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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Ceramic fuel pellets for isotopic heat sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) will supply power for future space missions. The GPHS fuel pellets are fabricated by hot pressing a blended mixture of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ granules prepared from calcined plutonium oxalate. Results of a test program which led to the development of the production process are described.

Rankin, D.T.; Congdon, J.W.; Livingston, J.T.; Duncan, N.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Environmental assessment for the relocation and storage of isotopic heat sources, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

As part of a bilateral agreement between the Federal Minister for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the DOE, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed processes for the treatment and immobilization of high-level radioactive waste. One element of this bilateral agreement was the production of sealed isotopic heat sources. During the mid-1980s, 30 sealed isotopic heat sources were manufactured. The sources contain a total of approximately 8.3 million curies consisting predominantly of cesium-137 and strontium-90 with trace amounts of transuranic contamination. Currently, the sources are stored in A-Cell of the 324 Building. Intense radiation fields from the sources are causing the cell windows and equipment to deteriorate. Originally, it was not intended to store the isotopic heat sources for this length of time in A-cell. The 34 isotopic heat sources are classified as remote handled transuranic wastes. Thirty-one of the isotopic heat sources are sealed, and seals on the three remaining isotopic heat sources have not been verified. However, a decision has been made to place the remaining three isotopic heat sources in the CASTOR cask(s). The Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has concurred that isotopic heat sources with verified seals or those placed into CASTOR cask(s) can be considered sealed (no potential to emit radioactive air emissions) and are exempt from WAC Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

EA-1211: Relocation and Storage of Isotopic Heat Sources, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal for relocation and storage of the isotopic heat sources at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Richland, Washington.

4

DOELEA-1211 Environmental Assessment Relocation and Storage of Isotopic Heat Sources, Hanford Site,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOELEA-1211 DOELEA-1211 - Environmental Assessment Relocation and Storage of Isotopic Heat Sources, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington U.S. Department of Energy Richland, Washington June 1997 DOE/EA-1211 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE RELOCATION AND STORAGE OF ISOTOPIC HEAT SOURCES HANFORD SITE RICHLAND, WASHINGTON JUNE 1997 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NCHLAND, WASHINGTON Portions of this document may be iiIegiile in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original dornmeut DOWEA- 1 2 1 1 U.S. Department of Energy Preface PREFACE This environmental assessment (EA) has been prep- to assess potentia environmental impacts associated with the U.S. Department of Energy proposed action: Relocation and storage of the isotopic heat sources.

5

Thulium-170 heat source  

SciTech Connect

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

1990-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

6

Thulium-170 heat source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Welding Isotopic Heat Sources for the Cassini Mission to Saturn (U)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1997 NASA will launch the Cassini scientific probe to the planet Saturn. Electric power for this probe will be provided by Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators thermally driven by General Purpose Heat Source modules.

Franco-Ferreira, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, SC (United States); George, T.G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1995-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

8

Dual source heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Multiple source heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Heat Source Lire,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Source Lire, Source Lire, (liayrICS-25 ) tooling Tulles (Ai 1,06:1) - 11 (31.118 Module Stack Thermoelectric Module:, (14) ltcal L/Mr r a it i lli tisli Block Mounting Interface MMRTG Design Housing (At 2219) Fin (At Go63) Thermal Insulation (Min-K & Microtherm) Space Radioisotope Power Systems Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator January 2008 What is a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator? Space exploration missions require safe, reliable, long-lived power systems to provide electricity and heat to spacecraft and their science instruments. A uniquely capable source of power is the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) - essentially a nuclear battery that reliably converts heat into electricity. The Department of Energy and NASA are developing

11

Energy Basics: Air-Source Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

12

Navy Heat Source Safety Tests  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of these tests was to validate the integrity of the Navy Heat Source after imposing conditions which might, in the extreme, be encountered singly or serially so that safety would be assured.

Anderson, C. G.; Cartmill, W. B.

1975-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

13

Ground Source Heat Pumps Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) use the earth's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground Source Heat Pumps Fact Sheet Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) use the earth's constant. Waste heat can be used to heat hot water. System Types There are two types of ground source heat pumps, closed loop and open loop systems. Closed loop heat pumps use the earth as the heat source and heat sink

Paulsson, Johan

14

Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Source Heat Pumps Ground Source Heat Pumps (Redirected from Geothermal Heat Pumps) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Ground Source Heat Pumps Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps GSHP Links Related documents and websites An Information Survival Kit for the Prospective Geothemral Heat Pump Owner List of Heat Pumps Incentives List of Ground Source Heat Pumps Incentives Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Various ways to configure a geothermal heat pump system. (Source: The Geo-Heat Center's Survival Kit for the Prospective Geothemral Heat Pump

15

Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Source Heat Pumps Ground Source Heat Pumps Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Ground Source Heat Pumps Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps GSHP Links Related documents and websites An Information Survival Kit for the Prospective Geothemral Heat Pump Owner List of Heat Pumps Incentives List of Ground Source Heat Pumps Incentives Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Various ways to configure a geothermal heat pump system. (Source: The Geo-Heat Center's Survival Kit for the Prospective Geothemral Heat Pump

16

Isotopic Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Structural: Hydrological: Source of fluids, circulation, andor mixing. Thermal: Heat source and general reservoir temperatures Dictionary.png Isotopic Analysis: Isotopes...

17

POTENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FISSION PRODUCTS AS HEAT AND RADIATION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

An outline is presented of the potential applications and quantity requiremerts of fission products for the period 1964 to 1968. These applications include military, governmert, and civilian heat sources; irradiation processing; and food irradiation. The potential requirements for 1964 to 1968 are 273 MC / sup 90/Sr and 351 MC /sup 137/Cs. An evaluation is made of the applications of heat-producing isotopes in Coast Guard navigational buoys, lights, and beacons; undersea electronic systems; and weather stations. Costs were determined for conventional methods of power generation and compared to radioisotope power generation. Fuel requiremerts and break-even fuel costs for isotopic power are tabulated. (D.L.C.)

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

19

Thulium heat sources for space power applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

Alderman, C.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate. Description: The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. ...

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The Nonactinide Isotope and Sealed Sources Management Group  

SciTech Connect

The Nonactinide Isotope and Sealed Sources Management Group (NISSMG) is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management and managed by Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL) to serve as a complex-wide resource for the management of DOE-owned Nonactinide Isotope and Sealed Source (NISS) materials. NISS materials are defined as including: any isotope in sealed sources or standards; and isotopes, regardless of form, with atomic number less than 90. The NISSMG assists DOE sites with the storage, reuse, disposition, transportation, and processing of these materials. The NISSMG has focused its efforts to date at DOE closure sites due to the immediacy of their problems. Recently, these efforts were broadened to include closure facilities at non-closure sites. Eventually, the NISSMG plans to make its resources available to all DOE sites. This paper documents the lessons learned in managing NISS materials at DOE sites to date.

Low, J. L.; Polansky, G. F.; Parks, D. L.

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

22

Random Analysis on Line-Heat Source Temperature Field of Ground Source Heat Pumps Buried Pipes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the random properties of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system.GSHP buried pipe to Kelvin one-dimensional line source of heat transfer model are discussed. The model randomness is analyzed, and the GSHP buried pipe to random excess temperature ... Keywords: GSHP, Buriedpipe, Line-heat source, Temperature field, Correlation

Changsheng Guan; Zhuodong Liu; Kai Xia; Xuyi Chen

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How...

24

Property:HeatSource | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:HeatSource Jump to: navigation, search Property Name HeatSource Property Type String Description A description of the resource heat source in the geothermal area. Describes what heats the geothermal fluid - whether it be a magmatic intrusion, a thin crust which brings the mantle closer to hydrologic systems, or only radiogenic influences (such as at Chena hot springs, Alaska). This is a property of type Page. Subproperties This property has the following 4 subproperties: C Coso Geothermal Area R Raft River Geothermal Area S Salt Wells Geothermal Area Steamboat Springs Geothermal Area Pages using the property "HeatSource" Showing 9 pages using this property. C Chena Geothermal Area + Radiogenic +

25

Earth's Heat Source - The Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

Manuel, Oliver K

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Earth's Heat Source - The Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

Oliver K. Manuel

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

27

Hoosac tunnel geothermal heat source. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hoosac Rail Tunnel has been analyzed as a central element in a district heating system for the City of North Adams. The tunnel has been viewed as a collector of the earth's geothermal heat and a seasonal heat storage facility with heat piped to the tunnel in summer from existing facilities at a distance. Heated fluid would be transported in winter from the tunnel to users who would boost the temperature with individual heat pumps. It was concluded the tunnel is a poor source of geothermal heat. The maximum extractable energy is only 2200 million BTU (20000 gallons of oil) at 58/sup 0/F. The tunnel is a poor heat storage facility. The rock conductivity is so high that 75% of the heat injected would escape into the mountain before it could be recaptured for use. A low temperature system, with individual heat pumps for temperature boost could be economically attractive if a low cost fuel (byproduct, solid waste, cogeneration) or a cost effective seasonal heat storage were available.

Not Available

1982-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

Heat Deposition in Positron Sources for ILC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source, multi-GeV electrons or multi-MeV photons impinge on a metal target to produce the needed positrons in the resulting electromagnetic showers. The incoming beam power is hundreds of kilowatts. Various computer programs -- such as FLUKA or MARS -- can calculate how the incoming beam showers in the target and can track the particle showers through the positron source system. Most of the incoming energy ends up as heat in the various positron source elements. This paper presents results from such calculations and their impact on the design of a positron source for the ILC.

Bharadwaj, V.; Pitthan, R.; Sheppard, J.; Vincke, H.; Wang, J.W.; /SLAC

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Calculation of heating values for the high flux isotope reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calculating the amount of energy released by a fission reaction (fission Q value) and the heating rate distribution in a nuclear reactor is an important part of the safety analysis. However, these calculations can become very complex. One of the codes that can be used for this type of analyses is the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5. Currently it is impossible to calculate the Q value and heating rate disposition for delayed beta and delayed gamma particles directly from MCNP5. The purpose of this paper is to outline a rigorous method for indirectly calculating the Q values and heating rates in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), based on previous similar studies carried out for very high-temperature reactor configurations. This method has been applied in this study to calculate heating rates for the beginning of cycle (BOC) and end-of-cycle (EOC) states of HFIR. In addition, the BOC results obtained for HFIR are compared with corresponding results for the Advanced Test Reactor. The fission Q value for HFIR was calculated as 200.2 MeV for the BOC and 201.3 MeV for the EOC. It was also determined that 95.1% and 95.4% of the heat was deposited within the HFIR fuel plates for the BOC and EOC models, respectively. This methodology can also be used for heating rate calculations for HFIR experiments. (authors)

Peterson, J.; Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Calculation of Heating Values for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Calculating the amount of energy released by a fission reaction (fission Q value) and the heating rate distribution in a nuclear reactor is an important part of the safety analysis. However, these calculations can become very complex. One of the codes that can be used for this type of analyses is the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5. Currently it is impossible to calculate the Q value and heating rate disposition for delayed beta and delayed gamma particles directly from MCNP5. The purpose of this paper is to outline a rigorous method for indirectly calculating the Q values and heating rates in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), based on previous similar studies carried out for very high-temperature reactor configurations. This method has been applied in this study to calculate heating rates for the beginning of cycle (BOC) and end-of-cycle (EOC) states of HFIR. In addition, the BOC results obtained for HFIR are compared with corresponding results for the Advanced Test Reactor. The fission Q value for HFIR was calculated as 200.2 MeV for the BOC and 201.3 MeV for the EOC. It was also determined that 95.1% and 95.4% of the heat was deposited within the HFIR fuel plates for the BOC and EOC models, respectively. This methodology can also be used for heating rate calculations for HFIR experiments.

Peterson, Joshua L [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Definition: Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pumps Pumps Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Ground Source Heat Pumps A Ground Source Heat Pump is a central building heating and/or cooling system that takes advantage of the relatively constant year-round ground temperature to pump heat to or from the ground.[1][2][3] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a central heating and/or cooling system that pumps heat to or from the ground. It uses the earth as a heat source (in the winter) or a heat sink (in the summer). This design takes advantage of the moderate temperatures in the ground to boost efficiency and reduce the operational costs of heating and cooling systems, and may be combined with solar heating to form a geosolar system with even greater efficiency. Ground source heat pumps

32

/sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ surface contamination of radioisotopic heat sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Surface contamination and cleaning characteristics of two radioisotopic heat sources are discussed. The Milliwatt Generator is a small (4/sup 1///sub 2/ W) heat source which is successfully cleaned by hand in a series of hot acid baths.The Multi-Hundred Watt Isotopic Heat Source presents additional problems in removing the surface contamination because of its large size (100 W) and its grit-blasted surface. A study has characterized the behavior of the Pu during aging of the surface at the heat source service temperature of 1350/sup 0/C. Results from this study show that normal decontamination effectively removes the superficial Pu but does not extract the Pu which is deep within the grit-blasted structure. Subsequent heating results in migration of microcurie amounts of Pu out of the grit-blasted surface.

Schaeffer, D.R.; Brewer, C.Q.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Source Heat Pump Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source Heat Pumps Work This diagram of a split-system heat pump heating cycle shows refrigerant circulating through a closed loop that passes through the wall of a house. Inside the house the refrigerant winds through indoor coils, with a fan blowing across them, and outside the house is another fan and another set of coils, the outdoor coils. A compressor is between the coils on one half of the loop, and an expansion valve is between the coils on the other half. The diagram is explained in the caption. In heating mode, an air-source heat pump evaporates a refrigerant in the outdoor coil; as the liquid evaporates it pulls

34

Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Source Heat Pump Basics Source Heat Pump Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source Heat Pumps Work This diagram of a split-system heat pump heating cycle shows refrigerant circulating through a closed loop that passes through the wall of a house. Inside the house the refrigerant winds through indoor coils, with a fan blowing across them, and outside the house is another fan and another set of coils, the outdoor coils. A compressor is between the coils on one half of the loop, and an expansion valve is between the coils on the other half. The diagram is explained in the caption. In heating mode, an air-source heat pump evaporates a refrigerant in the outdoor coil; as the liquid evaporates it pulls

35

New and Underutilized Technology: Commercial Ground Source Heat Pumps |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Ground Source Heat Commercial Ground Source Heat Pumps New and Underutilized Technology: Commercial Ground Source Heat Pumps October 8, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for commercial ground source heat pumps within the Federal sector. Benefits Commercial ground source heat pumps are ground source heat pump with loops that feed multiple packaged heat pumps and a single ground source water loop. Unit capacity is typically 1-10 tons and may be utilized in an array of multiple units to serve a large load. Application Condensing boilers are appropriate for housing, service, office, and research and development applications. Key Factors for Deployment FEMP has made great progress with commercial ground source heat pump technology deployment within the Federal sector. Primary barriers deal with

36

Building Technologies Office: Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air-Source Integrated Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research Building Envelope Research

37

High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept  

SciTech Connect

In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R. [and others

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Traditional vs. alternative energy house heating source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article discusses the economic analysis of two different heating systems. The first uses fossil fuel (Liquidized naphtha gas- LNG) to heat the building and domestic hot water. The second uses geothermal energy to do the same job. In both systems ... Keywords: borehole heat exchanger, economic analysis, geothermal energy, heat pump, heating system, net present value

S. Poberžnik; D. Goricanec; J. Krope

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Supplemental heat rejection in ground source heat pumps for residential houses in Texas and other semi-arid regions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) are efficient alternatives to air source heat pumps to provide heating and cooling for conditioned buildings. GSHPs are widely deployed… (more)

Balasubramanian, Siddharth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 3:35pm Addthis When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/YinYang. When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/YinYang. What does this mean for me? If you live in a cooling climate, an air-source heat pump is a good choice. If you live in a heating climate, watch for advanced air-source heat pumps coming on the market that operate well in sub-freezing temperatures. An air-source heat pump can provide efficient heating and cooling for your

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Inverse problem of time-dependent heat sources numerical reconstruction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: This work studies the inverse problem of reconstructing a time-dependent heat source in the heat conduction equation using the temperature measurement specified at an internal point. Problems of this type have important applications in several ... Keywords: 35R30, 49J20, Green function, Heat source, Inverse problem, Landweber iteration, Numerical results

Liu Yang; Mehdi Dehghan; Jian-Ning Yu; Guan-Wei Luo

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Air source heat pump system for drying application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the performance of an air source heat pump for drying purpose. In order to evaluate the performance analysis; a simulation study has been done. The results of simulation of heat pump dryer for different evaporator temperatures ... Keywords: air source heat pump, coefficient of performance (COP), condenser temperature and compressor work, dryer, evaporator temperature

R. Daghigh; M. H. Ruslan; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zerosimulation tool for ground- source heat pump system designflow systems and ground source heat pump systems Abstract

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source heat pump technology.

Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Ground-source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source heat pump technology.

Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, 4: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at an existing facility at U.S. Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 19, 1991 EA-0534: Finding of No Significant Impact Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication July 19, 1991 EA-0534: Final Environmental Assessment Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication

47

Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations  

SciTech Connect

A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

48

Combined permeable pavement and ground source heat pump systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The PhD thesis focuses on the performance assessment of permeable pavement systems incorporating ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The relatively high variability of temperature in… (more)

Grabowiecki, Piotr

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION RESEARCH OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nowadays energy efficiency and environmental protection have got particular attention. After the sustainable development theory had been put forward decades ago. Ground source heat pump… (more)

Zhou, Taian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Wabash County REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Savings Wabash County REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program Wabash County REMC - Residential Geothermal...

51

Kosciusko REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Savings Kosciusko REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program Kosciusko REMC - Residential Geothermal and...

52

IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN GEOTHERMAL AREAS USING MICROEARTHQUAKE DATA Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference...

53

Enhancement of heat transfer for ground source heat pump systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Uptake of geothermal heat pump (GSHP) systems has been slow in some parts of the world due to the unpredictable operational performance, large installation space… (more)

Mori, Hiromi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Control system for electric water heater with heat pump external heat source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A control system for an electric water heater operatively associated with an external heat source, such as a heat pump. The water heater includes a water storage tank provided with an electric tank heating unit having a tank thermostat which closes in response to water temperature in the tank, allowing a flow of current through the tank heating unit so as to turn it on to heat the water, and which opens when the tank thermostat has been satisfied, interrupting the current flow so as to turn the tank heating unit off. The control system as responsive to the initial current surge through the tank heating unit when the tank thermostat closes to interrupt the current flow to the tank heating unit so as to maintain the heating unit off and to turn on the external heat source and maintain it on until the tank thermostat opens. The initial current surge cleans the contacts of the tank thermostat by burning off any insulating oxide residues which may have formed on them. The control system includes means responsive to abnormal conditions which would prevent the external heat source from heating water effectively for turning off the external heat source and turning on the tank heating unit and maintaining the external heat source off and the tank heating unit on until the tank thermostat is satisfied.

Shaffer Jr., J. E.; Picarello, J. F.

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

55

Optimal Design for a Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although the advantages of ground-source heat pumps over their conventional alternatives make these systems a very attractive choice for air conditioning, not only for residential buildings but increasingly also for institutional and commercial buildings, a significant barrier to wider application of this technology is a high first cost. When used in cooling-dominated buildings, ground-source heat pumps that utilize vertical, closed-loop ground heat exchangers can experience performance degradation as the entering fluid temperature to the heat pump increases over time due to heat buildup in the borefield. In these cases, it is possible to displace a large portion of the system cost by installing a supplemental heat rejecter to balance the annual heat extraction from the ground. The paper presented has shown that the heat rejection of the GLHEs and the system energy consumption are approached to discuss the ground heat balance with different design procedures and control strategies though the system simulation.

Yu, Z.; Yuan, X.; Wang, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project calculation, it illuminates that the post-located auxiliary heat source cheaper and superior to the fore-located one.

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Heat-source specification 500 watt(e) RTG  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This specification establishes the requirements for a /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source and its fuel capsule for application in a 500 W(e) thermoelectric generator. The specification covers: fuel composition and quantity; the Hastelloy S fuel capsule material and fabrication; and the quality assurance requirements for the assembled heat source. (LCL)

Not Available

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Isotopic power materials development. Quarterly progress report for period ending June 30, 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research progress is reported on: (1) high-temperature alloys for space isotopic heat sources; (2) physical and mechanical metallurgy of heat-source containment materials; (3) isotope brayton system materials support; and (4) space nuclear flight systems hardware. (TFD)

Schaffhauser, A.C.

1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Thulium heat source for high-endurance and high-energy density power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are studying the performance characteristics of radioisotope heat source designs for high-endurance and high-energy-density power systems that use thulium-170. Heat sources in the power range of 5--50 kW{sub th} coupled with a power conversion efficiency of {approximately}30%, can easily satisfy current missions for autonomous underwater vehicles. New naval missions will be possible because thulium isotope power systems have a factor of one-to-two hundred higher endurance and energy density than chemical and electrochemical systems. Thulium-170 also has several other attractive features, including the fact that it decays to stable ytterbium-170 with a half-life of four months. For terrestrial applications, refueling on that time scale should be acceptable in view of the advantage of its benign decay. The heat source designs we are studying account for the requirements of isotope production, shielding, and integration with power conversion components. These requirements are driven by environmental and safety considerations. Thulium is present in the form of thin refractory thulia disks that allow power conversion at high peak temperature. We give estimates of power system state points, performance, mass, and volume characteristics. Monte Carlo radiation analysis provides a detailed assessment of shield requirements and heat transfer under normal and distressed conditions is also considered. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Experiment System Analysis of an Indirect Expansion Solar Assisted Water Source Heat Pump Radiant Floor Heating System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar assisted water source heat pump for Radiant Floor Heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system with heat pipe vacuum tube solar collector as heating source and radiant floor as terminal device is proposed in the paper. The Mathematics Model of dynamic ... Keywords: solar energy, water source heat pump, radiant floor heating systems, system dynamic COP

Qu Shilin; Ma Fei; Liu Li; Yue Jie

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Performance analysis of a two-stage variable capacity air source heat pump and a horizontal loop coupled ground source heat pump system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The thermal performance of a new two-stage variable capacity air source heat pump (ASHP) and a horizontal ground loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) was… (more)

Safa, Amir Alizadeh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Solar Colletors Combined with Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Dwellings - Analyses of System Performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating buildings and domestic hot water in dwellings is increasing rapidly in Sweden. The heat pump extracts heat… (more)

Kjellsson, Elisabeth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Super Energy Saver Ground Source Heat Pump  

Source: US Energy Information Administration . 11 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy ... GSHPs are very energy efficient, and the market is

64

Energy Basics: Air-Source Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

from ductwork that protrudes through a wall or roof. More Information Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about the selection and performance of air-source...

65

Interfacing primary heat sources and cycles for thermochemical hydrogen production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advantages cited for hydrogen production from water by coupling thermochemical cycles with primary heat include the possibility of high efficiencies. These can be realized only if the cycle approximates the criteria required to match the characteristics of the heat source. Different types of cycles may be necessary for fission reactors, for fusion reactors or for solar furnaces. Very high temperature processes based on decomposition of gaseous H/sub 2/O or CO/sub 2/ appear impractical even for projected solar technology. Cycles based on CdO decomposition are potentially quite efficient and require isothermal heat at temperatures that may be available from solar furnaces of fusion reactors. Sulfuric acid and solid sulfate cycles are potentially useful at temperatures available from each heat source. Solid sulfate cycles offer advantages for isothermal heat sources. All cycles under development include concentration and drying steps. Novel methods for improving such operations would be beneficial.

Bowman, M.G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Peer Review Peer Review GSHP System Data Analysis Xiaobing Liu, Ph.D. Oak Ridge National Laboratory liux2@ornl.gov (865-574-2593) 4/3/2013 - GSHP Data Analysis in 1 st phase of U.S.-China CERC-BEE - GSHP ARRA Grantee Data Mining 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: High first cost of ground heat exchangers (GHXs) and lack of knowledge/trust in achievable benefits are major barriers preventing

67

Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Peer Review Peer Review GSHP System Data Analysis Xiaobing Liu, Ph.D. Oak Ridge National Laboratory liux2@ornl.gov (865-574-2593) 4/3/2013 - GSHP Data Analysis in 1 st phase of U.S.-China CERC-BEE - GSHP ARRA Grantee Data Mining 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: High first cost of ground heat exchangers (GHXs) and lack of knowledge/trust in achievable benefits are major barriers preventing

68

Ground-Source Heat Pumps for Domestic and Commercial Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ground-Source Heat Pumps for Domestic and Commercial Applications in Europe Speaker(s): Gran Hellstrm Date: May 2, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of...

69

Experimental Study on Energy Efficiency of Heat-source Tower Heat Pump Units in Winter Condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Building energy consumption in China has been increasing rapidly. And a small increase in the operation efficiency of the air-conditioning system can substantially decrease it. In this paper a new type heat pump is developed to improve the performance ... Keywords: Heat-source tower, Heat pump, Seasonal energy efficiency ratio(SEER), Hermal properties

Li Nianping; Zhang Wenjie; Wang Lijie; Liu Qiuke; Hu Jinhua

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analysis of Air- Analysis of Air- Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Jeffrey Munk Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Acknowledgements * Tennessee Valley Authority - David Dinse * U.S. Department of Energy * Roderick Jackson * Tony Gehl * Philip Boudreaux * ZEBRAlliance 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Overview * Electric Water Heating Options - Conventional Electric Water Heaters - Heat Pump Water Heaters * Air-Source * Ground-Source - Solar Thermal Water Heater * Variable Speed Heat Pumps - Energy Use Analysis - Measured Performance - Operational Characteristics 4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Water Heating Options

71

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cold source project at ORNL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Following the decision to cancel the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), it was determined that a hydrogen cold source should be retrofitted into an existing beam tube of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL> The preliminary design of this system has been completed and an approval in principal of the design has been obtained from the internal ORNL safety review committees and the US Department of Energy (DOE) safety review committee. The cold source concept is basically a closed loop forced flow supercritical hydrogen system. The supercritical approach was chosen because of its enhanced stability in the proposed high heat flux regions. Neutron and gamma physics of the moderator have been analyzed using the 3D Monte Carlo code MCNP. A 3D structural analysis model of the moderator vessel, vacuum tube, and beam tube was completed to evaluate stress loadings and to examine the impact of hydrogen detonations in the beam tube. A detailed ATHENA system model of the hydrogen system has been developed to simulate loop performance under normal and off-normal transient conditions. Semi-prototypic hydrogen loop tests of the system have been performed at the Arnold Engineering Design Center (AEDC) located in Tullahoma, Tennessee to verify the design and benchmark the analytical system model. A 3.5 kW refrigerator system has been ordered and is expected to be delivered to ORNL by the end of this calendar year. The present schedule shows the assembling of the cold source loop on side during the fall of 1999 for final testing before insertion of the moderator plug assembly into the reactor beam tube during the end of the year 2000.

Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Chang, S.J.; Freels, J.D.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN GEOTHERMAL  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN GEOTHERMAL IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN GEOTHERMAL AREAS USING MICROEARTHQUAKE DATA Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN GEOTHERMAL AREAS USING MICROEARTHQUAKE DATA Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Geothermal microearthquakes, and the seismic waves they generate, provide a rich source of information about physical processes associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) experiments and other geothermal operations. With support from the Dept. of Energy, we are developing several software packages to enhance the utility of microearthquake data in geothermal operations and EGS experiments. Two of these are: 1. Enhanced

73

Helium release from radioisotope heat sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Heat transfer analysis of thermosiphons and U-tube ground source heat pumps.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ground source thermal energy transport systems have the potential to improve theefficiency of space heating.Two such systems, a thermosiphon and a vertical U-tube system, were… (more)

Nakaoka, Joshua

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Stability of thermal structures with an internal heating source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the thermal equilibrium and stability of isobaric, spherical structures having a radiation source located at its center. The thermal conduction coefficient, external heating and cooling rates are represented as power laws of the temperature. The internal heating decreases with distance from the source r approximately as exp(-tau)/(r**2), being tau the optical depth. We find that the influence of the radiation source is important only in the central region, but its effect is enough to make the system thermally unstable above a certain threshold central temperature. This threshold temperature decreases as the internal heating efficiency increases, but, otherwise, it does not depend on the structure size. Our results suggest that a solar-like star migrating into a diffuse interstellar region may destabilize the surrounding medium.

Sanchez, Nestor

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Stability of thermal structures with an internal heating source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the thermal equilibrium and stability of isobaric, spherical structures having a radiation source located at its center. The thermal conduction coefficient, external heating and cooling rates are represented as power laws of the temperature. The internal heating decreases with distance from the source r approximately as exp(-tau)/(r**2), being tau the optical depth. We find that the influence of the radiation source is important only in the central region, but its effect is enough to make the system thermally unstable above a certain threshold central temperature. This threshold temperature decreases as the internal heating efficiency increases, but, otherwise, it does not depend on the structure size. Our results suggest that a solar-like star migrating into a diffuse interstellar region may destabilize the surrounding medium.

Nestor Sanchez; Eugenio Lopez

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

77

The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump were investigated. The base case tests used a… (more)

Parker, Brandon DeWayne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

ISOTOPES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theory of Isotope Separation as Applied to the Large~scale Production of 235 u National Nuclear Energy

Lederer, C. Michael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air. The most common method of air source heat pump frost removal is reverse-cycle defrost. During the defrosting operation, the heat pump runs in the cooling mode. The defrost process is accomplished by reversing the normal heating mode. In this paper, the effect of the heat storage tank to the air source heat pump defrosting is test. Owing to the existence of the heat storage tank, thermal inertia of the loop is relatively high. The frosting and defrosting course of the air source heat pump have little effect on the room temperature.

Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

variable speed air-source variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) - CRADA Van D. Baxter Oak Ridge National Laboratory vdb@ornl.gov; 865-574-2104 April 3, 2013 Development of advanced HVAC/WH system options for efficient residential or small commercial buildings, new const. or retrofit * ET R&D project in support of DOE/BTO Goal of 50% Reduction in Building Energy Use by 2030 IHP concept - all HVAC & WH services integrated into

82

Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

variable speed air-source variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) - CRADA Van D. Baxter Oak Ridge National Laboratory vdb@ornl.gov; 865-574-2104 April 3, 2013 Development of advanced HVAC/WH system options for efficient residential or small commercial buildings, new const. or retrofit * ET R&D project in support of DOE/BTO Goal of 50% Reduction in Building Energy Use by 2030 IHP concept - all HVAC & WH services integrated into

83

Prandtl Number Dependent Natural Convection with Internal Heat Sources  

SciTech Connect

Natural convection plays an important role in determining the thermal load from debris accumulated in the reactor vessel lower head during a severe accident. Recently, attention is being paid to the feasibility of external vessel flooding as a severe accident management strategy and to the phenomena affecting the success path for retaining the molten core material inside the vessel. The heat transfer inside the molten core material can be characterized by the strong buoyancy-induced flows resulting from internal heating due to decay of fission products. The thermo-fluid dynamic characteristics of such flow depend strongly on the thermal boundary conditions. The spatial and temporal variation of heat flux on the pool wall boundaries and the pool superheat are mainly characterized by the natural convection flow inside the molten pool. In general, the natural convection heat transfer phenomena involving the internal heat generation are represented by the modified Rayleigh number (Ra’), which quantifies the internal heat source and hence the strength of the buoyancy force. In this study, tests were conducted in a rectangular section 250 mm high, 500 mm long and 160 mm wide. Twenty-four T-type thermocouples were installed in the test section to measure temperatures. Four T-type thermocouples were used to measure the boundary temperatures. The thermocouples were placed in designated locations after calibration. A direct heating method was adopted in this test to simulate the uniform heat generation. The experiments covered a range of Ra' between 1.5x106 and 7.42x1015 and the Prandtl number (Pr) between 0.7 and 6.5. Tests were conducted with water and air as simulant. The upper and lower boundary conditions were maintained uniform. The results demonstrated feasibility of the direct heating method to simulate uniform volumetric heat generation. Particular attentions were paid to the effect of Pr on natural convection heat transfer within the rectangular pool.

Kang Hee Lee; Seung Dong Lee; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Performance limits of power cycles using low temperature heat sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic analysis of a Rankine cycle using R134a as the working fluid and a finite (314.5 kg/s) low temperature (100 °C) heat source shows that, for any fixed net power output, the evaporation pressure has upper and lower limits which depend ... Keywords: energy analysis, exergy analysis, finite size thermodynamics, optimisation

Mohammed Khennich; Nicolas Galanis

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Efficient energy supply from ground coupled heat transfer source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing demands of Energy for industrial production and urban facilities, asks for new strategies for Energy sources. In recent years an important problem is to have some energy storage, energy production and energy consumption which fulfill some ... Keywords: heat, thermal aquifer, thermal energy

Maurizio Carlini; Sonia Castellucci

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Shock-Wave Heating Model for Chondrule Formation: Prevention of Isotopic Fractionation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chondrules are considered to have much information on dust particles and processes in the solar nebula. It is naturally expected that protoplanetary disks observed in present star forming regions have similar dust particles and processes, so study of chondrule formation may provide us great information on the formation of the planetary systems. Evaporation during chondrule melting may have resulted in depletion of volatile elements in chondrules. However, no evidence for a large degree of heavy-isotope enrichment has been reported in chondrules. In order to meet this observed constraint, the rapid heating rate at temperatures below the silicate solidus is required to suppress the isotopic fractionation. We have developed a new shock-wave heating model taking into account the radiative transfer of the dust thermal continuum emission and the line emission of gas molecules and calculated the thermal history of chondrules. We have found that optically-thin shock waves for the thermal continuum emission from dust particles can meet the rapid heating constraint, because the dust thermal emission does not keep the dust particles high temperature for a long time in the pre-shock region and dust particles are abruptly heated by the gas drag heating in the post-shock region. We have also derived the upper limit of optical depth of the pre-shock region using the radiative diffusion approximation, above which the rapid heating constraint is not satisfied. It is about 1 ? 10. Subject headings: meteors, meteoroids — shock waves — solar system: formation 1

Hitoshi Miura; Taishi Nakamoto

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Commercial Air-Source Heat Pumps, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficiency purchasing specifications for federal procurements of commercial air-source heat pumps.

Not Available

2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

88

MEASURED AND CALCULATED HEATING AND DOSE RATES FOR THE HFIR HB4 BEAM TUBE AND COLD SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was upgraded to install a cold source in horizontal beam tube number 4. Calculations were performed and measurements were made to determine heating within the cold source and dose rates within and outside a shield tunnel surrounding the beam tube. This report briefly describes the calculations and presents comparisons of the measured and calculated results. Some calculated dose rates are in fair to good agreement with the measured results while others, particularly those at the shield interfaces, differ greatly from the measured results. Calculated neutron exposure to the Teflon seals in the hydrogen transfer line is about one fourth of the measured value, underpredicting the lifetime by a factor of four. The calculated cold source heating is in good agreement with the measured heating.

Slater, Charles O [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Selby, Douglas L [ORNL; Ferguson, Phillip D [ORNL; Bucholz, James A [ORNL; Popov, Emilian L [ORNL

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Multi-Source Hydronic Heat Pump System Performance Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An extensive independent evaluation recently was completed of the Multi-Source Hydronic Heat Pump (MSHHP) system, a proprietary heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system developed by Meckler Systems Group. The MSHHP tests were conducted on a unique test bed designed and constructed by National Technical Systems (NTS) through a research and development grant program funded by Southern California Edison Company. This paper outlines testing methods and results, including evaluations of peak power and energy savings allowed by the innovative system. The main difference between the MSHHP and a conventional HVAC system is use of a chilled water "diversity" cooling loop interconnecting air to water coils (located at each water source heat pump unit) with a central chilled water storage tank. The MSHHP system uses significantly less energy than a conventional HVAC system, and lowers peak demand by shifting required electrical energy consumption to lower-cost, off-peak and mid-peak rates. Lower heat pump capacities are a main feature of the MSHHP. This is accomplished by pre-cooling return air from the zone space, a process that also allows the heat pump to operate at a higher Coefficient of Performance (COP), thereby contributing to further energy savings.

Meckler, M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related conception of underground hydrogeology and the rationale of seepage flow mechanics, a geologic conceptual model of doublet reinjection and a seepage flow model of heat transportation are proposed in this paper. The temperature distribution in the temperature field was obtained by a coupled method of the heat transportation equation and groundwater seepage flow equation fitting for the seepage-affected section. The temperature changes in aquifer and heat storage efficiency are analyzed under different working conditions. All the work referenced above provided references for the popularization and evaluation of well-water source heat pump.

Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Development of a Residential Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A residential-size ground-source integrated heat pump (GSIHP) system has been developed and is currently being field tested. The system is a nominal 2-ton (7 kW) cooling capacity, variable-speed unit, which is multi-functional, e.g. space cooling, space heating, dedicated water heating, and simultaneous space cooling and water heating. High-efficiency brushless permanent-magnet (BPM) motors are used for the compressor, indoor blower, and pumps to obtain the highest component performance and system control flexibility. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model (HPDM) for each of the four primary modes of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options and to simulate the selected internal control strategies, such as controlling to a constant air supply temperature in the space heating mode and a fixed water temperature rise in water heating modes. Equipment performance maps were generated for each operation mode as functions of all independent variables for use in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. These were performed for the GSIHP installed in a well-insulated 2600 ft2(242 m2) house and connected to a vertical ground loop heat exchanger(GLHE). We selected a 13 SEER (3.8 CSPF )/7.7 HSPF (2.3 HSPF, W/W) ASHP unit with 0.90 Energy Factor (EF) resistance water heater as the baseline for energy savings comparisons. The annual energy simulations were conducted over five US climate zones. In addition, appropriate ground loop sizes were determined for each location to meet 10-year minimum and maximum design entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the equipment. The prototype GSIHP system was predicted to use 52 to 59% less energy than the baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads.

Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Hern, Shawn [ClimateMaster, Inc.; McDowell, Tim [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Study of Operating Control Strategies for Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System with Supplemental Cooling Tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground source heat pump for cooling-dominated commercial buildings may utilize supplemental cooling towers to reduce system first cost and to improve system performance. The use of hybrid ground source heat pump (HGSP) can reduce the size of the ground-loop ... Keywords: hybrid ground source heat pump, supplement heat rejection, control strategies, operating performance

Wang Jinggang; Gao Xiaoxia; Yin Zhenjiang; Li Fang

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Modeling and Experimental Research on Ground-Source Heat Pump in Operation by Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground source Heat Pump(GSHP) is becoming the more and more focus of the worldˇŻs attention as a HVAC technique of energy saving and environment protection. This paper first introduced the experiment for Ground-Source water/water Heat Pump. The heat ... Keywords: Ground-Source Heat Pump(GSHP), Neural Network(NN) Predication modeling

Jianping Chen; Zhiwei Lian; Lizheng Tan; Weifeng Zhu; Weiqiang Zhang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Isotopic power materials development. Quarterly progress report for period ending December 31, 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research progress is reported on: (1) high-temperature alloys for space isotopic heat sources; (2) physical and mechanical metallurgy of heat source containment materials; (3) /sup 144/Cm fuel development; (4) terrestrial radioisotope applications; (5) selenide isotope generator system support; (6) isotope Brayton system materials support; and (7) space nuclear flight systems hardware. (TFD)

Schaffhauser, A.C.

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Laboratory Testing of the Heating Capacity of Air-Source Heat Pumps at Low Outdoor Temperature Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-source heat pump systems offer an alternative to the common heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) configuration of single split unitary air conditioners with gas heating. In simple terms, heat pumps are traditional air conditioning units with the added capability of running in reverse as required by the building load. Thus, where the traditional air conditioning unit has an indoor evaporator to remove heat from the space and an outdoor condenser to reject heat to the ambient environment, ...

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

97

The feasibility of retrieving nuclear heat sources from orbit with the space shuttle  

SciTech Connect

Spacecraft launched for orbital missions have a finite orbital lifetime. Current estimates for the lifetime of the nine nuclear powered U.S. satellites now in orbit range from 150 years to 10{sup 6} years. Orbital lifetime is determined primarily by altitude, solar activity, and the satellite ballistic coefficient. There is also the potential of collision with other satellites or space debris, which would reduce the lifetime in orbit. These orbiting power sources contain primarily Pu-238 and Pu-239 as the fuel material. Pu-238 has an approximate 87-year half life and so considerable amounts of daughter products are present after a few tens of years. In addition, there are minor but possibly significant amounts of impurity isotopes present with their own decay chains. Radioisotopic heat sources have been designed to evolving criteria since the first launches. Early models were designed to burn up upon reentry. Later designs were designed to reenter intact. After tens or hundreds of years in orbit, the ability of any orbiting heat source to reenter intact and impact while maintaining containment integrity is in doubt. Such ability could only be verified by design to provide protection in the case of early mission failures such as launch aborts, failure to achieve orbit, or the attainment of only a short orbit. With the development of the Space Shuttle there exists the potential ability to recover heat sources in orbit after their missions are completed. Such retrieval could allow the risk of eventual reentry burnup or impact with atmospheric dispersion and subsequent radiation doses to the public to be avoided.

Pyatt, D.W.; Englehart, R.W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Aquifer thermal energy storage costs with a seasonal heat source.  

SciTech Connect

The cost of energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system from a seasonal heat source was investigated. This investigation considers only the storage of energy from a seasonal heat source. Cost estimates are based upon the assumption that all of the energy is stored in the aquifer before delivery to the end user. Costs were estimated for point demand, residential development, and multidistrict city ATES systems using the computer code AQUASTOR which was developed specifically for the economic analysis of ATES systems. In this analysis the cost effect of varying a wide range of technical and economic parameters was examined. Those parameters exhibiting a substantial influence on ATES costs were: cost of purchased thermal energy; cost of capital; source temperature; system size; transmission distance; and aquifer efficiency. ATES-delivered energy costs are compared with the costs of hot water heated by using electric power or fuel-oils. ATES costs are shown as a function of purchased thermal energy. Both the potentially low delivered energy costs available from an ATES system and its strong cost dependence on the cost of purchased thermal energy are shown. Cost components for point demand and multi-district city ATES systems are shown. Capital and thermal energy costs dominate. Capital costs, as a percentage of total costs, increase for the multi-district city due to the addition of a large distribution system. The proportion of total cost attributable to thermal energy would change dramatically if the cost of purchased thermal energy were varied. It is concluded that ATES-delivered energy can be cost competitive with conventional energy sources under a number of economic and technical conditions. This investigation reports the cost of ATES under a wide range of assumptions concerning parameters important to ATES economics. (LCL)

Reilly, R.W.; Brown, D.R.; Huber, H.D.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom (Savannah River National Labs, Aiken, SC)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) girth welds  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using iridium capsules, TIG welded, to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Since experience in the past had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of the capsule weld is required. A ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors that exceeded the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C. [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Low Temperature Heat Source Utilization Current and Advanced Technology  

SciTech Connect

Once a geothermal heat source has been identified as having the potential for development, and its thermal, physical, and chemical characteristics have been determined, a method of utilization must be decided upon. This compendium will touch upon some of these concerns, and hopefully will provide the reader with a better understanding of technologies being developed that will be applicable to geothermal development in East Africa, as well as other parts of the world. The appendices contain detailed reports on Down-the-Well Turbo Pump, The Vapor-Turbine Cycle for Geothermal Power Generation, Heat Exchanger Design for Geothermal Power Plants, and a Feasibility Study of Combined Power and Water Desalting Plant Using Hot Geothermal Water. [DJE-2005

Anderson, James H. Jr.; Dambly, Benjamin W.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Watching Liquids Separate at White Heat | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Spin on Inducing Chirality in Pre-biological Molecules A New Spin on Inducing Chirality in Pre-biological Molecules How Ancient Rock Got Off to a Hot Start A Quantum of Vibration in an Unexpected Place A Virus That Can Infect Lung Cancer Cells Imaging Plant Viruses Could Yield New Ways to Safeguard Crops Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Watching Liquids Separate at White Heat OCTOBER 30, 2008 Bookmark and Share Floating liquid droplet (inset) imaged at white heat on APS x-ray beamline 11-ID-C (main photo). Using temperatures approaching those found on the surface of the sun and intense x-ray beams from two synchrotron x-ray facilities, including the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, researchers have

104

Generation of acoustic-gravity waves in ionospheric HF heating experiments : simulating large-scale natural heat sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we investigate the potential role played by large-scale anomalous heat sources (e.g. prolonged heat wave events) in generating acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) that might trigger widespread plasma turbulence ...

Pradipta, Rezy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Advanced modeling of vertical ground source heat pumps using finite element techniques.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Increasing energy demand and environmental pollution in United States has been led toward using renewable energy sources over recent decades. Ground-source heat pump systems are… (more)

Komari Zadeh, Seyed Omid

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects to someone by E-mail Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Recovery Act-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects on AddThis.com...

108

Group Velocity and the Linear Response of Stratified Fluids to Internal Heat or Mass Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A steadily maintained line heat or mass source turned on in an unbounded, steadily moving, uniformly stratified flow will in general create ever-increasing vertical displacements of the fluid. Lin and Smith viewed a maintained heat source as a ...

Chris Bretherton

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Facility HVAC System Conversion to Ground Source Heat Pump Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ventilators will utilize the hot water to "temper" outdoor air ventilation. Although the heat pump modules can provide both heating and cooling, the space requires heating only....

110

Study on Hybrid Solar Energy and Ground-Source Heat Pump System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aim at the weakness of more influenced by the environment etc. factor and the heat flow density lower when the solar energy was make use of heating, so the design method of the hybrid solar energy and ground-source heat pump is proposed, and the operating ... Keywords: solar energy, ground-source, heat pump, coefficient of performance

Liu Yi; Li Bing-xi; Zhou Yi; Fu Zhong-bin; Xu Xin-hai

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Comparison of heat pump system and boiler plant for one-family house : Heat sources in one-family house.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this work is to look through, compare and choose the cheapest heat source for typical new Finnish one-family house. We will speak… (more)

Kaydalova, Natalia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Kosciusko REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Kosciusko REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Kosciusko REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program Kosciusko REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Maximum of two rebates per household Program Info State Indiana Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Geothermal System: $250 Air-Source Heat Pump: $150 Electric Water Heater: $75 - $125 Provider Kosciusko REMC Kosciusko REMC offers rebates (as bill credits) to residential members for the purchase and installation of high efficiency air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, and electric water heaters. For each purchase of an

113

Wabash County REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wabash County REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Wabash County REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program Wabash County REMC - Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Geothermal: $750 Air Source Heat Pumps: $625 One rebate per house Program Info State Indiana Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Air Source Heat Pumps: $125 - $625/ton Geothermal Heat Pumps: $150 - $750/ton Water Heater: $100 Provider Wabash County REMC Wabash Rural Electric Membership Cooperative (REMC) is a member-owned electric distribution organization that provides service to customers in north-central Indiana. To encourage energy efficiency, Wabash County REMC

114

Discussion of an Optimization Scheme for the Ground Source Heat Pump System of HVAC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the implementation of the global sustainable development strategy, people pay more attention to renewable energy resources such as ground source heat pumps. The technology of ground source heat pump is widely applied to heat and cold. It is critical and important to know how to choose the terminal and make it workable. This paper makes a technical and economic comparison of various heating terminals (with the example of a north residential district which adopts ground source heat pump as the cold and heat source) and gets the optimum scheme.

Mu, W.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

A capital cost comparison of commercial ground-source heat pump systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the report is to compare capital costs associated with the three designs of ground source heat pumps. Specifically, the costs considered are those associated with the heat source/heat sink or ground source portion of the system. In order to standardize the heat rejection over the three designs, it was assumed that the heat pump loop would operate at a temperature range of 85{degree} (to the heat pumps) to 95{degree} (from the heat pumps) under peak conditions. The assumption of constant loop temperature conditions for all three permits an apples-to-apples comparison of the alternatives.

Rafferty, K.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development  

SciTech Connect

Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test experience, CM developed a 2nd generation (or beta) prototype in 2012. Field test verification units were fabricated and installed at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge in May 2012 and at several sites near CM headquarters in Oklahoma. Field testing of the units continued through February 2013. Annual performance analyses of the beta unit (prototype 2) with vertical well ground heat exchangers (GHX) in 5 U.S. locations predict annual energy savings of 57% to 61%, averaging 59% relative to the minimum efficiency suite and 38% to 56%, averaging 46% relative to the SOA GSHPwDS. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the test units it was projected that the 2nd generation units would achieve ~58% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at the Zebra Alliance site with horizontal GHX. A new product based on the beta unit design was announced by CM in 2012 – the Trilogy 40® Q-mode™ (http://cmdealernet.com/trilogy_40.html). The unit was formally introduced in a March 2012 press release (see Appendix A) and was available for order beginning in December 2012.

Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.

2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

117

Air-Source Heat Pumps for Residential and Light Commercial Space Conditioning Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technology brief provides the latest information on current and emerging air-source heat pump technologies for space heating and space cooling of residential and light commercial buildings. Air-source heat pumps provide important options that can reduce ownership costs while reducing noise and enhancing reliability and customer comfort. The tech brief also describes new air-source heat pumps with an important load shaping and demand response option.

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Tabulation of Fundamental Assembly Heat and Radiation Source Files  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to tabulate a set of computer files for use as input to the WPLOAD thermal loading software. These files contain details regarding heat and radiation from pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies. The scope of this calculation is limited to rearranging and reducing the existing file information into a more streamlined set of tables for use as input to WPLOAD. The electronic source term files used as input to this calculation were generated from the output files of the SAS2H/ORIGIN-S sequence of the SCALE Version 4.3 modular code system, as documented in References 2.1.1 and 2.1.2, and are included in Attachment II.

T. deBues; J.C. Ryman

2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

119

Characterization of Pu-238 heat source granule containment  

SciTech Connect

The Milliwatt Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) provides power for permissive-action links. These nuclear batteries convert thermal energy to electrical energy using a doped silicon-germanium thermopile. The thermal energy is provided by a heat source made of {sup 238}Pu, in the form of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} granules. The granules are contained in 3 layers of encapsulation. A thin T-111 liner surrounds the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} granules and protects the second layer (strength member) from exposure to the fuel granules. The T-111 strength member contains the fuel under impact condition. An outer clad of Hastelloy-C protects the T-111 from oxygen embrittlement. The T-111 strength member is considered the critical component in this {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} containment system. Any compromise in the strength member is something that needs to be characterized. Consequently, the T-111 strength member is characterized upon it's decommissioning through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Metallography. SEM is used in Secondary Electron mode to reveal possible grain boundary deformation and/or cracking in the region of the strength member weld. Deformation and cracking uncovered by SEM are further characterized by Metallography. Metallography sections are mounted and polished, observed using optical microscopy, then documented in the form of photomicrographs. SEM may further be used to examine polished Metallography mounts to characterize elements using the SEM mode of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). This paper describes the characterization of the metallurgical condition of decommissioned RTG heat sources.

Richardson Ii, P D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thronas, D L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, J P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, F E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Neuman, A D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duncan, W S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for cooling-dominated commercial buildings utilize supplemental heat rejecters such as cooling towers, fluid of supplemental heat rejecters for cooling dominated buildings allows the design of smaller borehole fields. Heat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The Use of Aluminum Process Reject Heat as the Source of Energy for a District Heating System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rocket Research Company (RRC) is investigating the use of industrial process reject heat as a source of energy for large scale district heating. The District heating System is a network of closed-loop hot water pipes that recover energy from the fume hood ducts at the Intalco aluminum reduction plant and transmits the energy to commercial, residential, and institutional users in Bellingham, Washington for space and hot water heating.

McCabe, J.; Olszewski, M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

ANN and ANFIS models for performance evaluation of a vertical ground source heat pump system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the comparison of an artificial neural network (ANN) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for the prediction performance of a vertical ground source heat pump (VGSHP) system. The VGSHP system using ... Keywords: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, Coefficient of performance, Ground source heat pump, Membership functions, Vertical heat exchanger

Hikmet Esen; Mustafa Inalli

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source scheme in economical, technical, and environmental aspects, it is determined that the scheme of the groundwater source heat pump has better energy efficiency than others. The GHPWTS can take full advantage of the heat source from groundwater and benefit of electricity difference pricing during a day. Its character is a combination of a strength and another strength. It is the lowest cycle cost of all chide and heat source schemes. The GHPWTS has the best economic benefit and runs stably and reliably. Its advantage is clearly compared with other schemes. There is a real value for the project that is similar to the characteristic of this project and the condition of the water source.

Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

The laser ion source trap for highest isobaric selectivity in online exotic isotope production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The improvement in the performance of a conventional laser ion source in the laser ion source and trap (LIST) project is presented, which envisages installation of a repeller electrode and a linear Paul trap/ion guide structure. This approach promises highest isobaric purity and optimum temporal and spatial control of the radioactive ion beam produced at an online isotope separator facility. The functionality of the LIST was explored at the offline test separators of University of Mainz (UMz) and ISOLDE/CERN, using the UMz solid state laser system. Ionization efficiency and selectivity as well as time structure and transversal emittance of the produced ion beam was determined. Next step after complete characterization is the construction and installation of the radiation-hard final trap structure and its first online application.

Schwellnus, F.; Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Wendt, K. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Catherall, R.; Crepieux, B.; Fedosseev, V.; Marsh, B.; Rothe, S.; Stora, T. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kluge, H.-J. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Characterizing the radiation response of Cherenkov glass detectors with isotopic sources  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Cherenkov detectors are widely used for particle identification and threshold detectors in high-energy physics. Glass Cherenkov detectors that are sensitive to beta emissions originating from neutron activation have been demonstrated recently as a potential replacement for activation foils. In this work, we set the groundwork to evaluate large Cherenkov glass detectors for sensitivity to MeV photons through first understanding the measured response of small Cherenkov glass detectors to isotopic gamma-ray sources. Counting and pulse height measurements are acquired with reflected glass Cherenkov detectors read out with a photomultiplier tube. Simulation was used to inform our understanding of the measured results. This simulation included radioactive source decay, radiation interaction, Cherenkov light generation, optical ray tracing, and photoelectron production. Implications for the use of Cherenkov glass detectors to measure low energy gammaray response are discussed.

Hayward, J P [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hobbs, C. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bell, Zane W [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Johnson, Rose E [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Lillard, Cole R [ORNL; Ramey, Lucas A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Can Handheld Plastic Detectors Do Both Gamma and Neutron Isotopic Identification with Directional Source Location?  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates, through MCNPX simulations, that a compact hexagonal array of detectors can be utilized to do both gamma isotopic identification (ID) along with neutron identification while simultaneously finding the direction of the source relative to the detector array. The detector array itself is composed of seven borated polyvinyl toluene (PVT) hexagonal light pipes approximately 4 inches long and with a 1.25 inch face-to-face thickness assembled in a tight configuration. The gamma ID capability is realized through judicious windowing algorithms as is the neutron spectral unfolding. By having multiple detectors in different relative positions, directional determination of the source can be realized. By further adding multiplicity counters to the neutron counts, fission events can be measured.

Robert Hayes

2008-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

127

ADVANCES IN MODELING OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

] K. C. Toh, X. Y. Chen, and J. C. Chai, "Numerical computation of fluid flow and heat transfer journal and conference papers. His current research interests include heat transfer and fluid-flow to substantially increase the heat transfer coefficient when a fluid is passing through microchannels. Heat sinks

128

Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle for Low and Medium Grade Heat Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is an effective technique to generate power from low and medium temperature heat source, including industrial waste heat, solar heat, geothermal and biomass etc. Advantages of ORC are high efficiency, simple system, environment ... Keywords: organic Rankine cycle, new energy, waste heat recovery

Zhonghe Han, Yida Yu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Surface Pressure Response to Elevated Tidal Heating Sources: Comparison of Earth and Mars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern atmospheric tidal theory has shown that the dominance of the terrestrial semidiurnal surface pressure oscillation, relative to its diurnal counterpart, is the result of the elevated heating source generated by solar heating of ...

Richard W. Zurek

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Ground source heat storage and thermo-physical response of soft clay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground source heat storage can condition buildings with reduced consumption of fossil fuels, an important issue in modem building design. However, seasonal heat storage can cause soil temperature fluctuations and possibly ...

Saxe, Shoshanna Dawn

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Simulation of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Systems and Experimental Validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid ground source heat pump systems incorporate both ground loop heat exchangers and auxiliary heat rejecters, such as cooling towers, fluid coolers, cooling ponds, or pavement heating systems. The design of the hybrid ground source heat pump system involves many degrees of freedom; e.g. the size of the cooling tower interacts with the control strategy, the ground loop heat exchanger design, and other parameters. This paper presents a simulation of such a system using a direct contact evaporative cooling tower as the supplemental heat rejecter. The simulation is performed in a component-based modeling environment using component models of a vertical ground loop heat exchanger, plate frame heat exchanger, cooling tower, circulating pumps, and heat pumps. Seven months (March to September 2005) of five-minutely experimental data from a hybrid ground source heat pump system were used for validation purposes. The source side of the system consists of two packaged water-to-water heat pumps, a three-borehole ground loop heat exchanger, and a direct contact evaporative cooling tower, isolated by a plate frame heat exchanger. The load side serves two small buildings with hydronic heating and cooling. Experimental validations of each component simulation and the entire system simulation are presented.

Jason E. Gentry; Jeffrey D. Spitler; Daniel E. Fisher; Xiaowei Xu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Technology and fabrication of plutonium-238 radionuclide heat sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper outlines a brief technical description of the facility for production of plutonium-238 and fabrication of Radionuclide Heat Sources (RHS) containing Pu-238. Technical capabilities of the RHS fabrication facility are presented. The results of development of the RHS design for sea application are discussed. RHS fuel pellet comprises the tantalum shell with an annular slot intended for release of radiogenic helium and the Pu-238 dioxide core with reinforcing elements inside which contact with the shell. RHS is a double encapsulation consisting of the inner {open_quote}{open_quote}power{close_quote}{close_quote} capsule and the outer corrosion-resistant capsule. The chromium-nickel-molybdenum XH65MB alloy which is equivalent to Hastelloy-C alloy has been selected as a material for both capsules. Upon expiration of working life, RHS design is capable of withstanding the internal pressure of radiogenic helium at 1073 K within 30 minutes and the external hydrostatic pressure of 100 MPa at normal temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Malikh, Y.A.; Aldoshin, A.I. [Production Association Mayak, 31 Lenin Street, Ozyorsk, 456780 (Russia); Danilkin, E.A. [The State Scientific Center of Russia, 5 Rogov Street, Moscow (Russia)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

PARAMETER ESTIMATION BASED MODELS OF WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a two-year research program in heat transfer and viscoelastic fluid flows, after working for some time Sciences), Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer and related (815) 753-9975 Page 1 of 2WSEAS Conferences: www on HEAT and MASS TRANSFER (HMT'09) [Download a Map of the area (16 Kbytes)] [Download a Map of the city

135

Trends in "Green" Design - making ground source heat pumps the system of choice.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ground source heat pump systems have been around for nearly 50 years. The efficiencies that can be achieved today are difficult to match with any… (more)

Hasler, Fred L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Implementation and validation of a Ground Source Heat Pump model in MATLAB.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of the project is the implementation of a simple Ground-Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system model in MATLAB. The program is able to run… (more)

Casetta, Damien

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Dynamic modeling and control of hybrid ground source heat pump systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are one of the fastest growing applications of renewable energy in the world with annual increases of 10% over… (more)

Chen, Chang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Viability Of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System With Solar Thermal Collectors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a study for examining the viability of hybrid ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems that use solar thermal collectors as the supplemental… (more)

Rad, Farzin M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Simulation of Photovoltaic Panel Production as Complement to Ground Source Heat Pump System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This master thesis presents a new technological combination of two environmentally friendly sources of energy in order to provide DHW, and space heating. Solar… (more)

Badri, Seyed Ali Mohammad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Milliwatt generator heat source. Quarterly technical progress report, April 16, 1976--July 15, 1976  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Activities at MRC associated with the Milliwatt Generator Heat Source efforts over the period April 16, 1976, to July 15, 1976, are presented below.

Amos, W.R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" 5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane" "All Buildings ................",4657,3239,1546,1520,110,62,130 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,1456,795,574,"Q","Q","Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,778,317,429,"Q","Q","Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,574,265,274,14,9,31

142

Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" 0. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",4657,4016,1880,2380,377,96,307,94 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,1982,926,1082,214,"Q",162,"Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,946,379,624,73,"Q",88,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,629,324,389,52,19,42,"Q"

143

Silver isotopic anomalies in iron meteorites: cosmic-ray production and other possible sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sources of excess /sup 107/Ag observed in iron meteorites by Kaiser, Kelly, and Wasserburg (1980) are examined, with emphasis on the reactions of cosmic-ray particles with palladium. The cross sections for the production of the silver isotopes from palladium by energetic cosmic-ray particles are evaluated or estimated and used to calculate spallogenic production rates relative to that of /sup 53/Mn from iron. The upper limit for the production rate of excess /sup 107/Ag by galactic-cosmic-ray particles is 400 atoms/min/kg(Pd) which, over an exposure age of 10/sup 9/ years, would make only 1% of the observed excesses of /sup 107/Ag. Neutron-capture reactions with Pd isotopes produce mainly /sup 109/Ag. Binary fission of a siderophilic superheavy element would be expected to yield more /sup 109/Ag than /sup 107/Ag. An intense proton irradiation in the early solar system probably would produce a lower ratio of (/sup 107/Pd//sup 108/Pd) to (/sup 26/Al//sup 27/Al) than observed in meteorites. Therefore the presence of excess /sup 107/Ag in iron meteorites with large Pd/Ag ratios very likely is due to the incorporation of 6.5 x 10/sup 6/-year /sup 107/Pd of nucleosynthetic origin in these meteorites.

Reedy, R.C.

1980-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

144

An MHD heat source based on intermetallic reactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of this program was the development of an MHD heat source of potential use in Space - Based Multi Megawatt, MHD Power Systems. The approach is based on extension of high temperature chemical/ion release technology developed by the General Sciences, Incorporated (GSI) team and successfully applied in other Space Applications. Solid state reactions have been identified which can deliver energy densities and electrons in excess of those from high energy explosives as well as other conventional fuels. The use of intermetallic reactions can be used to generate hot hydrogen plasma from the reaction, to create a high level of seedant ionization, can be packaged as a cartridge type fuels for discrete pulses. The estimated weight for energizing a (100 MW - 1000 sec) Pulsed MHD Power System can range from 12 to 25 {times} 10{sup 3} kg depending on reaction system and strength of the magnetic field. The program consisted of two major tasks with eight subtasks designed to systematically evaluate these concepts in order to reduce fuel weight requirements. Laboratory measurements on energy release, reaction product identification and levels of ionization were conducted in the first task to screen candidate fuels. The second task addressed the development of a reaction chamber in which conductivity, temperature and pressure were measured. Instrumentation was developed to measure these parameters under high temperature pulsed conditions in addition to computer programs to reduce the raw data. Measurements were conducted at GSI laboratories for fuel weights of up to 120 grams and at the Franklin Research Center* for fuel weights up to 1 kilogram. The results indicate that fuel weight can be scaled using modular packaging. Estimates are presented for fuel weight requirements. 15 refs.

Sadjian, H.; Zavitsanos, P. (General Sciences, Inc., Souderton, PA (United States)); Marston, C.H. (Villanova Univ., PA (United States))

1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

State of the Art of Air-source Heat Pump for Cold Regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, research on air source heat pump systems for cold regions in recent years is first summarized and compared. These systems can be divided into three kinds: a single-stage compression heat pump, liquid/vapor injection heat pump, and a two-stage heat pump. Finally, our research with a two-stage compression variable frequency air source heat pump is presented. A two-control-model with the priority target as COP or heating capacity is advanced. The experimental results show that the COP of this heat pump system is over 2, the compressor discharge temperature under 120, and the heating capacity can meet the heating load needed when the condensing temperature is 50 and outdoor air temperature is over -18.

Tian, C.; Liang, N.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Influence of Heat Source Cooling Limitation on ORC System Layout ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... compensates for the temperature loss induced by a second heat exchanger. ... Abart CDS - a New Compact Multi-pollutant Pot Gas and Alumina Handling ...

147

Optimal Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design Geothermal Project...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

design tool with a groundwater flow and heat transport modeling software allowing the modeling of vertical and pondlake loops in different climate zones and building types in the...

148

Efficiency, Economic and Environmental Assessment of Ground Source Heat Pumps in Central Pennsylvania  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy use of a ground-source heat pump (GSP) for heating, cooling and hot water in a Central Pennsylvania residence (namely, the author's house) is analyzed, compared to a simulation of electricity and a heating-oil furnace (with electric cooling) ...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

February 1992 R. H. Johnson 353 Heat and Moisture Sources and Sinks of Asian Monsoon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

February 1992 R. H. Johnson 353 Heat and Moisture Sources and Sinks of Asian Monsoon Precipitating The structure and properties of ,heat and moisture sources and sinks of the Asian monsoon are reviewed. Results by the Asian monsoon, with the detailed structure of this distribution determined in large part by a wide

Johnson, Richard H.

150

Stable lead isotope compositions in selected coals from around the world and implications for present day aerosol source tracing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phasing out of leaded gasoline in many countries around the world at the end of the last millennium has resulted in a complex mixture of lead sources in the atmosphere. Recent studies suggest that coal combustion has become an important source of Pb in aerosols in urban and remote areas. Lead concentration and isotopic composition is reported for 59 coal samples representing major coal deposits worldwide in an attempt to characterize this potential source. The average concentration in these coals is 35 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1}, with the highest values in coals from Spain and Peru and the lowest in coals from Australia and North America. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratios range between 1.15 and 1.24, with less radiogenic Pb in coals from Europe and Asia compared to South and North America. Comparing the Pb isotopic signatures of coals from this and previous studies with those published for Northern and Southern Hemisphere aerosols, we hypothesize that coal combustion might now be an important Pb source in China, the eastern U.S., and to some extent, in Europe but not as yet in other regions including South Africa, South America, and western U.S. This supports the notion that 'old Pb pollution' from leaded gasoline reemitted into the atmosphere or long-range transport (i.e., from China to the western U.S.) is important. Comparing the isotope ratios of the coals, the age of the deposits, and Pb isotope evolution models for the major geochemical reservoirs suggests that the lead isotope ratios (PbIC) in coals is strongly influenced by the depositional coal forming environment. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

M. Diaz-Somoano; M.E. Kylander; M.A. Lopez-Anton; I. Suarez-Ruiz; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona; M. Ferrat; B. Kober; D.J. Weiss [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Designing, selecting and installing a residential ground-source heat pump system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It's a compelling proposition: Use the near-constant-temperature heat underground to heat and cool your home and heat domestic water, slashing your energy bills. Yet despite studies demonstrating significant energy savings from ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, their adoption has been hindered by high upfront costs. Fewer than 1% of US homes use a GSHP system. However, compared to a minimum-code-compliant conventional space-conditioning system, when properly designed and installed, a GSHP retrofit at current market prices offers simple payback of 4.3 years on national average, considering existing federal tax credits. Most people understand how air-source heat pumps work: they move heat from indoor air to outdoor air when cooling and from outdoor air to indoor air when heating. The ground-source heat pump operates on the same principle, except that it moves heat to or from the ground source instead of outdoor air. The ground source is usually a vertical or horiontal ground heat exchanger. Because the ground usually has a more favorable temperature than ambient air for the heating and cooling operation of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, GSHP sysems can operate with much higher energy efficiencies than air-source heat pump systems when properly designed and installed. A GSHP system used in a residual building typically provides space conditioning and hot water and comprises three major components: a water-source heat pump unit designed to operate at a wider range of entering fluid temperatures (typically from 30 F to 110 F, or 1 C to 43 C) than a conventional water-source heat pump unit; a ground heat exchanger (GHX); and distribution systems to deliver hot water to the storage tank and heating or cooling to the conditioned rooms. In most residual GSHP systems, the circulation pumps and associated valves are integrated with the heat pump to circulate the heat-carrier fluid (water or aqueous antifreeze solution) through the heat pump and the GHX. A recent assessment indicates that if 20% of US homes replaced their existing space-conditioning and water-heating systems with properly designed, installed and operated state-of-the-art GSHP systems, it would yield significant benefits each year. These include 0.8 quad British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy savings, 54.3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} emission reductions, $10.4 billion in energy cost savings and 43.2 gigawatts of reduction in summer peak electrical demand.

Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Experimental Study on Operating Characteristic of the System of Ground Source Heat Pump Combined with Floor Radiant Heating of Capillary Tube  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At first, the article presented particularly the working theory of the system of ground source heat pump combined with floor radiant heating of capillary tube, the characteristic of soil layers and the arrangement form of capillary tube mat and the floor ... Keywords: Ground source heat pump, Capillary tube, Radiant heating, Characteristic, Experiment

Yunzhun Fu; Cai Yingling; Jing Li; Yeyu Wang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Awareness, Preference, Utilization, and Messaging Research for the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) offers the scientific community unique access to two types of world-class neutron sources at a single site - the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The 85-MW HFIR provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world, and the SNS is one of the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams. Management of these two resources is the responsibility of the Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD). NScD commissioned this survey research to develop baseline information regarding awareness of and perceptions about neutron science. Specific areas of investigative interest include the following: (1) awareness levels among those in the scientific community about the two neutron sources that ORNL offers; (2) the level of understanding members of various scientific communities have regarding benefits that neutron scattering techniques offer; and (3) any perceptions that negatively impact utilization of the facilities. NScD leadership identified users of two light sources in North America - the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory - as key publics. Given the type of research in which these scientists engage, they would quite likely benefit from including the neutron techniques available at SNS and HFIR among their scientific investigation tools. The objective of the survey of users of APS, NSLS, SNS, and HFIR was to explore awareness of and perceptions regarding SNS and HFIR among those in selected scientific communities. Perceptions of SNS and FHIR will provide a foundation for strategic communication plan development and for developing key educational messages. The survey was conducted in two phases. The first phase included qualitative methods of (1) key stakeholder meetings; (2) online interviews with user administrators of APS and NSLS; and (3) one-on-one interviews and traditional and online focus groups with scientists. The latter include SNS, HFIR, and APS users as well as scientists at ORNL, some of whom had not yet used HFIR and/or SNS. These approaches informed development of the second phase, a quantitative online survey. The survey consisted of 16 questions and 7 demographic categorizations, 9 open-ended queries, and 153 pre-coded variables and took an average time of 18 minutes to complete. The survey was sent to 589 SNS/HFIR users, 1,819 NSLS users, and 2,587 APS users. A total of 899 individuals provided responses for this study: 240 from NSLS; 136 from SNS/HFIR; and 523 from APS. The overall response rate was 18%.

Bryant, Rebecca [Bryant Research, LLC; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today energy sources are decreasing and saving energy conservation becomes more important. Therefore, it becomes an important investigative direction how to use reproducible energy sources in the HVAC field. The feasibility and necessity of using solar energy, low-vale electricity as heat sources in a floor radiant system are analyzed. This paper presents a new heat pump system and discusses its operational modes in winter.

Liu, G.; Guo, Z.; Hu, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Harvesting Energy from Abundant, Low Quality Sources of Heat  

The basic concept of energy harvesting is to collect energy from solar or other free sources of thermal energy that exist in the environment and convert them to ...

156

Harvesting Energy from Abundant, Low Quality Sources of Heat ...  

The basic concept of energy harvesting is to collect energy from solar or other free sources of thermal energy that exist in the environment and convert them to ...

157

Verification of the content, isotopic composition and age of plutonium in Pu-Be neutron sources by gamma-spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A non-destructive, gamma-spectrometric method for verifying the plutonium content of Pu-Be neutron sources has been developed. It is also shown that the isotopic composition and the age of plutonium (Pu) can be determined in the intensive neutron field of these sources by the ``Multi-Group Analysis'' method. Gamma spectra were taken in the far-field of the sample, which was assumed to be cylindrical. The isotopic composition and the age of Pu were determined using a commercial implementation of the Multi-Group Analysis algorithm. The Pu content of the sources was evaluated from the count rates of the gamma-peaks of 239Pu, relying on the assumption that the gamma-rays are coming to the detector parallel to each other. The determination of the specific neutron yields and the problem of neutron damage to the detector are also discussed.

Nguyen, C T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Verification of the content, isotopic composition and age of plutonium in Pu-Be neutron sources by gamma-spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A non-destructive, gamma-spectrometric method for verifying the plutonium content of Pu-Be neutron sources has been developed. It is also shown that the isotopic composition and the age of plutonium (Pu) can be determined in the intensive neutron field of these sources by the ``Multi-Group Analysis'' method. Gamma spectra were taken in the far-field of the sample, which was assumed to be cylindrical. The isotopic composition and the age of Pu were determined using a commercial implementation of the Multi-Group Analysis algorithm. The Pu content of the sources was evaluated from the count rates of the gamma-peaks of 239Pu, relying on the assumption that the gamma-rays are coming to the detector parallel to each other. The determination of the specific neutron yields and the problem of neutron damage to the detector are also discussed.

Cong Tam Nguyen

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

159

Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System Simulation Using Visual Modeling Tool For Hvacsim  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a simulation of a hybrid ground source heat pump system, performed using a new graphical user interface for HVACSIM+. Hybrid ground source heat pump systems incorporate both ground loop heat exchangers and supplemental heat rejecters, such as cooling towers, cooling ponds, or pavement heating systems. HVACSIM+ capabilities have recently been extended by the addition of ground loop heat exchanger models, water-to-water and waterto-air heat pump models, pavement heating system models, and heat rejection pond models. New component models are discussed and a hybrid ground source heat pump system with heated pavement as a supplemental cooler is simulated using the visual modeling tool. First, though, an introduction to a new graphical user interface for HVACSIM+ is given. The user interface that originally came with the program could not be characterized as user-friendly. The new graphical interface allows users to develop system models by hooking components together. Provisions for controlling the simulation, setting the component parameters, editing the boundary file, and plotting the output are also included.

M. H. Khan; A. Varanasi; J. D. Spitler; D. E. Fisher; R. D. Delahoussaye

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pumps Research Project |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pumps Research Project Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pumps Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into advanced variable speed air-source integrated heat pumps (AS-IHPs). Project Description This project seeks to develop AS-IHP products for the larger air-source system market. Development focuses on a fully variable capacity or variable speed AS-IHP option. Project Partners Research is being undertaken through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and a CRADA partner. Project Goals The goal of this project is the development of a fully variable-speed version of an AS-IHP product that can provide heating, ventilation, and air

162

Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost of underground water has also been considered. The economics of the heat pump and other cooling and heating sources has been compared and then several simple methods to improve the thermal economics of the underground water heat pump system have been put forward.

Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition  

SciTech Connect

This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

Hadley, Donald L.

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

PARAMETER ESTIMATION BASED MODELS OF WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Singapore. ©2006, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www operating refrigerant pressure limits). A design goal must therefore be to control the rise or drop exponent is dependent on the refrigerant type; the values of the isentropic exponents are obtained from

165

SIMULATION AND OPTIMAL CONTROL OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.7 Annual hourly building load for the office building in Tulsa, OK................ 240 Figure 6.8 Main Figure 7.1 Office building loads for El Paso, TX.16 System loads and heat pump power consumptions of office and motel #12;xx building in Tulsa, OK

166

Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The system may include an intermittent power source; a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source, and a tap controller coupled to the transformer. The transformer may be configured to transform power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters. The tap controller may be configured to monitor and control the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters from the transformer regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

Stone, Jr., Francis Marion (Cut-N-Shoot, TX); Goodwin, Charles R. (League City, TX); Richard, Jr., James (Kingwood, TX)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

167

Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission: copper/water axially-grooved heat pipe topical report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the major accomplishments for the development, fabrication, and testing of axially-grooved copper/water heat pipes for Selenide Isotopic Generator (SIG) applications. The early development consisted of chemical, physical, and analytical studies to define an axially-grooved tube geometry that could be successfully fabricated and provide the desired long term (up to seven years) performance is presented. Heat pipe fabrication procedures, measured performance and accelerated life testing of heat pipes S/Ns AL-5 and LT-57 conducted at B and K Engineering are discussed. S/N AL-5 was the first axially-grooved copper/water heat pipe that was fabricated with the new internal coating process for cupric oxide (CuO) and the cleaning and water preparation methods developed by Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Heat pipe S/N LT-57 was fabricated along with sixty other axially-grooved heat pipes allocated for life testing at Teledyne Energy Systems. As of June 25, 1979, heat pipes S/Ns AL-5 and LT-57 have been accelerated life tested for 13,310 and 6,292 respectively, at a nominal operating temperature of 225/sup 0/C without any signs of thermal performance degradation. (TFD)

Strazza, N.P.

1979-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Apparent Water Vapor Sinks and Heat Sources Associated with the Intraseasonal Oscillation of the Indian Summer Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of using remote sensing retrievals to estimate apparent water vapor sinks and heat sources is explored. The apparent water vapor sinks and heat sources are estimated from a combination of remote sensing, specific humidity, and ...

Sun Wong; Eric J. Fetzer; Baijun Tian; Bjorn Lambrigtsen; Hengchun Ye

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

"Table B21. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" 1. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",67338,61612,32291,37902,5611,5534,2728,945 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,5684,2651,3250,598,"Q",469,"Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,7090,2808,4613,573,"Q",688,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,9865,5079,6069,773,307,682,"Q"

170

"Table B26. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" 6. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane" "All Buildings ................",67338,56115,24171,29196,2218,4182,1371 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,4280,2307,1719,"Q","Q","Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,5748,2287,3204,"Q","Q","Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,9000,4220,4221,224,164,493

171

"Table B23. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" 3. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Useda" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ................",67338,61602,17627,32729,3719,5077 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,5684,1567,3080,482,"Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,7090,1496,4292,557,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,9865,3035,5320,597,232 "25,001 to 50,000 .............",9311,8565,2866,4416,486,577

172

Application Prospect Analysis of the Surface Water Source Heat-Pump in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface water resources in China are rather abundant and it can be use as the heat or cool source for heat pump. The winter surface water temperatures of 17 typical cities are investigated in December, and they are all distributed in the interval of 2~5?. The critical technical issue in the surface water heat pump is how to extract the freezing latent heat. The urban surface water supplying areas of 102 large or median cities in China are measured and counted. The supply area ratio, and mean heating or cooling need index are calculated separately and the 102 cities are classified by the three parameters. The data indicate that surface water can supply heat and cool source for 42.1% of the urban waterside buildings in China.

Zhang, C.; Zhuang, Z.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Sun, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Water flow calorimetry measurements of heat loads for a volume production H/sup -/ source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of volume-production H/sup -/ sources requires the knowledge of heat loads on the source components. The arc and filament heater power input to a 20 cm diameter x 23 cm long source can be 50 kW or higher, practically all of which is absorbed in the cooling water. Water flow calorimetry measurements were made to determine the heat loads on the bucket walls, grid no. 1, and magnetic filter rods. The measurements are presented for two different filament locations, for three different values of arc power, and for three values of source gas pressure. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Purgalis, P.; Ackerman, G.; Kwan, J.; Wells, R.P.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Covered Product Category: Ground-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Covered Product Category: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Covered Product Category: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Covered Product Category: Ground-Source Heat Pumps October 7, 2013 - 10:32am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs), which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases

175

Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps October 7, 2013 - 10:35am Addthis ENERGY STAR logo FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential air-source heat pumps (ASHPs), which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases

176

Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps October 7, 2013 - 10:35am Addthis ENERGY STAR logo FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential air-source heat pumps (ASHPs), which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

177

Ground Source Heat Pump Data Mining Research Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ground Source Heat Pump Data Mining Ground Source Heat Pump Data Mining Research Project Ground Source Heat Pump Data Mining Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into ground source heat pump (GSHP) data mining. This project seeks to build public awareness of GSHP technology through the development of case studies outlining costs and benefits. Project Description This project seeks to produce in-depth case studies on the costs and benefits of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -funded GSHP demonstration projects, including cross-cutting summaries of lessons learned and best practices for design, installation, and operation. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Project Goals

178

Covered Product Category: Ground-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ground-Source Heat Pumps Ground-Source Heat Pumps Covered Product Category: Ground-Source Heat Pumps October 7, 2013 - 10:32am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs), which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

179

Detecting sources of heat loss in residential buildings from infrared imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Infrared image analysis was conducted to determine the most common sources of heat loss during the winter in residential buildings. 135 houses in the greater Boston and Cambridge area were photographed, stitched, and tallied ...

Shao, Emily Chen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Interhemispheric teleconnections from tropical heat sources in intermediate and simple models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanisms that control the interhemispheric teleconnections from tropical heat sources are investigated using an intermediate complexity model (a Quasi-Equilibrium Tropical Circulation Model, QTCM) and a simple linear two-level model with dry ...

X. Ji; J. D. Neelin; S.-K. Lee; C. R. Mechoso

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A Numerical Study of Stratified Airflow over Mesoscale Heat Sources with Application to Carolina Coastal Frontogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results from a numerical investigation of the responses of stratified airflow to prescribed near-surface mesoscale axisymmetric (circular) and elongated (elliptical) heat sources under uniform basic wind conditions using a ...

Lian Xie; Yuh-Lang Lin

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Axisymmetric Circulations Forced by Heat and Momentum Sources: A Simple Model Applicable to the Venus Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The parametric behavior of an axially symmetric circulation induced by heat and momentum sources is analyzed in the context of a simple Boussinesq model. Implications for the Venus atmosphere are examined in the light of recent data.

Arthur Y. Hou

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Comparison of the Global Meridional Ekman Heat Flux Estimated from Four Wind Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variability in the meridional Ekman heat flux estimated using wind data from four different sources is examined. The wind vectors are obtained from the European Remote Sensing (ERS), Quick Scatterometer (Quikscat), and Special Sensor ...

Olga T. Sato; Paulo S. Polito

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

The Response of Balanced Hurricanes to Local Sources of Heat and Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eliassen's (1951) diagnostic technique is used to calculate the secondary circulation induced by point sources of heat and momentum in balanced, hurricane-like vortices. Scale analysis reveals that such responses are independent of the horizontal ...

Lloyd J. Shapiro; Huch E. Willoughby

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pump water heater and ClimateMaster TrilogyTM 40 Q-ModeTM geothermal (ground- source) integrated heat buildings on the flexible research platforms. · The greatest barrier preventing wider use of geothermal

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

186

Interactions of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Interim summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Observations and some conclusions made of the interactions of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments may be used in predicting heat source behavior in the event of contact of these heat sources with land or ocean and in assessing the risk to the environment. These studies indicate that plutonium transport from the heat sources is mostly a physical process involving the movement of extremely fine particles rather than the chemical migration of plutonium ions.

Patterson, J.H.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Matlack, G.M.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources  

SciTech Connect

A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O' Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

188

The Atmospheric Heat Source over the Tibetan Plateau: May–August 1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of the time and space variability of the atmospheric heat source over Tibet are presented for the summer of 1979. These estimates rely on new data from the People's Republic of China allowing a better assessment of the surface heat ...

Longxun Chen; Elmar R. Reiter; Zhiqiang Feng

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Feasibility Study of Using Ground Source Heat Pumps in Two Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The building is located near the end of the central steam distribution system. Steam from the central steam and Mt. Olympus BOQ) presently heated by steam from the central steam plant. Ground source heat pump, it was assumed that natural gas-fired water heaters would replace the steam converters that presently provide hot

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

190

A Linear Model Study of Cross-Equatorial Flow Forced by Summer Monsoon Heat Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear model of the steady response of a stratified fluid to isolated heat sources on a sphere is developed. The model is used to examine the response to diabatic heating associated with summer monsoon precipitation in India and to low-level ...

Keith D. Sashegyi; John E. Geisler

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The Heat Sources and Sinks of the 1986–87 El Nińo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat balance of the coupled tropical ocean–atmosphere system during the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) period (1985–89) is analyzed in an attempt to better understand the heat sources and sinks of the 1986–87 El Nińo. The analysis ...

De-Zheng Sun

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical or horizontal ground-coupling, an open groundwater loop, or a surface water loop. This paper discusses system performance characteristics, component selection procedures presently being used, improvements currently being considered and future possibilities for improved efficiency and reliability. Optimum designs require proper matching of the heat pump unit to the water circulation system, the building space heating/cooling load and water heating requirements. General trends resulting from system and component choices will be discussed. Water heating methods with these heat pumps will be considered.

Kavanaugh, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Bayesian Integration of Isotope Ratios for Geographic Sourcing of Castor Beans  

SciTech Connect

Recent years have seen an increase in the forensic interest associated with the poison ricin, which is extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant. Both light element (C, N, O, and H) and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios have previously been used to associate organic material with geographic regions of origin. We present a Bayesian integration methodology that can more accurately predict the region of origin for a castor bean than individual models developed independently for light element stable isotopes or Sr isotope ratios. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in the ability to correctly classify regions based on the integrated model with a class accuracy of 6 0 . 9 {+-} 2 . 1 % versus 5 5 . 9 {+-} 2 . 1 % and 4 0 . 2 {+-} 1 . 8 % for the light element and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios, respectively. In addition, we show graphically the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in respect to class prediction and how the integration of these datasets strengthens the overall model.

Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Hart, Garret L.; Ehleringer, James; West, Jason B.; Gill, Gary A.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

Xing, Lu [Oklahoma State University; Cullin, James [Oklahoma State University; Spitler, Jeffery [Oklahoma State University; Im, Piljae [ORNL; Fisher, Daniel [Oklahoma State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Study of the design Method of an Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump Thermal Source System in a Cold Area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system-an energy efficiency and environment friendly system-is becoming popular in many parts of China. However, an imbalance usually exists between the annual heat extracted from and rejected to the ground due to the different heating and cooling load of a building, which will consistently deteriorate the heat pump efficiency leading even to the breakdown of the heat pump. This paper brings forward a design method of adding supplemental heat rejection equipment, a cooling tower, in the system to solve the problem in a cold area. Taking an office building in Beijing as an example, the authors simulate the GSHP system with two different connection methods between the cooling tower and vertical buried-pipe heat exchangers (in series and in parallel) using TRNSYS simulation software, and put forward several design schemes that can ensure the whole system continually operates with high efficiency. This also makes it possible to perform a more detailed economic optimization of the GSHP-based system in the future.

Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.; Zou, Y.; Du, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Multi-heat source thermodynamic cycles and demonstrations of their power plants  

SciTech Connect

Being on the analysis of the requirements and the problems existing in the thermodynamic cycles (TC) and their power plants (PPs) using single heat source (SHS) of moderate and low grade, the paper puts forward the theory of electricity generation by using multi-heat sources (MHS), its possibility and advantages of these heat sources (HSs). Proposals of two types of MHS combination cycles, such as solar thermal energy (STE) and geothermal energy (GE), solar-geothermal and fuel burning energy (FBE) or waste heat (WH) are given. The calculation results of these PPs and their corresponding SHS-PPs are listed. MHS-PPs are superior from both technical and economic points of view.

Dai-Ji, H.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Recent developments of the ion sources at Tri University Meson Factory/Isotope Separator and ACcelerator Facility  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the recent progresses concerning the on-line ion source at the Tri University Meson Factory/Isotope Separator and ACcelerator (TRIUMF/ISAC) Radioactive Ion-Beam Facility; description of the new design of the surface-ion-source for improved stability of the beam intensity, description of the transport path to the east target station at ISAC, description of the new brazing techniques that solved recurrent problems with water leaks on the target/ion source assembly in the vacuum system, finally, recent developments concerning the Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge (FEBIAD) ion source are reported. In particular, a study on the effect of the plasma chamber volume on the ionization efficiency was completed.

Bricault, P. G.; Ames, F.; Dombsky, M.; Labrecque, F.; Lassen, J.; Mjos, A.; Minor, G. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Tigelhoefer, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department Of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided, wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

Rasor, N.S.; Riley, D.R.; Murray, C.S.; Geller, C.B.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Comparison of General Purpose Heat Source testing with the ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) sealed source standard  

SciTech Connect

This analysis provides a comparison of the testing of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and RTG components with the testing requirements of ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) ``Sealed Radioactive Sources, Categorization``. The purpose of this comparison is to demonstrate that the RTGs meet or exceed the requirements of the ANSI standard, and thus can be excluded from the radioactive inventory of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building in Los Alamos per Attachment 1 of DOE STD 1027-92. The approach used in this analysis is as follows: (1) describe the ANSI sealed source classification methodology; (2) develop sealed source performance requirements for the RTG and/or RTG components based on criteria from the accident analysis for CMR; (3) compare the existing RTG or RTG component test data to the CMR requirements; and (4) determine the appropriate ANSI classification for the RTG and/or RTG components based on CMR performance requirements. The CMR requirements for treating RTGs as sealed sources are derived from the radiotoxicity of the isotope ({sup 238}P7) and amount (13 kg) of radioactive material contained in the RTG. The accident analysis for the CMR BIO identifies the bounding accidents as wing-wide fire, explosion and earthquake. These accident scenarios set the requirements for RTGs or RTG components stored within the CMR.

Grigsby, C.O.

1998-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Use of Stable and Radiocarbon Isotopes as a Method for Delineating Sources of Organic Matter in Anchialine Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Submerged caves, locally referred to as cenotes, can be found throughout the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. These nutrient poor, aphotic “underground estuaries” lack photosynthetic primary productivity, but are often found underlying high primary productivity areas such as mangroves and tropical forests. Adjacent ecosystems contribute organic carbon to the cave systems via percolation, where it is then utilized by the obligate, cave-dwelling fish and invertebrates. Another potential pathway through which organic carbon can enter the cave food web is through chemosynthesis. Chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing or nitrifying bacteria have been found in the hydrogen sulfide layer or in the sediments of some anchialine caves. Our study utilizes 13C/12C and 15N/14N stable isotopes as well as 14C radiocarbon dating to determine and compare the sources of organic matter entering a coastal anchialine cave (Cenote Aak Kimin) versus an inland cave (Cenote Maya Blue) in the Yucatan Peninsula. Stable isotopes have long been employed in tropic investigations. This study, however, is the first to utilize radiocarbon isotopes in anchialine caves. The use of both stable and radiocarbon isotopes as source indicators provides greater discrimination in systems that contain numerous carbon sources or indistinct trophic levels, particularly to distinguish between chemoautotrophic versus photosynthetically derived carbon. Results indicate that chemosynthetically derived organic carbon contributes substantially to the diet of some crustaceans, such as the stygobitic shrimp Typhlatya, while other species remain dependent on detrital inputs. Depleted ?13C values and aged radiocarbon values (as low as -47.51‰ and 1840 yrs. for Typhlatya spp.) in comparison to particulate and sediment ?13C values (lowest -32.07‰ and -28.43‰, respectively). A comparison of isotopic values between Cenote Aak Kimin and Cenote Maya Blue suggests that the trophic web of the coastal cave incorporates more photosynthetic or detrital carbon, while the inland cave, with more depleted 13C and 14C values, relies more heavily on chemoautotrophic carbon. Within both systems, however, distinct photosynthetic and chemoautotrophic levels were identified. Water quality parameters, especially dissolved oxygen and pH, support the hypothesis of bacterial activity at the halocline. Anchialine systems in the Yucatan Peninsula are threatened due to increases in tourism, development, and pollution. Quantifying and qualifying the inputs of organic carbon is vital for the management and conservation of the area’s freshwater resources.

Neisch, Julie A

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Numerical Simulation of a Latent Heat Storage System of a Solar-Aided Ground Source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, the rectangular phase change storage tank (PCST) linked to a solar-aided ground source heat pump (SAGSHP) system is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The container of the phase change material (PCM) is the controlling unit of the phase change heat transfer model. It was solved numerically by an enthalpy-based finite difference method and was validated by experimental data. CaCl2•6H2O was used as the PCM in the latent heat storage system of SAGSHP system. In the tank, the PCMs are encapsulated in plastic kegs that are setting on the serpentine coil. The experiments were performed from March 12 to April 10, 2004 in the heating season of the transition period. In order to reflect the effects of the system, two days were chosen to compare the numerical results with experimental data. The inlet and outlet temperature of the water in the PCST, temperature of PCM and storage and emission heat of PCST were measured. The trends of the variation of numerical results and experimental data were in close agreement. Numerical results can reflect the operation mode of the system very well.

Wang, F.; Zheng, M.; Li, Z.; Lei, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Failure analysis of radioisotopic heat source capsules tested under multi-axial conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to qualify small radioisotopic heat sources for a 25-yr design life, multi-axial mechanical tests were performed on the structural components of the heat source. The results of these tests indicated that failure predominantly occurred in the middle of the weld ramp-down zone. Examination of the failure zone by standard metallographic techniques failed to indicate the true cause of failure. A modified technique utilizing chemical etching, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis was employed and dramatically indicated the true cause of failure, impurity concentration in the ramp-down zone. As a result of the initial investigation, weld parameters for the heat sources were altered. Example welds made with a pulse arc technique did not have this impurity buildup in the ramp-down zone.

Zielinski, R.E.; Stacy, E.; Burgan, C.E.

204

An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

Mark Borland; Steve Frank

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Process evaluation, fuel pellet GF-47  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general-purpose heat source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions has documented the response of the GPHS heat source to a variety of fragment-impact, aging, atmospheric reentry, and Earth-impact conditions. Although heat sources for previous missions were fabricated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), GPHS fueled-clads required for the Cassini mission to Saturn will be fabricated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This evaluation is part of an ongoing program to determine the similarity of GPHS fueled clads and fuel pellets fabricated at LANL to those fabricated at WSRC. Pellet GF-47, which was fabricated at LANL in late 1994, was submitted for chemical and ceramographic analysis. The results indicated that the pellet had a chemical makeup and microstructure within the range of material fabricated at WSRC in the early 1980s.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Comparing Aircraft-Based Remotely Sensed Energy Balance Fluxes with Eddy Covariance Tower Data Using Heat Flux Source Area Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an effort to better evaluate distributed airborne remotely sensed sensible and latent heat flux estimates, two heat flux source area (footprint) models were applied to the imagery, and their pixel weighting/integrating functionality was ...

JoséL. Chávez; Christopher M. U. Neale; Lawrence E. Hipps; John H. Prueger; William P. Kustas

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Exergy and Energy analysis of a ground-source heat pump for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents detailed analysis of a water to water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) to provide all the hot water needs in a 345 m2 house located in DOE climate zone 4 (mixed-humid). The protocol for hot water use is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which aims to capture the living habits of the average American household and its impact on energy consumption. The entire house was operated under simulated occupancy conditions. Detailed energy and exergy analysis provides a complete set of information on system efficiency and sources of irreversibility, the main cause of wasted energy. The WW-GSHP was sized at 5.275 kW (1.5-ton) for this house and supplied hot water to a 303 L (80 gal) water storage tank. The WW-GSHP shared the same ground loop with a 7.56 kW (2.1-ton) water to air ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) which provided space conditioning needs to the entire house. Data, analyses, and measures of performance for the WW-GSHP in this paper complements the results of the WA-GSHP published in this journal (Ally, Munk et al. 2012). Understanding the performance of GSHPs is vital if the ground is to be used as a viable renewable energy resource.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Municipal waste incineration; An environmentally benign energy source for district heating  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste should be regarded as a good fuel. Emissions from solid waste incineration can be kept within any reasonable limit. Compared with fossil fuels, waste can be regarded as a renewable source of energy that does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Finally, waste incineration for district heating can be very economical.

Astrand, L.E. (Uppsala Energi AB, Uppsala (SE))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Evaluation and characterization of General Purpose Heat Source girth welds for the Cassini mission  

SciTech Connect

General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs) are components of Radioisotopic thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for deep space missions. Each GPHS consists of a {sup 238}Pu oxide ceramic pellet encapsulated in a welded iridium alloy shell which forms a protective barrier against the release of plutonia in the unlikely event of a launch-pad failure or reentry incident. GPHS fueled clad girth weld flaw detection was paramount to ensuring this safety function, and was accomplished using both destructive and non-destructive evaluation techniques. The first girth weld produced from each welding campaign was metallographically examined for flaws such as incomplete weld penetration, cracks, or porosity which would render a GPHS unacceptable for flight applications. After an acceptable example weld was produced, the subsequently welded heat sources were evaluated non-destructively for flaws using ultrasonic immersion testing. Selected heat sources which failed ultrasonic testing would be radiographed, and/or, destructively evaluated to further characterize and document anomalous indications. Metallography was also performed on impacted heat sources to determine the condition of the welds.

Lynch, C.M.; Moniz, P.F.; Reimus, M.A.H.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

Influence of External Heat Source on Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic refrigerants such as CFCs and HCFCs are harmful to the ozone and could cause greenhouse effect. Refrigerant alternatives research is very urgent. CO2 as a natural working fluid has zero ODP and its GWP=1, is receiving more and more attention ... Keywords: Coefficient of Performance, Experimental Investigation, Heat Source, Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System

Liu Yingfu; Xiao Jian; Jin Guangya

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission. Axially-grooved heat pipe: accelerated life test results  

SciTech Connect

The results through SIG/Galileo contract close-out of accelerated life testing performed from June 1978 to June 1979 on axially-grooved, copper/water heat pipes are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the expected lifetime of axially-grooved copper/water heat pipes. The heat pipe failure rate, due to either a leak or a build-up of non-condensible gas, was determined. The secondary objective of the test was to determine the effects of time and temperature on the thermal performance parameters relevant to long-term (> 50,000 h) operation on a space power generator. The results showed that the gas generation rate appears to be constant with time after an initial sharp rise although there are indications that it drops to approximately zero beyond approx. 2000 h. During the life test, the following pipe-hours were accumulated: 159,000 at 125/sup 0/C, 54,000 at 165/sup 0/C, 48,000 at 185/sup 0/C, and 8500 at 225/sup 0/C. Heated hours per pipe ranged from 1000 to 7500 with an average of 4720. Applying calculated acceleration factors yields the equivalent of 930,000 pipe-h at 125/sup 0/C. Including the accelerated hours on vendor tested pipes raises this number to 1,430,000 pipe-hours at 125/sup 0/C. It was concluded that, for a heat pipe temperature of 125/sup 0/C and a mission time of 50,000 h, the demonstrated heat pipe reliability is between 80% (based on 159,000 actual pipe-h at 125/sup 0/C) and 98% (based on 1,430,000 accelerated pipe-h at 125/sup 0/C). Measurements indicate some degradation of heat transfer with time, but no detectable degradation of heat transport. (LCL)

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities, Second Edition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

E E N E R G Y M A N A G E M E N T P R O G R A M and exterior to the facility, are typically less than those for conventional systems. Potential Application The technology has been shown to be techni- cally valid and economically attractive in many applications. It is efficient and effective. This Federal Technology Alert reports on the collec- tive experience of heat pump users and evalua- tors and provides application guidance. An estimated 400,000 ground-source heat pumps are operating in the private and public sector, although most of these systems operate in resi- dential applications. A ground-source heat pump system can be applied in virtually any category of climate or building. The large num- ber of installations testifies to the stability of this technology. The reported problems can

213

Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities, Second Edition  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and exterior to the facility, are typically less and exterior to the facility, are typically less than those for conventional systems. Potential Application The technology has been shown to be techni- cally valid and economically attractive in many applications. It is efficient and effective. This Federal Technology Alert reports on the collec- tive experience of heat pump users and evalua- tors and provides application guidance. An estimated 400,000 ground-source heat pumps are operating in the private and public sector, although most of these systems operate in resi- dential applications. A ground-source heat pump system can be applied in virtually any category of climate or building. The large num- ber of installations testifies to the stability of this technology. The reported problems can usually be attributed to faulty design or

214

General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/.

George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Development of a High Performance Air Source Heat Pump for the US Market  

SciTech Connect

Heat pumps present a significant advantage over conventional residential heating technologies due to higher energy efficiencies and less dependence on imported oil. The US development of heat pumps dates back to the 1930 s with pilot units being commercially available in the 1950 s. Reliable and cost competitive units were available in the US market by the 1960 s. The 1973 oil embargo led to increased interest in heat pumps prompting significant research to improve performance, particularly for cold climate locations. Recent increasing concerns on building energy efficiency and environmental emissions have prompted a new wave of research in heat pump technology with special emphasis on reducing performance degradation at colder outdoor air temperatures. A summary of the advantages and limitations of several performance improvement options sought for the development of high performance air source heat pump systems for cold climate applications is the primary focus of this paper. Some recommendations for a high performance cold climate heat pump system design most suitable for the US market are presented.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Iu, Ipseng [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

General-Purpose Heat Source: Research and development program: Cold-Process Verification Test Series  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs and individual GPHS capsules fueled with {sup 238}UO{sub 2} ({sup 235}U-depleted) to a variety of explosive overpressure and impact events. In the early 1990s, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resumed fabrication of {sup 238}UO{sub 2} GPHS pellets. The Cold-Process Verification (CPV) Test Series was designed to compare the response of GPHS heat sources loaded with recently fabricated hot- and cold-pressed {sup 238}UO{sub 2} pellets to the response of urania pellets used in the Galileo and Ulysses performance tests. This report documents eleven bare-capsule impacts and one impact of a fully loaded GPHS module. All of the failures observed in the bare-clad impact tests were similar to failures observed in previous safety tests. No failures occurred in the module impact test.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Calculation of Airflow over an Isolated Heat Source with Application to the Dynamics of V-Shaped Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stably stratified airflow over a three-dimensional elevated heat source is investigated using the linearized equations of motion. A low-level upward motion can be produced for airflow over a prescribed, isolated heat source for a wide variety ...

Yuh-Lang Lin

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Research on the Applicability of Solar Energy-Ground Source Heat Pump in Different Regions of China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development potential of solar energy resource, cLimatic characteristics and soil temperature conditions are various in different areas of China, which brings some difficulties in the promotion and appLication of solar energy-ground source heat pump ... Keywords: Solar energy-ground source heat pump (GSHP), Solar radiation, Sharacteristics of soil thermal storage, Geographic features

Dongyi Zhou; Chu-ping Shi; Wen-hua Yuan

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

High temperature ion source for an on-line isotope separator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reduced size ion source for on-line use with a cyclotron heavy-ion beam is provided. A sixfold reduction in source volume while operating with similar input power levels results in a 2000.degree. C. operating temperature. A combined target/window normally provides the reaction products for ionization while isolating the ion source plasma from the cyclotron beam line vacuum. A graphite felt catcher stops the recoiling reaction products and releases them into the plasma through diffusion and evaporation. Other target arrangements are also possible. A twenty-four hour lifetime of unattended operation is achieved, and a wider range of elements can be studied than was heretofore possible.

Mlekodaj, Ronald L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Evolution of the Loop-Top Source of Solar Flares--Heating and Cooling Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a study of the spatial and spectral evolution of the loop-top (LT) sources in a sample of 6 flares near the solar limb observed by {\\it RHESSI}. A distinct coronal source, which we identify as the LT source, was seen in each of these flares from the early ``pre-heating'' phase through the late decay phase. Spectral analyses reveal an evident steep power-law component in the pre-heating and impulsive phases, suggesting that the particle acceleration starts upon the onset of the flares. In the late decay phase the LT source has a thermal spectrum and appears to be confined within a small region near the top of the flare loop, and does not spread throughout the loop, as is observed at lower energies. The total energy of this source decreases usually faster than expected from the radiative cooling but much slower than that due to the classical Spitzer conductive cooling along the flare loop. These results indicate the presence of a distinct LT region, where the thermal conductivity is suppressed significantly and/or there is a continuous energy input. We suggest that plasma wave turbulence could play important roles in both heating the plasma and suppressing the conduction during the decay phase of solar flares. With a simple quasi-steady loop model we show that the energy input in the gradual phase can be comparable to that in the impulsive phase and demonstrate how the observed cooling and confinement of the LT source can be used to constrain the wave-particle interaction.

Yan Wei Jiang; Siming Liu; Wei Liu; Vahe Petrosian

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

CH4 sources estimated from atmospheric observations of CH4 and its C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios: 1. Inverse modeling of source processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of methane from combustion and biomass burning, J. Geophys.biomass leading to differing isotopic signatures in emissions from combustion

Mikaloff Fletcher, S.E.; Tans, P P; Bruhwiler, L M; Miller, J B; Heimann, M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS&GSHP system can serve as cold energy thermal storage at night, produce chilled water in the daytime in summer and provide hot water for heating in winter. This is followed by its schematic and characteristic description. Then the various operation modes of such system according to different operational strategies are demonstrated in sequence. The system, firstly seen in open literature, is energy-saving, environmental-friendly and promising in the field of air-conditioning systems, and will help solve the problems currently existing with the GSHP system and ITES air conditioning system.

Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Application Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps in Building Space Conditioning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Application Analysis of Ground Source Heat Application Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps in Building Space Conditioning Hua Qian 1,2 , Yungang Wang 2 1 School of Energy and Environment Southeast University Nanjing, 210096, China 2 Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720, USA July 2013 The project was supported by National Key Technology Supported Program of China (2011BAJ03B10-1) and by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231. Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the

224

Heat source component development program. Quaterly report, January--March, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the third in a series of quarterly reports describing the results of several experimental programs being conducted at Battelle-Columbus to develop components for advanced radioisotope heat source applications. The heat sources will for the most part be used in advanced static and dynamic power conversion systems. These reports replace the informal monthly technical letter reports previously prepared. The specific components development efforts which are described are: improved selective and nonselective vents for helium release from the fuel containment; an improved reentry member and an improved impact member, singly and combined. The unitized reentry-impact member (RIM) is under development to be used as a bifunctional ablator. Finally, thermochemical supporting studies are reported.

Pardue, W.M. (comp.)

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options: switching on demand between completely air-source and completely water-coupled or using a concurrent partial water-coupled and partial air-coupled mode operation. The water supply for the water-coupled mode of operation would be the municipal water system. An estimate of the economic worth of this system concept was made by examining the incremental cost to install such a system against the expected savings associated with these systems.

Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Development of an integrated building load-ground source heat pump model as a test bed to assess short- and long-term heat pump and ground loop performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) have the ability to significantly reduce the energy required to heat and cool buildings. Historically, deployment of GSHP's in the… (more)

Gaspredes, Jonathan Louis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Rankine cycle energy conversion system design considerations for low and intermediate temperature sensible heat sources. Geothermal, waste heat, and solar thermal conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design considerations are described for energy conversion systems for low and intermediate temperature sensible heat sources such as found in geothermal, waste heat, and solar-thermal applications. It is concluded that the most cost effective designs for the applications studied did not require the most efficient thermodynamic cycle, but that the efficiency of the energy conversion hardware can be a key factor.

Abbin, J.P. Jr.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The price paid for the three-dimensional detail is the large computational times required with GEO3D. The computational times required for GEO2D are reasonable, a few minutes for a 20 year simulation. For a similar simulation, GEO3D takes days of computational time. Because of the small simulation times with GEO2D, a number of attractive features have been added to it. GEO2D has a user friendly interface where inputs and outputs are all handled with GUI (graphical user interface) screens. These GUI screens make the program exceptionally easy to use. To make the program even easier to use a number of standard input options for the most common GSHP situations are provided to the user. For the expert user, the option still exists to enter their own detailed information. To further help designers and GSHP customers make decisions about a GSHP heating and cooling system, cost estimates are made by the program. These cost estimates include a payback period graph to show the user where their GSHP system pays for itself. These GSHP simulation tools should be a benefit to the advancement of GSHP systems.

Menart, James A. [Wright State University] [Wright State University

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

230

Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ���¢��������Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.���¢������� The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The price paid for the three-dimensional detail is the large computational times required with GEO3D. The computational times required for GEO2D are reasonable, a few minutes for a 20 year simulation. For a similar simulation, GEO3D takes days of computational time. Because of the small simulation times with GEO2D, a number of attractive features have been added to it. GEO2D has a user friendly interface where inputs and outputs are all handled with GUI (graphical user interface) screens. These GUI screens make the program exceptionally easy to use. To make the program even easier to use a number of standard input options for the most common GSHP situations are provided to the user. For the expert user, the option still exists to enter their own detailed information. To further help designers and GSHP customers make decisions about a GSHP heating and cooling system, cost estimates are made by the program. These cost estimates include a payback period graph to show the user where their GSHP system pays for itself. These GSHP simulation tools should be a benefit to the advancement of GSHP system

James A Menart, Professor

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

231

Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission  

SciTech Connect

The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

Schock, Alfred

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Identification of sediment sources in forested watersheds with surface coal mining disturbance using carbon and nitrogen isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Sediments and soils were analyzed using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry and carbon and nitrogen elemental analyses to evaluate the their ability to indicate land-use and land management disturbance and pinpoint loading from sediment transport sources in forested watersheds disturbed by surface coal mining. Samples of transported sediment particulate organic matter were collected from four watersheds in the Southern Appalachian forest in Kentucky. The four watersheds had different surface coal mining history that were classified as undisturbed, active mining, and reclaimed conditions. Soil samples were analyzed including reclaimed grassland soils, undisturbed forest soils, geogenic organic matter associated with coal fragments in mining spoil, and soil organic matter from un-mined grassland soils. Statistically significant differences were found for all biogeochemical signatures when comparing transported sediments from undisturbed watersheds and surface coal mining disturbed watersheds and the results were attributed to differences in erosion sources and the presence of geogenic organic matter. Sediment transport sources in the surface coal mining watersheds analyzed using Monte Carlo mass balance un-mixing found that: {delta}{sup 15}N showed the ability to differentiate streambank erosion and surface soil erosion; and {delta} {sup 13}C showed the ability to differentiate soil organic matter and geogenic organic matter. This suggests that streambank erosion downstream of surface coal mining sites is a significant source of sediment in coal mining disturbed watersheds. The results suggest that the sediment transport processes governing streambank erosion loads are taking longer to reach geomorphologic equilibrium in the watershed as compared with the surface erosion processes.

Fox, J.F. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Reimus, M.A.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Moyer, M.W. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Building 9203, MS-8084, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Placr, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Building 305-A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results.

Reimus, M. A. H.; George, T. G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M. W.; Placr, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Building 9203, MS-8084, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Building 305-A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Focus group discussions among owners and non-owners of ground source heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

This research was sponsored by the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of an ongoing effort to enhance the commercial use of federally developed technology. Federal dollars have supported research on the development of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) for several years. Though several companies currently sell GSHP's for residential use, their share of the total heating and air conditioning business remains less than one percent. Large manufacturing companies with national distribution have not yet added GSHP equipment to their product line. GSHP's use only about one half (Braud 1987) to one third (Bose 1987) of the energy needed to operate conventional furnaces and air conditioners. Consequently, a high level of market penetration by the GSHP offers direct benefits to both utility companies and individual users of the systems. Widespread use of these highly efficient systems will reduce both total energy consupmtion, and problems associated with high levels of energy use during peak periods. This will allow utility companies to delay capital expenditures for new facilities to meet the growing energy demand during peak periods. The cost effective use of electricity also reduces the likelihood of homeowners switching to a different fuel source for heating. 5 refs.

Roberson, B.F.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

California GAMA Special Study: An isotopic and dissolved gas investigation of nitrate source and transport to a public supply well in California's Central Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates nitrate contamination of a deep municipal drinking water production well in Ripon, CA to demonstrate the utility of natural groundwater tracers in constraining the sources and transport of nitrate to deep aquifers in the Central Valley. The goal of the study was to investigate the origin (source) of elevated nitrate and the potential for the deep aquifer to attenuate anthropogenic nitrate. The site is ideal for such an investigation. The production well is screened from 165-325 feet below ground surface and a number of nearby shallow and deep monitoring wells were available for sampling. Furthermore, potential sources of nitrate contamination to the well had been identified, including a fertilizer supply plant located approximately 1000 feet to the east and local almond groves. A variety of natural isotopic and dissolved gas tracers including {sup 3}H-{sup 3}He groundwater age and the isotopic composition of nitrate are applied to identify nitrate sources and to characterize nitrate transport. An advanced method for sampling production wells is employed to help identify contaminant contributions from specific screen intervals. Nitrate transport: Groundwater nitrate at this field site is not being actively denitrified. Groundwater parameters indicate oxic conditions, the dissolved gas data shows no evidence for excess nitrogen as the result of denitrification, and nitrate-N and -O isotope compositions do not display patterns typical of denitrification. Contaminant nitrate source: The ambient nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater at the Ripon site ({approx}12 mg/L as nitrate) is typical of shallow groundwaters affected by recharge from agricultural and urban areas. Nitrate concentrations in Ripon City Well 12 (50-58 mg/L as nitrate) are significantly higher than these ambient concentrations, indicating an additional source of anthropogenic nitrate is affecting groundwater in the capture zone of this municipal drinking water well. This study provides two new pieces of evidence that the Ripon Farm Services Plant is the source of elevated nitrate in Ripon City Well 12. (1) Chemical mass balance calculations using nitrate concentration, nitrate isotopic composition, and initial tritium activity all indicate that that the source water for elevated nitrate to Ripon City Well 12 is a very small component of the water produced by City Well 12 and thus must have extremely high nitrate concentration. The high source water nitrate concentration ({approx}1500 mg/L as nitrate) required by these mass balance calculations precludes common sources of nitrate such as irrigated agriculture, dairy wastewater, and septic discharge. Shallow groundwater under the Ripon Farm Services RFS plant does contain extremely high concentrations of nitrate (>1700 mg/L as nitrate). (2) Nitrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of nitrate indicate that the additional anthropogenic nitrate source to Ripon City Well 12 is significantly enriched in {delta}{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}, an isotopic signature consistent with synthetic nitrate fertilizer, and not with human or animal wastewater discharge (i.e. dairy operations, septic system discharge, or municipal wastewater discharge), or with organic fertilizer. Monitoring wells on and near the RFS plant also have high {delta}{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}, and the plant has handled and stored synthetic nitrate fertilizer that will have this isotopic signature. The results described here highlight the complexity of attributing nitrate found in long screened, high capacity wells to specific sources. In this case, the presence of a very high concentration source near the well site combined with sampling using multiple isotopic tracer techniques and specialized depth-specific techniques allowed fingerprinting of the source in the mixed-age samples drawn from the production well.

Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K; Roberts, S K; Hillegonds, D J

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

237

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

238

Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heat source Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heat source Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluids have been sampled from 9 wells and 2 fumaroles from the East Flank of the Coso hydrothermal system with a view to identifying, if possible, the location and characteristics of the heat source inflows into this portion of the geothermal field. Preliminary results show that there has been extensive vapor loss in the system, most probably in response to

239

"Table B27. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 7. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Elec- tricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Other a" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,60028,28600,36959,5988,5198,3204,842 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,5668,2367,2829,557,"Q",665,183 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,5786,2560,3358,626,"Q",529,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,10387,4872,6407,730,289,597,"Q"

240

"Table B32. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 2. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Elec- tricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,56478,27490,28820,1880,3088,1422 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,4759,2847,1699,116,"N",169 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,5348,2821,2296,"Q","Q",205 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,9562,4809,4470,265,"Q",430

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

"Table B29. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" 9. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Used a" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,60028,15996,32970,3818,4907 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,5668,1779,2672,484,"Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,5786,1686,3068,428,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,10387,3366,5807,536,"Q" "25,001 to 50,000 .............",8668,8060,2264,4974,300,325

242

GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) uranium oxide encapsulations supporting satellite safety tests  

SciTech Connect

General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulant-fueled capsules were assembled, welded, nondestructively examined, and shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for satellite safety tests. Simulant-fueled iridium capsules contain depleted uranium oxide pellets that serve as a stand-in for plutonium-238 oxide pellets. Information on forty seven capsules prepared during 1987 and 1988 is recorded in this memorandum along with a description of the processes used for encapsulation and evaluation. LANL expects to use all capsules for destructive safety tests, which are under way. Test results so far have demonstrated excellent integrity of the Savannah River capsule welds. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Kanne, W.R.

1989-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

243

Formation of graphene layers by vacuum sublimation of silicon carbide using a scanning heat source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetics of surface graphitization during dissociative vacuum evaporation of silicon carbide, under the effect of a scanning heat source, is studied. A model of the process is developed. The model provides a means for theoretically treating the dynamics of formation and the number of residual carbon atomic layers. The vapor stoichiometric coefficient which ensures the minimization of the number of structural defects in graphene, is optimized at the sublimation temperature: {theta} = 1/{eta}(T{sub max}). The proposed method can be used as a basis for graphene production technology.

Dmitriev, A. N.; Cherednichenko, D. I., E-mail: cheredni@fep.tti.sfedu.ru [Southern Federal University, Taganrog Technological Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Proposed Design for a Coupled Ground-Source Heat Pump/Energy Recovery Ventilator System to Reduce Building Energy Demand.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work presented in this thesis focuses on reducing the energy demand of a residential building by using a coupled ground-source heat pump/energy recovery ventilation… (more)

McDaniel, Matthew Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Experimental Study of an Artificial Thermal Plume in the Boundary Layer. Part I: Flow Characteristics near the Heat Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work reported here describes the environmental impact of emitting about 1000 MW of dry heat from a concentrated source into the atmosphere. It is based on a large field program conducted jointly by the Centre de Recherches Atmosphériques and ...

B. Bénech; J. Noilhan; A. Druilhet; J. M. Brustet; C. Charpentier

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Weakening Trend in the Atmospheric Heat Source over the Tibetan Plateau during Recent Decades. Part I: Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The trend in the atmospheric heat source over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during the last four decades is evaluated using historical observations at 74 meteorological stations in the period of 1961–2003 and satellite radiation data from 1983 to ...

Anmin Duan; Guoxiong Wu

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating. With the greater energy savings the cost of the more energy efficient components required for the IHP can be recovered more quickly than if they were applied to individual pieces of equipment to meet each individual energy service need. An IHP can be designed to use either outdoor air or geothermal resources (e.g., ground, ground water, surface water) as the environmental energy source/sink. Based on a scoping study of a wide variety of possible approaches to meeting the energy service needs for a ZEH, DOE selected the IHP concept as the most promising and has supported research directed toward the development of both air- and ground-source versions. This report describes the ground-source IHP (GS-IHP) design and includes the lessons learned and best practices revealed by the research and development (R&D) effort throughout. Salient features of the GS-IHP include a variable-speed rotary compressor incorporating a brushless direct current permanent magnet motor which provides all refrigerant compression, a variable-speed fan for the indoor section, a multiple-speed ground coil circuit pump, and a single-speed pump for water heating operation. Laboratory IHP testing has thus far used R-22 because of the availability of the needed components that use this refrigerant. It is expected that HFC R-410A will be used for any products arising from the IHP concept. Data for a variable-speed compressor that uses R-410A has been incorporated into the DOE/ORNL Mark VI Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). HPDM was then linked to TRNSYS, a time-series-dependent simulation model capable of determining the energy use of building cooling and heating equipment as applied to a defined house on a sub-hourly basis. This provided a highly flexible design analysis capability for advanced heat pump equipment; however, the program also took a relatively long time to run. This approach was used with the initial prototype design reported in Murphy et al. (2007a) and in the business case analysis of Baxter (2007).

Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Using Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Nitrate to Distinguish Contaminant Sources in Hanford Soil and Groundwater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stable isotopes at the Hanford Site, WA: Environ. Sci.Contaminant Transport at the Hanford Site, WA: Vadose ZoneRev. 0, Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Richland, WA.

Conrad, Mark

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Weakening Trend in the Atmospheric Heat Source over the Tibetan Plateau during Recent Decades. Part II: Connection with Climate Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Part I the authors have shown that heating sources in spring over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), and in particular the sensible heat flux (SHF), exhibit a significant weakening trend since the mid-1980s that is induced mainly by decreased surface ...

Anmin Duan; Guoxiong Wu

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION USING VISUAL MODELING TOOL FOR HVACSIM+  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

incorporate both ground loop heat exchangers and supplemental heat rejecters, such as cooling towers, cooling-to-air heat pump (Yavuzturk 2000), heated pavement systems (Chiasson, et al. 2000a), shallow cooling ponds

251

Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools  

SciTech Connect

One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

252

Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE`s mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 2007 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine the location of the heat source Notes Fluids have been sampled from 9 wells and 2 fumaroles from the East Flank of the Coso hydrothermal system with a view to identifying, if possible, the location and characteristics of the heat source inflows into this portion of the geothermal field. Preliminary results show that there has been extensive vapor loss in the system, most probably in response to

255

Improved efficiency and precise temperature control of low-frequency induction-heating pure iron vapor source on ECR ion source  

SciTech Connect

Multiply charged ions to be used prospectively are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Recently a pure iron source is also required for the production of caged iron ions in the fullerene in order to control cells in vivo in bio-nano science and technology. We adopt directly heating iron rod by induction heating (IH) because it has non-contact with insulated materials which are impurity gas sources. We choose molybdenum wire for the IH coils because it doesn't need water cooling. To improve power efficiency and temperature control, we propose to the new circuit without previously using the serial and parallel dummy coils (SPD) for matching and safety. We made the circuit consisted of inductively coupled coils which are thin-flat and helix shape, and which insulates the IH power source from the evaporator. This coupling coils circuit, i.e. insulated induction heating coil transformer (IHCT), can be move mechanically. The secondary current can be adjusted precisely and continuously. Heating efficiency by using the IHCT is much higher than those of previous experiments by using the SPD, because leakage flux is decreased and matching is improved simultaneously. We are able to adjust the temperature in heating the vapor source around melting point. And then the vapor pressure can be controlled precisely by using the IHCT. We can control {+-}10K around 1500 Degree-Sign C by this method, and also recognize to controlling iron vapor flux experimentally in the extreme low pressures. Now we come into next stage of developing induction heating vapor source for materials with furthermore high temperature melting points above 2000K with the IHCT, and then apply it in our ECRIS.

Kato, Y.; Takenaka, T.; Yano, K.; Kiriyama, R.; Kurisu, Y.; Nozaki, D.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Sato, F.; Iida, T. [Osaka Univ., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo Univ., 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan); Osaka Univ., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

256

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Heat...

257

A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources is under investigation in this paper. The proposed cycle combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle. The ejector is driven by the exhausts from the turbine to produce power and refrigeration simultaneously. A simulation was carried out to analyze the cycle performance using R245fa as the working fluid. A thermal efficiency of 34.1%, an effective efficiency of 18.7% and an exergy efficiency of 56.8% can be obtained at a generating temperature of 395 K, a condensing temperature of 298 K and an evaporating temperature of 280 K. Simulation results show that the proposed cycle has a big potential to produce refrigeration and most exergy losses take place in the ejector. (author)

Zheng, B.; Weng, Y.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FOR HOT AND HUMID CLMATE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U-tube sizes and varied thermal conductivity with different grout materials are studied based on the benchmark residential building in Hot-humid Pensacola, Florida. In this study, the benchmark building is metered and the data is used to validate the simulation model. And a list of comparative simulation cases with varied parameter value are simulated to study the importance of pipe size and grout to the ground source heat pump energy consumption. The simulation software TRNSYS [1] is employed to fulfill this task. The results show the preliminary energy saving based on varied parameters. Future work needs to be conducted for the cost analysis, include the installation cost from contractor and materials cost.

Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

1995-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

260

Heat source component development program. Quarterly report, July--September, 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the first in a series of quarterly reports describing the results of several experimental programs being conducted at Battelle-Columbus to develop components for advanced radioisotope heat source applications. These reports replace the informal monthly technical letter reports previously prepared and are being utilized so that more cohesive presentation of results can be achieved. In addition, a series of summary management monthly reports was initiated in July of 1976 to permit NRA assessment of contractual progress. The specific components development efforts which are described are: a selective vent for helium release from the fuel containment, an improved reentry member and an improved impact member; the latter two items will hopefully be combined into a single ''bifunctional'' member material concept which is designated ''RIM'' (an acronym for Reentry Impact Member). Finally, supportive studies of a thermochemical nature are reported.

Pardue, W.M. (comp.)

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

1995-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

262

Numerical Simulation of a Displacement Ventilation System with Multi-heat Sources and Analysis of Influential Factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement ventilation (DV) is a promising ventilation concept due to its high ventilation efficiency. In this paper, the application of the CFD method, the velocity and temperature fields of three-dimensional displacement ventilation systems with double heat sources are numerically simulated. The model is verified by experimental data. The results of the study show that thermal stratification characteristics exist in indoor temperature fields. The paper also analyzes the influence of different influential factors, e.g., the distance between heat sources, temperature of heat source, heat characteristics of the wall and outdoor temperature. It was found that the human requirement for comfort is satisfied easily when the distance between heat sources is long. Under the conditions simulated in this paper, when the distance was more than 0.8m, the temperature distribution tended to be average and steady, and it did not change as the distance changed. Second, the temperature change of the thermal current has a large influence on the indoor temperature. The rise in thermal current temperature makes the vertical temperature gradient in the room increase. The upper temperature of the room becomes higher, as does the height of the high temperature air level that lies in the upper part of the room. Finally, both the heat loss of the surrounding structure and the change in outdoor temperature have a large influence on indoor temperature. However, it does not influence the thermal stratification characteristics of DV. The only thing that has changed is the thermal stratification height.

Wu, X.; Gao, J.; Wu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Elementary Heating Events - Magnetic Interactions Between Two Flux Sources. III Energy Considerations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The magnetic field plays a crucial role in heating the solar corona, but the exact energy release mechanism(s) is(are) still unknown. Here, we investigate in detail, the process of magnetic energy release in a situation where two initially independent flux systems are forced into each other. Work done by the foot point motions goes in to building a current sheet in which magnetic reconnection takes place. The scaling relations of the energy input and output are determined as functions of the driving velocity and the strength of fluxes in the independent flux systems. In particular, it is found that the energy injected into the system is proportional to the distance travelled not the rate of travel. Similarly, the rate of Joule dissipation is related to the distance travelled. Hence, rapidly driven foot points lead to bright, intense, but short-lived events, whilst slowly driven foot points produce weaker, but longer-lived brightenings. Integrated over the lifetime of the events both would produce the same heating if all other factors were the same. A strong overlying field has the affect of creating compact flux lobes from the sources. These appear to lead to a more rapid injection of energy, as well as a more rapid release of energy. Thus, the stronger the overlying field the more compact and more intense the heating. This means observers must know the rate of movement of the magnetic fragments involved in an events, as well as determine the strength and orientation of the surrounding field to be able to predict anything about the energy dissipated.

K. Galsgaard; C. E. Parnell

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

264

General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of STYPu -decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four STYPuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s.

George, T.G.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Use of oxides in thermochemical water-splitting cycles for solar heat sources. Copper oxides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several oxides can be decomposed to oxygen and a lower oxide at temperatures that might be feasible with a solar heat source. Heat might be directly transmitted to the solid through an air window, rather than quartz, with release of oxygen to the atmosphere. The cycle utilizing CuO, I/sub 2/, and Mg (OH)/sub 2/ is similar to the previous Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ - CoO cycle. We are concentrating on the reformation of CuO. At 448 K the rate is favorable; for example, the yield rises about linearly with time to 92% at 1.17 h and more slowly thereafter. The only difficulty is the formation of CuI as a metastable intermediate. The oxidation of CuI is thermodynamically very favorable, but its rate limits completion. Excess Mg(OH)/sub 2/ appears to increase the rate but not to the point where IO/sub 3//sup -/ oxidation of CuI competes with oxidation of Cu/sub 2/O. Nevertheless, the batch runs suggest that about 98% of the maximum possible MgI/sub 2/ could be formed. Cuprous iodide complexes formed in the concentrated MgI/sub 2/ may give the necessary improvement by providing a solution path for their oxidation by iodate. Work of others pertaining to the cycle is briefly discussed.

Jones, W.M.; Bowman, M.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pump systems (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pump or Geo-Exchange systems, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national energy and climate strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE s request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential and other benefits, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in a report along with conclusions and recommendations. This paper summarizes the key information from the report.

Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Second law analysis of advanced power generation systems using variable temperature heat sources  

SciTech Connect

Many systems produce power using variable temperature (sensible) heat sources. The Heat Cycle Research Program is currently investigating the potential improvements to such power cycles utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources to produce electrical power. It has been shown that mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) or halogenated hydrocarbons operating with a supercritical Rankine cycle gave improved performance over boiling Rankine cycles with the pure working fluids for typical applications. Recently, in addition to the supercritical Rankine Cycle, other types of cycles have been proposed for binary geothermal service. This paper explores the limits on efficiency of a feasible plant and discusses the methods used in these advanced concept plants to achieve the maximum possible efficiency. The advanced plants considered appear to be approaching the feasible limit of performance so that the designer must weigh all considerations to fine the best plant for a given service. These results would apply to power systems in other services as well as to geothermal power plants. 17 refs., 15 figs.

Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Identifying the sources of subsurface contamination at the Hanford site in Washington using high-precision uranium isotopic measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J.K. and Cowart, J.B. in Uranium Series Disequilibrium:using High-Precision Uranium Isotopic Measurements John N.groundwater plume of uranium (U) was detected in monitoring

Christensen, John N.; Dresel, P. Evan; Conrad, Mark E.; Maher, Kate; DePaolo, Donald J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design  

SciTech Connect

The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

"Table B22. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.....",894,894,213,498,79,5 "District Heat ...",96,96,"Q",2,"Q",77 "Boilers ...",581,581,40,364,136,"Q" "Packaged Heating Units...

272

Advanced Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for General Purpose Heat Source Fueled Clad Closure Welds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A radioisotope thermoelectric generator is used to provide a power source for long-term deep space missions. This General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is fabricated using iridium clad vent sets to contain the plutonium oxide fuel pellets. Integrity of the closure weld is essential to ensure containment of the plutonium. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant took the lead role in developing the ultrasonic inspection for the closure weld and transferring the inspection to Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in fueled clad inspection for the Cassini mission. Initially only amplitude and time-of-flight data were recorded. However, a number of benign geometric conditions produced signals that were larger than the acceptance threshold. To identify these conditions, a B-scan inspection was developed that acquired full ultrasonic waveforms. Using a test protocol the B-scan inspection was able to identify benign conditions such as weld shield fusion and internal mismatch. Tangential radiography was used to confirm the ultrasonic results. All but two of 29 fueled clads for which ultrasonic B-scan data was evaluated appeared to have signals that could be attributed to benign geometric conditions. This report describes the ultrasonic inspection developed at Y-12 for the Cassini mission.

Moyer, M.W.

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

273

High-Precision Isotopic Reference Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... sources, is now capable of measuring isotope ratios with ... revolution in the use of isotopes by revealing ... This program will have an impact in several ...

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

274

Final report on the use of wood as a heat source and the quality of insulation in Vermont households  

SciTech Connect

The State of Vermont Energy Office conducted a study to provide the quantitative attitudinal and behavioral information essential to assessing the use of wood as a heat source in the state. General results show that 54% of all home owners in Vermont burn wood to some degree, 47% use wood as a supplementary heat source, 9% use wood as a primary source, and the extent to which wood is used does not differ by geographic area. Results on household uses (cooking and heating) are summarized. A summary of queries on insulation attitudes, awareness, and practices shows that a majority of homeowners believe they have adequate insulation, but are unaware of R factor. In Vermont, about one-fourth of homeowners improved their insulation in the last three years. (MCW)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

276

Impacts of Soil and Pipe Thermal Conductivity on Performance of Horizontal Pipe in a Ground-source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the composition and thermal property of soil are discussed. The main factors that impact the soil thermal conductivity and several commonly-used pipe materials are studied. A model of heat exchanger with horizontal pipes of ground-source heat pump is developed. The impact of soil thermal conductivity and pipe thermal conductivity on the soil temperature field around the buried pipe, and the thermal performance of the heat exchanger are simulated. The simulation results show that with the increase of soil thermal conductivity, heat transfer quantity obviously increases, and the temperature of soil around pipe decrease under winter conditions. The temperature field varies relatively faster with thermal conductivity in the site nearer to the buried pipe. With the increase of pipe thermal conductivity, heat transfer quantity and the mean temperature of the buried pipe's outside surface all increase.

Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Na, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Residential Ground Source Heat Pumps with Integrated Domestic Hot Water Generation: Performance Results from Long-Term Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) show promise for reducing house energy consumption, and a desuperheater can potentially further reduce energy consumption where the heat pump from the space conditioning system creates hot water. Two unoccupied houses were instrumented to document the installed operational space conditioning and water heating efficiency of their GSHP systems. This paper discusses instrumentation methods and field operation characteristics of the GSHPs, compares manufacturers' values of the coefficients of performance calculated from field measured data for the two GSHPs, and compares the measured efficiency of the desuperheater system to other domestic hot water systems.

Stecher, D.; Allison, K.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} scrap for heat source fuel  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel by HNO{sub 3}/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel.

Schulte, L.D.; Purdy, G.M.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ramsey, K.; Silver, G.L.; Espinoza, J.; Rinehart, G.H.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Numerical simulation of multiconstituent diffusion and helium release characteristics of the /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat source used in radioisotopic thermoelectric generators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analytical model is described that was developed to simulate multiconstituent diffusion within a heat source sphere, helium generation within a heat source sphere, and helium release from the surface of a heat source sphere into the surrounding environment. The model represents the first attempt to simulate multiconstituent mass transport using the continuum thermomechanical theory of mixtures and demonstrates that this theory is a viable alternative to irreversible thermodynamics.

McLaughlin, B.D.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, April 1- June 30, 1982  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources on terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Environmental and radiological safety studies: Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, September 26-December 25, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effect of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

MEASUREMENT OF THE NEUTRON SPECTRUM OF THE HB-4 COLD SOURCE AT THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements of the cold neutron spectrum from the super critical hydrogen cold source at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were made using time-of-flight spectroscopy. Data were collected at reactor power levels of 8.5MW, 42.5MW and 85MW. The moderator temperature was also varied. Data were collected at 17K and 25K while the reactor power was at 8.5MW, 17K and 25K while at 42.5MW and 18K and 22K while at 85MW. The purpose of these measurements was to characterize the brightness of the cold source and to better understand the relationship between reactor power, moderator temperature, and cold neutron production. The authors will discuss the details of the measurement, the changes observed in the neutron spectrum, and the process for determining the source brightness from the measured neutron intensity.

Robertson, Lee [ORNL; Iverson, Erik B [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Simulation of the Effects of Tropical Heat Sources on the Atmospheric Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For 35 seasons in the years 1974–84, the importance of seasonal anomalies in tropical diabatic heating was investigated for the circulation in the tropics and in the extratropics. The heating was estimated from anomalies in outgoing longwave ...

R. Mureau; J. D. Opsteegh; J. S. Winston

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

Sherrell, D.L.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Milliwatt generator heat source shelf-life-related pressure-burst capsule evaluations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three Milliwatt Generator Heat Source (MWGHS) shelf-life-related capsules were pressure-burst tested after thermal aging. Shelf-life capsules PB-08-03 (MC2893) and MPT-11-33 (MC3599) were tested at 1,010 C and capsule PB-07-13 (MC2893) was tested at 1,100 C. Subsequent to pressure-burst testing, each capsule was bubble-leak tested then metallographically examined. Post-mortem evaluation consisted of metallography, microhardness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and oxygen and nitrogen analysis. Capsules PB-08-03 and PB-07-13 failed by elevated temperature stress-rupture in the coarse-grained cap to body welds, as has been documented for previous capsules. Pressure-burst testing of capsule MPT-11-33 was terminated prior to failure after 739 hours on test at 1,010 C, however, microscopic examination of the weld indicated that similar failure had began to occur in the interior portion of the capsule to body weld. Evidence was obtained indicating that metallurgical changes occurred during the pressure-burst test performed at 1,100 C. The metallurgical observations of a preferred site for elevated temperature deformation and fracture (the coarse-grained weld region) and structural instability (the property changes during testing at 1,100 C) need to be considered in component lifetime prediction and modeling efforts.

Ritchey, B.D.; Eckelmeyer, K.H.; Kilgo, A.C.; McKenzie, B.B.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE`s Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford`s MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford`s calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

Sherrell, D.L.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Update on maintenance and service costs of commercial building ground-source heat pump systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An earlier paper showed that commercial ground-source heat pump systems have significantly lower service and maintenance costs than alternative HVAC systems. This paper expands on those results by adding 13 more buildings to the original 25 sites and by comparing the results to the latest ASHRAE survey of HVAC maintenance costs. Data from the 38 sites are presented here including total (scheduled and unscheduled) maintenance costs in cents per square foot per year for base cost, in-house, and contractor-provided maintenance. Because some of the new sites had maintenance costs that were much higher than the industry norm, the resulting data are not normally distributed. Analysis (O'Hara Hines 1998) indicated that a log-normal distribution is a better fit; thus, the data are analyzed and presented here as log-normal. The log-mean annual total maintenance costs for the most recent year of the survey ranged from 6.07 cents per square foot to 8.37 cents per square foot for base cost and contractor-provided maintenance, respectively.

Cane, D.; Garnet, J.M.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Atmospheric Heat Sources and Moisture Sinks as Determined from NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the National Centers for Environmental Predictions (NCEP)–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis, distributions of the heat source Q1 and moisture sink Q2 between 50°N and 50°S are determined for a 15-yr period from 1980 ...

Michio Yanai; Tomohiko Tomita

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

GPHS-RTG system explosion test direct course experiment 5000. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

The General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) has been designed and is being built to provide electrical power for spacecrafts to be launched on the Space Shuttle. The objective of the RTG System Explosion Test was to expose a mock-up of the GPHS-RTG with a simulated heat source to the overpressure and impulse representative of a potential upper magnitude explosion of the Space Shuttle. The test was designed so that the heat source module would experience an overpressure at which the survival of the fuel element cladding would be expected to be marginal. Thus, the mock-up was placed where the predicted incident overpressure would be 1300 psi. The mock-up was mounted in an orientation representative of the launch configuration on the spacecraft to be used on the NASA Galileo Mission. The incident overpressure measured was in the range of 1400 to 2100 psi. The mock-up and simulated heat source were destroyed and only very small fragments were recovered. This damage is believed to have resulted from a combination of the overpressure and impact by very high velocity fragments from the ANFO sphere. Post-test analysis indicated that extreme working of the iridium clad material occurred, indicative of intensive impulsive loading on the metal.

Not Available

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test  

SciTech Connect

The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests: RTG-1 and RTG-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.; George, T.G.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Energy Basics: Absorption Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

296

Energy Basics: Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

297

General-Purpose Heat Source development: Extended series test program large fragment tests  

SciTech Connect

General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electric power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electric power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory was modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents, and an extended series safety test program was initiated. The program included a series of large fragment tests that simulated the collision of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragments, generated in an SRB motor case rupture or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action, with the GPHS-RTG. The tests indicated that fueled clads, inside a converter, will not breach or release fuel after a square (142 cm on a side) SRB fragment impacts flat-on at velocities up to 212 m/s, and that only the leading fueled capsules breach and release fuel after the square SRB fragment impacts the modules, inside the converter, edge-on at 95 m/s. 8 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

Cull, T.A.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Thermal-hydraulic simulation of natural convection decay heat removal in the High Flux Isotope Reactor using RELAP5 and TEMPEST: Part 1, Models and simulation results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study was conducted to examine decay heat removal requirements in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) following shutdown from 85 MW. The objective of the study was to determine when forced flow through the core could be terminated without causing the fuel to melt. This question is particularly relevant when a station blackout caused by an external event is considered. Analysis of natural circulation in the core, vessel upper plenum, and reactor pool indicates that 12 h of forced flow will permit a safe shutdown with some margin. However, uncertainties in the analysis preclude conclusive proof that 12 h is sufficient. As a result of the study, two seismically qualified diesel generators were installed in HFIR. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Morris, D.G.; Wendel, M.W.; Chen, N.C.J.; Ruggles, A.E.; Cook, D.H.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Analysis of Selection of Single or Double U-bend Pipes in a Ground Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is widely used because of its energy-saving and environmental-friendly characteristics. The buried pipes heat exchangers play an important role in the whole GSHP system design. However, in most cases, single U-bend pipes are adopted only for their simplicity in design and construction instead of high efficiency and less operation cost of the whole system. In this paper, we make a comparison between single and double U-bend pipe heat exchangers in their heat exchange rate per depth, the number of boreholes needed for the same amount of cooling load, total lengths of pipes for the two different types of heat exchangers, and seasonal overall energy efficiency of the two GSHP systems. An economic analysis method is also presented. Finally, conclusions are made for the selection of single or double U-bend pipe heat exchangers in a GSHP system after a case study using TRNSYS simulation software is carried out.

Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Isotopic Analysis At U.S. West Region (Welhan, Et Al., 1988) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

U.S. West Region (Welhan, Et Al., 1988) U.S. West Region (Welhan, Et Al., 1988) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At U.S. West Region (Welhan, Et Al., 1988) Exploration Activity Details Location U.S. West Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Helium isotope ratios are not correlated with regional heat flow in the western United States. High helium isotope ratios (R/RA > 2) occur only in magma-based geothermal systems. A direct correlation exists between geothermal reservoir temperature and helium isotope ratio of the fluids, suggesting that both heat and helium in a geothermal reservoir are derived from a shallow magmatic source. The rapid lateral decrease in 3He away from

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The Application of Frequency-Conversion Technology in Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Reconstruction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deep well pump power is relatively ubiquitous in the groundwater heat pump air-conditioning system in some hotels in Hunan, and the heat pump usually meets the change of the load by throttling. Therefore, frequency conversion technology is proposed to be applied in the deep well pump so as to save energy.

Dai, X.; Song, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","All Sources",4,85.9,80.09  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

STATE_CODE","PRODUCER_TYPE","FUEL_SOURCE","GENERATORS","NAMEPLATE_CAPACITY STATE_CODE","PRODUCER_TYPE","FUEL_SOURCE","GENERATORS","NAMEPLATE_CAPACITY (Megawatts)","SUMMER_CAPACITY (Megawatts)" 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","All Sources",4,85.9,80.09 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","Coal",3,65.5,61.1 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Commercial Power","Petroleum",1,20.4,18.99 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Industrial Power","All Sources",23,229.4,204.21 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Industrial Power","Natural Gas",28,159.32,136.67 1990,"AK","Combined Heat and Power, Industrial Power","Petroleum",8,68.28,65.86

303

CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

304

Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Long Valley Caldera Area (Smith & Suemnicht,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Long Valley Caldera Area (Smith & Suemnicht, Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Long Valley Caldera Area (Smith & Suemnicht, 1991) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Long Valley Caldera Area (Smith & Suemnicht, 1991) Exploration Activity Details Location Long Valley Caldera Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes This oxygen isotope and fluid inclusion study has allowed us to determine the pathways of fluid circulation, set limits on the thermal regime, and link the source of the heat to prolonged volcanic activity. At shallow depths in the caldera References Brian M. Smith, Gene A. Suemnicht (1991) Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes Of Long Valley Caldera, California

305

Development testing of the two-watt RTG heat source and Hastelloy-S/T-111 alloy compatibility studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The two-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source capsules were tested to determine their survivability under extreme environmental conditions: high external pressure, high impact, and high internal pressure. Test results showed that the capsules could withstand external pressures of 1,000 bars and impacts at velocities near 150 meters per second. However, the results of the internal pressure tests (stress-rupture) were not so favorable, possibly because of copper contamination, leading to a recommendation for additional testing. A material compatibility study examined the use of Hastelloy-S as a material to clad the tantalum strength member of the two-watt radioisotopic heat source. Test capsules were subjected to high temperatures for various lengths of time, then cross sectioned and examined with a scanning electron microscope. Results of the study indicate that Hastelloy-S would be compatible with the underlying alloy, not only at the normal operating temperatures of the heat source, but also when exposed to the much higher temperatures of a credible accident scenario.

Howell, E.I.; Teaney, P.E.

1993-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

306

Simulation Study of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System in the Hot-Humid Climate.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The beachfront hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP), located in the hot-humid climate, is simulated by TRNSYS in the thesis, and the simulation… (more)

Zhu, Jiang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Regional Impact of an Elevated Heat Source: The Zagros Plateau of Iran  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors propose that a heat-driven circulation from the Zagros Plateau has a significant impact on the climate of the Middle East Plain (MEP), especially summertime winds, air temperature, and aridity. This proposal is examined in numerical ...

Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Jason P. Evans; Ronald B. Smith

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

SIMULATION AND VALIDATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE AND WATER-LOOP HEAT PUMP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.3 Plot of loads, operating heat pumps, and cooling tower setpoint for an office building in Albuquerque.20 Office building loads for Chicago.................................................................... 112 4.21 Office building loads for Houston

309

Public data sources and modeling of district heating in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A methodology for computerized modelling of hot water district heating service in any urban area in the United States is described. It is distinguished by the depth and breadth of its data bases, the ease with which any urban market can be analyzed and the wide variety of intermediate information which is obtained. Real housing and employment data, canvassed for the entire nation and made available on a very small area basis, are conjoined with local climate profiles, labor costs, land use intensity factors, fuel prices and fuel use profiles to generate profiles of heating demands and markets for district heat. This characterization of residential and commercial space and water heating demands permits a system design and costing of piping systems for distribution of hot water, subject to any penetration constraints imposed. A minimal number of assumptions are needed to generate these products from the data bases, many of which were generated in the public domain for other purposes.

Karkheck, J.; Tessmer, R.G., Jr.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Poleward-Propagating Angular Momentum Perturbations Induced by Zonally Symmetric Heat Sources in the Tropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of experiments has been performed using an idealized model of the global atmosphere to study the role eddies play in communicating changes in the zonal mean state between the Tropics and extratropics. When an oscillatory heating ...

Edmund K. M. Chang

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Analysis and numerical optimization of gas turbine space power systems with nuclear fission reactor heat sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new three objective optimization technique is developed and applied to find the operating conditions for fission reactor heated Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) space power systems at which maximum efficiency, minimum radiator area, and minimum total ...

Albert J. Juhasz / Jerzy Sawicki

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Modernization of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to Provide a Cold Neutron Source and Experimentation Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the installation of a cold neutron source at HFIR with respect to the project as a modernization of the facility. The paper focuses on why the project was required, the scope of the cold source project with specific emphasis on the design, and project management information.

Rothrock, Benjamin G [ORNL; Farrar, Mike B [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Stirling Isotope Power System Program. Final report, January 1978-December 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Stirling Isotope Power System (SIPS) design is discussed, including the control system and engine starter. The development, of fabrication, and testing of the SIPS converter are presented. The work performed on the Isotope Heat Source Assembly is described. The ancillary equipment, system integration and qualification, and safety are discussed. The safety discussion consists primarily of prediction of dose rates around the IHS and the influence on handling equipment design. Reliability and quality assurance are included. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comparison of VAV and VRF air conditioning systems in anThe variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heatthe energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Sources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SOURCES Microsoft Corporation. "Gasohol," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2001, http:encarta.msn.com. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, A...

316

Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) Investigation for Residential and Small Commercial Air-Source Heat Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utilities frequently use the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) in air conditioning–based incentive programs to categorize energy efficiency and to quantify financial value. For residential and small commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps, SEER is determined by the procedures outlined in ANSI/AHRI Standard 210/240. Within Standard 210/240, SEER is calculated based on laboratory test results and equations that follow specific assumptions regarding indoor temperature, ...

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

317

Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program  

SciTech Connect

As asked by the U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one-dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety, Analysis Report (USAR) are discussed in this document.

Conn, D.W.; Brenza, P.T.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Interactions between Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillations and Synoptic-Scale Disturbances over the Western North Pacific. Part II: Apparent Heat and Moisture Sources and Eddy Momentum Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interactions between the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and synoptic-scale variability (SSV) are investigated by diagnosing the atmospheric apparent heat source (Q1), apparent moisture sink (Q2), and eddy momentum transport. It ...

Pang-Chi Hsu; Tim Li

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

The Effect of Alternate Defrost Strategies on the Reverse-Cycle Defrost of an Air-Source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of alternate defrost strategies on the transient performance of the air-source heat pump during the reverse-cycle defrost was investigated. Tests of a base-case heat pump configuration and defrost strategy were completed to provide a basis for performance evaluations of the alternate defrost strategies. The compressor and indoor coil fan operated continuously in the base-case defrost strategy, and the outdoor coil fan was stopped. Alternate defrost strategies utilized variations in fan and compressor operation during and after the defrost. Pre-starting of the outdoor coil fan prior to termination of the reverse-cycle defrost reduced pressure spikes commonly seen at defrost termination in the base-case defrost strategy. A strategy in which the compressor was stopped and the outdoor coil was allowed to drain of melted frost during the last three minutes of the defrost improved overall cyclic performance. Strategies which involved stopping of the indoor fan during defrost or delaying the start of the outdoor fan following defrost termination had a negative impact on defrost performance. A final strategy involved down-sizing of the heat pump compressor from 3.0 tons (36,000 btu/hr) capacity to 2.5 tons capacity. This alternate configuration had a comparable overall performance with the base-case while having a reduced frequency of required defrost periods.

Schliesing, J. S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific productivities of selected algal strains will eventually be incorporated into this model.

Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake (SmartWhale Consulting, Dartmouth, NS, CA); Pienkos, Philip P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); O'Leary, Stephen J. (National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, CA); Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Optimal Well-Group Distribution of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is critical to determine how the well group arranges for application of the GWSHP system. Based on the fact that water movement is the most important factor influencing heat transfer in an aquifer, this paper presents a two-step analysis method and analyzes the inter-well thermal transfixion method as follows. First, we forecast the least influence radius through calculating the thermal diffusion function of aquifer. Then, we perform an analysis on the inter-well thermal transfixion, using the streamline analysis method and doing a quantitative analysis of the effects that inter-well distance and flux have on it. We discuss the well group arrangement and puts forward optimal scheme by means of the thermal diffusion and streamline simulation.

Liu, Z.; Lu, L.; Yoshida, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

The Well-Group Distribution of Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Optimized Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is the key question that how does the well group arrange for application of GWSHP system. Based on the fact that the water movement is the important factor of heat transfer on aquifer, this paper presents two steps analysis method and analyze the inter-well thermal transfixion, method as follows: (1) Forecast the least influence radius through calculating the thermal diffusion function of aquifer; (2) The analysis on the inter-well thermal transfixion makes use of the streamline analysis method and makes quantitative analysis of the effect that inter-well distance and flux make on it. It labors the well group arrangement and puts forward optimal scheme by means of the thermal diffusion and streamline simulation.

Liu, Z.; Lu, L.; Yoshida, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Elementary Heating Events - Magnetic Interactions Between Two Flux Sources. III Energy Considerations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The magnetic field plays a crucial role in heating the solar corona, but the exact energy release mechanism(s) is(are) still unknown. Here, we investigate in detail, the process of magnetic energy release in a situation where two initially independent flux systems are forced into each other. Work done by the foot point motions goes in to building a current sheet in which magnetic reconnection takes place. The scaling relations of the energy input and output are determined as functions of the driving velocity and the strength of fluxes in the independent flux systems. In particular, it is found that the energy injected into the system is proportional to the distance travelled not the rate of travel. Similarly, the rate of Joule dissipation is related to the distance travelled. Hence, rapidly driven foot points lead to bright, intense, but short-lived events, whilst slowly driven foot points produce weaker, but longer-lived brightenings. Integrated over the lifetime of the events both would produce the same hea...

Galsgaard, K

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Solar-assisted electric clothes dryer using a home attic as a heat source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of using a southeastern home attic as a means of reducing the energy consumption of an electric clothes dryer. An inexpensive duct (duplicable for $25) was constructed to collect hot attic air from the peak of a south facing roof and introduce it into the dryer inlet. Instrumentation was added to measure inlet temperatures and operating time/energy consumption of the dryer. Standardized test loads, in addition to normal laundry, were observed over the period of one year. The heat-on time of the dryer tested was shown to be reduced .16 to .35 minutes per /sup 0/C rise in inlet temperature. Inlet temperatures produced by the attic duct peaked at 56/sup 0/C(133/sup 9/F) in May/June and 40/sup 0/C(104/sup 0/F) in February. Based on peak temperatures available between 2 and 4 pm each month, a potential 20% yearly average savings could be realized. Economic viability of the system, dependant primarily on dryer usage, can be computed using a formula derived from the test results and included in the report.

Stana, J.M.

326

Alcohol fuel use: Implications for atmospheric levels of aldehydes, organic nitrates, pans, and peroxides: Separating sources using carbon isotopes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed DiNitroPhenylHydrazone (DNPH) derivatization--high performance liquid chromatographic methods for measuring aldehydes in ambient samples with detection limits of approximately 1ppbV. These methods can be used for air or precipitation studies, and have been used for indoor measurements at much higher levels using shorter integration times. We are using gas chromatographs with electron capture detection (GCECD) to measure ambient levels of peroxyacyl nitrates and organic nitrates. Diffusion tubes with synthetically produced organic nitrates in n-tridecane solution are used to calibrate these systems. These compounds are important means of transporting NO/sub x/ over large scales due to their reduced tropospheric reactivity, low water solubilities, photolytic, and thermal stability. Their chemistries are coupled to aldehyde chemistry and are important greenhouse gases as well as phytotoxins. We have completed preliminary studies in Rio de Janeiro examining the atmospheric chemistry consequences of ethanol fuel usage. The urban air mass has been effected by the direct uncontrolled usage of ethanolgasoline and ethanoldiesel mixtures. We are exploring the use of luminol chemiluminescent detection of peroxides using gas chromatography to separate the various organic and inorganic peroxides. These compounds are coupled to the aldehyde chemistry, particularly in remote chemistries down-wind of urban sources. 13 refs.

Gaffney, J.S.; Tanner, R.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from the heat stock previously produced. The air and water heat exchangers have to carry out. While producing hot water using the water condenser, the cold water tank is heated, usually from 5 to 15 during the winter sequence enables to produce hot water continuously with improved average system

329

Oxygen Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of...

330

Biological effects of implanted nuclear energy sources for artificial heart devices. Progress report, September 1, 1975--August 31, 1976. [Heat dissipation from /sup 238/Pu power sources implanted in dogs  

SciTech Connect

A total of sixty dogs were implanted with radioisotope-powered artificial heart systems producing radiation fluxes similar to that of plutonium-238, but having no associated heat, at levels of from one to seventy times the radiation flux expected from a 30-watt plutonium-238 source. Results from studies lasting up to 6 years after implantation indicate that these animals, and by inference human beings, may be able to tolerate the radiation flux from 30-watt /sup 238/Pu power sources. Results of heat dissipation studies in calves indicate that it may be possible to induce a vascularized connective tissue capsule sufficient to dissipate 30 watts of additional heat from a surface area of approximately 500 cm sq., allowing a heat flux of 0.06 watts per cm sq.

Kallfelz, F.A.; Wentworth, R.A.; Cady, K.B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Energy Basics: Absorption Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat...

332

Microphysics of Clouds Initiated from a 1000 MW Dry Heat Source in Comparison with Environmental Clods—A Statistical Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To evaluate potential atmospheric impacts of wate heat released by dry cooling towers, studies have been made of an oil burning system (the “Météotron”), which emits sensible heat at a rate of 1000 MW and large quantities of aerosol particles ...

Pham van Dinh; Bruno Bénech; Lawrence F. Radke

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Carbon Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Carbon Isotopes Gateway Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of Various Isotopic Species from Ice Cores Carbon-13 13C in CO Measurements from Niwot Ridge, Colorado and Montana de Oro, California (Tyler) 13C in CO2 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (White and Vaughn) CSIRO GASLAB Flask Network (Allison, Francey, and Krummel) CSIRO in situ measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania (Francey and Allison) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Keeling et al.) 13C in CH4 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (Miller and White) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Quay and Stutsman) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Stevens)

334

Integrated heat pipe-thermal storage design for a solar receiver. [Constant power source with heat from sun or from storage  

SciTech Connect

Light-weight heat pipe wall elements that incorporate a thermal storage subassembly within the vapor space are being developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power Systems (ORC-SDPS) receiver for the space station application. The operating temperature of he heat pipe elements is in the 770 to 810/sup 0/K range with a design power throughput of 4.8 kW per pipe. The total heat pipe length is 1.9 M. The Rankine cycle boiler heat transfer surfaces are positioned within the heat pipe vapor space, providing a relatively constant temperature input to the vaporizer. The heat pipe design employs axial arteries and distribution wicked thermal storage units with potassium as the working fluid. Stainless steel is used as the containment tube and screen material. Performance predictions for this configuration have been conducted and the design characterized as a function of artery geometry, distribution wick thickness, porosity, pore size, and permeability. Details of the analysis and of fabrication and assembly procedures are presented. 2 refs., 8 figs.

Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Heidenreich, G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Energy Basics: Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

336

Creep properties of forged 2219 T6 aluminum alloy shell of general-purpose heat source-radioisotope thermoelectric generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The shell (2219 T6 aluminum forging) of the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator was designed to retain the generator under sufficient elastic stress to secure it during space flight. A major concern was the extent to which the elastic stress would relax by creep. To determine acceptability of the shell construction material, the following proof tests simulating service were performed: 600 h of testing at 270/sup 0/C under 24.1 MPa stress followed by 10,000 h of storage at 177/sup 0/C under 55.1 MPa, both on the ground; and 10,000 h of flight in space at 270/sup 0/C under 34.4 MPa stress. Additionally, systematic creep testing was performed at 177 and 260/sup 0/C to establish creep design curves. The creep tests performed at 177/sup 0/C revealed comparatively large amounts of primary creep followed by small amounts of secondary creep. The early creep is believed to be abetted by unstable substructures that are annealed out during testing at this temperature. The creep tests performed at 270/sup 0/C showed normal primary creep followed by large amounts of secondary creep. Duplicate proof tests simulating the ground exposure conditions gave results that were in good agreement. The proof test simulating space flight at 270/sup 0/C gave 0.11% primary creep followed by 0.59% secondary creep. About 10% of the second-stage creep was caused by four or five instantaneous strains, which began at the 4500-h mark. One or two of these strain bursts, occurred in each of several other tests at 177 and 260/sup 0/C but were assessed as very moderate in magnitude. The effect is attributable to a slightly microsegregated condition remaining from the original cast structure.

Hammond, J.P.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. High-siliocon fuel characterization study: Half module impact tests 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs to a variety of fragment-impact, aging, atmospheric reentry, and earth-impact conditions. The evaluations documented in this report are part of an ongoing program to determine the effect of fuel impurities on the response of the heat source to conditions baselined during the Galileo/Ulysses test program. In the first two tests in this series, encapsulated GPHS fuel pellets containing high levels of silicon were aged, loaded into GPHS module halves, and impacted against steel plates. The results show no significant differences between the response of these capsules and the behavior of relatively low-silicon fuel pellets tested previously.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of air-source heat pumps. Absorption Heat Pump Uses heat as its energy source. Geothermal Heat Pumps Use the constant temperature of the earth as the exchange medium instead...

339

The Large-Scale Circulation and Heat Sources over the Tibetan Plateau and Surrounding Areas during the Early Summer of 1979. Part II: Heat and Moisture Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The large-scale heat and moisture budgets over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding area during a 40-day period from late May to early July 1979 are studied using the FGGE Level II-b data. During this period the general circulation over East Asia ...

Huibang Luo; Michio Yanai

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

On the Climatology and Trend of the Atmospheric Heat Source over the Tibetan Plateau: An Experiments-Supported Revisit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heating over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) enhances the Asian summer monsoon. This study presents a state-of-the-art estimate of the heating components and their total over the TP, with the aid of high-accuracy experimental data, an ...

Kun Yang; Xiaofeng Guo; Jie He; Jun Qin; Toshio Koike

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Li{sup +} ion emission from a hot-plate alumina-silicate source stimulated by flash heating with an infrared laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II accelerator under construction at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been designed to employ a lithium-doped alumino-silicate (Al-Si) hot-plate surface-ionization ion source. In order to achieve the design 1 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, the emitter must be constantly kept at a high temperature, leading to the accelerated loss of Li material as ions or neutrals. As a result, the estimated lifetime of the source is 50 h. This lifetime can be extended if the source is kept at low temperature during standby, and pulse heated to the high temperature during the ion extraction phase only. A pulsed heating technique based on an infrared laser (CO{sub 2} gas discharge, {lambda}= 10.6 {mu}m) is described in this paper. The feasibility of ion current emission stimulated by flash heating with an infrared (IR) laser was demonstrated. High repeatability of the laser-stimulated ion current was observed, creating an opportunity for modulation and gating of the ion current with a laser pulse. It was found that with the available low power ({approx_equal}115 W/cm{sup 2}) IR laser, current densities as high as 0.8 mA/cm{sup 2} could be achieved with a 2.8 mm diameter source. Various approaches for scaling to a larger (10 cm diameter) source and the application of short pulse, high power lasers are discussed. The results and conclusions of this paper may apply to various species of hot-plate ion sources.

Ni, P. A.; Kwan, J. W.; Roy, P. K.; Waldron, W. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboraotry, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

The End-Use Technology Assessment Project: A Load-Shape Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps and Good Cents Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interest is growing in end-use technology applications that promote overall energy efficiency through increased electricity use. This study will help utilities understand the impacts of such applications by providing load-shape information on ground source heat pumps as well as energy-efficient appliances promoted through Good Cents Homes programs. This report is available only to funders of Program 101A or 101.001. Funders may download this report at http://my.primen.com/Applications/DE/Community/index...

1995-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

345

Heat pumps and under floor heating as a heating system for Finnish low-rise residential buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In bachelor’s thesis the study of under floor heating system with ground source heat pump for the heat transfers fluid heating is considered. The case… (more)

Chuduk, Svetlana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Energy Basics: Heating Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of energy sources, including electricity, boilers, solar energy, and wood and pellet-fuel heating. Small Space Heaters Used when the main heating system is inadequate or when...

347

from Isotope Production Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility April 13, 2012 Isotope Production Facility produces cancer-fighting actinium - 2 - 2:32 Isotope cancer...

348

Field and Laboratory Study of a Ground-Coupled Water Source Heat Pump with an Integral Enthalpy Exchange System for Classrooms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

School classroom space-conditioning equipment in hot and humid climates is often excessively burdened by the requirement to dehumidify incoming air to maintain proper thermal comfort and air quality. To that end, application of new or modified technologies is needed to increase the dehumidification abilities of equipment without compromising energy efficiency or the need for fresh ventilation air. To study the effectiveness of integrated heat pump and enthalpy exchange equipment, a nominal 4-ton water-source heat pump, coupled with a geothermal water loop and incorporating a forced fresh-air enthalpy exchange system was installed in a typical middle school classroom in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This project is a joint effort among Oak Ridge School District, Tennessee Valley Authority, Energy Office of the State of Tennessee, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The retrofit classroom, along with a similar baseline classroom (employing a water source heat pump supplied by a boiler/cooling tower loop), were instrumented with an Internet-based system to control and monitor performance, efficiency, and a variety of air states. Those include classroom air, outdoor air, semi-conditioned fresh air, and supply air. Particular attention was dedicated to the humidity content and the carbon dioxide content of conditioned space (classroom) air and to the intake rate of forced fresh air. This field study builds on a previous laboratory study of a water-source heat pump coupled to an enthalpy recovery system. The laboratory work showed good potential for reducing the moisture load from forced ventilation air. At simulated outdoor conditions of 90°F (32.2°C) and 90% RH, the enthalpy recovery wheel in the nominal 2-ton system was able to capture and exhaust 9.9 lb of moisture that would otherwise have to be handled solely by the cooling coil.

Domitrovic, R.; Hayzen, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.; Chen, F. C.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Isotopic Geochemistry and Hydrology of Geothermal Waters in the Ethiopian Rift Valley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

evidence subsurface water-rock source for a reaction in thissuch source water undergoes isotopic exchange with rocks totype source waters are modified by interaction with rocks to

Isotope Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

HEAT GENERATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Heat is generated by the utilization of high energy neutrons produced as by nuclear reactions between hydrogen isotopes in a blanket zone containing lithium, a neutron moderator, and uranium and/or thorium effective to achieve multtplicatton of the high energy neutron. The rnultiplied and moderated neutrons produced react further with lithium-6 to produce tritium in the blanket. Thermal neutron fissionable materials are also produced and consumed in situ in the blanket zone. The heat produced by the aggregate of the various nuclear reactions is then withdrawn from the blanket zone to be used or otherwise disposed externally. (AEC)

Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

1963-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

352

Stability of the Atlantic Overturning Circulation: Competition between Bering Strait Freshwater Flux and Agulhas Heat and Salt Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role played by interocean fluxes of buoyancy in stabilizing the present-day overturning circulation of the Atlantic Ocean is examined. A 2D model of the Atlantic overturning circulation is used, in which the interocean fluxes of heat and salt ...

Wilbert Weijer; Wilhelmus P. M. De Ruijter; Henk A. Dijkstra

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Trends in Summer Rainfall over China Associated with the Tibetan Plateau Sensible Heat Source during 1980–2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impacts of the thermal forcing over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in spring on changes in summer rainfall in China are investigated using historical records from the period between 1980 and 2008. The spring sensible heat (SH) flux and snow depth ...

Anmin Duan; Meirong Wang; Yonghui Lei; Yangfan Cui

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

ISOTOPE SEPARATORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

Bacon, C.G.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

355

Design and testing of an electron cyclotron resonance heating ion source for use in high field compact superconducting cyclotrons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main goal of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of axial injection of a high brightness beam from an Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source into a high magnetic field cyclotron. Axial injection from an ion ...

Artz, Mark E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Exergy Analysis and Operational Efficiency of a Horizontal Ground Source Heat Pump System Operated in a Low-Energy Test House under Simulated Occupancy Conditions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents data, analyses, measures of performance, and conclusions for a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) providing space conditioning to a 345m2 house whose envelope is made of structural insulated panels (SIP). The entire thermal load of this SIP house with RSI-3.7 (RUS-21) walls, triple pane windows with a U-factor of 1.64 W/m2 K (0.29 Btu/h ft2 oF) and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of 0.25, a roof assembly with overall thermal resistance of about RSI-8.8 (RUS-50) and low leakage rates of 0.74 ACH at 50Pa was satisfied with a 2.16-Ton (7.56 kW) GSHP unit consuming negligible (9.83kWh) auxiliary heat during peak winter season. The highest and lowest heating COP achieved was 4.90 (October) and 3.44 (February), respectively. The highest and lowest cooling COP achieved was 6.09 (April) and 3.88 (August). These COPs are calculated on the basis of the total power input (including duct, ground loop, and control power losses ). The second Law (Exergy) analysis provides deep insight into how systemic inefficiencies are distributed among the various GSHP components. Opportunities for design and further performance improvements are identified. Through Exergy analysis we provide a true measure of how closely actual performance approaches the ideal, and it unequivocally identifies, better than energy analysis does, the sources and causes of lost work, the root cause of system inefficiencies.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Assessment of National Benefits from Retrofitting Existing Single-Family Homes with Ground Source Heat Pump Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses the potential national benefits of retrofitting U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GSHP systems at various penetration rates. The benefits considered include energy savings, reduced summer electrical peak demand, consumer utility bill savings, and reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The assessment relies heavily on energy consumption and other data obtained from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy s Energy Information Administration. It also considers relative differences in energy consumption between a state-of-the-art GSHP system and existing residential space-heating, space-cooling, and water-heating (SH SC WH) systems, which were determined with a well-established energy analysis program for residential SH SC WH systems. The impacts of various climate and geological conditions, as well as the efficiency and market share of existing residential SH SC WH systems, have been taken into account in the assessment.

Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Digital computer code for simulating the dynamics of full-size dual-purpose desalting plants using a pressurized water reactor as a heat source  

SciTech Connect

A digital simulator was developed for use in calculating the dynamic response of full-size dual-purpose desalting plants. This simulator consists of a multistage flash (MSF) evaporator, a pressurized water reactor (PWR) as the heat source, a drumtype steam generator, and a turbine plant utilizing a back- pressure turbine. A bypass steam system was modeled to achieve flexible operation of the electric power and water portions of the combined plant. The proposed use of this simulator is to investigate various coupling and control schemes and to help determine possible problem areas in full back-pressure turbine dual-purpose desalting plant designs. (auth)

Delene, J.G.

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

CH4 sources estimated from atmospheric observations of CH4 and its C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios: 2. Inverse modeling of CH4 fluxes from geographical regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atmosphere, and CH 4 from fossil fuels such as coal andTermites Biomass burning Fossil Fuels Coal Natural gas andbiomass burning and fossil fuel source processes to the a

Mikaloff Fletcher, S.E.; Tans, P P; Bruhwiler, L M; Miller, J B; Heimann, M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Method of production H/sub 2/ using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300/degree/ to 1400/degree/F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices. 1 fig.

Paulson, L.E.

1988-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

362

Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mineralogy and Petrology, 111984 Document Number: Unavailable DOI: 10.1007BF01150293 Source: View Original Conference Proceedings Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Coso Geothermal...

363

Evaluating aeroshell materials for the MJS/multi-hundred watt heat source. [Reentry survival from an aborted launch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to evaluate the possibility of improving upon an existing aeroshell design for the Multi-Hundred Watt power source, a trade-off study was conducted on a variety of candidate aeroshell materials. Mariner Jupiter/Saturn mission requirements and aeroshell material criteria were established to form a basis for the evaluation. Material data searches and reentry analyses were made to permit preparation of a quantitative comparison matrix. Depending upon the designer's constraints, either the well-known polycrystalline graphites (POCO-AXF-5Q, ATJS) or the more complex composite materials (AVCO 3D C/C, Pyrocarb-406) may be chosen.

Bennett, G.L.; Hagan, J.C.; Tantino, D.C.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Strategic Isotope Production | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Strategic Isotope Strategic Isotope Production SHARE Strategic Isotope Production Typical capsules used in the transport of 252Cf source material inside heavily shielded shipping casks. ORNL's unique facilities at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL), and Irradiated Materials Examination Testing facility (IMET) are routinely used in the production, purification, packaging, and shipping of a number of isotopes of national importance, including: 75Se, 63Ni, 238Pu, 252Cf, and others. The intense neutron flux of the HFIR (2.0 x 1015 neutrons/cm²·s) permits the rapid formation of such isotopes. These highly irradiated materials are then processed and packaged for shipping using the facilities at the REDC, IFEL, and IMET.

365

Glossary Term - Isotope  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Helios Previous Term (Helios) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Joule) Joule Isotope The Three Isotopes of Hydrogen - Protium, Deuterium and Tritium Atoms that have the same number of...

366

Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces...

367

Available Technologies: Convection Heat Pump  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Solar thermal systems; Heating and cooling systems for buildings; Refrigeration; Compressed air source; Recycling waste heat from chimneys

368

Ground-coupled heat pump systems: a pumping analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems use the ground as a heat source or sink that absorbs heat from or rejects heat to the soil, respectively;… (more)

Mays, Cristin Jean

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

SCALE Validation Experience Using an Expanded Isotopic Assay Database for Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of measured isotopic assay data to validate computer code predictions of spent fuel compositions applied in burnup-credit criticality calculations is an essential component for bias and uncertainty determination in safety and licensing analyses. In recent years, as many countries move closer to implementing or expanding the use of burnup credit in criticality safety for licensing, there has been growing interest in acquiring additional high-quality assay data. The well-known open sources of assay data are viewed as potentially limiting for validating depletion calculations for burnup credit due to the relatively small number of isotopes measured (primarily actinides with relatively few fission products), sometimes large measurement uncertainties, incomplete documentation, and the limited burnup and enrichment range of the fuel samples. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently initiated an extensive isotopic validation study that includes most of the public data archived in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) electronic database, SFCOMPO, and new datasets obtained through participation in commercial experimental programs. To date, ORNL has analyzed approximately 120 different spent fuel samples from pressurized-water reactors that span a wide enrichment and burnup range and represent a broad class of assembly designs. The validation studies, completed using SCALE 5.1, are being used to support a technical basis for expanded implementation of burnup credit for spent fuel storage facilities, and other spent fuel analyses including radiation source term, dose assessment, decay heat, and waste repository safety analyses. This paper summarizes the isotopic assay data selected for this study, presents validation results obtained with SCALE 5.1, and discusses some of the challenges and experience associated with evaluating the results. Preliminary results obtained using SCALE 6 and ENDF/B-VII cross sections libraries are also briefly summarized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been performing spent-fuel isotopic validation studies using the depletion analysis methods in the SCALE [1] code system for the past 20 years. These studies involve comparisons of calculated inventories against measured isotopic composition data obtained from destructive radiochemical analysis of commercial spent nuclear fuel samples. The results of these benchmark studies are used to quantify the bias and uncertainties associated with isotopic calculations and ultimately determine appropriate margins for uncertainty that can be applied in safety-related analyses such as burnup credit in criticality calculations, decay heat analysis, and source terms. Previous studies using several versions of SCALE and nuclear data libraries have been published in multiple validation reports [2-6] that evaluate selected experimental data obtained largely from public sources. A study was recently initiated at ORNL with the objectives of updating and expanding the validation calculations using a comprehensive database of experimental isotopic assay data that includes isotopic composition data obtained from both publicly available sources and international commercial programs. As part of the study, an extensive isotopic database of nearly 120 measured spent fuel samples with an expanded range of initial enrichments and burnup values compared to previously analyzed data was reviewed and analyzed. The calculations were performed using two-dimensional (2-D) assembly models and a consistent set of modeling assumptions using the SCALE 5.1 code system and ENDF/B-V 44-group cross section library. As part of the current study, detailed benchmark modeling information and measurement data are being documented in a format that is readily usable for validating depletion and decay codes. The work is being extended to include analysis results using SCALE 6 and the ENDF/B-VII 238-group cross section library. This paper describes the isotopic composition data evaluated in this study and highlights the pre

Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, [sup 235]UF[sub 6] is separated from a UF[sub 6] mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into [sup 235]UF[sub 5]- and F. 2 figs.

Stevens, C.G.

1978-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

372

Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, .sup.235 UF.sub.6 is separated from a UF.sub.6 mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into .sup.235 UF.sub.5 - and F.

Stevens, Charles G. (Pleasanton, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Management Options Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases - combustion products - Temperature from 300 deg. F. to 3000 deg.F. * Radiation-Convection heat loss - From temperature source of 500 deg. F. to 2500 deg. F. * Sensible-latent heat in heated product - From temperature 400 deg. F. to 2200 deg. F. * Cooling water or other liquids - Temperature from 100 deg. F. to 180 deg. F.

374

Stable isotope studies  

SciTech Connect

The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs.

Ishida, T.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Method for separating isotopes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether.

Jepson, B.E.

1975-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

376

Isotopes: Isotope Production, Medical IsotopesOffice of Science...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Managers Put a short description of the graphic or its primary message here Isotope Production and Applications The Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced radioactive...

377

Isotope separation by photochromatography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isotope separation method which comprises physically adsorbing an isotopically mixed molecular species on an adsorptive surface and irradiating the adsorbed molecules with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite a desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thereby separate them from the unexcited undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes.

Suslick, Kenneth S. (Stanford, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Mass and Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building (air to air heat exchanger). In my papers I use (water to air heat exchanger) as a heat recovery and I use the water as a mass recovery. The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines.

Hindawai, S. M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Hydride heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

Cottingham, James G. (Center Moriches, NY)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Absorption Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption coolers available that work on the same principal, but are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. These are also called gas-fired coolers. How Absorption Heat Pumps Work Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

382

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

383

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

384

Heat pipe system  

SciTech Connect

A heat pipe diode device for transferring heat from a heat source component to a heat sink wall is described. It contains a heat pipe body member attached to the best source; the heat source having a wall forming at least a portion of the normal evaporator section of the heat pipe diode; a working fluid within the body member; a cover for the heat pipe diode forming at least a portion of the heat sink wall; the cover forming the normal condenser for the heat pipe diode; a wick connected between the condenser and the evaporator of the heat pipe diode; means for retaining the wick adjacent the heat pipe wall; a wick support plate adjacent to the cover; the wick being attached to the support plate; means for holding the wick in contact with the cover; and means, responsive to excessive temperatures at the heat sink wall, for moving the support plate and a portion of the wick away from the cover to thereby substantially reduce heat flow in the reverse direction through said heat pipe diode device.

Kroebig, H.L.; Riha, F.J. III

1974-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

385

Assessment of fibrous insulation materials for the selenide isotope generator system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fibrous insulations for use in the converter and the heat source of the radioisotope-powered, selenide element, thermoelectric generator (selenide isotope generator) are assessed. The most recent system design and material selection basis is presented. Several fibrous insulation materials which have the potential for use as load-bearing or nonload-bearing thermal insulations are reviewed, and thermophysical properties supplied by manufacturers or published in the literature are presented. Potential problems with the application of fibrous insulations in the selenide isotope generator are as follows: compatibility with graphite, the thermoelectric elements, and the isolation hot frame; devitrification, grain growth, and sintering with an accompanying degradation of insulation quality; impurity diffusion from the insulation to adjoining structures; outgassing and storage of fibrous materials. Areas in which thermophysical data or quantitative information on the insulation and structural stability is lacking are identified.

Wei, G.C; Tennery, V.J.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Use advisability of heat pumps for building heating and cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the actual economic and energetic juncture, the reduction of thermal energy consumption in buildings became a major, necessary and opportune problem, general significance. The heat pumps are alternative heating installations more energy efficiency ... Keywords: "Geoterm" system, building heating/cooling, energy and economic analysis, heat pump performances, heat pumps, renewable energy sources

Ioan Sârbu; C?lin Sebarchievici

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including air-source; geothermal; ductless, mini-split; and absorption heat pumps. Learn more about the different options and how to use your heat pump efficiently to save money and energy at home. Featured Heat Pump Systems A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar.

388

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most...

389

Dynamic radioactive particle source  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

390

ION SOURCE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.

Leland, W.T.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Isotope Enrichment Calculator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... incremental isotopic percentages which are compared with an input experimentally derived profile. The theoretical profile of 15 N percentage which ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

392

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Cross-cutting Research and Development Priorities Speaker(s): Sachin Nimbalkar Date: January 17, 2013 - 11:00am Location: 90-2063 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Aimee McKane Waste heat is generated from several industrial systems used in manufacturing. The waste heat sources are distributed throughout a plant. The largest source for most industries is exhaust / flue gases or heated air from heating systems. This includes the high temperature gases from burners in process heating, lower temperature gases from heat treat, dryers, and heaters, heat from heat exchangers, cooling liquids and gases etc. The previous studies and direct contact with the industry as well as equipment suppliers have shown that a large amount of waste heat is not

393

Isotopically controlled semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor bulk crystals and multilayer structures with controlled isotopic composition have attracted much scientific and technical interest in the past few years. Isotopic composition affects a large number of physical properties, including phonon energies and lifetimes, bandgaps, the thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient and spin-related effects. Isotope superlattices are ideal media for self-diffusion studies. In combination with neutron transmutation doping, isotope control offers a novel approach to metal-insulator transition studies. Spintronics, quantum computing and nanoparticle science are emerging fields using isotope control.

Haller, Eugene E.

2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

ISOTOPE CONVERSION DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to nuclear reactors of tbe type utilizing a liquid fuel and designed to convert a non-thermally fissionable isotope to a thermally fissionable isotope by neutron absorption. A tank containing a reactive composition of a thermally fissionable isotope dispersed in a liquid moderator is disposed within an outer tank containing a slurry of a non-thermally fissionable isotope convertible to a thermally fissionable isotope by neutron absorption. A control rod is used to control the chain reaction in the reactive composition and means are provided for circulating and cooling the reactive composition and slurry in separate circuits.

Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

1957-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

ARM - Measurement - Isotope ratio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsIsotope ratio govMeasurementsIsotope ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Isotope ratio Ratio of stable isotope concentrations. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Field Campaign Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Datastreams FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes

396

Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Ductless versions of air-source heat pumps. Absorption Heat Pump Uses heat as its energy source. Geothermal Heat Pumps Use the constant temperature of the earth as the exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. Addthis Related Articles A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar.

397

Combined Heat and Power: A Technology Whose Time Has Come  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

grid, the few buildings equipped with Combined Heat andthe grid system. 29 Source: EPA Combined Heat and Powergrid system. 21 Alternatively, a CHP system collects the wasted heat

Ferraina, Steven

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program:Ground Source...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program:Ground Source Heat Pumps Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program:Ground Source Heat Pumps A detailled description of the...

399

Hybrid isotope separation scheme  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus.

Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

HYDROGEN ISOTOPE TARGETS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The design of targets for use in the investigation of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes by bombardment with accelerated particles is described. The target con struction eomprises a backing disc of a metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenunn and tungsten, a eoating of condensed titaniunn on the dise, and a hydrogen isotope selected from the group consisting of deuterium and tritium absorbed in the coatiag. The proeess for preparing these hydrogen isotope targets is described.

Ashley, R.W.

1958-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Isotope Brayton ground demonstration testing and flight qualification. Volume 1. Technical program  

SciTech Connect

A program is proposed for the ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a radioisotope nuclear heated dynamic power system for use on space missions beginning in the 1980's. This type of electrical power system is based upon and combines two aerospace technologies currently under intense development; namely, the MHW isotope heat source and the closed Brayton cycle gas turbine. This power system represents the next generation of reliable, efficient economic electrical power equipment for space, and will be capable of providing 0.5 to 2.0 kW of electric power to a wide variety of spacecraft for earth orbital and interplanetary missions. The immediate design will be based upon the requirements for the Air Force SURVSATCOM mission. The proposal is presented in three volumes plus an Executive Summary. This volume describes the tasks in the technical program.

1974-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

402

COMSOL Simulations for Steady State Thermal Hydraulics Analyses of ORNL s High Flux Isotope Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Simulation models for steady state thermal hydraulics analyses of Oak Ridge National Laboratory s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) have been developed using the COMSOL Multiphysics simulation software. A single fuel plate and coolant channel of each type of HFIR fuel element was modeled in three dimensions; coupling to adjacent plates and channels was accounted for by using periodic boundary conditions. The standard k- turbulence model was used in simulating turbulent flow with conjugate heat transfer. The COMSOL models were developed to be fully parameterized to allow assessing impacts of fuel fabrication tolerances and uncertainties related to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel design and reactor operating parameters. Heat source input for the simulations was obtained from separate Monte Carlo N Particle calculations for the axially non-contoured LEU fuel designs at the beginning of the reactor cycle. Mesh refinement studies have been performed to calibrate the models against the pressure drop measured across the HFIR core.

Khane, Vaibhav B [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The active microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA); Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

405

Discovery of the Mercury Isotopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forty mercury isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Commercial laundry heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect

In a commercial laundry that is connected to a source of fresh water and generates heated waste water, a method is described for recovering heat from the heated waste comprising the steps of: (a) pumping the heated waste water through a heat exchanger; (b) introducing fresh water into the heat exchanger to receive heat from the waste water through a heat transfer effected by the heat exchanger; (c) withdrawing a first proportion of the heated fresh water at a first temperature; (d) conveying the first proportion of the heated fresh water to cold water storage tank; (e) withdrawing a second proportion of the heated fresh water at a second temperature higher than the first temperature; (f) conveying the second proportion of the heated fresh water to a hot water storage tank.

Kaufmann, R.O.

1986-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

407

Isotopic Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Sturchio, Et Al., 1990) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Isotopic Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Sturchio, Et Al., 1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Yellowstone Region (Sturchio, Et Al., 1990) Exploration Activity Details Location Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes There are two possible explanations for the inferred presence of relatively 18O-enriched thermal water at Yellowstone in the past: (1) meteoric

408

Definition: Heat pump | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pump pump Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Heat pump Heating and/or cooling equipment that, during the heating season, draws heat into a building from outside and, during the cooling season, ejects heat from the building to the outside[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a heat source to a heat sink against a temperature gradient. Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy opposite the direction of spontaneous heat flow. A heat pump uses some amount of external high-grade energy to accomplish the desired transfer of thermal energy from heat source to heat sink. While compressor-driven air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the term "heat pump" is more general and applies to

409

Persistent Weakening Trend in the Spring Sensible Heat Source over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Impact on the Asian Summer Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a dataset extended by the addition of data for 2004–08, this study reexamined the trend in the sensible heating (SH) flux at 73 meteorological stations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1980–2008 and investigated its impact on monsoon ...

Anmin Duan; Fei Li; Meirong Wang; Guoxiong Wu

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Applied heat transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

Ganapathy, V.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Divisions Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division Jeffrey Binder, Division Director Jeffrey Binder, Division Director The Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division (FCID) of the Nuclear Science...

412

Isotope Enrichment | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern electromagnetic isotope separator developed and being scaled-up to replace the Manhattan Project-era Calutrons used for stable isotope enrichment. Since 1945, ORNL has...

413

Laser isotope separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light is described. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

Robinson, C.P.; Reed, J.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Boyer, K.; Greiner, N.R.

1975-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

414

Ion Sources - Cyclotron  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sources Sources The 88-Inch Cyclotron is fed by three Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) high-charge-state ion sources, the ECR, the AECR, and VENUS, currently the most powerful ECR ion source in the world. Built to answer the demand for intense heavy ion beams, these high performance ion sources enable the 88-Inch Cyclotron to accelerate beams of ions from hydrogen to uranium. The ECR ion sources allow the efficient use of rare isotopes of stable elements, either from natural or enriched sources. A variety of metallic ion beams are routinely produced in our low temperature oven (up to 600°C) and our high temperature oven (up to 2100°C). Furthermore, the ability to produce "cocktails" (mixtures of beams) for the Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility adds tremendously to the flexibility of the 88-Inch Cyclotron.

415

Isotope GeochemistryIsotope Geochemistry Isotopes do not fractionate during partial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, due to U and Th decay The isotope geology of PbThe isotope geology of Pb #12;The isotope geology of PbThe isotope geology of Pb µ = 238U/204Pb Primeval lead (Isotope ratios of Pb tT t eea Pb Pb -µ+= 30.90 204 206 == a Pb Pb i 29.100 204 207 == b Pb Pb i #12;The isotope geology

Siebel, Wolfgang

416

Geothermal Heat Pumps Tech Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs; a.k.a. Ground Source Heat Pumps or GHPSM) can successfully compete with air source heat pump in performance due to their use of the ground or groundwater as a heat source or heat sink. In 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency labeled GHPs as “the most energy efficient, cost-effective and environmentally clean space conditioning technology available.” The U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Management Program attested that GHPs are a “highly efficient method of ...

2008-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

417

Frac fever heats up  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing, or “fraccing,” is a source of great opportunity for surfactant researchers and manufacturers. Frac fever heats up Publications aocs articles book books cdrom cdroms detergents echapters fats inform international journal journ

418

Heat pump apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Heat pipe heat amplifier  

SciTech Connect

In a heat pipe combination consisting of a common condenser section with evaporator sections at either end, two working fluids of different vapor pressures are employed to effectively form two heat pipe sections within the same cavity to support an amplifier mode of operation.

Arcella, F.G.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Engineering design construction and testing of a salt-water absorption unit optimized for use with a solar collector heat source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of a 3 ton direct evaporatively cooled LiBr chiller and the construction of three operable field test units suitable for use with flat plate collectors is reported. Compared to conventional LiBr chillers using shell and tube heat exchangers and a separate cooling tower this approach aims to reduce first cost, installation cost and parasitic power. The unit is packaged into a size approximately 94 cm square and 2 meters tall. It produces 7.2/sup 0/C (45F) chilled water with a .72 COP when fired with 89.4/sup 0/C (193F) hot water while rejecting heat to 25.6/sup 0/C (78F) wb ambient air. Power to operate the condenser fan, solution pump and surface wetting pump is 450 watts. This unit deals with water freezing by making the sump and wetting pump freeze resistant so that seasonal draining is not required. Low heat flux through the wetted surfaces yields performance insensitivity to the accumulation of scale.

Ferguson, T.; Merrick, R.H.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "isotopic heat sources" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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421

Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the status quo that conventional energy sources are more and more reduced and environmental pollution is increasingly serious, this paper presents a new model system of conserving energy and environmental protection, namely, a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage. In this system, solar energy is the major heat source for a heat pump, and the supplementary heat source is soil. The disagreement in time between the space heat load and heat collected by solar heat collector is solved by latent heat storage. In order to obtain such system running conditions and effects in different heating periods, an experiment has been carried out during the whole heating period in Harbin, China. The experimental results show that this system is much better for heating in initial and late periods than that in middle periods. The average heating coefficient is 6.13 for heating in initial and late periods and 2.94 for heating in middle periods. At the same time, this paper also predicts system running properties in other regions.

Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160C at a specified rate as the heat source. The actual and maximum possible thermal efficiencies and the rate of heat rejected from this power plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ÂşC at a specified rate and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k

Bahrami, Majid

423

Isotopically controlled semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

Haller, Eugene E.

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

424

Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Tips: Heat Pumps June 24, 2013 - 5:48pm Addthis Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat pumps are the most efficient form of electric heating in moderate climates. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide equivalent space conditioning at as little as one quarter of the cost of operating conventional heating or cooling appliances. A heat pump does double duty as a central air conditioner by collecting the heat inside your house and pumping it outside. There are three types of heat pumps: air-to-air, water source, and geothermal. They collect heat from the air, water, or ground outside your

425

Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I [eds.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Radiant Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat...

427

Field Performance of Heat Recovery Chillers and Heat Recovery Heat Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat recovery chillers and heat recovery heat pumps operate at high efficiency and excellent economy by simultaneously providing both heating and cooling. Although this technology has been in use for more than thirty years and all major chiller manufacturers offer heat recovery models, applications are not yet widespread. One of the barriers to using this technology is the lack of measured performance information on the devices. This project was undertaken to identify and summarize existing sources of pe...

1994-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

428

Materials Selection for the HFIR Cold Neutron Source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In year 2002 the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) will be fitted with a source of cold neutrons to upgrade and expand its existing neutron scattering facilities. The in-reactor components of the new source consist of a moderator vessel containing supercritical hydrogen gas moderator at a temperature of 20K and pressure of 15 bar, and a surrounding vacuum vessel. They will be installed in an enlarged beam tube located at the site of the present horizontal beam tube, HB-4; which terminates within the reactor's beryllium reflector. These components must withstand exceptional service conditions. This report describes the reasons and factors underlying the choice of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy for construction of the in-reactor components. The overwhelming considerations are the need to minimize generation of nuclear heat and to remove that heat through the flowing moderator, and to achieve a minimum service life of about 8 years coincident with the replacement schedule for the beryllium reflector. 6061-T6 aluminum alloy offers the best combination of low nuclear heating, high thermal conductivity, good fabricability, compatibility with hydrogen, superior cryogenic properties, and a well-established history of satisfactory performance in nuclear environments. These features are documented herein. An assessment is given of the expected performance of each component of the cold source.

Farrell, K.

2001-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

429

Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Geothermal Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 5:08pm Addthis Watch how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. How does it work? A geothermal heat pump uses the constant below ground temperature of soil or water to heat and cool your home. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes referred to as GeoExchange, earth-coupled, ground-source, or water-source heat pumps, have been in use since the late 1940s. They use the constant temperature of the earth as the exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. This allows the system to reach fairly high efficiencies (300% to 600%) on the coldest winter nights, compared to 175% to 250% for air-source heat pumps on cool

430

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes The Expert Panel has concluded that the Department of Energy and National Institutes of Health must develop the capability to produce a diverse supply of radioisotopes for medical use in quantities sufficient to support research and clinical activities. Such a capability would prevent shortages of isotopes, reduce American dependence on foreign radionuclide sources and stimulate biomedical research. The expert panel recommends that the U.S. government build this capability around either a reactor, an accelerator or a combination of both technologies as long as isotopes for clinical and research applications can be supplied reliably, with diversity in adequate

433

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluids from springs, fumaroles, and wells throughout Dixie Valley, NV were analyzed for noble gas abundances and isotopic compositions. The helium isotopic compositions of fluids produced from the Dixie Valley geothermal field range from 0.70 to 0.76 Ra, are among the highest values in the valley, and indicate that similar to 7.5% of the total helium is derived from the mantle. A lack of recent volcanics or other potential sources requires flow of mantle-derived helium up along the

434

Stirling engine heating system  

SciTech Connect

A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

435

Emissivity Tuned Emitter for RTPV Power Sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Every mission launched by NASA to the outer planets has produced unexpected results. The Voyager I and II, Galileo, and Cassini missions produced images and collected scientific data that totally revolutionized our understanding of the solar system and the formation of the planetary systems. These missions were enabled by the use of nuclear power. Because of the distances from the Sun, electrical power was produced using the radioactive decay of a plutonium isotope. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in the past and currently used Multi-Mission RTGs (MMRTGs) provide power for space missions. Unfortunately, RTGs rely on thermocouples to convert heat to electricity and are inherently inefficient ({approx} 3-7% thermal to electric efficiency). A Radioisotope Thermal Photovoltaic (RTPV) power source has the potential to reduce the specific mass of the onboard power supply by increasing the efficiency of thermal to electric conversion. In an RTPV, a radioisotope heats an emitter, which emits light to a photovoltaic (PV) cell, which converts the light into electricity. Developing an emitter tuned to the desired wavelength of the photovoltaic is a key part in increasing overall performance. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have built a Thermal Photovoltaic (TPV) system, that utilizes a simulated General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) from a MMRTG to heat a tantalum emitter. The GPHS is a block of graphite roughly 10 cm by 10 cm by 5 cm. A fully loaded GPHS produces 250 w of thermal power and weighs 1.6 kgs. The GRC system relies on the GPHS unit radiating at 1200 K to a tantalum emitter that, in turn, radiates light to a GaInAs photo-voltaic cell. The GRC claims system efficiency of conversion of 15%. The specific mass is around 167 kg/kWe. A RTPV power source that utilized a ceramic or ceramic-metal (cermet) matrix would allow for the combination of the heat source, canister, and emitter into one compact unit, and allow variation in size and shape to optimize temperature and emission spectra.

Carl M. Stoots; Robert C. O'Brien; Troy M. Howe

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Photonic crystal light source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

437

Heating System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating System Basics Heating System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources. Electric Resistance Heating Can be supplied by centralized electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental

438

Heating System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating System Basics Heating System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources. Electric Resistance Heating Can be supplied by centralized electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental

439

Marine Communities of North Sea Offshore Platforms, and the Use of Stable Isotopes to Explore Artificial Reef Food Webs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Stable isotope methods offer a powerful means of investigating trophic interactions, allowing assessment of the relative importance of multiple nutrient sources to biological assemblages, as… (more)

Guerin, Andrew James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

The High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites

The High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL The High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL Aerial of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site The High Flux Isotope Reactor site is located on the south side of the ORNL campus and is about a three-minute drive from her sister neutron facility, the Spallation Neutron Source. Operating at 85 MW, HFIR is the highest flux reactor-based source of neutrons for research in the United States, and it provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world. The thermal and cold neutrons produced by HFIR are used to study physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering, and biology. The intense neutron flux, constant power density, and constant-length fuel cycles are used by more than 500 researchers each year for neutron scattering research into

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441

Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites

442

Strategic Isotope Production | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Strategic Isotope Production SHARE Strategic Isotope Production ORNL's unique facilities at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), Radiochemical Engineering Development Center...

443

Isotopes as Environmental Tracers in Archived Biological ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Tissue Archival and Monitoring Program (STAMP ... and isotopes) and carbon/nitrogen (isotopes). The carbon/nitrogen isotope data provide valuable ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

444

Determining the temperature field for cylinder symmetrical heat conduction problems in unsteady heat conduction in finite space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes to present a new method to calculate unsteady heat conduction for cylinder symmetrical geometry. We will investigate the situation where the temperature field and heat flux created around a heat source placed in finite space are determined. ... Keywords: Garbai's integral equation, Laplace transformation, determining the temperate field, district heating pipes, geothermal producing pipe, heat flux density, heat loss, heat pump

László Garbai; Szabolcs Méhes

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Neutron sources and applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Isotope production and distribution Programs Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 Financial Statement Audit (ER-FC-96-01)  

SciTech Connect

The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium and deuterium, and related isotope services. Services provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund, as established by the Fiscal Year 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act (Public Law 101-101). The Fiscal Year 1995 Appropriations Act (Public Law 103-316) modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research may not achieve full-cost recovery. Isotope Program costs are financed by revenues from the sale of isotopes and associated services and through payments from the isotope support decision unit, which was established in the DOE fiscal year 1995 Energy, Supply, Research, and Development appropriation. The isotope decision unit finances the production and processing of unprofitable isotopes that are vital to the national interest.

1996-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

447

Thermal-hydraulic simulation of natural convection decay heat removal in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) using RELAP5 and TEMPEST: Part 2, Interpretation and validation of results  

SciTech Connect

The RELAP5/MOD2 code was used to predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the HFIR core during decay heat removal through boiling natural circulation. The low system pressure and low mass flux values associated with boiling natural circulation are far from conditions for which RELAP5 is well exercised. Therefore, some simple hand calculations are used herein to establish the physics of the results. The interpretation and validation effort is divided between the time average flow conditions and the time varying flow conditions. The time average flow conditions are evaluated using a lumped parameter model and heat balance. The Martinelli-Nelson correlations are used to model the two-phase pressure drop and void fraction vs flow quality relationship within the core region. Systems of parallel channels are susceptible to both density wave oscillations and pressure drop oscillations. Periodic variations in the mass flux and exit flow quality of individual core channels are predicted by RELAP5. These oscillations are consistent with those observed experimentally and are of the density wave type. The impact of the time varying flow properties on local wall superheat is bounded herein. The conditions necessary for Ledinegg flow excursions are identified. These conditions do not fall within the envelope of decay heat levels relevant to HFIR in boiling natural circulation. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Ruggles, A.E.; Morris, D.G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Separation of sulfur isotopes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

DeWitt, Robert (Centerville, OH); Jepson, Bernhart E. (Dayton, OH); Schwind, Roger A. (Centerville, OH)

1976-06-22T23:59:59.000Z