its large emissions, around one-third of the CO2 emissions in the US. Scientists and policy makers are calling for major reductions in CO2 emissions, and they are debating

  14. Sandia Energy - Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatingsUltra-High-Voltage SiliconEnergyFailure ModeGeothermalParticipated

  15. Sandia Energy - Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatingsUltra-High-Voltage SiliconEnergyFailure

  16. Global Climate Change Impacts & Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartmentCounselGlass Coating Makes Solar PanelsGlenShop Floor

  17. Sandia Energy - Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementing Nonlinear757 (1)Tara46EnergyPower Systems

  18. Sandia Energy - Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementing Nonlinear757 (1)Tara46EnergyPower SystemsCarbon Capture &

  19. Sandia Energy - Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementing Nonlinear757 (1)Tara46EnergyPower SystemsCarbon Capture

  20. Sandia Energy » Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitche Home About npitche This authorEnergy &EC,

  1. Sandia Energy » Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitche Home About npitche This authorEnergy &EC,Team Attends

  2. Global Climate Change Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/Exploration <Glacial Energy HoldingsGlacialReport

  3. Proposal for a consulting commission Climate and Air Quality of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drmota, Michael

    and climate strategies and their relation to air pollution issues · Co-benefit consideration of different issues relating to the atmosphere (air pollution, climate change) and aerosol ­ climate interaction · Exposures to ambient and indoor air pollutants (fine and ultrafine particles) · Epidemiology of disease

  4. Climate change and standing freshwaters: informing adaptation strategies for conservation at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    Climate change and standing freshwaters: informing adaptation strategies for conservation received 26 July 2012 Climate change will have a major impact on freshwater environments globally and producing well-informed climate change adaptation strategies is a priority. Links between climate, hydrology

  5. Climatic Change (2006) 79:79102 DOI 10.1007/s10584-006-9106-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and new insurance concepts seem necessary. Keywords Agriculture . Climate change . Extreme eventsClimatic Change (2006) 79:79­102 DOI 10.1007/s10584-006-9106-6 Climate risks and their impact of global climate change, some of the most severe weather events could become more frequent in Europe over

  6. he Iowa State University Climate Science Initiative (CSI) is established in response to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debinski, Diane M.

    and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call 202-720-5964. *Climate Change and Agriculture://www.agmrc.org/agmrc/renewables/) and Ag Decision Maker (http://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm) Web sites. Climate Change and Agriculture it and the impact global warming may have on Midwestern agriculture. Climate change refers to any change in climate

  7. Aridification determines changes in forest growth in Pinus halepensis forests under semiarid Mediterranean climate conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gracia, Carlos

    NDVI Leaf area index Landsat Climatic change Potential evapotranspiration Climatic trends Mediterranean Mediterranean climate conditions Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano a, *, Teodoro Lasanta a , Carlos Gracia b a Instituto to climate variability and change. At a global scale, net primary production of forests increased 6

  8. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  9. Climate-Change Treaties: A Game-Theoretic Approach Stern School, New York University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeeman, Mary Lou

    to global warming, as of 2005. : 1. Average global surface temperatures have risen by 0.6C in the last 140 on as we are, by 2100 global sea levels will probably have risen by 9 to 88cm and average temperatures, 2008 2 / 26 #12;() January 2, 2008 3 / 26 #12;Global warming (or global climate change) is a "tragedy

  10. Climate Forcings and Climate Sensitivities Diagnosed from Coupled Climate Model Integrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forster, P M A F; Taylor, K E

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple technique is proposed for calculating global mean climate forcing from transient integrations of coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs). This 'climate forcing' differs from the conventionally defined radiative forcing as it includes semi-direct effects that account for certain short timescale responses in the troposphere. Firstly, we calculate a climate feedback term from reported values of 2 x CO{sub 2} radiative forcing and surface temperature time series from 70-year simulations by twenty AOGCMs. In these simulations carbon dioxide is increased by 1%/year. The derived climate feedback agrees well with values that we diagnose from equilibrium climate change experiments of slab-ocean versions of the same models. These climate feedback terms are associated with the fast, quasi-linear response of lapse rate, clouds, water vapor and albedo to global surface temperature changes. The importance of the feedbacks is gauged by their impact on the radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We find partial compensation between longwave and shortwave feedback terms that lessens the inter-model differences in the equilibrium climate sensitivity. There is also some indication that the AOGCMs overestimate the strength of the positive longwave feedback. These feedback terms are then used to infer the shortwave and longwave time series of climate forcing in 20th and 21st Century simulations in the AOGCMs. We validate the technique using conventionally calculated forcing time series from four AOGCMs. In these AOGCMs the shortwave and longwave climate forcings we diagnose agree with the conventional forcing time series within {approx}10%. The shortwave forcing time series exhibit order of magnitude variations between the AOGCMs, differences likely related to how both natural forcings and/or anthropogenic aerosol effects are included. There are also factor of two differences in the longwave climate forcing time series, which may indicate problems with the modeling of well-mixed-greenhouse-gas changes. The simple diagnoses we present provide an important and useful first step for understanding differences in AOGCM integrations, indicating that some of the differences in model projections can be attributed to different prescribed climate forcing, even for so-called standard climate change scenarios.

  11. Further descrip-on of the solar radia-on balance of the climate system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Further descrip-on of the solar radia-on balance of the climate system....cycles of cold and warm climate. Averaged over the globe: HAS222d Solar radia-on, the greenhouse, global heat engine h

  12. The Economic Impacts of Climate Change: Evidence from Agricultural Profits and Random Fluctuations in Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deschenes, Olivier; Greenstone, Michael

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1989): “Global Climate Change and Agriculture: An Economicclimate change will be modestly beneficial for the US agricultureAgriculture,” in Robert Mendelsohn and James E. Neumann (editors), The Impact of Climate Change

  13. Transient climate change and potential croplands of the world in the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Xiangming.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David.; Tian, Hanqin.; Pan, Yude.; Vörösmarty, Charles, J.; Yang, Zili.

    A cropland distribution model, which is based on climate, soil and topography, is applied to estimate the area and spatial distribution of global potential croplands under contemporary climate and to assess the effect of ...

  14. Revised version In: E. Lichtfouse (Ed.) Climate Change, Intercropping, Pest Control and Beneficial Microorganisms. Sustainable Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .1007/978-90-481-2716-0_1 Climate change, society issues and sustainable agriculture Eric Lichtfouse INRA, Department of Environment, terrestrial ecosystems, agriculture, and economy in Europe. The lesson of the climate change story are bound. Indeed, humans eat food. Keywords: climate change, CO2, agriculture, Europe climate, greenhouse

  15. Climate system modeling on massively parallel systems: LDRD Project 95-ERP-47 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirin, A.A.; Dannevik, W.P.; Chan, B.; Duffy, P.B.; Eltgroth, P.G.; Wehner, M.F.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global warming, acid rain, ozone depletion, and biodiversity loss are some of the major climate-related issues presently being addressed by climate and environmental scientists. Because unexpected changes in the climate could have significant effect on our economy, it is vitally important to improve the scientific basis for understanding and predicting the earth`s climate. The impracticality of modeling the earth experimentally in the laboratory together with the fact that the model equations are highly nonlinear has created a unique and vital role for computer-based climate experiments. However, today`s computer models, when run at desired spatial and temporal resolution and physical complexity, severely overtax the capabilities of our most powerful computers. Parallel processing offers significant potential for attaining increased performance and making tractable simulations that cannot be performed today. The principal goals of this project have been to develop and demonstrate the capability to perform large-scale climate simulations on high-performance computing systems (using methodology that scales to the systems of tomorrow), and to carry out leading-edge scientific calculations using parallelized models. The demonstration platform for these studies has been the 256-processor Cray-T3D located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our plan was to undertake an ambitious program in optimization, proof-of-principle and scientific study. These goals have been met. We are now regularly using massively parallel processors for scientific study of the ocean and atmosphere, and preliminary parallel coupled ocean/atmosphere calculations are being carried out as well. Furthermore, our work suggests that it should be possible to develop an advanced comprehensive climate system model with performance scalable to the teraflops range. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Implications of simultaneously mitigating and adapting to climate change: Initial experiments using GCAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically climate impacts research and climate mitigation research have been two separate and independent domains of inquiry. Climate mitigation research has investigated greenhouse gas emissions assuming that climate is unchanging. At the same time climate mitigation research has investigated the implications of climate change on the assumption that climate mitigation will proceed without affecting the degree of climate impacts or the ability of human and natural systems to adapt. The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has largely been employed to study climate mitigation. Here we explore the development of capabilities to assess climate change impacts and adaptation within the GCAM model. These capabilities are being developed so as to be able to simultaneously reconcile the joint implications of climate change mitigation, impacts and adaptive potential. This is an important step forward in that it enables direct comparison between climate mitigation activities and climate impacts and the opportunity to understand interactions between the two.

  17. Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination, an unlikely response to global warming, as many oviparous species are nesting earlier as the climate warms. Keywords: climate change; global warming; temperature-dependent sex determination; reptile; Sphenodon 1

  18. Can Oceanic Freshwater Flux Amplify Global Warming? LIPING ZHANG AND LIXIN WU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Can Oceanic Freshwater Flux Amplify Global Warming? LIPING ZHANG AND LIXIN WU Physical Oceanography in global warming are studied using simulations of a climate model in which the freshwater flux changes that the warm climate leads to an acceleration of the global water cycle, which causes freshening in the high

  19. GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todorov, Alex

    GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

  20. Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    Novim Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies Jason J. Blackstock David S. Battisti Santa Barbara, California #12;Climate Engineering Responses to Climate Emergencies This report should, A. A. N. Patrinos, D. P. Schrag, R. H. Socolow and S. E. Koonin, Climate Engineering Responses

  1. Mississippi Climate & Hydrology Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawford, R.; Huang, J.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GEWEX Continental International Project (GCIP), which started in 1995 and completed in 2001, held its grand finale conference in New Orleans, LA in May 2002. Participants at this conference along with the scientists funded through the GCIP program are invited to contribute a paper to a special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR). This special JGR issue (called GCIP3) will serve as the final report on scientific research conducted by GCIP investigators. Papers are solicited on the following topical areas, but are not limited to, (1) water energy budget studies; (2) warm season precipitation; (3) predictability and prediction system; (4) coupled land-atmosphere models; (5) climate and water resources applications. The research areas cover observations, modeling, process studies and water resources applications.

  2. CLIMATE SCIENCE The Community Climate System Model results from a multi-agency collaboration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Nicholas

    . Could global warming be responsible for the July 2006 heat waves in Europe and the United States? Should- ter(NCDC),whicharchivesallweatherdataforthe nation, reports that global surface temperatures have, the DOEisdedicatedtoadvancingclimateresearchin order to elucidate the causes of climate change, includingtheroleofcarbonloadingfromfossilfuel use

  3. The Value of Advanced Technologies in the U.S. Buildings Sector in Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Clarke, Leon E.; Smith, Steven J.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a wide body of research focused on the potential of advanced technologies to reduce energy consumption in buildings. How such improvements relate to global climate change, however, is less clear, due to the complexity of the climate change issue, and the implications for the energy system as a whole that need to be considered. This study uses MiniCAM, an integrated assessment model, to examine the contributions of several suites of advanced buildings technologies in meeting national carbon emissions reduction targets, as part of a global policy to mitigate climate change by stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations at 450 ppmv. Focal technology areas include building shells, heat pumps for HVAC and water heating applications, solid-state lighting, and miscellaneous electric equipment. We find that advanced heat pumps and energy-efficient miscellaneous electric equipment show the greatest potential to reduce aggregate building sector future energy consumption and policy costs, but that all focal areas are important for reducing energy consumption. Because of assumed availability of low-cost, emissions-reduced electricity generation technologies in these scenarios, heat pumps are especially important for facilitating fuel-switching towards electricity. Buildings sector energy consumption is reduced by 28% and policy costs are reduced by 17% in a scenario with advanced technologies in all focal areas.

  4. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    George Crabtree

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  5. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  6. Final Progress Report submitted via the DOE Energy Link (E-Link) in June 2009 [Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M; Cote, J

    2009-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. The results of the successful SGMIP multi-model ensemble simulations of the U.S. climate are available at the SGMIP web site (http://essic.umd.edu/~foxrab/sgmip.html) and through the link to the WMO/WCRP/WGNE web site: http://collaboration.cmc.ec.gc.ca/science/wgne. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and applications important for the U.S. and Canadian public, business and policy decision makers, as well as for international collaborations on regional, and especially climate related issues.

  7. Risk Analysis for Water Resources Under Climate Change, Population Growth, and Land Use Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiparsky, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. B. Lammers (2000). "Global water resources: Vulnerabilityin two small watersheds." Water Resources Research 18(3).of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated

  8. Climate Change Risks and Conservation Implications for a Threatened Small-Range Mammal Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors of global warming. Conclusions/Significance: Climate change clearly poses a severe threat

  9. "Managing Department Climate Change"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    "Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

  10. Global ecosystem services With their ability to capture and store

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Locatelli Carbon sequestration is recognised as a global ecosystem service (see box on next page such as the global climate (through carbon sequestration), the quantity and quality of water and the force of windsS Global ecosystem services With their ability to capture and store carbon, forests contribute

  11. The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill Vaughan Pratt Stanford University June 23, 2011 Vaughan PrattStanford University () The Logic of Global WarmingA bitter pill June 23, 2011 1 / 1 What is climate population growth. 2. Accumulation of hazardous materials: lead, mercury, CFCs, . . . 3. Global warming

  12. Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila FRANCISCO. Understanding evolutionary responses to global climate warming can be daunt- ingly complex. But, primarily of the magnitude of long-term responses to global warming; standardising by equivalent seasonal tem- perature

  13. Changing Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    these data with predictions from the IPCC. Professor of geography at Texas State University, Dr. David Butler, does climate change research mainly in the Rocky Moun- tains with U.S. Geological Survey funding. He has also done research on how climate...://wiid.twdb.state.tx.us Detailed information about individual water wells. This system uses a geographic information system-based tool to show locations of water wells and download data on water levels and water quality. Reports that were developed about on-site conditions...

  14. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest and Evaluation |quasicrystals65Open Issues Open

  15. NEW ISSUE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate1, Issue 23 NETL NEVIS- 97 'FASTER NEVIS-

  16. All Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP7-0973ManagedStrategic|Aljazeera story on rareAll Issues All

  17. Ris Energy Report 5 Global drivers for transformation of energy systems 3 Global drivers for transformation of energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of greenhouse gases has brought a new political rationale for the development of more climate-friendly energy in the global energy market of rapidly-expanding national economies, notably China and India. TogetherRisø Energy Report 5 Global drivers for transformation of energy systems 3 Global drivers

  18. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  19. Climate-Energy Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Sayler; Randall Gentry; Jie Zhuang

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 140-page published proceedings of the workshop include individual articles and PowerPoint slides for all workshop presentations. The proceedings also contain pertinent background information on the China-US Joint Research Center, partnering organizations, and workshop goals and objectives. Overall, the workshop increased the understanding of the impacts of climate change on energy use and renewable energy production as well as the complex relationships among land use, energy production, and ecological restoration. The workshop served as an international platform for scientists and students of different research backgrounds to develop a unified perspective on energy and climate relationships. Such understanding will benefit future cooperation between China and the US in mitigating global climate change. The workshop’s agenda, which is highly interdisciplinary, explored many potential opportunities for international collaboration in ecosystem management, climate modeling, greenhouse gas emissions, and bioenergy sustainability. International research groups have been suggested in the areas of genomes and biotechnology of energy plants, sustainable management of soil and water resources, carbon sequestration, and microbial processes for ecological cycles. The project has attracted considerable attention from institutes beyond the China-US Joint Research Center partners, and several of them (such as Institute of Qing-Tibet Plateau Research, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Institute of Applied Ecology, CAS) have expressed interest in joining the partnership. In addition, the workshop played a significant role in facilitating establishment of private-public partnerships between government and private bioenergy companies (such as L.R. Shugarts and Associates, Inc.), including seed providers (Blade Energy Crops, Thousand Oaks, CA), pilot demonstration projects at coal-producing cities (e.g., Huaibei, Anhui province, China), and the development of methodology for assessment of the sustainable production of biofuels (such as life-cycle analysis, sustainability metrics, and land-use policy). Establishment of two US-China scientific research networks in the area of bioenergy and environmental science is a significant result of the workshop.

  20. Predictability and Diagnosis of Low-Frequency Climate Processes in the Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Miller

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting the climate for the coming decades requires understanding both natural and anthropogenically forced climate variability. This variability is important because it has major societal impacts, for example by causing floods or droughts on land or altering fishery stocks in the ocean. Our results fall broadly into three topics: evaluating global climate model predictions; regional impacts of climate changes over western North America; and regional impacts of climate changes over the eastern North Pacific Ocean.