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Sample records for isotopic analysis rock

  1. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Hisatoshi Ito, Kazuhiro Tanaka (1995) Insights On The...

  2. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date 1989 - 2000 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The purpose of this study was to analyze deep core...

  3. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date - 2004 Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The study was undertaken to refine understanding of...

  4. Isotopic Analysis- Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on OpeneiAlbanianStudy)savingsInformationRock Jump to:

  5. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Analysis- Rock Activity Date - 1995 Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The study utilizes the fission-track dating method...

  6. Category:Isotopic Analysis- Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to: navigation,Ground Gravity SurveyIsotopic Analysis-

  7. Quantification and isotopic analysis of nitrogen in rocks at the ppm level using sealed tube combustion technique: A prelude to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    composition of natural samples is only modified after mixing and/or fractionation related to physico technique used for the determination of N isotopic composition in various rocks characterized by low N vacuum. The nitrogen gas purified using Cu, CuO and CaO, is quantified as dinitrogen N2 by capacitance

  8. Triple oxygen isotope variations in sedimentary rocks Naomi E. Levin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . However, recent oxygen isotope measurements of terrestrial rocks, minerals and waters also reveal common for various equilibrium and kinetic mechanisms. Here we pres- ent triple oxygen isotope data on sedimentary; Pack and Herwartz, 2014), but they are gener- ally overlooked in analysis of terrestrial rocks

  9. Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date - 2004 Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The study was undertaken to refine understanding of...

  10. A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrotherm...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal...

  11. Stable-Isotope Studies Of Rocks And Secondary Minerals In A Vapor...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Epstein, 1992) Isotopic Analysis At Geysers Area (Lambert & Epstein, 1992) Petrography Analysis At Geysers Area (Lambert & Epstein, 1992) Areas (1) Geysers Area Regions...

  12. Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

  13. Ion microprobe survey of the grain-scale oxygen isotope geochemistry of minerals in metamorphic rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Ion microprobe survey of the grain-scale oxygen isotope geochemistry of minerals in metamorphic standards) were made of 73 minerals in 23 samples. Both intercrystalline and intracrystalline variability in d18 O is greater in contact than in regional metamorphic rocks. Of 27 minerals analyzed in contact

  14. Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  15. Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Welhan, Et Al., 1988) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  16. Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Kennedy & Van Soest, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  17. Sensitivity analysis of GSI based mechanical characterization of rock mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ván, P

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the rock mechanical and rock engineering designs and calculations are frequently based on Geological Strength Index (GSI) method, because it is the only system that provides a complete set of mechanical properties for design purpose. Both the failure criteria and the deformation moduli of the rock mass can be calculated with GSI based equations, which consists of the disturbance factor, as well. The aim of this paper is the sensitivity analysis of GSI and disturbance factor dependent equations that characterize the mechanical properties of rock masses. The survey of the GSI system is not our purpose. The results show that the rock mass strength calculated by the Hoek-Brown failure criteria and both the Hoek-Diederichs and modified Hoek-Diederichs deformation moduli are highly sensitive to changes of both the GSI and the D factor, hence their exact determination is important for the rock engineering design.

  18. Rock Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan: Energy Resources Jump to:Rock

  19. COUPLING LEAD ISOTOPE ANALYSIS AND PETROGRAPHY TO CHARACTERIZE FABRICS OF STORAGE AND TRADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claeys, Philippe

    COUPLING LEAD ISOTOPE ANALYSIS AND PETROGRAPHY TO CHARACTERIZE FABRICS OF STORAGE AND TRADE of petrography and lead isotopes within pottery provenance study. KEYWORDS: LEAD ISOTOPES, THIN SECTION, SHERD

  20. Rocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The Energy Materials CenterRobotics KeyRocks Rocks

  1. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Rao...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Rao, Et Al., 1996) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles...

  2. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area (Rao, Et Al., 1996) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1996 - 1996...

  3. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Et Al., 1996) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1996 - 1996...

  4. TRIFID (TRansuranic Isotopic Fraction Interrogation Device): A second generation plutonium isotopic analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleissner, J G; Coressel, T W; Freier, D A; Macklin, L L

    1989-01-01

    The TRIFID (Transuranic Isotopic Fraction Interrogation Device) system is a second generation plutonium isotopic analysis system which incorporates many new and unique features in the area of isotopic data acquisition and isotopic analysis instrument consisting of a Canberra Series 95-MCA interfaced to a Compaq 386 computer. The entire TRIFID software package, including MCA communications and isotopic analysis routines, was developed using the C programming language. Extensive use has been made of user friendly screens and menus for ease of operation and training and to facilitate use by technical level operators. Automated TRIFID features provide for MCA/ADC setup and acquisition, spectral storage, isotopic analysis, and report generation. One unique feature of the TRIFID system design allows it to be pre-programed for an entire day's counting. The isotopic analysis module (EPICS) contains an expert system formalism which is used to detect and assay for spectral interferences, and to automatically adjust peak fitting constraints based on spectral intensity variations. A TRIFID system has been in operation in a production laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant since September 1988. Marked decreases in training and hands-on operation time have been achieved in comparison to the older, preceding isotopic systems. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.

  6. Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Physics Isotopes Isotopes Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Get Expertise...

  7. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Coso Geothermal Area (1984) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8,Open Energy Information1996)

  8. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8,Open Energy Information1996)Al., 2003) | Open(Ito

  9. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8,Open Energy Information1996)Al., 2003) |

  10. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8,Open Energy Information1996)Al., 2003) |(Phillips,

  11. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8,Open Energy Information1996)Al., 2003)

  12. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Coso Geothermal Area (1997) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on OpeneiAlbanianStudy)savingsInformation

  13. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  14. Extraction of -cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gedalof, Ze'ev

    Extraction of -cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis Benjamin A. Hook a cellulose can provide valuable paleocli- matic information at annual and subannual resolution, from time the trees grew. In the mummified wood, polysaccharides (hemicellulose, -cellulose) are frequently

  15. Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2012-01-18

    The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

  16. Standard practice for the ion exchange separation of uranium and plutonium prior to isotopic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    Standard practice for the ion exchange separation of uranium and plutonium prior to isotopic analysis

  17. Geochemical, UPb zircon, and Nd isotope investigations of the Neoproterozoic Ghawjah Metavolcanic rocks, Northwestern Saudi Arabia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Robert J.

    -Ichi Kimura b , Martin J. Whitehouse c , Sumit K. Mukherjee d , Peter R. Johnson e , William R. Griffin positive Nd (+5.4 to +8.2) and a mean model age of 0.71 Ga. Ghawjah volcanic rocks are similar

  18. Method for isotopic analysis of chlorinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, B.D.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention provides a method for preparing a VOC sample for carbon and chlorine isotope ratio analysis by mass spectrometer. A VOC sample is placed in a combustion tube and reacted with CuO to form CO{sub 2} and CuCl. The CO{sub 2} is then extracted and analyzed for the carbon isotope ratio. The CuCl is separated from the excess CuO and reacted with CH{sub 3}I to form CH{sub 3}Cl, extracted and analyzed for chlorine isotope ratio. 9 figs.

  19. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  20. RESOLUTION OF URANIUM ISOTOPES WITH KINETIC PHOSPHORESCENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, Sarah M.; Hylden, Anne T.; Friese, Judah I.

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to test the ability of the Chemchek™ Kinetic Phosphorescence Analyzer Model KPA-11 with an auto-sampler to resolve the difference in phosphorescent decay rates of several different uranium isotopes, and therefore identify the uranium isotope ratios present in a sample. Kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA) is a technique that provides rapid, accurate, and precise determination of uranium concentration in aqueous solutions. Utilizing a pulsed-laser source to excite an aqueous solution of uranium, this technique measures the phosphorescent emission intensity over time to determine the phosphorescence decay profile. The phosphorescence intensity at the onset of decay is proportional to the uranium concentration in the sample. Calibration with uranium standards results in the accurate determination of actual concentration of the sample. Different isotopes of uranium, however, have unique properties which should result in different phosphorescence decay rates seen via KPA. Results show that a KPA is capable of resolving uranium isotopes.

  1. 14. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF LAKE SEDIMENT CELLULOSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Thomas W.D.

    14. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF LAKE SEDIMENT CELLULOSE: METHODS AND APPLICATIONS BRENT B and Environmental Sciences Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT USA 06459 Keywords: cellulose, lake sediment, oxygen of lake sediment cellulose is a recently developed paleolimnological approach that is gaining increasing

  2. Analysis of a mesoscale infiltration and water seepage test in unsaturated fractured rock: Spatial variabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    Analysis of a mesoscale infiltration and water seepage test in unsaturated fractured rock: Spatial 2006 Abstract A mesoscale (21 m in flow distance) infiltration and seepage test was recently conducted flow in fractured rock at mesoscale or a larger scale is not necessarily conditional explicitly

  3. LEAD ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF LATE BRONZE AGE POTTERY FROM HALA SULTAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claeys, Philippe

    LEAD ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF LATE BRONZE AGE POTTERY FROM HALA SULTAN TEKKE, 9000 Ghent 5 Department of Geology, Université de Ličge, Allée du 6­Aoűt B18, 4000 Ličge Lead isotopic the effectiveness of using lead isotopic analysis in provenance studies, along with other analytical techniques

  4. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  5. Onboard Autonomous Rock Shape Analysis For Mars Rovers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in this process, we present an automated technique to allow a rover to classify the shape and other geologic were conducted by characterizing the two-dimensional rock shape while the three-dimensional shape developed and implemented. The per- formance of each measure was characterized by analyzing images from

  6. COUPLING LEAD ISOTOPE ANALYSIS AND PETROGRAPHY TO CHARACTERIZE FABRICS OF STORAGE AND TRADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claeys, Philippe

    COUPLING LEAD ISOTOPE ANALYSIS AND PETROGRAPHY TO CHARACTERIZE FABRICS OF STORAGE AND TRADE Brussels, Belgium 6 Director of research at Hala Sultan Tekke, Area 8, Cyprus Lead isotopes, thin sections and com- pared to lead isotope results on the same samples. This study shows that a specific

  7. J. Sulem & M. Cerrolaza (2002): Finite element analysis of the indentation test on rocks with microstructure 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE INDENTATION TEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2002-01-01

    J. Sulem & M. Cerrolaza (2002): Finite element analysis of the indentation test on rocks with microstructure 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE INDENTATION TEST ON ROCKS WITH MICROSTRUCTURE Published in-117" #12;J. Sulem & M. Cerrolaza (2002): Finite element analysis of the indentation test on rocks

  8. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada and Inyo County, California.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James B. Paces; Zell E. Peterman; Kiyoto Futa; Thomas A. Oliver; and Brian D. Marshall.

    2007-08-07

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to values for Paleozoic seawater present at the time of deposition. Many of the samples have 87Sr/86Sr compositions that remain relatively unmodified from expected seawater values. However, rocks underlying the northern Nevada Test Site as well as rocks exposed at Bare Mountain commonly have elevated 87Sr/86Sr values derived from post-depositional addition of radiogenic Sr most likely from fluids circulating through rubidium-rich Paleozoic strata or Precambrian basement rocks.

  9. Category:Rock Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPID Roadmap ContactRock Density Jump to:

  10. GEOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF VOLCANIC ROCK ON THE ISLAND OF SABA (NETHERLANDS ANTILLES)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hack, Robert

    GEOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF VOLCANIC ROCK ON THE ISLAND OF SABA (NETHERLANDS ANTILLES) Richard Rijkers 1 & Robert Hack 2 ABSTRACT A geomechanical analysis of a shallow small scale landslide, (NITG-TNO), Geomechanical Research, PO box 97, 2600 JA Delft, The Netherlands, tel.: +31 15 2697222, r

  11. Identification of sources of lead exposure in French children by lead isotope analysis: a cross-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Identification of sources of lead exposure in French children by lead isotope analysis: a cross://www.ehjournal.net/content/10/1/75 (28 August 2011) #12;RESEARCH Open Access Identification of sources of lead exposure in French children by lead isotope analysis: a cross- sectional study Youssef Oulhote1,2,3* , Barbara Le Bot

  12. A reactor for high-temperature pyrolysis and oxygen isotopic analysis of cellulose via induction heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Michael N.

    A reactor for high-temperature pyrolysis and oxygen isotopic analysis of cellulose via induction and theory to recommend pyrolysis at temperatures above 14508C to minimize memory and fractionation effects of producing pyrolysis conditions for the analysis of oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of organic

  13. Comprehensive analysis of metabolic pathways through the combined use of multiple isotopic tracers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoniewicz, Maciek Robert

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA) has emerged as a tool of great significance for metabolic engineering and the analysis of human metabolic diseases. An important limitation of MFA, as carried out via stable isotope labeling ...

  14. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this study was to investigate the relationship between known geothermal resources with deep, fault hosted permeable fluid flow pathways and the helium Isotopic composition of the...

  15. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid Activity Date - 1982 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters in and around the Valles...

  16. Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid Activity Date - 1982 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters in and around the Valles...

  17. Chemical and isotopic analysis of hydrocarbon gas at trace levels Methodology and results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    -C-IRMS) permits measurement of relative proportions of gaseous hydrocarbon (CH4 to C4H10) and CO2 of hydrocarbons (from 1 ppm to 1000 ppm), accurate measurement of isotope ratios is often impossible dueChemical and isotopic analysis of hydrocarbon gas at trace levels Methodology and results Yvon

  18. Variations in the diet of introduced Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) inferred using stable isotope analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Variations in the diet of introduced Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) inferred using stable isotope predators; island ecosystem conservation; stable isotope analysis; Norway rats; diet. Correspondence Heather of introduced Norway rats Rattus norvegicus has raised concerns for the fate of the large least auklet Aethia

  19. Direct analysis of air filter samples for alpha emitting isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohagheghi, A.H.; Ghanbari, F.; Ebara, S.B.; Enghauser, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bakhtiar, S.N. [Westinghouse WIPP, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The traditional method for determination of alpha emitting isotopes on air filters has been to process the samples by radiochemical methods. However, this method is too slow for cases of incidents involving radioactive materials where the determination of personnel received dose is urgent. A method is developed to directly analyze the air filters taken from personal and area air monitors. The site knowledge is used in combination with alpha spectral information to identify isotopes. A mathematical function is developed to estimate the activity for each isotope. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed.

  20. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Sulfate at Micromole Levels Using a Pyrolysis Technique in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Becky

    Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Sulfate at Micromole Levels Using a Pyrolysis Technique sample. The technique takes advantage of the easy pyrolysis of Ag2SO4 to SO2, O2, and Ag metal

  1. U235: A Gamma Ray Analysis Code for Uranium Isotopic Determination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    5727 U235: A Gamma Ray Analysis Code for Uranium Isotopic Determination DeLynn Clark December 1996 may not be those of the Laboratory. Work performed under the auspices of the U S...

  2. SIMS ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF INTERPLANETARY DUST FROM SPACE-EXPOSED AEROGEL. F. J. Stadermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SIMS ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF INTERPLANETARY DUST FROM SPACE-EXPOSED AEROGEL. F. J. Stadermann 1: Aerogel is the medium of choice for the intact capture of small particles in space, because it is capable materials [1, 2]. After space-exposed aerogel is returned to the laboratory, the first step of analysis

  3. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Quane, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8,Open Energy Information1996)Al., 2003) | Open Energy

  4. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Ito &

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8,Open Energy Information1996)Al., 2003) | Open

  5. Analysis of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotopes and optimal feed position

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuntong Ying; Hongjiang Wu; Mingsheng Zhou; Yuguang Nie; Guangjun Liu

    1997-10-01

    Analysis of the concentration distribution in a gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures is different from that in a cascade for separation of two-component mixtures. This paper presents the governing equations for a multicomponent isotope separation cascade. Numerically predicted separation factors for the gas centrifuge cascade agree well with the experimental data. A theoretical optimal feed position is derived for a short square cascade for a two-component mixture in a close-separation case. The optimal feed position for a gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent mixture is discussed.

  6. Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction-Transport Models of EGS For Exploration, Evaluation of Water-Rock Interaction, and Impacts of Water Chemistry on Reservoir...

  7. Elemental and isotopic analysis of inorganic salts by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayasekharan, T.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2013-02-05

    Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry is applied for the analysis of elements as well as their isotopic composition in different inorganic salts. At very low laser energies the inorganic ions are desorbed and ionized from the thin layer of the sample surface. The naturally occurring isotopes of alkali and silver ions are resolved using time of flight mass spectrometer. Further increase in laser energy shows the appearance of Al, Cr, and Fe ions in the mass spectra. This indicates the penetration laser beam beyond the sample surface leading to the ablation of sample target at higher energies. The simultaneous appearance of atomic ions from the sample target at relatively higher laser energies hampers the unambiguous identification of amino acid residues from the biomolecular ions in MALDI-MS.

  8. Analysis of Thermally Induced Changes in Fractured Rock Permeability during Eight Years of Heating and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2008-01-01

    and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test J.mechanical analysis of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test –scale heater test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. Int J Rock

  9. Standard test method for isotopic abundance analysis of uranium hexa?uoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by multi-collector, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    Standard test method for isotopic abundance analysis of uranium hexa?uoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by multi-collector, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

  10. Rock Art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Courtesy of the Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels.Figure 4. Rock art from Abu Ballas caravan station, 550 kmtypical of Pharaonic rock art. Kharga Oasis. Photograph by

  11. Technical Note Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Vibration-Induced Rock Toppling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haneberg, William C.

    approach to the preliminary assessment of rock toppling as the result of earthquakes, blasting, or other on regional seismic hazard and slope-angle maps. It should not be used as a substitute for detailed site of safety against toppling is1 email: bill@haneberg.com. Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, Vol. XV, No

  12. Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Uranium Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. The reactor model was built for the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analyses performed with the model constructed were compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel, which increases the neutron resonance absorption, reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus, within the limitations of this study, making LEU fuel appear to be a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

  13. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one employing a quadrupole MS system for compound identification and an isotope ratio MS for measuring the stable isotope ratios of deuterium and hydrogen (D/H) in fatty acids. Finally, the method for analyzing the compound abundance data is included. This study indicates that removal of ricinoleic acid is a conserved consequence of each processing step we tested. Furthermore, the stable isotope D/H ratio of ricinoleic acid distinguished between two of the three castor seed sources. Concentrations of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucosamine and myo-inositol differentiated between crude or acetone extracted samples and samples produced by protein precipitation. Taken together these data illustrate the ability to distinguish between processes used to purify a ricin sample as well as potentially the source seeds.

  14. {sup 39}Ar Detection at the 10{sup -16} Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W.; Bailey, K.; O'Connor, T. P.; Mueller, P.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Sun, Y. R.; Lu, Z.-T.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2011-03-11

    Atom trap trace analysis, a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric {sup 39}Ar (half-life=269 yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8x10{sup -16}. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, the counting rate and efficiency of atom trap trace analysis have been improved by 2 orders of magnitude over prior results. The significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the development of dark matter detectors.

  15. Using phylogenetic probes for quantification of stable isotope labeling and microbial community analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brodie, Eoin L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Karaoz, Ulas; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-12-09

    Herein is described methods for a high-sensitivity means to measure the incorporation of stable isotope labeled substrates into RNA following stable isotope probing experiments (SIP). RNA is hybridized to a set of probes such as phylogenetic microarrays and isotope incorporation is quantified such as by secondary ion mass spectrometer imaging (NanoSIMS).

  16. Estimating rock properties in two phase petroleum reservoirs: an error analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, Anthony Ian

    1983-01-01

    by the same amount from the true porosity value. In Fig. 5, the objective function is slightly better represented by the series approximation in 1/4. A Monte Carlo study was performed using the same history matching conditions as for the permeability... estimates were used in a Monte Carlo study to calculate the predicted well values, after the history matching period. The errors in the rock property estimates increases rapidly with an increasing number of unknowns. In many cases, even when large errors...

  17. Spectral analysis software improves con dence in plant and soil water stable isotope analyses performed by isotope ratio infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Greg

    independent tests of this post-processing spectral analysis software on two IRIS systems, OA-ICOS (Los Gatos

  18. A New Natural Gamma Radiation Measurement System for Marine Sediment and Rock Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasiliev, M A; Chubarian, G; Olsen, R; Bennight, C; Cobine, T; Fackler, D; Hastedt, M; Houpt, D; Mateo, Z; Vasilieva, Y B

    2010-01-01

    A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to background ratio is maximized with passive lead shielding, including both ordinary and low-activity lead. Large-area plastic scintillator active shielding filters background associated with the high-energy part of cosmic radiation. The new system has at least an order of magnitude higher statistical reliability and significantly enhances data quality compared to other offshore natural gamma radiation (NGR) systems designed to measure geological core samples. Reliable correlations and interpretations of cored intervals are ...

  19. Multiple sulphur and iron isotope composition of detrital pyrite in Archaean sedimentary rocks: A new tool for provenance analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekker, Andrey

    are a common componentof conglomerate- hosted gold and uranium deposits of the Mesoarchaean Witwatersrand basin. Rounded pyrites from Meso- to Neoarchaean gold and uranium-bearing strata of South Africa are derived from matter-rich shales, sedimentary exhalites and volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. Some sedimentary

  20. Isotope Enrichment Detection by Laser Ablation - Laser Absorption Spectrometry: Automated Environmental Sampling and Laser-Based Analysis for HEU Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear power, and consequently the uranium enrichment industry, requires the development of new safeguards technology to mitigate proliferation risks. Current enrichment monitoring instruments exist that provide only yes/no detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) production. More accurate accountancy measurements are typically restricted to gamma-ray and weight measurements taken in cylinder storage yards. Analysis of environmental and cylinder content samples have much higher effectiveness, but this approach requires onsite sampling, shipping, and time-consuming laboratory analysis and reporting. Given that large modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) can quickly produce a significant quantity (SQ ) of HEU, these limitations in verification suggest the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an unattended safeguards instrument concept, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely analysis of enrichment levels within low enriched uranium facilities. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulate samples, followed by wavelength tuned laser diode spectroscopy to characterize the uranium isotopic ratio through subtle differences in atomic absorption wavelengths. Environmental sampling (ES) media from an integrated aerosol collector is introduced into a small, reduced pressure chamber, where a focused pulsed laser vaporizes material from a 10 to 20-µm diameter spot of the surface of the sampling media. The plume of ejected material begins as high-temperature plasma that yields ions and atoms, as well as molecules and molecular ions. We concentrate on the plume of atomic vapor that remains after the plasma has expanded and then cooled by the surrounding cover gas. Tunable diode lasers are directed through this plume and each isotope is detected by monitoring absorbance signals on a shot-to-shot basis. The media is translated by a micron resolution scanning system, allowing the isotope analysis to cover the entire sample surface. We also report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of laser-based isotopic measurements on individual micron-sized particles that are minor target components in a much larger heterogeneous mix of ‘background’ particles. This composition is consistent with swipe and environmental aerosol samples typically collected for safeguards ES purposes. Single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope abundance uncertainty better than 10% has been demonstrated using gadolinium isotopes as surrogate materials.

  1. Standard Test Method for Isotopic Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride by Single-Standard Gas Source Multiple Collector Mass Spectrometer Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) with 235U concentrations less than or equal to 5 % and 234U, 236U concentrations of 0.0002 to 0.1 %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable to the analysis of the entire range of 235U isotopic compositions providing that adequate Certified Reference Materials (CRMs or traceable standards) are available. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. The Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: Multivariate Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Rutherford, Crystal E.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-10-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). The time delay between sampling and subsequent DA provides a potential opportunity to divert the material out of the appropriate chemical stream. Leveraging new on-line nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for MC&A verification at such facilities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and pattern recognition software to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. Recent efforts have been made to explore the basic limits of using multivariate analysis techniques on gamma-ray spectra. This paper will provide an overview of the methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technology.

  3. Three-dimensional numerical manifold method simulations for blocky rock analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shentu, Longfei

    2011-01-01

    After decades of development, people realize that there are wider and more various applications of numerical modeling and analysis. However, current feasible software tools cannot satisfy engineering and commercial goals. ...

  4. Isotopic Analysis of Uranium in NIST SRM Glass by Femtosecond Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Hart, Garret L.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2013-05-19

    We employed femtosecond Laser Ablation Multicollector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry for the 11 determination of uranium isotope ratios in a series of standard reference material glasses (NIST 610, 612, 614, and 12 616). This uranium concentration in this series of SRM glasses is a combination of isotopically natural uranium in 13 the materials used to make the glass matrix and isotopically depleted uranium added to increase the uranium 14 elemental concentration across the series. Results for NIST 610 are in excellent agreement with literature values. 15 However, other than atom percent 235U, little information is available for the remaining glasses. We present atom 16 percent and isotope ratios for 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U for all four glasses. Our results show deviations from the 17 certificate values for the atom percent 235U, indicating the need for further examination of the uranium isotopes in 18 NIST 610-616. Our results are fully consistent with a two isotopic component mixing between the depleted 19 uranium spike and natural uranium in the bulk glass.

  5. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer drilling tests, as well as single impact tests, have been designed and executed. Both Berea sandstone and Mancos shale samples are used. In single impact tests, three impacts are sequentially loaded at the same rock location to investigate rock response to repetitive loadings. The crater depth and width are measured as well as the displacement and force in the rod and the force in the rock. Various pressure differences across the rock-indentor interface (i.e. bore pressure minus pore pressure) are used to investigate the pressure effect on rock penetration. For hammer drilling tests, an industrial fluid hammer is used to drill under both underbalanced and overbalanced conditions. Besides calibrating the modeling tool, the data and cuttings collected from the tests indicate several other important applications. For example, different rock penetrations during single impact tests may reveal why a fluid hammer behaves differently with diverse rock types and under various pressure conditions at the hole bottom. On the other hand, the shape of the cuttings from fluid hammer tests, comparing to those from traditional rotary drilling methods, may help to identify the dominant failure mechanism that percussion drilling relies on. If so, encouraging such a failure mechanism may improve hammer performance. The project is summarized in this report. Instead of compiling the information contained in the previous quarterly or other technical reports, this report focuses on the descriptions of tasks, findings, and conclusions, as well as the efforts on promoting percussion drilling technologies to industries including site visits, presentations, and publications. As a part of the final deliveries, the 3D numerical model for rock mechanics is also attached.

  6. Economic predictions for heat mining : a review and analysis of hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tester, Jefferson W.

    1990-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were first, to review and analyze several economic assessments of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy systems, and second, to reformulate an economic model for HDR with revised cost components.

  7. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  8. Q00906010024 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    00906010024 rock check dam Q00906010025 rock check dam Q00906010021 rock check dam Q00906010022 rock check dam Q00906010027 rock check dam Q00906010026 rock check dam Q00906010018 rock check dam Q00906010023 rock check dam Q00906010011 rock check dam Q00906010008 rock check dam Q00906010007 rock check dam Q

  9. The analysis of the pantothenate synthetase reaction by positional isotope exchange 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Lakenya Flatreese

    2003-01-01

    positional isotope exchange (PIX) reaction within ą?O-labeled ATP in the presence of D-pantoate. When [??-ą?O?]-ATP was incubated with pantothenate synthetase in the presence of D-pantoate, an ą?O label gradually appeared in the ??-bridge position from both...

  10. Isotopic hydrogen analysis via conventional and surface-enhanced fiber optic Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LASCOLA, ROBERT

    2004-09-23

    This report describes laboratory development and process plant applications of Raman spectroscopy for detection of hydrogen isotopes in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a U.S. Department of Energy complex. Raman spectroscopy provides a lower-cost, in situ alternative to mass spectrometry techniques currently employed at SRS. Using conventional Raman and fiber optics, we have measured, in the production facility glove boxes, process mixtures of protium and deuterium at various compositions and total pressures ranging from 1000-4000 torr, with detection limits ranging from 1-2 percent for as low as 3-second integration times. We are currently investigating fabrication techniques for SERS surfaces in order to measure trace (0.01-0.1 percent) amounts of one isotope in the presence of the other. These efforts have concentrated on surfaces containing palladium, which promotes hydrogen dissociation and forms metal hydride bonds, essentially providing a chemical enhancement mechanism.

  11. Tuesday, March 24, 2009 POSTER SESSION I: EARLY NEBULAR PROCESSES: MODELS AND ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    to H2O in adsorption/desorption kinetics. Nielsen S. G. Prytulak J. Halliday A. N. Vanadium Isotope presents the first method that produces high precision vanadium isotope data for terrestrial rocks

  12. A Capillary Absorption Spectrometer for Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio (13C/12C) Analysis in Very Small Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Moran, James J.; Alexander, M. L.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2012-02-06

    A capillary absorption spectrometer (CAS) suitable for IR laser isotope analysis of small CO{sub 2} samples is presented. The system employs a continuous-wave (cw) quantum cascade laser to study nearly adjacent rovibrational transitions of different isotopologues of CO{sub 2} near 2307 cm{sup -1} (4.34 {mu}m). This initial CAS system can achieve relative isotopic precision of about 10 ppm {sup 13}C, or {approx}1{per_thousand} (per mil in delta notation relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite) with 20-100 picomoles of entrained sample within the hollow waveguide for CO{sub 2} concentrations {approx}400 to 750 ppm. Isotopic analyses of such gas fills in a 1-mm ID hollow waveguide of 0.8 m overall physical path length can be carried out down to {approx}2 Torr. Overall {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios can be calibrated to {approx}2{per_thousand} accuracy with diluted CO{sub 2} standards. A novel, low-cost method to reduce cw-fringing noise resulting from multipath distortions in the hollow waveguide is presented, which allows weak absorbance features to be studied at the few ppm level (peak-to-rms) after 1,000 scans are co-added in {approx}10 sec. The CAS is meant to work directly with converted CO{sub 2} samples from a Laser Ablation-Catalytic-Combustion (LA CC) micro-sampler to provide {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of small biological isolates with spatial resolutions {approx}50 {mu}m.

  13. Identification of the source of methane at a hazardous waste treatment facility using isotopic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackley, K.C.; Liu, C.L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Peabody, IL (United States)); Trainor, D.P. (Dames and Moore, Madison, WI (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Isotopic analyses have been used to determine the source of methane in subsurface sediments at a hazardous waste treatment facility in the Lake Calumet area of Chicago, Illinois. The study area is surrounded by landfills and other waste management operations and has a long history of waste disposal. The facility property consists of land constructed of approximately 15 feet of fill placed over lake sediments. The fill is underlain by successively older lacustrine and glacial till deposits to a maximum depth of approximately 80 feet. During a subsurface investigation of the site performed for a RCRA Facility Investigation of former solid waste management units (SWMUs) in the fill, significant quantities of methane were encountered in the natural deposits. Gas samples were collected from the headspace of 11 piezometers screened at depths of approximately 30, 40, and 50 feet beneath the surface. Methane concentrations up to 75% by volume were observed in some of the piezometers. Stable isotope analyses were completed on methane and associated CO[sub 2] separated from the gas samples. Radiocarbon (C-14) analyses were also completed on several of the samples. The delta C-13 results for the intermediate and deep zones are indicative of methane produced by microbial reduction of CO[sub 2]. The methane occurring in the shallow zone appears to be a mixture of methane from the intermediate zone and methane produced by microbial fermentation of naturally (nonanthropogenic) buried organic matter within the shallow lacustrine sediments. According to the isotopic and chemical results, the methane does not appear to be related to gas generation from nearby landfills or from organic wastes previously placed in the former facility SWMUs.

  14. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Geysers Geothermal Area (1982) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on OpeneiAlbanianStudy)savingsInformationRock Jump

  15. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (1977) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on OpeneiAlbanianStudy)savingsInformationRock JumpOpen

  16. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Raft River Geothermal Area (1982) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on OpeneiAlbanianStudy)savingsInformationRock

  17. Evaluation of Groundwater Movement in the Frenchman Flat CAU Using Geochemical and Isotopic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Hershey; J. Thomas; T. Rose; J. Paces; I. Farnham; C. Benedict, Jr.

    2005-03-01

    The principal pathway for radionuclide migration from underground tests in Frenchman Flat, on the Nevada Test Site, to the accessible environment is groundwater flow. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport via groundwater have been identified from hydrologic data: (1) radionuclide transport downward from the alluvial and volcanic aquifers into the underlying carbonate aquifer; and (2) radionuclide transport laterally to the carbonate aquifer surrounding Frenchman Flat. This report presents an evaluation of geochemical and environmental isotopic data to test these potential pathways and to identify other groundwater flowpaths in, and out of, Frenchman Flat.

  18. Rietveld Analysis of X-ray Powder Diffraction Patterns as a Potential Tool for the Identification of Impact-deformed Carbonate Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huson, Sarah A.; Foit, Franklin F.; Watkinson, A. J.; Pope, Michael C.

    2009-11-01

    Previous X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that shock deformed carbonates and quartz have broader XRD patterns than those of unshocked samples. Entire XRD patterns, single peak profiles and Rietveld refined parameters of carbonate samples from the Sierra Madera impact crater, west Texas, unshocked equivalent samples from 95 miles north of the crater and the Mission Canyon Formation of southwest Montana and western Wyoming were used to evaluate the use of X-ray powder diffraction as a potential tool for distinguishing impact deformed rocks from unshocked and tectonically deformed rocks. At Sierra Madera dolostone and limestone samples were collected from the crater rim (lower shock intensity) and the central uplift (higher shock intensity). Unshocked equivalent dolostone samples were collected from well cores drilled outside of the impact crater. Carbonate rocks of the Mission Canyon Formation were sampled along a transect across the tectonic front of the Sevier and Laramide orogenic belts. Whereas calcite subjected to significant shock intensities at the Sierra Madera impact crater can be differentiated from tectonically deformed calcite from the Mission Canyon Formation using Rietveld refined peak profiles, weakly shocked calcite from the crater rim appears to be indistinguishable from the tectonically deformed calcite. In contrast, Rietveld analysis readily distinguishes shocked Sierra Madera dolomite from unshocked equivalent dolostone samples from outside the crater and tectonically deformed Mission Canyon Formation dolomite.

  19. Geophysical and transport properties of reservoir rocks. Final report for task 4: Measurements and analysis of seismic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of research on the seismic properties of reservoir rocks is to develop a basic understanding of the effects of rock microstructure and its contained pore fluids on seismic velocities and attenuation. Ultimately, this knowledge would be used to extract reservoir properties information such as the porosity, permeability, clay content, fluid saturation, and fluid type from borehole, cross-borehole, and surface seismic measurements to improve the planning and control of oil and gas recovery. This thesis presents laboratory ultrasonic measurements for three granular materials and attempts to relate the microstructural properties and the properties of the pore fluids to P- and S-wave velocities and attenuation. These experimental results show that artificial porous materials with sintered grains and a sandstone with partially cemented grains exhibit complexities in P- and S-wave attenuation that cannot be adequately explained by existing micromechanical theories. It is likely that some of the complexity observed in the seismic attenuation is controlled by details of the rock microstructure, such as the grain contact area and grain shape, and by the arrangement of the grain packing. To examine these effects, a numerical method was developed for analyzing wave propagation in a grain packing. The method is based on a dynamic boundary integral equation and incorporates generalized stiffness boundary conditions between individual grains to account for viscous losses and grain contact scattering.

  20. V00306010057 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ¬« ¬« ¬« ¬« ¬« XY! 16-020 16-030(c) 16-026(l) 16-028(c) 16-026(l) V00306010057 rock check dam V00306010012 rock check dam V00306010040 rock check dam V00306010039 rock check dam V00306010058 rock check dam V00306010064 rock check dam V00306010061 rock check dam V00306010062 rock check dam V00306010063

  1. Analysis of Experimental Data for High Burnup PWR Spent Fuel Isotopic Validation - Vandellos II Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina; Gauld, Ian C

    2011-01-01

    This report is one of the several recent NUREG/CR reports documenting benchmark-quality radiochemical assay data and the use of the data to validate computer code predictions of isotopic composition for spent nuclear fuel, to establish the uncertainty and bias associated with code predictions. The experimental data analyzed in the current report were acquired from a high-burnup fuel program coordinated by Spanish organizations. The measurements included extensive actinide and fission product data of importance to spent fuel safety applications, including burnup credit, decay heat, and radiation source terms. Six unique spent fuel samples from three uranium oxide fuel rods were analyzed. The fuel rods had a 4.5 wt % {sup 235}U initial enrichment and were irradiated in the Vandellos II pressurized water reactor operated in Spain. The burnups of the fuel samples range from 42 to 78 GWd/MTU. The measurements were used to validate the two-dimensional depletion sequence TRITON in the SCALE computer code system.

  2. Single Variable and Multivariate Analysis of Remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectra for Prediction of Rb, Sr, Cr, Ba, and V in Igneous Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Speicher, Elly A [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyar, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Carmosino, Marco L [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2010-12-23

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) will be employed by the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity to obtain UV, VIS, and VNIR atomic emission spectra of surface rocks and soils. LIBS quantitative analysis is complicated by chemical matrix effects related to abundances of neutral and ionized species in the resultant plasma, collisional interactions within plasma, laser-to-sample coupling efficiency, and self-absorption. Atmospheric composition and pressure also influence the intensity of LIBS plasma. These chemical matrix effects influence the ratio of intensity or area of a given emission line to the abundance of the element producing that line. To compensate for these complications, multivariate techniques, specifically partial least-squares regression (PLS), have been utilized to predict major element compositions (>1 wt.% oxide) of rocks, PLS methods regress one or multiple response variables (elemental concentrations) against multiple explanatory variables (intensity at each pixel of the spectrometers). Because PLS utilizes all available explanatory variable and eliminates multicollinearity, it generally performs better than univariate methods for prediction of major elements. However, peaks arising from emissions from trace elements may be masked by peaks of higher intensities from major elements. Thus in PLS regression, wherein a correlation coefficient is determined for each elemental concentration at each spectrometer pixel, trace elements may show high correlation with more intense lines resulting from optical emissions of other elements. This could result in error in predictions of trace element concentrations. Here, results of simple linear regression (SLR) and multivariate PLS-2 regression for determination of trace Rb, Sr, Cr, Ba, and V in igneous rock samples are compared. This study focuses on comparisons using only line intensities rather than peak areas to highlight differences between SLR and PLS.

  3. Rock Joint Surfaces Measurement and Analysis of Aperture Distribution under Different Normal and Shear Loading Using GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Esaki, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Geometry of the rock joint is a governing factor for joint mechanical and hydraulic behavior. A new method of evaluating aperture distribution based on measurement of joint surfaces and three dimensional characteristics of each surface is developed. Artificial joint of granite surfaces are measured,processed, analyzed and three dimensional approaches are carried out for surface characterization. Parameters such as asperity's heights, slope angles, and aspects distribution at micro scale,local concentration of elements and their spatial localization at local scale are determined by Geographic Information System (GIS). Changes of aperture distribution at different normal stresses and various shear displacements are visualized and interpreted. Increasing normal load causes negative changes in aperture frequency distribution which indicates high joint matching. However, increasing shear displacement causes a rapid increase in the aperture and positive changes in the aperture frequency distribution which could be ...

  4. Organic Matter Analysis of Sediments from Simpson Bay, Alaska using Elemental, Stable Isotopic, and Molecular Signatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pondell, Christina

    2008-08-19

    Sediment samples from Simpson Bay, Alaska were analyzed to determine the influence of earthquake events on the accumulated organic matter. Radiochemical analysis of 210Pb activity in the sediment dated the cores and determined the depths...

  5. V01406010015 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XY! ¬« ¬« V01406010015 rock check dam V01406010014 rock check dam V01406010013 rock check dam 1501403010012 earthen berm V01403010008 earthen berm V01406010003 rock check dam V01406010004 rock check dam V01406010010 rock check dam V01406010011 rock check dam 15-0651 15-0307 15-0588 15-0532 15-0575 stormdrain 7160

  6. T00706010013 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XY! ¬« T00706010013 rock check dam T00706010014 rock check dam T00702040012 established vegetation, green hatch area T00706010002 rock check dam T00706010011 rock check dam T00703120010 rock berm T00703020003 base course berm T00706010004 rock check dam T00706010009 rock check dam T00703020008 base course

  7. International Workshop on Gamma Spectrometry Analysis Codes for U and Pu Isotopics: Workshop Results and Next Steps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, Brent R; Solodov, Alexander A; Shipwash, Jacqueline L; Zhernosek, Alena V; McKinney, Teressa L; Pickett, Chris A; Peerani, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    In November 2008, the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) and the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) co-hosted the International Workshop on Gamma Spectrometry Analysis Codes for U and Pu Isotopics at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This workshop was conducted in response to needs expressed by the international safeguards community to understand better the capabilities and limitations of the codes; to ensure these codes are sustained; and to ensure updates or revisions are performed in a controlled manner. The workshop was attended by approximately 100 participants. The participants included code developers, code suppliers, safeguards specialists, domestic and international inspectors, process operators, regulators, and programme sponsors from various government agencies. The workshop provided a unique opportunity for code developers, commercial distributors and end users to interact in a hands-on laboratory environment to develop solutions for programmatic and technical issues associated with the various codes. The workshop also provided an international forum for discussing development of an internationally accepted standard test method. This paper discusses the organization of the workshop, its goals and objectives and feedback received from the participants. The paper also describes the significance of the working group's contribution to improving codes that are commonly used during inspections to verify that nuclear facilities are compliant with treaty obligations that ensure nuclear fuel cycle facilities are used for peaceful purposes.

  8. Stable isotopes of authigenic minerals in variably-saturated fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, D.S.; Evans, D.D.

    1988-11-01

    Identifying stable isotope variation and mineralogical changes in fractured rock may help establish the history of climatic and geomorphological processes that might affect the isolation properties of a waste repository site. This study examines the use of the stable isotope ratios of oxygen ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) and carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in authigenic minerals as hydrogeochemical tools tracing low-temperature rock-water interaction in variably-saturated fractured stuff. Isotopic compositions of fracture-filling and rock matrix minerals in the Apache Leap tuff, near Superior, Arizona were concordant with geothermal temperatures and in equilibrium with water isotopically similar to present-day meteoric water and groundwater. Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of fracture-filling, in unsaturated fractured tuff, displayed an isotopic gradient believed to result from near-surface isotopic enrichment due to evaporation rather than the effects of rock-water interaction. Oxygen isotope ratios of rock matrix opal samples exhibited an isotopic gradient believed to result from, leaching and reprecipitation of silica at depth. Methods and results can be used to further define primary flowpaths and the movement of water in variably-saturated fractured rock. 71 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING AN ISOTOPIC NEUTRON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Raymond Sigg, R

    2006-08-14

    NAA using {sup 252}Cf is used to address important areas of applied interest at SRS. Sensitivity needs for many of the applications are not severe; analyses are accomplished using a 21 mg {sup 252}Cf NAA facility. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, it offers strong advantages for samples in difficult-to-digest matrices when its sensitivity is sufficient. Following radiochemical separation with stable carrier addition, chemical yields for a number methods are determined by neutron activation of the stable carrier. In some of the cases where no suitable stable carriers exist, the source has been used to generate radioactive tracers to yield separations.

  10. Tectonic development of the Samail ophiolite: High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth and emplacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Matthew

    New high-precision single grain U-Pb zircon geochronology and whole rock Nd isotopic data provide insight into the magmatic and tectonic development of the Samail ophiolite. The analyzed rocks can be broadly divided into ...

  11. T00406010008 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XY! ¬« T00406010008 rock check dam T00406010009 rock check dam T00406010010 rock check dam T00406010011 rock check dam T-SMA-2.85 0.344 Acres 35-014(g) 35-016(n) T00406010005 rock check dam T00406010006 rock check dam T00403090004 curb T00402040007 established vegetation, green hatch area 7200 7200 7180

  12. Transportation of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  13. Stable Isotope Protocols: Sampling and Sample Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa A; Currin, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    plants, benthic microalgae [BMI], benthic macroalgae) andin a dessicator, prior to analysis. A.2 Benthic microalgaeBenthic microalgae (BMI) can be collected for isotope

  14. Pore-Level Analysis of the Relationship Between Porosity, Irreducible Water Saturation, and Permeability of Clastic Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    SPE 109878 Pore-Level Analysis of the Relationship Between Porosity, Irreducible Water Saturation permeability from well- log calculations of porosity and irreducible water satura- tion. However, these models of compaction, cementation, and distribution of dispersed hydrated clay minerals. Irreducible water

  15. Rock Cycle and Rocks Lab Rocks are aggregates of one or many minerals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    Rock Cycle and Rocks Lab Rocks are aggregates of one or many minerals. Three types of rocks: A of their sizes, shapes and arrangement. Rule of Thumb: The size of mineral crystals in an igneous rock may, there is not enough time for large mineral crystals to form (e.g. obsidian) Igneous Rock Mineral Compositions

  16. Geochemical character and origin of oils in Ordovician reservoir rock, Illinois and Indiana, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, J.M.; Pratt, L.M.

    1995-11-01

    Twenty-three oils produced from reservoirs within the Ordovician Galena Group (Trenton equivalent) and one oil from the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve Limestone in the Illinois and Indiana portions of the Illinois basin are characterized. Two end-member oil groups (1) and (2) and one intermediate group (1A) are identified using conventional carbon isotopic analysis of whole and fractionated oils, gas chromatography (GC) of saturated hydrocarbon fractions, isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (irm-GC/MS) of n-alkanes ranging from C{sub 15} to C{sub 25}, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. Group 1 is characterized by high odd-carbon predominance in mid-chain n-alkanes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 19}), low abundance Of C{sub 20+}, n-alkanes, and an absence of pristane and phytane. Group IA is characterized by slightly lower odd-carbon predominance of mid-chain n-alkanes, greater abundance of C{sub 20+} n-alkanes compared to group 1, and no pristane and phytane. Conventional correlations of oil to source rock based on carbon isotopic-type curves and hopane (m/z 191) and sterane (m/z 217) distributions are of limited use in distinguishing Ordovician-reservoired oil groups and determining their origin. Oil to source rock correlations using the distribution and carbon isotopic composition of n-alkanes and the m/z 133 chromatograms of n-alkylarenes show that groups 1 and 1A originated from strata of the Upper Ordovician Galena Group. Group 2 either originated solely from the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group or from a mixture of oils generated from the Maquoketa Group and the Galena Group. The Mississippian-reservoired oil most likely originated from the Devonian New Albany Group. The use of GC, irm-GC/MS, and GC/MS illustrates the value of integrated molecular and isotopic approaches for correlating oil groups with source rocks.

  17. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations Citation Details In-Document...

  18. J00206010020 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XY! J00206010020 rock check dam J00206010023 rock check dam 09-009 09-009 09-009 PJ-SMA-2 0.901 Acres J00206010021 rock check dam J00206010019 rock check dam J00206010014 rock check dam J00203010007 Smith DATE: 14-November-2014 REVISION NUMBER: 8 XY! IP sampler location Berm Channel/swale Check dam

  19. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  20. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This method applies to the determination of isotopic composition in hydrolyzed nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride. It covers isotopic abundance of 235U between 0.1 and 5.0 % mass fraction, abundance of 234U between 0.0055 and 0.05 % mass fraction, and abundance of 236U between 0.0003 and 0.5 % mass fraction. This test method may be applicable to other isotopic abundance providing that corresponding standards are available. 1.2 This test method can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or directly by depositing the uranyl nitrate solution on the filaments. In the latter case, a calibration with uranyl nitrate standards must be performed. 1.3 This test method can also apply to other nuclear grade matrices (for example, uranium oxides) by providing a chemical transformation to uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address al...

  1. Clumped Isotope Thermometry in Deeply Buried Sedimentary Carbonates: The Effects of Bond Reordering Kinetics and Recrystallization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenton, Brock Jay

    2014-08-06

    I utilize clumped isotope thermometry to explore the diagenetic and thermal histories of exhumed brachiopods, crinoids, cements, and host rock in the Palmarito Formation, Venezuela and the Bird Spring Formation, Nevada, USA. Carbonate components...

  2. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing theActivation byIs a SmallIsotope

  3. Diffusion versus recrystallization processes in RbSr geochronology: Isotopic relics in eclogite facies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    Diffusion versus recrystallization processes in Rb­Sr geochronology: Isotopic relics in eclogite for the interpretation of geochronological data. Studied rocks from Ba°rdsholmen, southern WGR, were subjected-forming minerals. Conventional two-point `mica ages' for such rocks are a priori geochronologically uninterpretable

  4. Limited lithium isotopic fractionation during progressive metamorphic dehydration in metapelites: A case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Limited lithium isotopic fractionation during progressive metamorphic dehydration in metapelites-zone metamorphism far removed from the pluton to partially melted rocks adjacent to the pluton. Lithium on the aureole scale. Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Lithium; Isotope fractionation; Metamorphic

  5. c0011 Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy M.R. Saltzman and E. Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 11 c0011 Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy M.R. Saltzman and E. Thomas Chapter Outline 11.1. Principles of Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy 221 11.2. Spatial Heterogeneity of d13C of Dissolved Inorganic STRATIGRAPHY p0015 The potential of marine carbonate d13 C values to date and correlate rocks relies

  6. Engineering rock mass classifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1989-01-01

    This book is a reference on rock mass classification, consolidating into one handy source information widely scattered through the literature. Includes new, unpublished material and case histories. Presents the fundamental concepts of classification schemes and critically appraises their practical application in industrial projects such as tunneling and mining.

  7. Precipitation over South America during the Last Glacial Maximum: An analysis of the "amount effect"ť with a water isotope-enabled general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Johnson, Kathleen; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    Modeling d 18 O in precipitation over the tropical Americas:2007), Millennial-scale precipitation changes in southernStable isotopes in precipitation, Tellus, 16, 436 – Fedorov,

  8. AVLIS enrichment of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynam, C.A.; Scheibner, K.F.; Stern, R.C.; Worden, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Under the Sponsorship of the United states Enrichment Corporation (USEC), we are currently investigating the large scale separation of several isotopes of medical interest using atomic vapor isotope separation (AVLIS). This work includes analysis and experiments in the enrichment of thallium 203 as a precursor to the production of thallium 201 used in cardiac imaging following heart attacks, on the stripping of strontium 84 from natural strontium as precursor to the production of strontium 89, and on the stripping of lead 210 from lead used in integrated circuits to reduce the number of alpha particle induced logic errors.

  9. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindroth, David P. (Apple Valley, MN); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Blair, James R. (Inver Grove Heights, MN)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  10. S00906010006 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XY! 53-0002 53-0890 53-1036 53-0598 53-0860 53-0056 S00906010006 rock check dam S00906010005 rock check dam S00906010007 rock check dam S00903010009 earthen berm S00903010010 earthen berm S00903120003 Channel/swale Check dam Sediment trap/basin Gabion Seed and mulch Cap Established vegetation SWMU boundary

  11. STUDIES OF ISOSPIN QUINTETS AND NEUTRON-DEFICIENT INDIUM ISOTOPES WITH THE ON-LINE MASS ANALYSIS SYSTEM RAMA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerny, J.

    2010-01-01

    proton-rich If2p shell nuclides. In addition, the extensiveon-line mass analysis of nuclides of many chemical elementsexcess determinations for nuclides in this region should

  12. Rock-Around Orbits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Scott K.

    2010-07-14

    , David Hyland Tom Pollock J. Maurice Rojas Head of Department, Dimitris Lagoudas December 2009 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering iii ABSTRACT Rock-Around Orbits. (December 2009) Scott Kenneth Bourgeois, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory...] : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 4 Compatible Orbits for a Circular Target Orbit (Example 1) : : : : : 8 5 Inclination Bounds Geometry for a Circular Target Orbit : : : : : : : 10 6 GEO and RAO Orbits in the Inertial Frame (Example 1) : : : : : : : 14 7 GEO and RAO Orbits...

  13. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  14. Zeolitization Of Intracaldera Sediments And Rhyolitic Rocks In...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zeolitization Of Intracaldera Sediments And Rhyolitic Rocks In The 1.25 Ma Lake Of Valles Caldera, New Mexico, Usa Abstract Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of about 80...

  15. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more »i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  16. A Stable Isotope Analysis Study for Dietary Reconstruction at the Multi-Period Site of Mesembria (Nesebar) on the Black Sea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moles, Anna

    2012-11-30

    elevated isotopic values indicating a slight increase in marine food consumption, presumably due to Christian fasting rules, as well as improvements in fishing technologies and food preservation techniques. The small Byzantine cemetery demonstrated elevated...

  17. Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Lime Lithium Magnesium Manganese Mercury Mica Molybdenum Nickel Nitrogen Peat Perlite Phosphate Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Appendix C--Resource/Reserve Definitions . . . . . . 195 Commodities: Abrasives (Manufactured

  18. Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Mica Molybdenum Nickel Nitrogen Peat Perlite Phosphate Rock Platinum Potash Pumice Quartz Crystal Rare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Appendix C--A Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals

  19. Biogenicity and Syngeneity of Organic Matter in Ancient Sedimentary Rocks: Recent Advances in the Search for Evidence of Past Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-12-01

    he past decade has seen an explosion of new technologies for assessment of biogenicity and syngeneity of carbonaceous material within sedimentary rocks. Advances have been made in techniques for analysis of in situ organic matter as well as for extracted bulk samples of soluble and insoluble (kerogen) organic fractions. The in situ techniques allow analysis of micrometer-to-sub-micrometer-scale organic residues within their host rocks and include Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy/imagery, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and forms of secondary ion/laser-based mass spectrometry, analytical transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption microscopy/spectroscopy. Analyses can be made for chemical, molecular, and isotopic composition coupled with assessment of spatial relationships to surrounding minerals, veins, and fractures. The bulk analyses include improved methods for minimizing contamination and recognizing syngenetic constituents of soluble organic fractions as well as enhanced spectroscopic and pyrolytic techniques for unlocking syngenetic molecular signatures in kerogen. Together, these technologies provide vital tools for the study of some of the oldest and problematic carbonaceous residues and for advancing our understanding of the earliest stages of biological evolution on Earth and the search for evidence of life beyond Earth. We discuss each of these new technologies, emphasizing their advantages and disadvantages, applications, and likely future directions.

  20. Workshop on hydrology of crystalline basement rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.N. (comp.)

    1981-08-01

    This workshop covered the following subjects: measurements in relatively shallow boreholes; measurement and interpretation of data from deep boreholes; hydrologic properties of crystalline rocks as interpreted by geophysics and field geology; rock mechanics related to hydrology of crystalline rocks; the possible contributions of modeling to the understanding of the hydrology of crystalline rocks; and geochemical interpretations of the hydrology of crystalline rocks. (MHR)

  1. Hybrid isotope separation scheme

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus. 2 figures.

  2. Stable isotope enrichment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian

    2014-07-15

    Brian Egle is working to increase the nation's capacity to produce stable isotopes for use including medicine, industry and national security.

  3. Stable isotope enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian

    2014-07-14

    Brian Egle is working to increase the nation's capacity to produce stable isotopes for use including medicine, industry and national security.

  4. The Landscape of Klamath Basin Rock Art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David, Robert James

    2012-01-01

    Figure 22. Main rock art panel at QzM-1………………………………………………….31. Special Use Area rock art sites (map)………………………………………….Figure 32. Mod-17 rock art site within Modoc territory (

  5. Price Quotes and Isotope Ordering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ordering Price Quotes and Isotope Ordering Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Isotope...

  6. Discovery of the Indium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Thirty-eight indium isotopes (A = 98-135) have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Discovery of the Titanium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Twentyfive titanium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Discovery of the Mercury Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Forty mercury isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Discovery of the Cobalt Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Szymanski; M. Thoennessen

    2009-09-04

    Twenty-six cobalt isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Discovery of the Tin Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Thirty-eight tin isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2009-10-22

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  12. Oil and Gas CDT Bots in Rocks: Intelligent Rock Deformation for Fault Rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Heriot-Watt University, Institute of Petroleum Engineering Supervisory Team · Dr Helen Lewis, Heriot://www.pet.hw.ac.uk/staff-directory/jimsomerville.htm Key Words Nano/Micro sensors; faults; fault zones; geomechanics; rock mechanics; rock deformation-deformed equivalent, a different lab-deformed example and a geomechanical simulation of a fault zone showing permanent

  13. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  14. Determination of the origin of elevated uranium at a Former Air Force Landfill using non-parametric statistics analysis and uranium isotope ratio analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weismann, J.; Young, C.; Masciulli, S.; Caputo, D.

    2007-07-01

    Lowry Air Force Base (Lowry) was closed in September 1994 as part of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) program and the base was transferred to the Lowry Redevelopment Authority in 1995. As part of the due diligence activities conducted by the Air Force, a series of remedial investigations were conducted across the base. A closed waste landfill, designated Operable Unit 2 (OU 2), was initially assessed in a 1990 Remedial Investigation (RI; [1]). A Supplemental Remedial Investigation was conducted in 1995 [2] and additional studies were conducted in a 1998 Focused Feasibility Study. [3] The three studies indicated that gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium concentrations were consistently above regulatory standards and that there were detections of low concentrations other radionuclides. Results from previous investigations at OU 2 have shown elevated gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium concentrations in groundwater, surface water, and sediments. The US Air Force has sought to understand the provenance of these radionuclides in order to determine if they could be due to leachates from buried radioactive materials within the landfill or whether they are naturally-occurring. The Air Force and regulators agreed to use a one-year monitoring and sampling program to seek to explain the origins of the radionuclides. Over the course of the one-year program, dissolved uranium levels greater than the 30 {mu}g/L Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) were consistently found in both up-gradient and down-gradient wells at OU 2. Elevated Gross Alpha and Gross Beta measurements that were observed during prior investigations and confirmed during the LTM were found to correlate with high dissolved uranium content in groundwater. If Gross Alpha values are corrected to exclude uranium and radon contributions in accordance with US EPA guidance, then the 15 pCi/L gross alpha level is not exceeded. The large dataset also allowed development of gross alpha to total uranium correlation factors so that gross alpha action levels can be applied to future long-term landfill monitoring to track radiological conditions at lower cost. Ratios of isotopic uranium results were calculated to test whether the elevated uranium displayed signatures indicative of military use. Results of all ratio testing strongly supports the conclusion that the uranium found in groundwater, surface water, and sediment at OU 2 is naturally-occurring and has not undergone anthropogenic enrichment or processing. U-234:U-238 ratios also show that a disequilibrium state, i.e., ratio greater than 1, exists throughout OU 2 which is indicative of long-term aqueous transport in aged aquifers. These results all support the conclusion that the elevated uranium observed at OU 2 is due to the high concentrations in the regional watershed. Based on the results of this monitoring program, we concluded that the elevated uranium concentrations measured in OU 2 groundwater, surface water, and sediment are due to the naturally-occurring uranium content of the regional watershed and are not the result of waste burials in the former landfill. Several lines of evidence indicate that natural uranium has been naturally concentrated beneath OU 2 in the geologic past and the higher of uranium concentrations in down-gradient wells is the result of geochemical processes and not the result of a uranium ore disposal. These results therefore provide the data necessary to support radiological closure of OU 2. (authors)

  15. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Hedin, Robert S.; Weaver, Theodore J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  16. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  17. Shotgun cartridge rock breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruzzi, Peter L. (Eagan, NM); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN)

    1995-01-01

    A rock breaker uses shotgun cartridges or other firearm ammunition as the explosive charge at the bottom of a drilled borehole. The breaker includes a heavy steel rod or bar, a gun with a firing chamber for the ammunition which screws onto the rod, a long firing pin running through a central passage in the rod, and a firing trigger mechanism at the external end of the bar which strikes the firing pin to fire the cartridge within the borehole. A tubular sleeve surround the main body of the rod and includes slits the end to allow it to expand. The rod has a conical taper at the internal end against which the end of the sleeve expands when the sleeve is forced along the rod toward the taper by a nut threaded onto the external end of the rod. As the sleeve end expands, it pushes against the borehole and holds the explosive gasses within, and also prevents the breaker from flying out of the borehole. The trigger mechanism includes a hammer with a slot and a hole for accepting a drawbar or drawpin which, when pulled by a long cord, allows the cartridge to be fired from a remote location.

  18. Evolution of quartz cementation and burial history of the Eau Claire Formation based on in situ oxygen isotope analysis of quartz overgrowths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    .B. Dingwell Keywords: Quartz overgrowth Oxygen isotopes Eau Claire Formation Illinois Basin SIMS IndividualEvolution of quartz cementation and burial history of the Eau Claire Formation based on in situ quartz overgrowths in siltstone of the late Cambrian Eau Claire Formation (Fm.) are systematically zoned

  19. Photochemical isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Greiner, N.R.; Boyer, K.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium. 8 figs.

  20. Laser isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Munich, DE); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  1. Transient channel incision along Bolinas Ridge, California: Evidence for differential rock uplift adjacent to the San Andreas fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    Transient channel incision along Bolinas Ridge, California: Evidence for differential rock uplift as an index of rock uplift rate in steady state landscapes. Here we extend this analysis to landscapes form and inferred incision rate are explained by differential rock uplift within the region east

  2. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  3. Perchlorate Isotope Forensics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlke, J. K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA; Sturchio, N. C. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Horita, Juske [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL; Jackson, W. Andrew [Tennessee Technological University; Batista, Jacimaria [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate has been detected recently in a variety of soils, waters, plants, and food products at levels that may be detrimental to human health. These discoveries have generated considerable interest in perchlorate source identification. In this study, comprehensive stable isotope analyses ({sup 37}Cl/{sup 35}Cl and {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O/{sup 16}O) of perchlorate from known synthetic and natural sources reveal systematic differences in isotopic characteristics that are related to the formation mechanisms. In addition, isotopic analyses of perchlorate extracted from groundwater and surface water demonstrate the feasibility of identifying perchlorate sources in contaminated environments on the basis of this technique. Both natural and synthetic sources of perchlorate have been identified in water samples from some perchlorate occurrences in the United States by the isotopic method.

  4. Plasma isotope separation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, M.W. ); Shepp, T.A. )

    1991-12-01

    Isotope separation has many important industrial, medical, and research applications. Large-scale processes have typically utilized complex cascade systems; for example, the gas centrifuge. Alternatively, high single-stage enrichment processes (as in the case of the calutron) are very energy intensive. Plasma-based methods being developed for the past 15 to 20 years have attempted to overcome these two drawbacks. In this review, six major types of isotope separation methods which involve plasma phenomena are discussed. These methods are: plasma centrifuge, AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotope separation), ion wave, ICR (ion-cyclotron resonance), calutron, and gas discharge. The emphasis of this paper is to describe the plasma phenomena in these major categories. An attempt was made to include enough references so that more detailed study or evaluation of a particular method could readily be pursued. A brief discussion of isotope separation using mass balance concepts is also carried out.

  5. Rock Art in the Public Trust: Managing Prehistoric Rock Art on Federal Land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, John Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Stories in Stone: Rock Art Pictures by Early Americans. NewIntroduction. ? Coso Rock Art: a New Perspective, edited byIn The Archaeology of Rock Art,? edited by Christopher

  6. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  7. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-03-30

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  8. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using, a metal hydride.

  9. Chemical and petrological characteristics of the intrusive rocks of the Quitman Mountains, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seay, Christopher Sidney

    1973-01-01

    ) on stained rock slabs. The procedure of staining by sodium cobalti-nitrate and amaranth dye (Laniz and others, 1964) proved to be ideal for these medium- and coarse-grained rocks. 14 Before modal analysis was made, the rock was ' examined in thin... activation methods. For X-ray spectrographic analyses the stan- dards used were USGS Rock Standards W-l, G-2, and GSP-1, supplemented by National Bureau of Stan- dard's Mineral 70a (potassium feldspar) and Min- eral 99a (sodium feldspar) (Appendix 1...

  10. Source rock geochemistry and liquid and solid petroleum occurrences of the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiale, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Crude oils, solid bitumens and potential oil source rocks of the Frontal and Central Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma were examined. The purposes of this study are to characterize the organic matter in each of these materials, and to correlate oils to potential source rocks in the Ouachita Mountains. Four Ouachita Mountain oils and seven solid bitumens (grahamite and impsonite were analyzed. The oils are paraffinic and range from 31.8 to 43.1 API gravity. Results indicate that the oils are thermally mature and generally unaltered. All four oils are commonly sourced, as suggested by n-alkane, sterane and hopane distributions, stable isotope ratios, infrared spectra and vanadium/nickel ratios. A common source for the solid bitumens is also suggested by isotope ratios and pyrolyzate characteristics. An origin due to crude oil biodegradation is suggested for these solids, based on carbon isotope ratios, elemental analyses, and sterane distributions of the solid bitumen pyrolyzates. Several stratigraphic intervals in the Ouachita Mountains possess adequate source potential for petroleum generation, based on contents of total organic carbon and extractable organic matter. Devonian rocks are oil-generative. The entire Paleozoic section examined is thermally mature enough to have generated oil, being located at about the middle of the oil window. In general, the best oil source potential is present in upper Ordovician (Polk Creek/Womble) rocks. Oil-source rock correlation techniques indicate that oils examined from the Frontal and Central Ouachita Mountains have a Siluro-Ordovician (Missouri Mountain-Polk Creek-Womble) source.

  11. Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Kyanite Lead Lime Lithium Magnesium Manganese Mercury Mica Molybdenum Nickel Nitrogen Peat Perlite Graphite Peat Sulfur Beryllium Gypsum Perlite Talc Bismuth Hafnium Phosphate Rock Tantalum Boron Helium on the USGS--the Federal source for science about the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards

  12. Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Kyanite Lead Lime Lithium Magnesium Manganese Mercury Mica Molybdenum Nickel Nitrogen Peat Perlite Graphite Peat Sulfur Beryllium Gypsum Perlite Talc Bismuth Hafnium Phosphate Rock Tantalum Boron Helium information on the USGS--the Federal source for science about the Earth, its natural and living resources

  13. Isotope Geochemistry of Calcite Coatings and the Thermal History of the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.D. Marshall; J.F. Whelan

    2000-07-27

    Calcite and opal coatings found on fracture footwalls and lithophysal cavity bottoms in the volcanic section at Yucca Mountain (exposed in a tunnel) contain a record of gradual chemical and isotopic changes that have occurred in the unsaturated zone. The thin (less than 6 cm) coatings are composed primarily of calcite, opal, chalcedony, and quartz. Fluid inclusions in calcite that homogenize at greater than ambient temperatures provide impetus for geochronologic studies in order to determine the thermal history. In the welded Topopah Spring Tuff (12.7 Ma), U-Pb ages of opal and chalcedony layers provide evidence of a long history of deposition throughout the past 10 m.y. However, these ages can constrain the ages of associated calcite layers only in samples with an easily interpretable microstratigraphy. Strontium isotope ratios in calcite increase with microstratigraphic position from the base up to the outermost surface of the coatings. The strontium incorporated in these coatings records the systematic change in pore-water isotopic composition due to water-rock interaction primarily in the overlying nonwelded tuffs. A one-dimensional advection-reaction model simulates strontium isotope ratios measured in pore water extracted from core in three vertical boreholes adjacent to the tunnel. By calculating the strontium isotope compositions of the rocks at various past times, the model predicts a history of the strontium isotope ratios in the water that matches the record in the calcite and therefore provides approximate ages. Oxygen isotope ratios measured in calcite gradually increase with decreasing model strontium age. Assuming that the oxygen isotope ratio of the percolating water was relatively constant, this trend indicates a gradual cooling of the rocks over millions of years, in agreement with thermal modeling of magma beneath the 12-Ma Timber Mountain caldera just north of Yucca Mountain. This model predicts that temperatures significantly exceeding current geotherm values occurred prior to 6 Ma. We find no evidence for Quaternary or recent thermal perturbations to the cooling rocks.

  14. ArchRock Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arch Rock is a systems and software company that builds products and technology for wireless sensor networks. References: ArchRock Corporation1 This article is a stub. You can...

  15. Lichen: the challenge for rock art conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandridge, Debra Elaine

    2007-04-25

    This study investigates the effects that lichens have on rock surfaces in which ancient rock art (petroglyphs and pictographs) may be found. The study area includes four sites in the United States: one quartzite site in ...

  16. Nitrogen isotope effects on glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abell, L.M.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1988-05-03

    The nitrogen isotope effect on the decarboxylation of glutamic acid by glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli has been measured by comparison of the isotopic composition of the amino nitrogen of the product ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid isolated after 10-20% reaction with that of the starting glutamic acid. At pH 4.7, 37 /sup 0/C, the isotope effect is k/sup 14//k/sup 15/ = 0.9855 +/- 0.0006 when compared to unprotonated glutamic acid. Interpretation of this result requires knowledge of the equilibrium nitrogen isotope effect for Schiff base formation. This equilibrium isotope effect is K/sup 14//K/sup 15/ - 0.9824 for the formation of the unprotonated Schiff base between unprotonated valine and salicylaldehyde. Analysis of the nitrogen isotope effect on decarboxylation of glutamic acid and of the previously measured carbon isotope effect on this same reaction shows that decarboxylation and Schiff base formation are jointly rate limiting. The enzyme-bound Schiff base between glutamate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate partitions approximately 2:1 between decarboxylation and return to the starting state. The nitrogen isotope effect also reveals that the Schiff base nitrogen is protonated in this intermediate.

  17. Method for separating boron isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  18. Desert Rock Coatings Ronald I. Dorn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Ron

    Chapter 7 Desert Rock Coatings Ronald I. Dorn Introduction Desert landforms are characterized, that the supposed funda- mental bare-rock nature of desert landforms stretches the truth. In reality, rock coatings Petra tourist attraction of the Al-Khazneh Tomb fac¸ade is coated with a black manganese-rich varnish

  19. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    42) ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON 1961 Marine Biological. McKeman, Director ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1961--Fisheries No. 421 Washington, D. C. April 1962 #12;Rock Island Dam, Columbia River, Washington ii #12;CONTENTS

  20. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 :y .iiJA/i-3ri ^' WUUUi. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 by Paul D. Zimmer, Clifton and observations 10 Summary 13 #12;#12;ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

  1. Annual Fish Passage Report -Rock Island Dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annual Fish Passage Report - Rock Island Dam Columbia River, Washington, 1965 By Paul D. Zimmer L. McKeman, Director Annual Fish Passage Report - Rock Island Dam Columbia River, Washington, 1965;#12;Annual Fish Passage Report - Rock Island Dam Columbia River, Washington, 1965 By PAUL D. ZIMMER, Fishery

  2. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faybishenko, B.

    1999-02-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the International Symposium ''Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances'' held at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on February 10-12, 1999. This Symposium is organized in Honor of the 80th Birthday of Paul A. Witherspoon, who initiated some of the early investigations on flow and transport in fractured rocks at the University of California, Berkeley, and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is a key figure in the development of basic concepts, modeling, and field measurements of fluid flow and contaminant transport in fractured rock systems. The technical problems of assessing fluid flow, radionuclide transport, site characterization, modeling, and performance assessment in fractured rocks remain the most challenging aspects of subsurface flow and transport investigations. An understanding of these important aspects of hydrogeology is needed to assess disposal of nu clear wastes, development of geothermal resources, production of oil and gas resources, and remediation of contaminated sites. These Proceedings of more than 100 papers from 12 countries discuss recent scientific and practical developments and the status of our understanding of fluid flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rocks. The main topics of the papers are: Theoretical studies of fluid flow in fractured rocks; Multi-phase flow and reactive chemical transport in fractured rocks; Fracture/matrix interactions; Hydrogeological and transport testing; Fracture flow models; Vadose zone studies; Isotopic studies of flow in fractured systems; Fractures in geothermal systems; Remediation and colloid transport in fractured systems; and Nuclear waste disposal in fractured rocks.

  3. Isotop kl. B Supportlab.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isotop kl. B lab. Nærlager Supportlab. Supportlab. Supportlab. Lab. GMO1/BSL2 Supportlab. Supportlab. Supportlab. Supportlab. Lab. GMO1/BSL2 Vareindlevering post/frost Kontor Sofastue / Thekøkken. GMO1/BSL2 Supportlab. �velseslab, eksist. �velseslab, eksist. Forberedelseslab. Rum, køl/ centrifuge

  4. Numerical and analytical modeling of heat transfer between fluid and fractured rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Wei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of heat transfer between fluid and fractured rocks is of particular importance for energy extraction analysis in EGS, and therefore represents a critical component of EGS design and performance evaluation. In ...

  5. Elemental composition of two cumulate rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naeem, A.; Almohandis, A.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two cumulate rock samples K-185, K-250 from the Kapalagulu intrusion, W. Tanzania, were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), wet chemical and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. Major element oxides were determined by XRF and wet chemical methods, while the concentration of trace elements were measured by NAA, using high resolution Ge(Li) detector, minicomputer-based data acquisition system and off-line computer. The percentage of major oxides and sixteen trace elements have been reported. It has been found that Cr, Ni, and Co are highly concentrated in K-250 while Sc, and most of the major elements are more concentrated in K-185. The variation of major and trace elements in these two samples have been discussed.

  6. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr 206 - 213 and Fr 221

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-07

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7s1/2 to 7p1/2 transition for francium isotopes ˛???˛ąłFr with reference to ˛˛ąFr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7s1/2 to 7p3/2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D? and D? transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  7. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr 206 - 213 and Fr 221

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7s1/2 to 7p1/2 transition for francium isotopes ˛???˛ąłFr with reference to ˛˛ąFr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7s1/2 to 7p3/2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D? and D? transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  8. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in thermal waters at Zunil, Guatemala

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, R.O.; Hanshaw, B.B.; Urrutia Sole, J.F.

    1982-10-01

    Enthalpy-chloride relations suggest that a deep reservoir exists at Zunil with a temperature near 300/sup 0/C. Water from that reservoir moves to shallower and cooler local reservoirs, where it mixes with diluted water and then attains a new water-rock chemical equilibrium. This mixed water, in turn, generally is further diluted before being discharged from thermal springs. The stable-isotopic composition of the thermal water indicates that recharge for the deep water at Zunil comes mainly from local sources. The presence of measurable tritium, which suggests that the deep water has been underground about 20 to 30 years, also indicates a local source for the recharge.

  9. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-08-22

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

  10. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynam, Christopher A. (3035 Ferdale Ct., Pleasanton, CA 94566); Worden, Earl F. (117 Vereda del Ciervo, Diablo, CA 94528)

    1995-01-01

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

  11. Determination of thermal and cementation histories from [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar and ion microprobe stable isotope analyses: A San Joaquin Basin example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahon, K.I.; Harrison, T.M.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M. (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the temperature and cementation histories of sedimentary basins is key to appraisal of their liquid hydrocarbon potential. Understanding the thermal history permits assessment of whether source rocks have experienced conditions appropriate for petroleum formation. The mobility of hydrocarbons and their storage capacity in sandstone reservoirs are directly related to porosity changes during diagenesis. Recent advances in [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar dating (stripping of Cl-correlated Ar[sub xs] Multi-Diffusion Domain model) and development of ion micro-probe techniques for precise ([+-]0.6[per thousand]) [mu]m-scale oxygen isotopic analysis provide a basis to quantitatively determine thermal and cementation histories. Arkosic sandstones of the Stevens turbidities, San Joaquin basin, are cemented by carbonates with minor amounts of clay and quartz. Detrital K-spars from depths of 4.12 (A4) and 6.61 km (Al) in the Stevens zone at Elk Hills yield thermal histories via the MDD model. These results indicate a broadly linear temperature rise of 9[+-]3[degrees]C/Ma over the past 10 Ma and predict current peak temperatures that are within error ([+-]25[degrees]C) of the measured values of 200[degrees] (Al) and 150[degrees]C (A4). Previous bulk isotopic analyses of cements from Stevens sands at North Coles Levee indicate that diagenetic pore fluids were modified by the introduction of hydrocarbons and CO[sub 2] from maturing source horizons. In situ O isotopic analyses of 10 [mu]m spots in these cements confirms this heterogeneity. A model cementation history can then be calculated by linking the oxygen isotopic composition of the cements (and temperature-dependent fractionation factor) with the thermal history independently established from thermochronometry.

  12. Determination of thermal and cementation histories from {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar and ion microprobe stable isotope analyses: A San Joaquin Basin example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahon, K.I.; Harrison, T.M.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Knowledge of the temperature and cementation histories of sedimentary basins is key to appraisal of their liquid hydrocarbon potential. Understanding the thermal history permits assessment of whether source rocks have experienced conditions appropriate for petroleum formation. The mobility of hydrocarbons and their storage capacity in sandstone reservoirs are directly related to porosity changes during diagenesis. Recent advances in {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating (stripping of Cl-correlated Ar{sub xs} Multi-Diffusion Domain model) and development of ion micro-probe techniques for precise ({+-}0.6{per_thousand}) {mu}m-scale oxygen isotopic analysis provide a basis to quantitatively determine thermal and cementation histories. Arkosic sandstones of the Stevens turbidities, San Joaquin basin, are cemented by carbonates with minor amounts of clay and quartz. Detrital K-spars from depths of 4.12 (A4) and 6.61 km (Al) in the Stevens zone at Elk Hills yield thermal histories via the MDD model. These results indicate a broadly linear temperature rise of 9{+-}3{degrees}C/Ma over the past 10 Ma and predict current peak temperatures that are within error ({+-}25{degrees}C) of the measured values of 200{degrees} (Al) and 150{degrees}C (A4). Previous bulk isotopic analyses of cements from Stevens sands at North Coles Levee indicate that diagenetic pore fluids were modified by the introduction of hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} from maturing source horizons. In situ O isotopic analyses of 10 {mu}m spots in these cements confirms this heterogeneity. A model cementation history can then be calculated by linking the oxygen isotopic composition of the cements (and temperature-dependent fractionation factor) with the thermal history independently established from thermochronometry.

  13. Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1985-09-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17/sup 0/C nights, 23/sup 0/C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4% per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in /sup 13/C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0% per thousand at 27/sup 0/C/33/sup 0/C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. 28 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  14. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  15. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  16. Post Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly SmartDB-2, Blue MountainSchoolPrairiePonder,Abbey SchoolS AOakRock

  17. Isotopically labeled compositions and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Jurgen G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kimball, David B. (Los Alamos, NM); Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Williams, Robert F. (Los Alamos, NM); Martinez, Rudolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-07-12

    Compounds having stable isotopes .sup.13C and/or .sup.2H were synthesized from precursor compositions having solid phase supports or affinity tags.

  18. Uranium accountancy in Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carver, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The AVLIS program pioneers the large scale industrial application of lasers to produce low cost enriched uranium fuel for light water reactors. In the process developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, normal uranium is vaporized by an electron beam, and a precisely tuned laser beam selectively photo-ionizes the uranium-235 isotopes. These ions are moved in an electromagnetic field to be condensed on the product collector. All other uranium isotopes remain uncharged and pass through the collector section to condense as tails. Tracking the three types of uranium through the process presents special problems in accountancy. After demonstration runs, the uranium on the collector was analyzed for isotopic content by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Their results were checked at LLNL by analysis of parallel samples. The differences in isotopic composition as reported by the two laboratories were not significant.

  19. Rock Classification in Organic Shale Based on Petrophysical and Elastic Rock Properties Calculated from Well Logs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aranibar Fernandez, Alvaro A

    2015-01-05

    Organic Content (TOC), fluid saturation, volumetric concentrations of mineral constituents, and elastic properties facilitated identification of different rock classes, using an unsupervised artificial neural network. A good rock classification technique...

  20. Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  1. RADIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF NEUTRON DEFICIENT ACTINIDE ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Kimberly Eve

    2011-01-01

    Isotope Targets and Foils, AERE-R 5097, Paper 10 (1965). V.Isotope Targets and Foils, AERE-R 5097 Paper 12 (1965). K.M.Isotope Targets and Foils, AERE-R-5097 Paper 11 (1965). M.

  2. ZIRCONIUM—HAFNIUM ISOTOPE EVIDENCE FROM METEORITES FOR THE DECOUPLED SYNTHESIS OF LIGHT AND HEAVY NEUTRON-RICH NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akram, W.; Schönbächler, M.; Sprung, P.; Vogel, N.

    2013-11-10

    Recent work based on analyses of meteorite and terrestrial whole-rock samples showed that the r- and s- process isotopes of Hf were homogeneously distributed throughout the inner solar system. We report new Hf isotope data for Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) of the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende, and novel high-precision Zr isotope data for these CAIs and three carbonaceous chondrites (CM, CO, CK). Our Zr data reveal enrichments in the neutron-rich isotope {sup 96}Zr (?1? in {sup 96}Zr/{sup 90}Zr) for bulk chondrites and CAIs (?2?). Potential isotope effects due to incomplete sample dissolution, galactic and cosmic ray spallation, and the nuclear field shift are assessed and excluded, leading to the conclusion that the {sup 96}Zr isotope variations are of nucleosynthetic origin. The {sup 96}Zr enrichments are coupled with {sup 50}Ti excesses suggesting that both nuclides were produced in the same astrophysical environment. The same CAIs also exhibit deficits in r-process Hf isotopes, which provides strong evidence for a decoupling between the nucleosynthetic processes that produce the light (A ? 130) and heavy (A > 130) neutron-rich isotopes. We propose that the light neutron-capture isotopes largely formed in Type II supernovae (SNeII) with higher mass progenitors than the supernovae that produced the heavy r-process isotopes. In the context of our model, the light isotopes (e.g. {sup 96}Zr) are predominantly synthesized via charged-particle reactions in a high entropy wind environment, in which Hf isotopes are not produced. Collectively, our data indicates that CAIs sampled an excess of materials produced in a normal mass (12-25 M{sub ?}) SNII.

  3. Advanced isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-04

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems.

  4. Probabilistic model identification of the bit-rock-interaction-model uncertainties in nonlinear dynamics of a drill-string

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , and simple models are usually considered in the analysis. This is an important constraint when uncertaintiesProbabilistic model identification of the bit-rock-interaction-model uncertainties in nonlinear model of uncertainties in a bit-rock interaction model for the nonlinear dynamics of a drill

  5. Manufactured caverns in carbonate rock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruce, David A.; Falta, Ronald W.; Castle, James W.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a process for manufacturing underground caverns suitable in one embodiment for storage of large volumes of gaseous or liquid materials. The method is an acid dissolution process that can be utilized to form caverns in carbonate rock formations. The caverns can be used to store large quantities of materials near transportation facilities or destination markets. The caverns can be used for storage of materials including fossil fuels, such as natural gas, refined products formed from fossil fuels, or waste materials, such as hazardous waste materials. The caverns can also be utilized for applications involving human access such as recreation or research. The method can also be utilized to form calcium chloride as a by-product of the cavern formation process.

  6. The marine biogeochemistry of zinc isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Seth G

    2007-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) stable isotopes can record information about important oceanographic processes. This thesis presents data on Zn isotopes in anthropogenic materials, hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton, ...

  7. Isotope Research 229 Th production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isotope Research ­ 229 Th production We recently completed an ARRA-funded project of this type on 229 Th production reactions [Str11]. This long-lived isotope is important as a precursor to 225 Ac of accelerator production of 229 Th via the 230 Th(p,2n)229 Pa reaction. The 229 Pa decays primarily by electron

  8. WAVE GENERATIONS FROM CONFINED EXPLOSIONS IN ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    WAVE GENERATIONS FROM CONFINED EXPLOSIONS IN ROCKS C. L. Liu and Thomas J. Ahrens Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 In order to record P- and S-waves on the interactions between incident P- and SV-waves and free-surfaces of rocks. The relations between particle

  9. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON 1960 . SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1960 by Paul D. Zimmer and Clifton C. Davidson United States Fish This annual report of fishway operations at Rock Island Dam in 1960 is dedicated to the memory of co

  10. Alleghanian development of the Goat Rock fault zone, southernmost Appalachians: Temporal compatibility with the master decollement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steltenpohl, M.G. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Goldberg, S.A. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Hanley, T.B. (Columbus College, GA (United States)); Kunk, M.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The Goat Rock and associated Bartletts Ferry fault zones, which mark the eastern margin of the Pine Mountain Grenville basement massif, are controversial due to the suggestion that they are rare exposed segments of the late Paleozoic southern Appalachian master decollement. The controversy in part stems from reported middle Paleozoic (Acadian) radiometric dates postulated as the time of movement along these fault zones. Ultramylonite samples from the type area at Goat Rock Dam yield a 287 [plus minus] 15 Ma Rb-Sr isochron interpreted as the time of Sr isotopic rehomgenization during mylonitization. This date is corroborated by Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar mineral ages on hornblende (297-288 Ma) and muscovite (285-278 Ma) from neomineralized and dynamically recrystallized rocks within and straddling the fault zone. These Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian dates indicate the time of right-slip movement (Alleghenian) along the Goat Rock fault zone, which is compatible with the timing suggested by COCORP for thrusting along the southern Appalachian master decollement.

  11. Isotopic composition of passively collected nitrogen dioxide emissions: Vehicle, soil and livestock source signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    and d18 O values of natural and anthropogenic NOx emission sources. We report the first d15 N and d18 and vehicle emissions. We provide evidence for passive sampler use to collect NOx for isotope analysis. a r Accepted 7 April 2014 Available online 8 April 2014 Keywords: Nitrogen dioxide NOx Isotope Emission a b

  12. Fluid-rock interaction: A reactive transport approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steefel, C.

    2009-01-01

    to coupled mass transport and fluid-rock interaction in aof a reactive transport approach in fluid-rock interaction,reactive transport models for fluid-rock interaction. Case

  13. First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.

  14. Lithophysal Rock Mass Mechanical Properties of the Repository Host Horizon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Rigby

    2004-11-10

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop estimates of key mechanical properties for the lithophysal rock masses of the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) within the repository host horizon, including their uncertainties and spatial variability. The mechanical properties to be characterized include an elastic parameter, Young's modulus, and a strength parameter, uniaxial compressive strength. Since lithophysal porosity is used as a surrogate property to develop the distributions of the mechanical properties, an estimate of the distribution of lithophysal porosity is also developed. The resulting characterizations of rock parameters are important for supporting the subsurface design, developing the preclosure safety analysis, and assessing the postclosure performance of the repository (e.g., drift degradation and modeling of rockfall impacts on engineered barrier system components).

  15. Laser separation of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkens, J.W.; Puglishi, D.A.; Miller, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    There is an increasing demand for different separated isotopes as feed material for reactor and cyclotron-produced radioisotopes used by a fast-growing radiopharmaceutical industry. One new technology that may meet future demands for medical isotopes is molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS). This method was investigated for the enrichment of uranium in the 1970`s and 1980s by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Isotope Technologies, and others around the world. While South Africa and Japan have continued the development of MLIS for uranium and are testing pilot units, around 1985 the United States dropped the LANL MLIS program in favor of AVLIS (atomic vapor LIS), which uses electron-beam-heated uranium metal vapor. AVLIS appears difficult and expensive to apply to most isotopes of medical interest, however, whereas MLIS technology, which is based on cooled hexafluorides or other gaseous molecules, can be adapted more readily. The attraction of MLIS for radiopharmaceutical firms is that it allows them to operate their own dedicated separators for small-quantity productions of critical medical isotopes, rather than having to depend on large enrichment complexes run by governments, which are only optimal for large-quantity productions. At the University of Missouri, the authors are investigating LIS of molybdenum isotopes using MoF{sub 6}, which behaves in a way similar to UF{sub 6}, studied in the past.

  16. 3D Structural Analysis of the Benton Uplift, Ouachita Orogen, Arkansas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Harold Everett

    2012-02-14

    The date for the formation of the Benton Uplift, Ouachita orogeny, is bracketed by Carboniferous synorogenic sediments deposited to the north and Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian isotopic dates from the weakly metamorphosed rocks within...

  17. Regional Geology: GIS Database for Alternative Host Rocks and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    three alternative geologic host rocks for mined repositories (granitic crystalline, salt, and clay shale) and crystalline basement rock for deep borehole disposal. This...

  18. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage Dvorkin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES This report covers the results of developing the rock...

  19. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    full-scale laboratory investigations Michael S. Bruno 58 GEOSCIENCES; 02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; ROCK DRILLING; PRESSURE DEPENDENCE; ROCK MECHANICS; ROTARY DRILLING; WELL...

  20. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  1. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine, pharmaceuticals, and biology, (2) physical sciences and engineering, and (3) national security and other applications. In each area, compelling research opportunities were considered and the subcommittee as a whole determined the final priorities for research opportunities as the foundations for the recommendations. While it was challenging to prioritize across disciplines, our order of recommendations reflect the compelling research prioritization along with consideration of time urgency for action as well as various geopolitical market issues. Common observations to all areas of research include the needs for domestic availability of crucial stable and radioactive isotopes and the education of the skilled workforce that will develop new advances using isotopes in the future. The six recommendations of NSACI reflect these concerns and the compelling research opportunities for potential new discoveries. The science case for each of the recommendations is elaborated in the respective chapters.

  2. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harney, Robert C. (5665 Charlotte Way, No. 80, Livermore, CA 94550); Bloom, Stewart D. (141 Via Serena, Alamo, CA 94507)

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances.

  3. Isotopic and trace element characteristics of rhyolites from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Self, S.; Sykes, M.L. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Wolff, J.A. [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology; Skuba, C.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geology

    1991-09-01

    This report is a summary of work supported by DOE grant No. DE-FGO5-87ER13795 that was completed or is still in progress. The stated purpose of this grant was to collect geochemical information (trace element, radiogenic isotope and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope) on samples from core holes VC-I and VC-2a in the Valles caldera in order to establish a consistent detailed intracaldera stratigraphy and relate this to extracaldera volcanic rock units of the Jemez Mountains. Careful stratigraphic control of the intracaldera units is necessary to evaluate models of caldera formation, ignimbrite deposition, and resurgence. Combined stable and radiogenic isotope and trace element data will also provide major insights to petrogenesis of the Bandelier magma system. The composition of non-hydrothermally altered samples from outflow units of the Bandelier Tuff and related volcanics must be known to assess isotopic variations of intracaldera ignimbrite samples. On detailed examination of the VC-2a core samples, it became apparent that hydrothermal alteration is so extensive that no geochemical information useful for stratigraphic fingerprinting or petrogenesis could be obtained, and that correlation with other intracaldera units and extracaldera units must be made on the basis of stratigraphic position and gross lithologic characteristics. Accordingly, we emphasize geochemical data from the extracaldera Bandelier Tuffs and related units which will be useful for comparison with proposed drill hole VC-4 and for any future studies of the region. The stable isotope, radiogenic isotope and trace element data obtained from this project, combined with existing major and trace element data for volcanic rocks from this area, provide an extensive data base essential to future Continental Scientific Drilling Program projects in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico.

  4. Uranium and thorium decay series disequilibria in young volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the central questions in igneous geochemistry that study of radioactive disequilibria can help to answer are: what are the rates of magma genesis; and what are the timescales of magma separation and transport. In addition to the temporal information that may be extracted from disequilibria data, the {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th of a young rock may be used as a tracer of the Th/U ratio of its source region. Measurements were made by isotope dilution alpha-spectrometry of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th in 20 subduction related, 3 oceanic intraplate, and 10 continental intraplate volcanics. {sup 210}Pb was measured in all, {sup 226}Ra was measured in about half, and {sup 228}Th was measured in 10 of the most recent samples. Disequilibrium between {sup 228}Th and {sup 232}Th was found only in the Nacarbonatite samples from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania, which is attributable to {sup 228}Ra/{sup 232}Th {approximately} 27 at the time of eruption. These rocks also have {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th > 60. Three Ra-enrichment models are developed which constrain carbonatite magma formation at less than 20 years before eruption. The effects of different partial melting processes on the {sup 238}U decay series are investigated. If mid-ocean ridge basalts are formed by a dynamic melting process, the {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th of the basalts provides a minimum estimate of the Th/U ratio of the source region. The {sup 238}U enrichment in arc volcanics is probably the results of metasomatism of the source by fluids derived from the subducting slab, and the {sup 230}Th enrichment observed for other volcanics is probably due to the partial melting process in the absence of U-bearing fluids.

  5. Petroleum potentialities of central Tunisia as deduced from identification and characterization of oil source rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saidi, M.; Acheche, M.H.; Inoubli, H. (ETAP, Tunis (Tunisia)); Belayouni, H. (Faculte des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia))

    1991-08-01

    Many potential oil source rocks occur within the Tunisian stratigraphic column, including Silurian-Devonian shales, Albian and upper Albian-Vraconian carbonates, Cenomanian-Turonian black shales and lower Eocene carbonates. This focuses on the inventory of potential oil source rocks in central Tunisia ranging from middle Jurassic to Turonian. The emphasis is on determining their genetic potential and whether they could have generated oil and gas. Geochemical data obtained from the analysis of at least 2,147 samples show this region to be of significant interest as a petroleum prospective area. The main source rocks identified are Toarcian shales, upper Albian-Vraconian carbonates and Cenomanian-Turonian black shales. They contain predominantly type 2 organic matter (oil and gas prone) and are at the low maturity limit of the oil window. The occurrence of those source rocks close to numerous potential reservoir facies supports the conclusion that central Tunisia is a very interesting area for petroleum exploration.

  6. Novel hybrid isotope separation scheme and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which the specific isotope is to be isolated, radiating the gas with frequencies characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photoionization reaction of the desired isotope, and collecting the specific isotope ion by suitable ion collection means. 3 figures.

  7. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haller, E. E., E-mail: eehaller@lbl.gov [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  8. Rock mechanics design in mining and tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the design process as applied to rock mechanics aspects of underground mining and tunneling. Topics covered include a historical perspective, the design process in engineering, empirical methods of design, observational methods of design, and guided design.

  9. First Rocks from Outside the Solar System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, Andrew

    2014-10-17

    Andrew Westphal presents his findings in examining the first rocks from outside the solar system at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  10. COMPUTED SEISMIC SPEEDS AND ATTENUATION IN ROCKS ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, J. E.

    At the gas-oil or gas-water contact in a homo- geneous reservoir rock, capillary pressure ... During production of a field, gas may come out of solution and crcatr ...

  11. Rock Slopes from Mechanics to Decision Making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einstein, Herbert H.

    Rock slope instabilities are discussed in the context of decision making for risk assessment and management. Hence, the state of the slope and possible failure mechanism need to be defined first. This is done with geometrical ...

  12. Stress-induced transverse isotropy in rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, L.M.; Murphy, W.F. III [Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States); Berryman, J.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-03-28

    The application of uniaxial pressure can induce elastic anisotropy in otherwise isotropic rock. We consider models based on two very different rock classes, granites and weakly consolidated granular systems. We show that these models share common underlying assumptions, that they lead to similar qualitative behavior, and that both provide a microscopic basis for elliptical anisotropy. In the granular case, we make experimentally verifiable predictions regarding the horizontally propagating modes based on the measured behavior of the vertical modes.

  13. Reactive transport modeling of stable carbon isotope fractionation in a multi-phase multi-component system during carbon sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J.; Zheng, Liange; Mayer, Bernhard

    2014-12-31

    Carbon stable isotopes can be used in characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources, and to evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in the CO2-water-rock system. However, there are few tools available to incorporate stable isotope information into flow and transport codes used for CO2 sequestration problems. We present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable carbon isotopes in multiphase reactive systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The code is an extension of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The transport module of TOUGHREACT was modifiedmore »to include separate isotopic species of CO2 gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, CO32-, HCO3-,…). Any process of transport or reaction influencing a given carbon species also influences its isotopic ratio. Isotopic fractionation is thus fully integrated within the dynamic system. The chemical module and database have been expanded to include isotopic exchange and fractionation between the carbon species in both gas and aqueous phases. The performance of the code is verified by modeling ideal systems and comparing with theoretical results. Efforts are also made to fit field data from the Pembina CO2 injection project in Canada. We show that the exchange of carbon isotopes between dissolved and gaseous carbon species combined with fluid flow and transport, produce isotopic effects that are significantly different from simple two-component mixing. These effects are important for understanding the isotopic variations observed in field demonstrations.« less

  14. Reactive transport modeling of stable carbon isotope fractionation in a multi-phase multi-component system during carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mayer, Bernhard [Univ. of Calgary (Canada). Dept. of Geosciences

    2014-12-31

    Carbon stable isotopes can be used in characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources, and to evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in the CO2-water-rock system. However, there are few tools available to incorporate stable isotope information into flow and transport codes used for CO2 sequestration problems. We present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable carbon isotopes in multiphase reactive systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The code is an extension of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The transport module of TOUGHREACT was modified to include separate isotopic species of CO2 gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, CO32-, HCO3-,…). Any process of transport or reaction influencing a given carbon species also influences its isotopic ratio. Isotopic fractionation is thus fully integrated within the dynamic system. The chemical module and database have been expanded to include isotopic exchange and fractionation between the carbon species in both gas and aqueous phases. The performance of the code is verified by modeling ideal systems and comparing with theoretical results. Efforts are also made to fit field data from the Pembina CO2 injection project in Canada. We show that the exchange of carbon isotopes between dissolved and gaseous carbon species combined with fluid flow and transport, produce isotopic effects that are significantly different from simple two-component mixing. These effects are important for understanding the isotopic variations observed in field demonstrations.

  15. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the Palladium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    CROSS SECTIONS OF THE PALLADIUM ISOTOPES R.B. Firestone ? ,? ? for all stable Palladium isotopes with the guidedscheme is complete. The Palladium isotope decay schemes are

  16. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major...

  17. Fragment Isotope Distributions and the Isospin Dependent Equation of State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. P. Tan; B-A. Li; R. Donangelo; C. K. Gelbke; M-J. van Goetherm; X. D. Liu; W. G. Lynch; S. Souza; M. B. Tsang; G. Verde; A. Wagner; N. S. Xu

    2001-04-21

    Calculations predict a connection between the isotopic composition of particles emitted during an energetic nucleus-nucleus collision and the density dependence of the asymmetry term of the nuclear equation of state (EOS). This connection is investigated for central 112Sn+112Sn and 124Sn+124Sn collisions at E/A=50 MeV in the limit of an equilibrated freezeout condition. Comparisons between measured isotopic yields ratios and theoretical predictions in the equilibrium limit are used to assess the sensitivity to the density dependence of the asymmetry term of the EOS. This analysis suggests that such comparisons may provide an opportunity to constrain the asymmetry term of the EOS.

  18. Stable-Isotope Studies Of Rocks And Secondary Minerals In A Vapor-Dominated

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbHSoloPage Edit withSpionSquawAnsgar,WindTexas:

  19. A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgram |Recent Exploration WellMountain, NevadaCalcites,

  20. Isotopic Constraints on the Chemical Evolution of Geothermal Fluids, Long Valley, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Shaun; Kennedy, Burton; DePaolo, Donald; Evans, William

    2008-08-01

    A spatial survey of the chemical and isotopic composition of fluids from the Long Valley hydrothermal system was conducted. Starting at the presumed hydrothermal upwelling zone in the west moat of the caldera, samples were collected from the Casa Diablo geothermal field and a series of monitoring wells defining a nearly linear, ~;;14 km long, west-to-east trend along the proposed fluid flow path (Sorey et al., 1991). Samples were analyzed for the isotopes of water, Sr, Ca, and noble gases, the concentrations of major cations and anions and total CO2. Our data confirm earlier models in which the variations in water isotopes along the flow path reflect mixing of a single hydrothermal fluid with local groundwater. Variations in Sr data are poorly constrained and reflect fluid mixing, multiple fluid-pathways or water-rock exchange along the flow path as suggested by Goff et al. (1991). Correlated variations among total CO2, noble gases and the concentration and isotopic composition of Ca suggest progressive fluid degassing (loss of CO2, noble gases) driving calcite precipitation as the fluid flows west-to-east across the caldera. This is the first evidence that Ca isotopes may trace and provide definitive evidence of calcite precipitation along fluid flow paths in geothermal systems.

  1. Isotopic Analysis (Klein, 2007) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8, 13RenewableIrem GeothermalIslip Terrace,Open

  2. Isotopic Analysis (Not Available) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8, 13RenewableIrem GeothermalIslipNot Available) Jump to:

  3. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on OpeneiAlbanianStudy)savingsInformation 2007) JumpFluid

  4. STRONTIUM ISOTOPE EVOLUTION OF PORE WATER AND CALCITE IN THE TOPOPAH SPRING TUFF, YUCCA MOUNTAIN , NEVADA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.D. Marshall; K. Futa

    2001-02-07

    Yucca Mountain, a ridge of Miocene volcanic rocks in southwest Nevada, is being characterized as a site for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. One issue of concern for the future performance of the potential repository is the movement of water in and around the potential repository horizon. Past water movement in this unsaturated zone is indicated by fluid inclusions trapped in calcite coatings on fracture footwall surfaces and in some lithophysal cavities. Some of the fluid inclusions have homogenization temperatures above the present-day geotherm (J.F. Whelan, written communication), so determining the ages of the calcite associated with those fluid inclusions is important in understanding the thermal history of the potential repository site. Calcite ages have been constrained by uranium-lead dating of silica polymorphs (opal and chalcedony) that are present in most coatings. The opal and chalcedony ages indicate that deposition of the calcite and opal coatings in the welded part of the Topopah Spring Tuff (TSw hydrogeologic unit) spanned nearly the entire history of the 12.8-million-year-old rock mass at fairly uniform overall long-term rates of deposition (within a factor of five). Constraining the age of a layer of calcite associated with specific fluid inclusions is complicated. Calcite is commonly bladed with complex textural relations, and datable opal or chalcedony may be millions of years older or younger than the calcite layer or may be absent from the coating entirely. Therefore, a more direct method of dating the calcite is presented in this paper by developing a model for strontium evolution in pore water in the TSw as recorded by the strontium coprecipitated with calcium in the calcite. Although the water that precipitated the calcite in fractures and cavities may not have been in local isotopic equilibrium with the pore water, the strontium isotope composition of all water in the TSw is primarily controlled by water-rock interaction in the overlying nonwelded and essentially unfractured Paintbrush Group tuffs (PTn). The method of dating secondary minerals from known strontium evolution rates in rocks cannot be used in this study because it assumes the water that deposited the minerals was in isotopic equilibrium with the rock, which is not the case for the pore water in the TSw. Therefore, the evolution of the strontium isotope composition of the water that deposited the calcite, as recorded by the strontium coprecipitated with calcium in the calcite, was used to develop a model for determining the age of the calcite.

  5. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  6. Online Catalog of Isotope Products from DOE's National Isotope Development Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The Isotope subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable isotopes that are in short supply for research and applications. Isotopes are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical isotopes more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing isotopes at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports isotope production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic isotopes. The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates isotope production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of isotopes.

  7. Rock melting tool with annealer section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bussod, Gilles Y. (Santa Fe, NM); Dick, Aaron J. (Oakland, CA); Cort, George E. (Montrose, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A rock melting penetrator is provided with an afterbody that rapidly cools a molten geological structure formed around the melting tip of the penetrator to the glass transition temperature for the surrounding molten glass-like material. An annealing afterbody then cools the glass slowly from the glass transition temperature through the annealing temperature range to form a solid self-supporting glass casing. This allows thermally induced strains to relax by viscous deformations as the molten glass cools and prevents fracturing of the resulting glass liner. The quality of the glass lining is improved, along with its ability to provide a rigid impermeable casing in unstable rock formations.

  8. Isotope Development & Production | Nuclear Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Separation & Processing Strategic Isotope Production Super Heavy Element Discovery Nuclear Security Science & Technology Nuclear Systems Modeling, Simulation & Validation...

  9. Studies of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, G.W.; Melius, C.F.

    1987-12-01

    A gas flow apparatus has been constructed and used to study the isotopic exchange reaction occurring between the solid and gas phases in hydrogen (deuterium) gas flows directed through packed-powder beds of ..beta..-phase palladium deuteride (hydride). Spontaneous Raman light scattering is employed to obtain a real-time analysis of the isotopic composition of the gas (H/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, HD) exiting from the bed. A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time-dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes occurring on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas-phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with the experimental measurements and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, good agreement is obtained for p approx. = 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of a values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

  10. Carbon kinetic isotope effects on the hydration of carbon dioxide and the dehydration of bicarbonate ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlier, J.F.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1984-09-05

    /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effects on the hydration of CO/sub 2/ and the dehydration of HCO/sub 3//sup -/ in aqueous solution have been measured by rapid removal of the product and conversion to an isotopically stable form, followed by isotope-ratio analysis. The isotope effect on hydration is k/sup 12//k/sup 13/ = 1.0069 +/- 0.0003 at 24/sup 0/C. The isotope effect on dehydration is 1.0147 +/- 0.0007. The ratio of these two values gives an equilibrium isotope effect of K/sup 12//K/sup 13/ = 1.0077, in good agreement with previously measured values. The small magnitudes of the kinetic isotope effects indicate that the transition state for conversion of HCO/sub 3//sup -/ to CO/sub 2/ is very similar to that of HCO/sub 3//sup -/. This information together with previously measured solvent isotope effects indicates that the mechanism of HCO/sub 3//sup -/ dehydration probably involves general-acid-catalyzed donation of a proton from H/sub 3/O/sup +/ to the departing oxygen, rather than unimolecular decomposition of the zwitterion H/sub 2/O/sup +/-CO/sub 2//sup -/ in the rate-determining step. 21 references, 2 figures.

  11. Summary - Hot Dry Rock R&D Strategies and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P..

    1989-03-21

    In geothermal energy technology, the hydrothermal systems rely on volcanic hot rocks being fortuitously co-located with an adequate supply of natural ground water, usually at some considerable depth within the earth. This represents essentially two accidents in the same place, and the occurrence is relatively rare. Yellowstone Park and the desert valley of southern California are the most noteworthy US. examples. Since the heat is the energy needed, if we could just get the water down to it and back. Well, that's what is being done with the hot dry rock program. A well is drilled down to where there is adequate heat in the rocks. The well is then pressurized until the rock fractures creating what amounts to a reservoir full of hot, shattered rock. Finally, a well is drilled into the reservoir and water is pumped in one well, heated by the rock, and taken out through the other well at useful temperatures and pressures. We are getting ready to run significant long-term flow tests at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock site west of Los Alamos, New Mexico. We expect the operational information to provide the data to forecast the energy life of the wells as a production facility. This kind of resource is much more common than regular geothermal resources. Robert H. Hendron described the Long Term Flow Test and reservoir studies for which the project is preparing. A shortfall of available funding has slowed preparations, delaying the start of that test. The test is planning to gather data for more definitive reservoir modeling with energy availability or reservoir lifetime of primary interest. Other interests include geochemistry and tracer studies, microseismic response, water requirements and flow impedance which relates directly to the pumping power required. Progress has been made in modeling studies, chemically reactive tracer techniques, and in improvements in acoustic or microseismic event analysis. Donald W. Brown discussed reservoir modeling as it relates to production management of the HDR well. For wells which are fracture dominated rather than matrix-permeability controlled, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent permeability of the interconnected system of natural joints (or pre-existing fractures is critical to long-term power production from the wells) through optimized pressure management. It was mentioned that a knowledge of the pressure-dependent joint permeability could aid in designing more appropriate secondary recovery strategies in petroleum reservoirs, or reinjection I procedures of geothermal reservoirs. Dr. Bruce A. Robinson discussed the development of fluid flow and transport models for simulation of HDR geothermal reservoirs. These models are also expected to provide accurate predictions of long-term behavior and help in the development of strategies for reservoir improvement and operation. Two approaches were discussed. The discrete fracture approach is based on a random fracture network subject to prescribed statistical properties of the fracture set. It is used to simulate steady state fluid flow and solute transport. The other approach used the continuum approximation. This type of model is appropriate when the reservoir consists of many interconnected fractures, as is the case at Fenton Hill.

  12. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2014-06-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  13. Some Statistical Tools for Data Mining Applications David M. Rocke and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocke, David M.

    Some Statistical Tools for Data Mining Applications David M. Rocke and David L. Woodru® Center and Data Mining Statistics is about the analysis of data. Some statistical ideas are designed for problems currents of thought in the Żeld are aimed at more exploratory ends. In this sense, data mining (de

  14. On the seismic response of deep-seated rock slope instabilities --Insights from numerical modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the seismic response of deep-seated rock slope instabilities -- Insights from numerical modeling 2015 Accepted 3 April 2015 Available online 15 April 2015 Keywords: Seismic landslide hazard Spectral component of seismic hazard in mountainous regions. While many seismic slope stability analysis methods

  15. LASER SCANNING TECHNOLOGY FOR ROCK ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LASER SCANNING TECHNOLOGY FOR ROCK ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS Thorsten Schulz Institute of Geodesy or on the excavation surface. The use of laser scanners enables one to cope with practical constraints encountered surfaces regardless of the lighting conditions. Therefore, laser scanners have the potential to be employed

  16. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  17. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  18. Transfer of hot dry rock technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.

    1985-11-01

    The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program has focused worldwide attention on the facts that natural heat in the upper part of the earth's crust is an essentially inexhaustible energy resource which is accessible almost everywhere, and that practical means now exist to extract useful heat from the hot rock and bring it to the earth's surface for beneficial use. The Hot Dry Rock Program has successfully constructed and operated a prototype hot, dry rock energy system that produced heat at the temperatures and rates required for large-scale space heating and many other direct uses of heat. The Program is now in the final stages of constructing a larger, hotter system potentially capable of satisfying the energy requirements of a small, commercial, electrical-generating power plant. To create and understand the behavior of such system, it has been necessary to develop or support the development of a wide variety of equipment, instruments, techniques, and analyses. Much of this innovative technology has already been transferred to the private sector and to other research and development programs, and more is continuously being made available as its usefulness is demonstrated. This report describes some of these developments and indicates where this new technology is being used or can be useful to industry, engineering, and science.

  19. SEARCH FOR UNDERGROUND OPENINGS FOR IN SITU TEST FACILITIES IN CRYSTALLINE ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallenberg, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    of the precambrian crystalline rocks, Park and Jeffersonmap 1-413. 1965, The crystalline rocks of South Carolina,TEST FACILITIES IN CRYSTALLINE ROCK Harold A. Wollenberg,

  20. FACTORS IN THE DESIGN OF A ROCK MECHANICS CENTRIFUGE FOR STRONG ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, George B

    1984-01-01

    1 . Capacit i es of known centrifuges and v proposed SoftSolla I rock mechanics centrifuge r, ---------1~ --- dxB. , (1980), Geotechnical centrifuges for model studies and

  1. Modeling of crack initiation, propagation and coalescence in rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonçalves da Silva, Bruno Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Natural or artificial fracturing of rock plays a very important role in geologic processes and for engineered structures in and on rock. Fracturing is associated with crack initiation, propagation and coalescence, which ...

  2. Project Reports for Standing Rock Sioux Tribe- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (SRST) will perform a feasibility study and associated tasks over the course of two years on sites within the exterior boundaries of the Standing Rock Sioux...

  3. Inversion of seismic attributes for petrophysical parameters and rock facies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahraeeni, Mohammad Sadegh

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of rock and fluid properties such as porosity, clay content, and water saturation is essential for exploration and development of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Rock and fluid property maps obtained from such predictions ...

  4. 2.20 Properties of Rocks and Minerals -Magnetic Properties of Rocks and Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Scale Exchange Interactions and Magnetic Structure in Fe-Bearing Oxides Atomistic Simulations2.20 Properties of Rocks and Minerals - Magnetic Properties of Rocks and Minerals R. J. Harrison, R.20.5.1.3 2.20.5.2 2.20.5.2.1 2.20.5.2.2 2.20.5.2.3 2.20.5.2.4 Introduction Magnetism at the Atomic Length

  5. Chemical and isotopic determination from complex spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zardecki, A.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1995-07-01

    Challenges for proliferation detection include remote, high- sensitivity detection of chemical effluents from suspect facilities and enhanced detection sensitivity for nuclear material. Both the identification of chemical effluents with lidar and enhanced nuclear material detection from radiation sensors involve determining constituents from complex spectra. In this paper, we extend techniques used to analyze time series to the analysis of spectral data. Pattern identification methods are applied to spectral data for domains where standard matrix inversion may not be suitable because of detection statistics. We use a feed-forward, back-propagation neural network in which the nodes of the input layer are fed with the observed spectral data. The nodes of the output layer contain the identification and concentration of the isotope or chemical effluent the sensor is to identify. We will discuss the neural network architecture, together with preliminary results obtained from the training process.

  6. Rock physics and geophysics for unconventional resource, multi-component seismic, quantitative interpretation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glinsky, Michael E; Sassen, Doug; Rael, Howard; Chen, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    An extension of a previously developed, rock physics, model is made that quantifies the relationship between the ductile fraction of a brittle/ductile binary mixture and the isotropic seismic reflection response. Making a weak scattering (Born) approximation and plane wave (eikonal) approximation, with a subsequent ordering according to the smallness of the angle of incidence, a linear singular value decomposition analysis is done to understand the stack weightings, number of stacks, and the type of stacks that will optimally estimate the two fundamental rock physics parameters. It is concluded that the full PP stack and the "full" PS stack are the two optimal stacks needed to estimate the two rock physics parameters. They dominate over both the second order AVO "gradient" stack and the higher order (4th order) PP stack.

  7. Simulation of water-rock interaction in the Yellowstone geothermal system using TOUGHREACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Salah, Sonia; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric L.

    2003-04-28

    The Yellowstone geothermal system provides an ideal opportunity to test the ability of reactive transport models to simulate the chemical and hydrological effects of water-rock interaction. Previous studies of the Yellowstone geothermal system have characterized water-rock interaction through analysis of rocks and fluids obtained from both surface and downhole samples. Fluid chemistry, rock mineralogy, permeability, porosity, and thermal data obtained from the Y-8 borehole in Upper Geyser Basin were used to constrain a series of reactive transport simulations of the Yellowstone geothermal system using TOUGHREACT. Three distinct stratigraphic units were encountered in the 153.4 m deep Y-8 drill core: volcaniclastic sandstone, perlitic rhyolitic lava, and nonwelded pumiceous tuff. The main alteration phases identified in the Y-8 core samples include clay minerals, zeolites, silica polymorphs, adularia, and calcite. Temperatures observed in the Y-8 borehole increase with depth from sub-boiling conditions at the surface to a maximum of 169.8 C at a depth of 104.1 m, with near-isothermal conditions persisting down to the well bottom. 1-D models of the Y-8 core hole were constructed to simulate the observed alteration mineral assemblage given the initial rock mineralogy and observed fluid chemistry and temperatures. Preliminary simulations involving the perlitic rhyolitic lava unit are consistent with the observed alteration of rhyolitic glass to form celadonite.

  8. Simulation of water-rock interaction in the yellowstone geothermal system using TOUGHREACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, P.F.; Salah, S.; Spycher, N.; Sonnenthal, E.

    2003-04-28

    The Yellowstone geothermal system provides an ideal opportunity to test the ability of reactive transport models to accurately simulate water-rock interaction. Previous studies of the Yellowstone geothermal system have characterized water-rock interaction through analysis of rocks and fluids obtained from both surface and downhole samples. Fluid chemistry, rock mineralogy, permeability, porosity, and thermal data obtained from the Y-8 borehole in Upper Geyser Basin were used to constrain a series of reactive transport simulations of the Yellowstone geothermal system using TOUGHREACT. Three distinct stratigraphic units were encountered in the 153.4 m deep Y-8 drill core: volcaniclastic sandstone, perlitic rhyolitic lava, and nonwelded pumiceous tuff. The main alteration phases identified in the Y-8 core samples include clay minerals, zeolites, silica polymorphs, adularia, and calcite. Temperatures observed in the Y-8 borehole increase with depth from sub-boiling conditions at the surface to a maximum of 169.8 C at a depth of 104.1 m, with near-isothermal conditions persisting down to the well bottom. 1-D models of the Y-8 core hole were constructed to determine if TOUGHREACT could accurately predict the observed alteration mineral assemblage given the initial rock mineralogy and observed fluid chemistry and temperatures. Preliminary simulations involving the perlitic rhyolitic lava unit are consistent with the observed alteration of rhyolitic glass to form celadonite.

  9. A CONSTITUTIVE MODEL TO PREDICT THE HYDROMECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubertin, Michel

    in the presence of water to better assess the stability of rock structures under many situations. The accurate conditions. A rock mass behaviour can also be influenced by the water flow and ensuing pore pressure. For example, a previously stable rock structure can become unstable with an increase of water pressure inside

  10. Uranium occurrence in igneous rocks of the central Davis Mountains, west Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaftenaar, Wendy Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    , trachyte, quartz syenite, and rhyolite. Changes in uranium abundance were related to specific rock char- acteristics. The uranium abundances of 102 specimens were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Fission-track analysis was used to determine... and suggestions. Further assistance came from the staff of the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center, who provided time and guidance in delayed-neutron counting and fission-track analysis at the facility; and from Jack Monrad at the University of North...

  11. Big Rock Point severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, B.A. [Consumers Power Co., Charlevoix, MI (United States); Gabor, J.R. [Dames and Moore, Westmont, IL (United States)

    1996-07-01

    December 1994, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) issued guidance relative to the formal industry position on Severe Accident Management (SAM) approved by the NEI Strategic Issues Advisory Committee on November 4, 1994. This paper summarizes how Big Rock Point (BRP) has and continues to address SAM strategies. The historical accounting portion of this presentation includes a description of how the following projects identified and defined the current Big Rock Point SAM strategies: the 1981 Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment performance; the development of the Plant Specific Technical Guidelines from which the symptom oriented Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) were developed; the Control Room Design Review; and, the recent completion of the Individual Plant Evaluation (IPE). In addition to the historical presentation deliberation, this paper the present activities that continue to stress SAM strategies.

  12. Low Pore Connectivity in Natural Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    As repositories for CO? and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air–water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  13. Rock Chalk Report, January 9, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-09

    to both Baseball and Softball) on sale now! Season Tickets starting as low as $50! Earn two Williams Education Fund Priority Points per sport when you buy Baseball and Softball season tickets! Spirit Squad The University... of Kansas Spirit Squad The KU Cheer Squad and Rock Chalk Dancers will perform their National Competition routines on January 13 @ 4PM & 6PM! This event will be prior to their departure for Orlando to compete in the UCA/UDA College Nationals. This event...

  14. Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:Hydrothermally Deposited Rock Jump to: navigation,

  15. Rock, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan: Energy Resources JumpMtSampling Jump to:Rock,

  16. Chromium Isotope Fractionation During Reduction of Cr(VI) Under Saturated Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamieson-Hanes, Julia H.; Gibson, Blair D.; Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Kim, Yeongkyoo; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W.

    2012-10-25

    Chromium isotopes are potentially useful indicators of Cr(VI) reduction reactions in groundwater flow systems; however, the influence of transport on Cr isotope fractionation has not been fully examined. Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate isotopic fractionation of Cr during Cr(VI) reduction under both static and controlled flow conditions. Organic carbon was used to reduce Cr(VI) in simulated groundwater containing 20 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI) in both batch and column experiments. Isotope measurements were performed on dissolved Cr on samples from the batch experiments, and on effluent and profile samples from the column experiment. Analysis of the residual solid-phase materials by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy confirmed association of Cr(III) with organic carbon in the column solids. Decreases in dissolved Cr(VI) concentrations were coupled with increases in {delta}{sup 53}Cr, indicating that Cr isotope enrichment occurred during reduction of Cr(VI). The {delta}{sup 53}Cr data from the column experiment was fit by linear regression yielding a fractionation factor ({alpha}) of 0.9979, whereas the batch experiments exhibited Rayleigh-type isotope fractionation ({alpha} = 0.9965). The linear characteristic of the column {delta}{sup 53}Cr data may reflect the contribution of transport on Cr isotope fractionation.

  17. Squirt flow in fully saturated rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvorkin, J.; Mavko, G.; Nur, A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

    1995-01-01

    The authors estimate velocity/frequency dispersion and attenuation in fully saturated rocks by employing the squirt-flow mechanism of solid-fluid interaction. In this model, pore fluid is squeezed from thin soft cracks into the surrounding large pores. Information about the compliance of these soft cracks at low confining pressures is extracted from high-pressure velocity data. The frequency dependence of squirt-induced pressure in the soft cracks is linked with the porosity and permeability of the soft pore space, and the characteristic squirt-flow length. These unknown parameters are combined into one expression that is assumed to be a fundamental rock property that does not depend on frequency. The appropriate value of this expression for a given rock can be found by matching the authors theoretical predictions with the experimental measurements of attenuation or velocity. The low-frequency velocity limits, as given by their model, are identical to those predicted by Gassmann`s formula. The high-frequency limits may significant exceed those given by the Biot theory: the high-frequency frame bulk modulus is close to that measured at high confining pressure. They have applied their model to D`Euville Limestone, Navajo Sandstone, and Westerly Granite. The model realistically predicts the observed velocity/frequency dispersion, and attenuation.

  18. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, David J. (Albuquerque, NM); McNamee, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer, a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  19. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, D.J.; McNamee, M.J.

    1985-07-18

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  20. GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION IN CRYSTALLINE AND ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS SYMPOSIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of Rock Masses Structural GeologicalCharacterization of Rock Masses . • • • • • • • • 5.2.1 Structural Geological

  1. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wardaya, P. D. Noh, K. A. B. M. Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.

    2014-09-25

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave velocity of rock.

  2. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  3. EIS-0249: Medical Isotopes Production Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to establish a production capability for molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes.

  4. Strategic Isotope Production | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing facility (IMET) are routinely used in the production, purification, packaging, and shipping of a number of isotopes of national importance, including: 75Se, 63Ni,...

  5. Development of NDA instruments for the Los Alamos SIS (Special Isotope Separation) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T.K.; Rinard, P.M.; Schneider, C.M.; Atencio, J.D.; Hyman, D.H.; Kroncke, K.E.; Painter, J.; Siebelist, R.; Holbrooks, O.; Halbig, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Los Alamos Special Isotope Separation Facility produces special plutonium isotopes and converts plutonium scrap by using the molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) process in a gaseous plutonium hexafluoride (PuF/sub 6/) phase. To provide important process-development and accountability information, we have developed and installed four nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for that facility. These instruments are (1) an in-line plutonium isotopic analysis system to measure plutonium isotopes in gaseous, solid, and liquid phases, (2) an in-line sodium iodide (NaI) monitoring system consisting of six 2-in. by 2-in., two 2-in. by 24-in., and one 2-in. by 22-in. NaI detectors at specified components (a feed bottle, a feed-transfer cold trap, a compressor, a heat exchanger, a collector, a nozzle prefilter, and a tails cold trap) in the flow loop, (3) a portable high-resolution germanium gamma-ray system for plutonium isotopic analysis, and (4) a portable NaI gamma-ray holdup monitor. This paper discusses the measurement principles, hardware and software designs, and performance associated with these NDA instruments. 2 refs, 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC/ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2000-10-01

    This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

  7. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

  8. Discovery of Isotopes of Elements with Z $\\ge$ 100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Thoennessen

    2012-03-09

    Currently, 163 isotopes of elements with Z $\\ge$ 100 have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Stable Isotope Characterization of TICs/TIMs: Analytical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volpe, A M; Singleton, M J

    2009-06-05

    We measured twelve alkali cyanide samples that were also sent to ORNL and PNNL collaborators. While results indicate distinct {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N values that would be useful to signature studies, the alkali cyanides, especially NaCN, show chemical breakdown during storage that will influence forensic analysis. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic compositions of raw materials used to synthesis TETS were measured. Results indicate wide ranges in {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N values. Using these raw materials, LLNL scientists synthesized three batches of TETS following published procedures. Stable isotopic measurements of TETS synthesis products indicates nitrogen ({var_epsilon} {sup 15}N = -1.7 to -0.8) and carbon ({var_epsilon} {sup 13}C = -1.0 to -0.1) fractionation during production.

  10. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galanina, L. I., E-mail: galan_lidiya@mail.ru; Zelenskaja, N. S. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  11. Uranium molecular laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.J.; Sullivan, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Molecular Laser Isotope Separation program is moving into the engineering phase, and it is possible to determine in some detail the plant cost terms involved in the process economics. A brief description of the MLIS process physics is given as a motivation to the engineering and economics discussion. Much of the plant cost arises from lasers and the overall optical system. In the paper, the authors discuss lasers as operating units and systems, along with temporal multiplexing and Raman shifting. Estimates of plant laser costs are given.

  12. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  13. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Slick Rock

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co - OH 51SavannahMill SiteSlick Rock

  14. Category:Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPID Roadmap ContactRock Density Jump to: navigation,

  15. BETA DECAY MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON DEFICIENT CESIUM ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parry, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    OF NEUTRON DEFICIENT CESIUM ISOTOPES by Roger Franklin Parryof Neutron Deficient Cesium Isotopes Table of ContentsReferences Wapstra xenon and cesium mass excess values 108

  16. Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected and Marcellus Formation Water after Hydraulic Fracturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strontium Isotopes...

  17. Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group...

  18. Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Presentation...

  19. Hydrogen Isotope Research Center (HRC), University of Toyama...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Isotope Research Center (HRC), University of Toyama Hydrogen Isotope Research Center (HRC), University of Toyama Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting...

  20. 2008 Workshop on The Nation's Needs for Isotopes: Present and...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    and radioactive isotope products that are used worldwide. Hundreds of applications in medicine, industry, national security and research depend on isotopes as vital components. The...

  1. Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and Diffusion-Limited Regimes Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and...

  2. ACOUSTICAL IMAGING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOFT ROCK AND MARINE SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurman E. Scott, Jr., Ph.D.; Younane Abousleiman, Ph.D.; Musharraf Zaman, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-11-18

    During the seven quarter of the project the research team analyzed some of the acoustic velocity data and rock deformation data. The goal is to create a series of ''deformation-velocity maps'' which can outline the types of rock deformational mechanisms which can occur at high pressures and then associate those with specific compressional or shear wave velocity signatures. During this quarter, we began to analyze both the acoustical and deformational properties of the various rock types. Some of the preliminary velocity data from the Danian chalk will be presented in this report. This rock type was selected for the initial efforts as it will be used in the tomographic imaging study outlined in Task 10. This is one of the more important rock types in the study as the Danian chalk is thought to represent an excellent analog to the Ekofisk chalk that has caused so many problems in the North Sea. Some of the preliminary acoustic velocity data obtained during this phase of the project indicates that during pore collapse and compaction of this chalk, the acoustic velocities can change by as much as 200 m/s. Theoretically, this significant velocity change should be detectable during repeated successive 3-D seismic images. In addition, research continues with an analysis of the unconsolidated sand samples at high confining pressures obtained in Task 9. The analysis of the results indicate that sands with 10% volume of fines can undergo liquefaction at lower stress conditions than sand samples which do not have fines added. This liquefaction and/or sand flow is similar to ''shallow water'' flows observed during drilling in the offshore Gulf of Mexico.

  3. Positive and inverse isotope effect on superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian De Cao

    2009-09-04

    This article improves the BCS theory to include the inverse isotope effect on superconductivity. An affective model can be deduced from the model including electron-phonon interactions, and the phonon-induced attraction is simply and clearly explained on the electron Green function. The focus of this work is on how the positive or inverse isotope effect occurs in superconductors.

  4. [Carbon isotope fractionation inplants]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Leary, M.H.

    1990-12-31

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  5. The Quest for the Heaviest Uranium Isotope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Schramm; D. Gridnev; D. V. Tarasov; V. N. Tarasov; W. Greiner

    2012-01-17

    We study Uranium isotopes and surrounding elements at very large neutron number excess. Relativistic mean field and Skyrme-type approaches with different parametrizations are used in the study. Most models show clear indications for isotopes that are stable with respect to neutron emission far beyond N=184 up to the range of around N=258.

  6. Efficient palladium isotope chromatograph for hydrogen (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Embury, M.C.; Ellefson, R.E.; Melke, H.B. )

    1992-03-01

    The Efficient Palladium Isotope Chromatograph (EPIC) is a rapid cycling, computer-operated displacement chromatograph for the separation of hydrogen isotopes. EPIC incorporates several features that optimize product throughput and purity. This paper describes this palladium displacement chromatograph, the operations with protium and deuterium, and the design modifications for operation with tritium.

  7. ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lederer, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    constructed to enrich liquid UF6 slightly as feed for thej) b. Optimum a. s: .X. UF6 feed, (kg per year) XBL 7912 -

  8. ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lederer, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    scale use of gas centrifuges for uranium is imminent, andUranium Enrichment (1978). United States Gas Centrifuge

  9. Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractivePGAS andUniversityCancer therapy gets

  10. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  11. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock.

  12. Isotope Enrichment Detection by Laser Ablation - Dual Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2009-07-01

    The rapid global expansion of nuclear energy is motivating the expedited development of new safeguards technology to mitigate potential proliferation threats arising from monitoring gaps within the uranium enrichment process. Current onsite enrichment level monitoring methods are limited by poor sensitivity and accuracy performance. Offsite analysis has better performance, but this approach requires onsite hand sampling followed by time-consuming and costly post analysis. These limitations make it extremely difficult to implement comprehensive safeguards accounting measures that can effectively counter enrichment facility misuse. In addition, uranium enrichment by modern centrifugation leads to a significant proliferation threat, since the centrifuge cascades can quickly produce a significant quantity of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an engineered safeguards approach having continuous aerosol particulate collection and uranium isotope analysis to provide timely detection of HEU production in a low enriched uranium facility. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulate samples, followed by wavelength tuned laser diode spectroscopy, to characterize the 235U/238U isotopic ratio by subtle differences in atomic absorption wavelengths arising from differences in each isotope’s nuclear mass, volume, and spin (hyperfine structure for 235U). Environmental sampling media is introduced into a small, reduced pressure chamber, where a focused pulsed laser vaporizes a 10 to 20-µm sample diameter. The ejected plasma forms a plume of atomic vapor. A plume for a sample containing uranium has atoms of the 235U and 238U isotopes present. Tunable diode lasers are directed through the plume to selectively excite each isotope and their presence is detected by monitoring absorbance signals on a shot-to-shot basis. Single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and abundance uncertainty less than 10% have been demonstrated with measurements on surrogate materials. In this paper we present measurement results on samples containing background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils) laced with micron-sized target particles having isotopic ratios ranging from 1 to 50%.

  13. Velocity and attenuation in partially molten rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.M.

    1980-10-10

    Interpretation of seismic velocity and attenuation in partially molten rocks has been limited, with few exceptions, to models that assume the melt to be distributed either as spheres or as thin films. However, other melt phase geometries, such as interconnected tubes along grain edges, might equally well account for seismic observations if there is a much larger fraction of melt. Seismic velocity and attenuation are estimated in rocks in which the melt phase has the tube geometry, and the results are compared with results expected for the more familiar film model under similar conditions. For a given melt fraction, tubes are found to give moduli intermediate between moduli for rigid spherical inclusions and compliant films. For example, in polycrystalline olivine at 20 kbar the model predicts a decrease in V/sub s/ of 10% and a decrease in V/sub p/ of 5% at 0.05 melt fraction, without considering inelastic relaxation. Shear attenuation appears to be dominated by viscous flow of melt between the tubes and/or films. For olivine the tube model predicts the increment of relaxation due to melt, ..delta mu../..mu.., to be 0.01 at 0.05 melt fraction. Relaxation of the bulk modulus is dominated by flow between melt pockets of different shape, heat flow, and solid-melt phase change. If melt is present, considerable bulk attenuation is expected, although the relaxation may be observable only at long periods, outside the seismic body wave band.

  14. Elastic properties of saturated porous rocks with aligned fractures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-12-02

    of fluid properties on seismic characteristics. ... C. C. A . The host rock is permeated by a set of parallel fractures which are ..... Similar behaviour is ..... Page 14 ...

  15. Stress and fault rock controls on fault zone hydrology, Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fault zone hydrology, Coso geothermal field, CA Abstract In crystalline rock of the Coso Geothermal Field, CA, fractures are the primary source of permeability. At reservoir...

  16. Lithology and alteration mineralogy of reservoir rocks at Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the overlying metamorphic rock acts as a cap to the productive zone and inhibits vertical movement of the geothermal fluids above the main upwelling zone. The upwelling...

  17. Lithology and Alteration Mineralogy of Reservoir Rocks at Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the overlying metamorphic rock acts as a cap to the productive zone and inhibits vertical movement of the geothermal fluids above the main upwelling zone. The upwelling...

  18. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  19. Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical-mechanical couplings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fractured...

  20. Seepage into drifts in unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens; Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Tsang, Yvonne

    1998-01-01

    Fractured Rock at Yucca Mountain Jens Birkholzer, Guomin Lrepository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as it is locatedclimate conditions at Yucca Mountain. The numerical study is

  1. Rock Sampling At San Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geologically mapped the target area, obtained rock samples for age dating and mineral chemistry, performed gravity and magnetic surveys, and integrated these results to identify...

  2. Scientists Pass Solid Particles Through Rock in DOE-Sponsored...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rock fractures in the laboratory. This technology has the potential for mapping fracture systems in detail and aid in determining reservoir characteristics. This research was...

  3. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Project Type Topic 2 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Project Description Supercritical CO2 is currently becoming a more...

  4. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation of lead-210 isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Haynam, Christopher A. (Pleasanton, CA); Johnson, Michael A. (Pleasanton, CA); Worden, Earl F. (Diablo, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An isotopically selective laser process and apparatus for removal of Pb-210 from natural lead that involves a one-photon near-resonant, two-photon resonant excitation of one or more Rydberg levels, followed by field ionization and then electrostatic extraction. The wavelength to the near-resonant intermediate state is counter propagated with respect to the second wavelength required to populate the final Rydberg state. This scheme takes advantage of the large first excited state cross section, and only modest laser fluences are required. The non-resonant process helps to avoid two problems: first, stimulated Raman Gain due to the nearby F=3/2 hyperfine component of Pb-207 and, second, direct absorption of the first transition process light by Pb-207.

  5. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation of lead-210 isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheibner, K.F.; Haynam, C.A.; Johnson, M.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1999-08-31

    An isotopically selective laser process and apparatus for removal of Pb-210 from natural lead that involves a one-photon near-resonant, two-photon resonant excitation of one or more Rydberg levels, followed by field ionization and then electrostatic extraction. The wavelength to the near-resonant intermediate state is counter propagated with respect to the second wavelength required to populate the final Rydberg state. This scheme takes advantage of the large first excited state cross section, and only modest laser fluences are required. The non-resonant process helps to avoid two problems: first, stimulated Raman Gain due to the nearby F=3/2 hyperfine component of Pb-207 and, second, direct absorption of the first transition process light by Pb-207. 5 figs.

  6. Upgrading scientific capabilities at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, C.D.; Farrar, M.B.

    1997-07-14

    Following termination of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project, a program of upgrades to the Department of Energy`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was devised by a team of researchers and reactor operators and has been proposed to the department. HFIR is a multipurpose research reactor, commissioned in 1965, with missions in four nationally important areas: isotope production, especially transuranic isotopes; neutron scattering; neutron activation analysis; and irradiation testing of materials. For neutron scattering, there are two major enhancements and several smaller ones. The first is the installation of a small, hydrogen cold neutron source in one of the four existing beam tubes: because of the high reactor power, and the use of new design concepts developed for ANS, the cold source will be as bright as, or brighter than, the Institute Laue Langevin liquid deuterium vertical cold source, although space limitations mean that there will be far fewer cold beams and instruments at HFIR. This project is underway, and the cold source is expected to come on line following an extended shutdown in 1999 to replace the reactor`s beryllium reflector. The second major change proposed would put five thermal neutron guides at an existing beam port and construct a new guide hall to accommodate instruments on these very intense beams.

  7. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  8. Apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMullen, John W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheeler, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Cullingford, Hatice S. (Houston, TX); Sherman, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas(es) is (are) stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forming at a significantly lower temperature).

  9. An integrated experimental and numerical study: Developing a reaction transport model that couples chemical reactions of mineral dissolution/precipitation with spatial and temporal flow variations in CO2/brine/rock systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Generate and characterize mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions in supercritical CO2/brine/rock systems under pressure-temperature-chemistry conditions resembling CO2injection into EGS. Characterize three-dimensional spatial and temporal distributions of rock structures subject to mineral dissolution/precipitation processes by X-ray tomography, SEM imaging, and Microprobe analysis.

  10. PTYS 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE ROCKS AND MINERALS 133

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Barbara Anne

    PTYS 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE ROCKS AND MINERALS 133 Rocks and Minerals I. OBJECTIVES One of the many ways to study Earth is by examining the rocks that make up its types of rocks and minerals; · determine the formation and the history of each rock and mineral; · infer

  11. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences 45 (2008) 12111225 Consolidation settlements above deep tunnels in fractured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhardt, Erik

    2008-01-01

    settlements above deep tunnels in fractured crystalline rock: Part 2--Numerical analysis of the Gotthard highway tunnel case study C. Zangerla,b,Ă, E. Eberhardta,c , K.F. Evansa , S. Loewa a Engineering Geology Hazard Management, Innsbruck, Austria c Geological Engineering/Earth and Ocean Sciences, University

  12. Isotopic Studies of Contaminant Transport at the Hanford Site, WA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, J.N.; Conrad, M.E.; DePaolo, D.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    1977. Subcommission on geochronology: Convention on the useby W. Sharp, Berkeley Geochronology Center). Isotopic

  13. Experience with in situ measurement of rock deformability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1981-07-01

    Although in situ tests have the advantage of involving a large volume or rock tested under the same environmental conditions as are prevailing in the rock mass, such tests are expensive and time consuming. In addition, there are a number of controversial questions pertinent to in situ tests.

  14. Geophysical detection and structural characterization of discontinuities in rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Geophysical detection and structural characterization of discontinuities in rock slopes (J. Deparis geophysical methods (seismic, electric and electromagnetic) are available to address this problem, differing and geophysical methods for characterizing the rock mass. Section 2 is dedicated to a review of the main

  15. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250şC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  16. RUPTURE BY DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN ROCKS David Amitrano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RUPTURE BY DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN ROCKS David Amitrano LIRIGM, Université J. Fourier, Grenoble of rocks is associated with microcracks nucleation and propagation, i.e. damage. The accumulation of damage as strength and modulus. The damage process can be studied both statically by direct observation of thin

  17. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-06-30

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have studied (1) Effects of pore texture on porosity, permeability, and sonic velocity. We show how a relation can be found between porosity, permeability, and velocity by separating the formations of rocks with similar pore textures.

  18. Geological and mathematical framework for failure modes in granular rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borja, Ronaldo I.

    Geological and mathematical framework for failure modes in granular rock Atilla Aydina, *, Ronaldo I. Borjab , Peter Eichhubla,1 a Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford processes in granular rock and provide a geological framework for the corresponding structures. We describe

  19. Rock to Regolith Earth's Critical Zone on Volcanic Ocean Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geist, Dennis

    increases monotonically towards surface #12;Frost creep transport Frequency and depth of freezing event (f in a landscape? (the w question) What governs the efficiency of regolith transport? (the Q question) What lens growth #12;Ice lenses in soils Ice lenses in rock Water freezing in soil and rocks Murton et al

  20. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  1. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  2. SAS2H Generated Isotopic Concentrations For B&W 15X15 PWR Assembly (SCPB:N/A)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.W. Davis

    1996-08-29

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide pressurized water reactor (PWR) isotopic composition data as a function of time for use in criticality analyses. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate burnup and decay dependant isotopic inventories and to provide these inventories in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent criticality calculations.

  3. Isotope correlations as a probe for freeze-out characterization: central 124Sn+64Ni, 112Sn+58Ni collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Geraci; Reverse collaboration

    2003-10-15

    124Sn+64Ni and 112Sn+58Ni reactions at 35 AMeV incident energy were studied with the forward part of CHIMERA multi-detector. The most central collisions were selected by means of a multidimensional analysis. The characteristics of the source formed in the central collisions, as size, temperature and volume, were inspected. The measured isotopes of light fragments (3 <= Z <=8) were used to examine isotope yield ratios that provide information on the free neutron to proton densities.

  4. Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P.

    1998-01-05

    This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.

  5. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock cavernsCompressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) in Lined Rock Cavernscompressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock

  6. Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope systematics between Wild 2 particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope 2012 Keywords: oxygen isotope ratios crystalline silicate comet 81P/Wild 2 solar system formation Stardust Abstract: Oxygen three-isotope ratios of nine crystalline silicate particles from comet Wild 2

  7. Relative Dating and Classification of Minerals and Rocks Based on Statistical Calculations Related to Their Potential Energy Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labushev, Mikhail M

    2012-01-01

    Index of proportionality of atomic weights of chemical elements is proposed for determining the relative age of minerals and rocks. Their chemical analysis results serve to be initial data for calculations. For rocks of different composition the index is considered to be classification value as well. Crystal lattice energy change in minerals and their associations can be measured by the index value change, thus contributing to the solution of important practical problems. There was determined the effect of more rapid increase of potential energy of limestone with relatively low lattice energy as compared with the others.

  8. Neutron Deficient Isotopes of Rhodium and Palladium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perlman, I.

    2010-01-01

    S OF RHODI U! \\~ AFD PALLADIUM by Manfred Lindner and I.Isotopes of B." odinm. and Palladium Hanfred Lindner and 1.i.a ABSTRACT A palladium activit;)r assigned to mass

  9. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  10. Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, David T.

    Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its ...

  11. A SUPERCONDUCTING-SOLENOID ISOTOPE SPECTROMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    A SUPERCONDUCTING-SOLENOID ISOTOPE SPECTROMETER FOR PRODUCTION OF NEUTRON-RICH NUCLEI ( 136 Xe Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's weekly \\Green Sheet," 30 July 1999 #12; c Thomas W. O'Donnell 2000 All

  12. Photodisintegration of the isotope {sup 116}Cd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyshev, S. S.; Ishkhanov, B. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)] [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Orlin, V. N.; Stopani, K. A.; Khankin, V. V.; Shvedunov, N. V., E-mail: gg.swedn@gmail.com [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    The results obtained by measuring the yields of photodisintegration of the isotope {sup 116}Cd irradiated with bremsstrahlung photons whose spectrum had an endpoint energy of 55 MeV are presented and compared with the results of theoretical calculations.

  13. The Isotopic Abundances of Magnesium in Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pamela Gay; David L. Lambert

    1999-11-11

    Isotopic abundance ratios 24^Mg:25^Mg:26^Mg are derived for 20 stars from high- resolution spectra of the MgH A-X 0-0 band at 5140AA. With the exception of the weak g-band giant HR 1299, the stars are dwarfs that sample the metallicity range -1.8 < [Fe/H] <0.0. The abundance of 25^Mg amd 26^Mg relative to the dominant isotope 24^Mg decreases with decreasing [Fe/H] in fair accord with predictions from a recent model of galactic chemical evolution in which the Mg isotopes are synthesised by massive stars. Several stars appear especially enriched in the heavier Mg isotopes suggesting contamination by material from the envelopes of intermediate-mass AGB stars.

  14. GEOL 715: STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY (Spring, 2015)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , nomenclature, standards -kinetic and equilibrium fractionation processes -mass and isotope budgets -Rayleigh in terrestrial plants and plankton -applications: carbon budgets, tracking anthropogenic CO2, carbon export rates sources, trophic levels, terrestrial vs marine sources 3. Recent advances: -mass independent fractionation

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Analysis Activity Date - 1982 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters in and around the Valles...

  16. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS ON THE HYDRAULIC AND THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FRACTURED CRYSTALLINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    PROPERTIES OF FRACTURED CRYSTALLINE ROCKS P. A. W i t h e ring of the behavior of crystalline rocks under the influencein Mined Caverns in Crystalline Rock^ ) of LBL. STRESS-FLOW

  17. The Giant Monopole Resonance in Pb isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias Khan

    2009-07-20

    The extraction of the nuclear incompressibility from the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR) measurements is analysed. Both pairing and mutually enhanced magicity (MEM) effects play a role in the shift of the GMR energy between the doubly closed shell $^{208}$Pb nucleus and other Pb isotopes. Pairing effects are microscopically predicted whereas the MEM effect is phenomenologically evaluated. Accurate measurements of the GMR in open-shell Pb isotopes are called for.

  18. Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Michael Grammer

    2006-09-30

    This topical report covers the year 2 of the subject 3-year grant, evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin (Ordovician Trenton-Black River Formations; Silurian Niagara Group; and the Devonian Dundee Formation). The characterization of select dolomite reservoirs has been the major focus of our efforts in Phase II/Year 2. Fields have been prioritized based upon the availability of rock data for interpretation of depositional environments, fracture density and distribution as well as thin section, geochemical, and petrophysical analyses. Structural mapping and log analysis in the Dundee (Devonian) and Trenton/Black River (Ordovician) suggest a close spatial relationship among gross dolomite distribution and regional-scale, wrench fault related NW-SE and NE-SW structural trends. A high temperature origin for much of the dolomite in the 3 studied intervals (based upon initial fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and stable isotopic analyses,) coupled with persistent association of this dolomite in reservoirs coincident with wrench fault-related features, is strong evidence for these reservoirs being influenced by hydrothermal dolomitization. For the Niagaran (Silurian), a comprehensive high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework has been developed for a pinnacle reef in the northern reef trend where we had 100% core coverage throughout the reef section. Major findings to date are that facies types, when analyzed at a detailed level, have direct links to reservoir porosity and permeability in these dolomites. This pattern is consistent with our original hypothesis of primary facies control on dolomitization and resulting reservoir quality at some level. The identification of distinct and predictable vertical stacking patterns within a hierarchical sequence and cycle framework provides a high degree of confidence at this point that results will be exportable throughout the basin. Ten petrophysically significant facies have been described in the northern reef trend, providing significantly more resolution than the standard 4-6 that are used most often in the basin (e.g. Gill, 1977). Initial petrophysical characterization (sonic velocity analysis under confining pressures) shows a clear pattern that is dependent upon facies and resulting pore architecture. Primary facies is a key factor in the ultimate diagenetic modification of the rock and the resulting pore architecture. Facies with good porosity and permeability clearly show relatively slow velocity values as would be expected, and low porosity and permeability samples exhibit fast sonic velocity values, again as expected. What is significant is that some facies that have high porosity values, either measured directly or from wireline logs, also have very fast sonic velocity values. This is due to these facies having a pore architecture characterized by more localized pores (vugs, molds or fractures) that are not in communication.

  19. Effect of recirculation pump trip following anticipated transients without scram at Big Rock Point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    As requested by the US Atomic Energy Commission (now US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) in their Technical Report on Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) for Water-Cooled Reactors (WASH-1270), Consumers Power Company has submitted analyses which describe the response of their Big Rock Point (BRP) Plant to ATWS. The original analyses were submitted on Febuary 21, 1975, and results indicated that a recirculation pump trip (RPT) was effective in limiting the consequences of an ATWS. The response of BRP to an ATWS was reanalyzed as a part of the Big Rock Point Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Results of the analysis were submitted on February 26, 1981, with the conclusion that automatic RPT provides little safety improvement at BRP. Purpose of this report is to evaluate the submitted analyses to determine the effectiveness of Recirculation Pump Trip in ATWS recovery.

  20. Environmental assessment: special isotope separation process selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the differences in potential environmental impacts between two plutonium Special Isotope Separation (SIS) technologies: Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) and Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS). Both SIS technologies use PuO/sub 2/ as feed; AVLIS converts feed to plutonium metal and MLIS converts feed to PuF/sub 6/. The AVLIS process uses laser energy to selectively photoionize and electrostatically separate plutonium isotopes from an atomic vapor stream. The MLIS process uses laser energy to selectively disassociate specific isotopes of plutonium in the form of PuF/sub 6/ molecules to create PuF/sub 5/ for collection and further processing. Both processes produce plutonium metal as their product. An evaluation of differences in potential environmental impacts attributed to the construction of an SIS facility, based on either technology, included a comparison of construction materials, land areas required, and the size of the design and construction workforce. The differences in potential environmental impacts from operating an SIS facility were also compared. No large differences in potential environmental impacts would be expected from the use of process chemicals. An AVLIS or an MLIS facility would produce operating effluents that would meet all applicable radiation, chemical, and hazardous waste standards and would be constructed to protect workers, the public and the environment. This EA has not revealed any significant differences in the potential environmental impacts that could occur as a result of deploying either the AVLIS or the MLIS Special Isotope Separation technology.

  1. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdas, D. A. Cristea, G. Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Cordea, D. V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-11-13

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The ?{sup 18}O and ?{sup 2}H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher ?{sup 18}O and ?{sup 2}H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  2. Sliding and Rocking of Unanchored Components and Structures: Chapter 7.6 ASCE 4 Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. R. Jensen

    2011-04-01

    Chapter 7.6 of ASCE 4-Rev 2, Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures: Standard and Commentary, provides updated guidance for analysis of rocking and sliding of unanchored structures and components subjected to seismic load. This guidance includes provisions both for simplified approximate energy-based approaches, and for detailed probabilistic time history analysis using nonlinear methods. Factors to be applied to the analytical results are also provided with the intent of ensuring achievement of the 80% non-exceedence probability target of the standard. The present paper surveys the published literature supporting these provisions. The results of available testing and analysis are compared to results produced by both simplified and probabilistic approaches. In addition, adequacy of the standard's provisions for analysis methods and factors is assessed. A comparison is made between the achieved level of conservatism and the standard's non-exceedence probability target.

  3. Bulk chemical and Hfâ??W isotopic consequences of incomplete accretion during planet formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Christina A; Nimmo, Francis; Chambers, John E

    2015-01-01

    Bulk chemical and Hf–W isotopic consequences of incompletestyle affects the bulk chemical and isotopic outcomes ofto investigate the bulk chemical and isotopic consequences

  4. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  5. Seismic and Acoustic Investigations of Rock Fall Initiation, Processes, and Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmer, Valerie Louise

    2011-01-01

    Seismic  and  Acoustic  Investigations  of  Rock  Fall  Initiation,  Processes,  Seismic  and  Acoustic  Investigations  of  Rock  Fall  Initiation,  Processes,  other  seismic  sources  was  an  iterative  process.    

  6. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, E.

    The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

  7. Reinterpretation of Rb/Sr isotopic data for the Little Elk Granite: Implications for the timing of deformational events, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahl, P.S.; Gardner, E.T.; Holm, D.K. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Early Proterozoic rift sediments in the Black Hills were multiply deformed (into refolded nappe structures) during the Trans-Hudson Orogeny, which culminated in Harney Peak Granite (HPG) emplacement at 1,715--1,697 Ma. A reset whole-rock Rb/Sr age of 1,840 [+-] 70 Ma obtained from the Archean (2,549 [+-] 11 Ma) Little Elk Granite (LEG, Zartman and Stern, 1967) is widely interpreted as being coeval with D2, based upon parallelism of gneissic foliation in the granite and F2 foliation predominant elsewhere in the Black Hills. However, the authors have recalculated the whole-rock Rb/Sr age by applying the IUGS-recommended [sup 87]Rb decay constant (Steiger and Jager, 1977) to the original isotopic data, obtaining a revised age of 1,905 [+-] 59 Ma. The authors interpret this age as representing a whole-rock isotopic resetting event associated with Early Proterozoic (2,170--1,880 Ma) rifting in the Black Hills. The authors envision the LEG to have experienced a convective hydrothermal fluid-flow regime associated with the rifting. This scenario would allow for the sustained heating and isotopic exchange between granite and abundant water-rich fluid (seawater ) that would be required to effect complete resetting of an Rb/Sr whole-rock isochron. They favor an age for the refolding event and the development of F2 structures that is more closely linked in time with HPG emplacement. Such an age is more compatible with published field/petrologic observations and Proterozoic tectonothermal models for the Black Hills.

  8. Stable isotopic study of precipitation and spring discharge on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingraham, N.L.; Jacobson, R.L.; Hess, J.W.; Lyles, B.F. . Water Resources Center Nevada Univ., Reno, NV . Water Resources Center)

    1990-07-01

    Precipitation was collected in southern Nevada (on the Nevada Test Site) on a semi-regular monthly basis at 41 locations for six years for stable isotopic analysis. The precipitation record shows two time-based regimes. For the first three years of collection, the precipitation was highly variable with several large events and several dry periods. During the last three years of collection, the precipitation was much more even with no large events. However, there is no correlation between the variability in the amount of precipitation and the stable isotopic composition of precipitation. In addition, the oxygen isotope composition and discharge of two springs, Whiterock Spring and Cane Spring, issuing from perched water tables, were monitored for five years in a similar time frame as for the precipitation. 17 refs., 42 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The Isotopic Mixture of Barium in the Metal-poor Subgiant HD 140283

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David L. Lambert; Carlos Allende Prieto

    2002-05-22

    Analyses of the abundances of neutron-capture elements have led to the belief that these elements in metal-poor stars are r-process products with relative abundances closely resembling those found in the solar system. This picture was challenged by Magain (1995), who found that a pure r-process mix of the barium isotopes was inconsistent with the mix of odd to even barium isotopes derived from analysis of the Ba II line at 4554 A in the spectrum of the metal-poor subgiant HD 140283. In this paper, we address Magain's challenge using new high resolution high signal-to-noise spectra of HD 140283, and find, in contrast to his result, that a solar-like r-process isotopic mixture provides a fair fit to the observed 4554 A profile.

  10. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated groundwater ages. The DIC calculated groundwater ages were compared with DOC calculated groundwater ages and both of these ages were compared to travel times developed in ground-water flow and transport models. If nuclear waste is stored in Yucca Mountain, the saturated zone is the final barrier against the release of radionuclides to the environment. The most recent rendition of the TSPA takes little credit for the presence of the saturated zone and is a testament to the inadequate understanding of this important barrier. If radionuclides reach the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, then there is a travel time before they would leave the Yucca Mountain area and flow down gradient to the Amargosa Valley area. Knowing how long it takes groundwater in the saturated zone to flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas is critical information for potential radionuclide transport. Radionuclide transport in groundwater may be the quickest pathway for radionuclides in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to reach land surface by way of groundwater pumped in Amargosa Valley. An alternative approach to ground-water flow and transport models to determine the travel time of radionuclides from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas in the saturated zone is by carbon-14 dating of both inorganic and organic carbon dissolved in the groundwater. A standard method of determining ground-water ages is to measure the carbon-13 and carbon-14 of DIC in the groundwater and then correct the measured carbon-14 along a flow path for geochemical reactions that involve carbon containing phases. These geochemical reactions are constrained by carbon-13 and isotopic fractionations. Without correcting for geochemical reactions, the ground-water ages calculated from only the differences in carbon-14 measured along a flow path (assuming the decrease in carbon-14 is due strictly to radioactive decay) could be tens of thousands of years too old. The computer program NETPATH, developed by the USGS, is the best geochemical program for correcting carbon-14 activities for geochemical r

  11. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor Project: FY13 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, David E.; Coble, Jamie B.; Jordan, David V.; Mcdonald, Luther W.; Forrester, Joel B.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Unlu, Kenan; Landsberger, Sheldon; Bender, Sarah; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Reilly, Dallas D.

    2013-09-01

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in reprocessing facilities in support of the goal of “… (minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism.” The MIP Monitor measures the distribution of the radioactive isotopes in product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. These isotopes are monitored online by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to spectral patterns representing “normal” process conditions using multivariate analysis and pattern recognition algorithms. The combination of multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy allows us to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. By targeting multiple gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, relatively high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. The automated multivariate analysis can provide a level of data obscurity, giving a built-in information barrier to protect sensitive or proprietary operational data. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments have been performed in previous years to demonstrate the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting for systems representing aqueous reprocessing facilities. However, pyroprocessing is emerging as an alternative to aqueous reprocessing techniques.

  12. Features of adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; A. N. Dovbnya; N. P. Dikiy; O. P. Ledenyov; Yu. V. Lyashko

    2013-06-21

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU1500 in the forced exhaust ventilation systems at the nuclear power plant. The gamma activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed to the bremsstrahlung gamma quantum irradiation, produced by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granules of the type of SKT3, in the AU1500 iodine air filter are also researched. The possible influences by the standing acoustic wave of air pressure in the iodine air filter on the spatial distribution of the chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter are discussed. The comprehensive analysis of obtained research results on the distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber of iodine air filter is performed.

  13. Features of adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Dikiy, N P; Ledenyov, O P; Lyashko, Yu V

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU1500 in the forced exhaust ventilation systems at the nuclear power plant. The gamma activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed to the bremsstrahlung gamma quantum irradiation, produced by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granule...

  14. Characterising and modelling the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in crystalline rock in the context of radioactive waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy ofis designed for rock and soil mechanics. In a TOUGH-FLAC

  15. Resolving the stellar sources of isotopically rare presolar silicate grains through Mg and Fe isotopic analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ann N.; Messenger, Scott, E-mail: lan-anh.n.nguyen@nasa.gov [Robert M. Walker Laboratory for Space Science, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We conducted multi-element isotopic analyses of 11 presolar silicate grains from the Acfer 094 meteorite having unusual O isotopic compositions. Eight grains are {sup 18}O-rich, one is {sup 16}O-rich, and two are extremely {sup 17}O-rich. We constrained the grains' stellar sources by measuring their Si and Mg isotopic ratios, and also the {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios for five grains. The Mg and Fe isotopic measurements were conducted after surrounding matrix grains were removed for more accurate ratios. Most of the {sup 18}O-rich silicates had anomalous Mg isotopic ratios, and their combined isotopic constraints are consistent with origins in low-mass Type II supernovae (SNe II) rather than high-metallicity stars. The isotopic ratios of the {sup 16}O-rich silicate are also consistent with an SN origin. Mixing small amounts of interior stellar material with the stellar envelope replicated all measured isotopic ratios except for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si and {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe in some grains. The {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si ratios of all SN-derived grains are matched by doubling the {sup 29}Si yield in the Ne- and Si-burning zones. The {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios of the grains imply elemental fractionation in the Si/S zone, or introduction of isotopically solar Fe by secondary processing. The two highly {sup 17}O-rich silicates exhibited significant {sup 25}Mg and/or {sup 26}Mg enrichments and their isotopic ratios are best explained by strong dilution of 1.15 M {sub ?} CO nova matter. We estimate that ?12% and 1% of presolar silicates have SN and nova origins, respectively, similar to presolar SiC and oxides. This implies that asymptotic giant branch stars are the dominant dust producers in the galaxy.

  16. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  17. Characterizing Flow in Oil Reservoir Rock Using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, David W.

    In this paper, a 3D Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulator for modeling grain scale fluid flow in porous rock is presented. The versatility of the SPH method has driven its use in increasingly complex areas of flow ...

  18. Comparative Records of Time Nature of the rock record

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    : sequence stratigraphy · temporal excursions and sequential changes in chemical characteristicsComparative Records of Time · Nature of the rock record · principles of stratigraphy: · deposition of StratigraphyPrinciples of Stratigraphy continuous deposition erosion for 50 years renewed deposition 100 years

  19. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Rocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keys, Ryan S.

    2010-07-14

    In matrix acidizing, the goal is to dissolve minerals in the rock to increase well productivity. This is accomplished by injecting an application-specific solution of acid into the formation at a pressure between the pore ...

  20. Zeolitization Of Intracaldera Sediments And Rhyolitic Rocks In...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Mexico, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Zeolitization Of Intracaldera Sediments And Rhyolitic Rocks In The 1.25 Ma...

  1. ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY OF NANOMAGNETS IN ROCKS AND BACTERIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY OF NANOMAGNETS IN ROCKS AND BACTERIA Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski1 , Richard J-reversed thermo-remanent magnetization. #12;Magnetotactic bacteria provide the simplest example of the use

  2. Acid Fracture and Fracture Conductivity Study of Field Rock Samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, Jarrod

    2013-11-15

    Acid fracturing is a well stimulation strategy designed to increase the productivity of a producing well. The parameters of acid fracturing and the effects of acid interaction on specific rock samples can be studied experimentally. Acid injection...

  3. Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report:...

  4. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-06-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have studied (1) Elastic properties of clay minerals using Pulse Transmission experiments. We show measurements of elastic moduli and strain in clay minerals.

  5. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  6. Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first commercial attempt to create a commercial geothermal power plant using hot dry rock technology reached a crucial milestone on January 22, when a production well successfully reached its target depth.

  7. Project Reports for Standing Rock Sioux Tribe- 2011 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe's (SRST) cultural identity demands that tribal development occur in a sustainable manner and in a manner protective of the tribe's natural resources to preserve them for following generations.

  8. Modeling of Seismic Signatures of Carbonate Rock Types 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan, Badr H.

    2011-02-22

    Carbonate reservoirs of different rock types have wide ranges of porosity and permeability, creating zones with different reservoir quality and flow properties. This research addresses how seismic technology can be used to identify different...

  9. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomec~. Abstr. Vol. 22, No. I, pp. 31-38, 1985 0148-9062/85 $3.00 +0.00 Printed in Great Brilain. All rights reserved Copyright :~" 1985 Pergamon Press Ltd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalowski, Radoslaw L.

    kinematically admissible mechanisms of possible deformation processes, based upon the non-associatedflow rule in the analysis. The kinematical approach of limit analysis to the problem of block-splitting under pyramidal Analysis of Quasi-static Pyramidal Indentation of Rock R. L. MICHALOWSKI*I" An approximate analysis

  10. Measurements and modeling of surface waves in drilled shafts in rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinski, M.E.; Stokoe, K.H. II; Roesset, J.M.; Cheng, D.S.

    1999-07-01

    Seismic testing was conducted in the WIPP facility in November 1994 by personnel from the Geotechnical Engineering Center at the University of Texas at Austin. Surface wave measurements were made in horizontal drilled shafts in rock salt to characterize the stiffness of the rock around the shafts. The Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves (SASW) method was used to determine dispersion curves of surface wave velocity versus wavelength. Dispersion curves were measured for surface waves propagating axially and circumferentially in the shafts. Surface wave velocities determined from axial testing increased slightly with increasing wavelength due to the cylindrical geometry of the shafts. On the other hand, surface wave velocities determined from circumferential testing exhibited a completely different type of geometry-induced dispersion. In both instances, finite-element forward modeling of the experimental dispersion curves revealed the presence of a thin, slightly softer disturbed rock zone (DRZ) around the shafts. This phenomenon has been previously confirmed by crosshole and other seismic measurements and is generally associated with relaxation of the individual salt crystals after confirming stress is relieved by excavation.

  11. Chemical analyses of rocks, minerals, and detritus, Yucca Mountain--Preliminary report, special report No. 11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, C.A.; Livingston, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    This chemical analysis study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed assessment of the geology and geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. This report is preliminary in the sense that more chemical analyses may be needed in the future and also in the sense that these chemical analyses should be considered as a small part of a much larger geological data base. The interpretations discussed herein may be modified as that larger data base is examined and established. All of the chemical analyses performed to date are shown in Table 1. There are three parts to this table: (1) trace element analyses on rocks (limestone and tuff) and minerals (calcite/opal), (2) rare earth analyses on rocks (tuff) and minerals (calcite/opal), and (3) major element analyses + CO{sub 2} on rocks (tuff) and detritus sand. In this report, for each of the three parts of the table, the data and its possible significance will be discussed first, then some overall conclusions will be made, and finally some recommendations for future work will be offered.

  12. Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

    2004-09-15

    Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

  13. Rock glacier monitoring with low-cost GPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    moving stations on rock glacier Low-cost L1 GPS receivers (blox) Power source: solar panels Local data Rock glacier GPS antennaGPS antenna Solar panelSolar panel Box incl.Box incl. -GPS receiverData logger Instruments Solar panelSolar panel (24W, 12V, 50x50cm)(24W, 12V, 50x50cm) Costs per station: 2

  14. Strontium isotope evolution of pore water and calcite in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Brian D.; Futa, Kiyoto

    2001-04-29

    Pore water in the Topopah Spring Tuff has a narrow range of {delta}{sup 87}Sr values that can be calculated from the {delta}{sup 87}Sr values of the rock considering advection through and reaction with the overlying nonwelded tuffs of the PTn. This model can be extended to estimate the variation of {delta}{sup 87}Sr in the pore water through time; this approximates the variation of {delta}{sup 87}Sr measured in calcite fracture coatings. In samples of calcite where no silica can be dated by other methods, strontium isotope data may be the only method to determine ages. In addition, other Sr-bearing minerals in the calcite and opal coatings, such as fluorite, may be dated using the same model.

  15. Estimating seismic velocities at ultrasonic frequencies in partially saturated rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Nolen-Hoeksema, R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics)

    1994-02-01

    Seismic velocities in rocks at ultrasonic frequencies depend not only on the degree of saturation but also on the distribution of the fluid phase at various scales within the pore space. Two scales of saturation heterogeneity are important: (1) saturation differences between thin compliant pores and larger stiffer pores, and (2) differences between saturated patches and undersaturated patches at a scale much larger than any pore. The authors propose a formalism for predicting the range of velocities in partially saturated rocks that avoids assuming idealized pore shapes by using measured dry rock velocity versus pressure and dry rock porosity versus pressure. The pressure dependence contains all of the necessary information about the distribution of pore compliance for estimating effects of saturation at the finest scales where small amounts of fluid in the thinnest, most compliant parts of the pore space stiffen the rock in both compression and shear (increasing both P- and S-wave velocities) in approximately the same way that confining pressure stiffens the rock by closing the compliant pores. Large-scale saturation patches tend to increase only the high-frequency bulk modulus by amounts roughly proportional to the saturation. The pore-scale effects will be most important at laboratory and logging frequencies when pore-scale pore pressure gradients are unrelaxed. The patchy-saturation effects can persist even at seismic field frequencies if the patch sizes are sufficiently large and the diffusivities are sufficiently low for the larger-scale pressure gradients to be unrelaxed.

  16. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotope Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carty, J.

    2004-10-05

    This presentation provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotopes Program. The charter of the Isotope Programs covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials, and related isotope services.

  17. Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two dimensional crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Lozada-Hidalgo; S. Hu; O. Marshall; A. Mishchenko; A. N. Grigorenko; R. A. W. Dryfe; B. Radha; I. V. Grigorieva; A. K. Geim

    2015-11-20

    One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Employing electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we find that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of 10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of about 60 meV between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment.

  18. Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

  19. Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two dimensional crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozada-Hidalgo, M; Marshall, O; Mishchenko, A; Grigorenko, A N; Dryfe, R A W; Radha, B; Grigorieva, I V; Geim, A K

    2015-01-01

    One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Employing electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we find that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of 10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of about 60 meV between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment.

  20. GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CO?-BRINE-ROCK INTERACTIONS OF THE KNOX GROUP IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoksoulian, Lois; Berger, Peter; Freiburg, Jared; Butler, Shane; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    Increased output of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO?), into the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources is of great concern. A potential technology to reduce CO? emissions is geologic carbon sequestration. This technology is currently being evaluated in the United States and throughout the world. The geology of the Illinois Basin exhibits outstanding potential as a carbon sequestration target, as demonstrated by the ongoing Illinois Basin – Decatur Project that is using the Mt. Simon Sandstone reservoir and Eau Claire Shale seal system to store and contain 1 million tonnes of CO?. The Knox Group-Maquoketa Shale reservoir and seal system, located stratigraphically above the Mt. Simon Sandstone-Eau Claire Shale reservoir and seal system, has little economic value as a resource for fossil fuels or as a potable water source, making it ideal as a potential carbon sequestration target. In order for a reservoir-seal system to be effective, it must be able to contain the injected CO? without the potential for the release of harmful contaminants liberated by the reaction between CO?-formation fluids and reservoir and seal rocks. This study examines portions of the Knox Group (Potosi Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, New Richmond Sandstone) and St. Peter Sandstone, and Maquoketa Shale from various locations around the Illinois Basin. A total of 14 rock and fluid samples were exposed to simulated sequestration conditions (9101–9860 kPa [1320–1430 psi] and 32°–42°C [90°– 108°F]) for varying amounts of time (6 hours to 4 months). Knox Group reservoir rocks exhibited dissolution of dolomite in the presence of CO? as indicated by petrographic examination, X-ray diffraction analysis, and fluid chemistry analysis. These reactions equilibrated rapidly, and geochemical modeling confirmed that these reactions reached equilibrium within the time frames of the experiments. Pre-reaction sample mineralogy and postreaction fluid geochemistry from this study suggests only limited potential for the release of United States Environmental Protection Agency regulated inorganic contaminants into potable water sources. Short-term core flood experiments further verify that the carbonate reactions occurring in Knox Group reservoir samples reach equilibrium rapidly. The core flood experiments also lend insight to pressure changes that may occur during CO? injection. The Maquoketa Shale experiments reveal that this rock is initially chemically reactive when in contact with CO? and brine. However, due to the conservative nature of silicate and clay reaction kinetics and the rapid equilibration of carbonate reactions that occur in the shale, these reactions would not present a significant risk to the competency of the shale as an effective seal rock.

  1. Static Deformation of Fluid-Saturated Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coyner, Karl

    1984-01-01

    The static strain response of porous solids to combinations of confining stress and pore pressure is explained both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical analysis is a synopsis of linear elasticity principles ...

  2. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P species. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of Si in Ge was measured over the temperature range of 550 C to 900 C using a buried Si layer in an epitaxially grown Ge layer.

  3. PHYSICAL, MAGNETIC, SEDIMENTOLOGICAL, GEOCHEMICAL, ISOTOPIC AND MICROPALEONTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RAPIDLY DEPOSITED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHYSICAL, MAGNETIC, SEDIMENTOLOGICAL, GEOCHEMICAL, ISOTOPIC AND MICROPALEONTOLOGICAL FEATURES Sediments, Québec City. Symposium preceedings: 103-108. ABSTRACT: Sedimentological, geochemical, isotopic

  4. Hydrogeochemical studies of the Rustler Formation and related rocks in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Area, Southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, M.D.; Lambert, S.J.; Robinson, K.L.

    1991-08-01

    Chemical, mineralogical, isotopic, and hydrological studies of the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation and related rocks are used to delineate hydrochemical facies and form the basis for a conceptual model for post-Pleistocene groundwater flow and chemical evolution. Modern flow within the Culebra in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area appears to be largely north-to-south; however, these flow directions under confined conditions are not consistent with the salinity distribution in the region surrounding the WIPP Site. Isotopic, mineralogical, and hydrological data suggest that vertical recharge to the Culebra in the WIPP area and to the immediate east and south has not occurred for several thousand years. Eastward increasing {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios suggest recharge from a near-surface Pleistocene infiltration zone flowing from the west-northwest and imply a change in flow direction in the last 30,000 to 12,000 years. 49 refs., 34 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Method for production of an isotopically enriched compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watrous, Matthew G.

    2012-12-11

    A method is presented for producing and isolating an isotopically enriched compound of a desired isotope from a parent radionuclide. The method includes forming, or placing, a precipitate containing a parent radionuclide of the desired daughter isotope in a first reaction zone and allowing sufficient time for the parent to decay into the desired gaseous daughter radioisotope. The method further contemplates collecting the desired daughter isotope as a solid in a second reaction zone through the application of temperatures below the freezing point of the desired isotope to a second reaction zone that is connected to the first reaction zone. Specifically, a method is presented for producing isotopically enriched compounds of xenon, including the radioactive isotope Xe-131m and the stable isotope Xe-131.

  6. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Wednesday, 24 September 2008 00:00...

  7. Oxygen isotope records of carboniferous seasonality on the Russian platform 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Huayu

    1998-01-01

    Seven isotopic and eight trace element (TE) profiles across shell growth lines are presented, based on over 1000 stable isotope and electron microprobe analyses on six brachiopod shells (Gigantoproductus), to quantify seasonal temperature change...

  8. Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    2012-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...

  9. Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui Sitindra S studied the controls on the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui, a halophilic archaea, in pure culture experiments by varying organic substrate, the hydrogen

  10. Coherent photonuclear reactions for isotope transmutation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Ejiri; S. Date

    2011-02-22

    Coherent photonuclear isotope transmutation (CPIT) produces exclusively radioactive isotopes (RIs) by coherent photonuclear reactions via E1 giant resonances. Photons to be used are medium energy photons produced by laser photons backscattered off GeV electrons. The cross sections are as large as 0.2 - 0.6 b, being independent of individual nuclides. A large fraction of photons is effectively used for the photonuclear reactions, while the scattered GeV electrons remain in the storage ring to be re-used. CPIT with medium energy photons provides specific/desired RIs with the high rate and the high density for nuclear science, molecular biology and for nuclear medicines.

  11. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowley, Brooke E.; Carter, Melinda L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    of sample treatment and diagenesis on the isotopic integrityHare PE (1986) Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon,

  12. Direct mass measurements of Cd isotopes show strong shell gap at N=82

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Knöbel; M. Diwisch; F. Bosch; D. Boutin; L. Chen; C. Dimopoulou; A. Dolinskii; B. Franczak; B. Franzke; H. Geissel; M. Hausmann; C. Kozhuharov; J. Kurcewicz; S. A. Litvinova; G. Martínez-Pinedo; M. Matoš; M. Mazzocco; G. Münzenberg; S. Nakajima; C. Nociforo; F. Nolden; T. Ohtsubo; A. Ozawa; Z. Patyk; W. R. Plaß; C. Scheidenberger; J. Stadlmann; M. Steck; B. Sun; T. Suzuki; P. Walker; H. Weick; M. -R. Wu; M. Winkler; T. Yamaguchi

    2015-07-16

    A $^{238}$U projectile beam was used to create cadmium isotopes via abrasion-fission at 410 MeV/u in a beryllium target at the entrance of the in-flight separator FRS at GSI. The fission fragments were separated with the FRS and injected into the isochronous storage ring ESR for mass measurements. The Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) was performed under two different experimental conditions, with and without B$\\rho$-tagging at the dispersive central focal plane of the FRS. In the experiment with B$\\rho$-tagging the magnetic rigidity of the injected fragments was determined by an accuracy of $2\\times 10^{-4}$. A new method of data analysis, using a correlation matrix for the combined data set from both experiments, has provided mass values for 25 different isotopes for the first time. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the experiment and analysis has given access even to rare isotopes detected with a few atoms per week. In this letter we present for the $^{129,130,131}$Cd isotopes mass values directly measured for the first time. The Cd results clearly show a very pronounced shell effect at $N=82$ which is in agreement with the conclusion from $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy of $^{130}$Cd and confirms the assumptions of modern shell-model calculations.

  13. Direct mass measurements of Cd isotopes show strong shell gap at N=82

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knöbel, R; Bosch, F; Boutin, D; Chen, L; Dimopoulou, C; Dolinskii, A; Franczak, B; Franzke, B; Geissel, H; Hausmann, M; Kozhuharov, C; Kurcewicz, J; Litvinova, S A; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Matoš, M; Mazzocco, M; Münzenberg, G; Nakajima, S; Nociforo, C; Nolden, F; Ohtsubo, T; Ozawa, A; Patyk, Z; Plaß, W R; Scheidenberger, C; Stadlmann, J; Steck, M; Sun, B; Suzuki, T; Walker, P; Weick, H; Wu, M -R; Winkler, M; Yamaguchi, T

    2015-01-01

    A $^{238}$U projectile beam was used to create cadmium isotopes via abrasion-fission at 410 MeV/u in a beryllium target at the entrance of the in-flight separator FRS at GSI. The fission fragments were separated with the FRS and injected into the isochronous storage ring ESR for mass measurements. The Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) was performed under two different experimental conditions, with and without B$\\rho$-tagging at the dispersive central focal plane of the FRS. In the experiment with B$\\rho$-tagging the magnetic rigidity of the injected fragments was determined by an accuracy of $2\\times 10^{-4}$. A new method of data analysis, using a correlation matrix for the combined data set from both experiments, has provided mass values for 25 different isotopes for the first time. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the experiment and analysis has given access even to rare isotopes detected with a few atoms per week. In this letter we present for the $^{129,130,131}$Cd isotopes mass values directly ...

  14. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kathawa; C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-01-20

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  15. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathawa, J.; Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-01-15

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Discovery of Cesium, Lanthanum, Praseodymium and Promethium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. May; M. Thoennessen

    2011-09-08

    Currently, forty-one cesium, thirty-five lanthanum, thirty-two praseodymium, and thirty-one promethium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Tetrahymena thermophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Tetrahymena thermophila Sitindra S Accepted 7 September 2013 Available online 16 September 2013 a b s t r a c t Hydrogen isotope ratio values from recording the hydrogen isotope composition of ambient water, dD values of lipids also depend

  18. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, J L

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  19. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Gross; M. Thoennessen

    2011-09-28

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  20. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-03-06

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  1. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    such as adsorption of S-bearing com- pounds on surfaces of solids (13). Magnetic isotope effects are expressedEvidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction Harry Oduroa,b,1 S are attributed to a magnetic isotope effect (MIE) associated with the formation of thiol-disulfide, ion

  2. Discovery of Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Technetium, and Ruthenium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Nystrom; M. Thoennessen

    2011-02-11

    Currently, thirty-four yttrium, thirty-five zirconium, thirty-four niobium, thirty-five technetium, and thirty-eight ruthenium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Discovery of Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Technetium, and Ruthenium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nystrom, A

    2011-01-01

    Currently, thirty-four yttrium, thirty-five zirconium, thirty-four niobium, thirty-five technetium, and thirty-eight ruthenium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract:Variations in the 18 O/16 O ratios isotope stratigraphy, however, is hampered by the lack of unaltered authigenic marine sediments. Chapter.6. Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy 188 10.6.1. Cenozoic 188 10.6.2. Mesozoic 191 10.6.3. Paleozoic 193

  5. Discovery of Samarium, Europium, Gadolinium, and Terbium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. May; M. Thoennessen

    2012-01-19

    Currently, thirty-four samarium, thirty-four europium, thirty-one gadolinium, and thirty-one terbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-05-26

    Currently, thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Discovery of the thallium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-01-21

    Currently, forty-two thallium, forty-two lead, forty-one bismuth, and forty-two polonium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-05-26

    Currently, 31 dysprosium, 32 holmium, 32 erbium, 33 thulium and 31 ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Discovery of Tantalum, Rhenium, Osmium, and Iridium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Robinson; M. Thoennessen

    2011-09-02

    Currently, thirty-eight tantalum, thirty-eight rhenium, thirty-nine osmium, and thirty-eight iridium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Heavy metals and lead isotopes in sdB stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. O'Toole; U. Heber

    2006-12-19

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of high-resolution ultraviolet echelle spectra of five subdwarf B stars obtained with HST-STIS The goal of our observations was to test the hypothesis that pulsations in sdBs are correlated to the surface abundances of iron-group elements. We study two pulsators and three non-pulsators and determined abundances for 25 elements including the iron group and even heavier elements such as tin and lead using LTE spectrum synthesis techniques. We find strong enrichments of heavy elements up to 2.9dex with respect to solar which are probably caused by atomic diffusion processes. No clear-cut correlation between pulsations and metal abundances becomes apparent. Abundances for lead isotopes are derived from very high resolution spectra using an UV line of triply ionised lead. As Pb terminates the s-process sequence Pb isotopic abundance ratios yield important constraints. It is very difficult to measure them in hot stars. For the first time we were able to measure them in two subluminous B stars and conclude that the 207Pb/208Pb is solar.

  11. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal and mineral springs of Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1982-02-01

    Waters from the thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged Na-HCO/sub 3/-Cl type waters. St. Martin's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline Na-Cl water, is the notable exception. The dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ waters are generally associated with granitic intrusions; the warm to hot CO/sub 2/-charged waters issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen-isotopic compositions that indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The CO/sub 2/-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. The carbon-13 in the CO/sub 2/-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 %) than in the cold CO/sub 2/-charged soda springs (-2 to -8%) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold CO/sub 2/-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaCO/sub 3/, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaCO/sub 3/. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur, and Ohanapecosh hot springs seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100/sup 0/C. As these springs occur as individual springs or in small clusters, the respective aquifers are probably of restricted size.

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the slick rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 12 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 61 8,300 cubic yards. In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. All solid contaminated materials would be buried under 5 feet (ft) of rock and soil materials. The proposed disposal site area is currently used by ranchers for cattle grazing over a 7-month period. The closest residence to the proposed disposal site is 2 air mi. An estimated 44 ac of land would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future use.

  13. Applications of stable isotopes in hydrological studies of Mt. Apo geothermal field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salonga, N.D.; Aragon, G.M.; Nogara, J.B.; Sambrano, B.G.

    1996-12-31

    The local precipitation in Mt. Apo is depleted of heavy isotopes owing to high elevation and landward location of the field. Rainwaters infiltrate the shallow grounds, circulate in short distances with almost no interaction with the host bed rocks, and effuse in the surface as cold springs. Lakes and rivers are affected by surface evaporation while the acid SO{sub 4} springs are affected by both evaporation and steam-heating. Only the neutral-pH Cl springs have the signature of the deep thermal fluids. The parent fluids of the deep thermal brine contain Cl of 4,800 to 5,000 mg/kg, {delta}{sup 18}O of -4.62 to -4.13 {per_thousand} and {delta}{sup 2}H of -60.0 to -57.8 {per_thousand}. Inside the Sandawa Collapse, boiling of the parent fluids resulted in a two-phase reservoir with lighter isotope contents. The thermal fluids laterally flow towards the west where they are affected by cooling and mixing of cold waters. Deep water recharge has {delta}{sup 18}O of -10.00 {per_thousand} and {delta}{sup 2}H = -61.20 {per_thousand} which come from the upper slopes of Sandawa Collapse (1580-1700 mASL).

  14. Isotopic studies of rare gases in terrestrial samples and natural nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This project is concerned with research in rare gas mass spectrometry. We read the natural record that isotopes of the rare gases provide. We study fluids using a system (RARGA) that is sometimes deployed in the field. In 1990 there was a strong effort to reduce the backlog of RARGA samples on hand, so that it was a year of intensive data gathering. Samples from five different areas in the western United States and samples from Guatemala and Australia were analyzed. In a collaborative study we also began analyzing noble gases from rocks associated with the fluids. An important objective, continuing in 1991, is to understand better the reasons for somewhat elevated {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in regions where there is no contemporary volcanism which could produce the effect by addition of mantle helium. Our helium data have given us and our collaborators some insights, which are to be followed up, into gold mineralization in geothermal regions. Our DOE work in calibrating a sensitive laser microprobe mass spectrometer for noble gases in fluid inclusions continues. Having completed a series of papers on noble gases in diamonds, we next will attempt to make precise isotopic measurements on xenon from mantle sources, in search of evidence for terrestrially elusive {sup 244}Pu decay.

  15. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation repression. In this scheme a gas, of the selected isotopes for enrichment, is irradiated with a laser at a particular wavelength that would excite only one of the isotopes. The entire gas is subject to low temperatures sufficient to cause condensation on a cold surface. Those molecules in the gas that the laser excited are not as likely to condense as are the unexcited molecules. Hence the gas drawn out of the system will be enriched in the isotope that was excited by the laser. We have evaluated the relative energy required in this process if applied on a commercial scale. We estimate the energy required for laser isotope enrichment is about 20% of that required in centrifuge separations, and 2% of that required by use of "calutrons".

  16. Uranium, thorium isotopic analyses and uranium-series ages of calcite and opal, and stable isotopic compositions of calcite from drill cores UE25a No. 1, USW G-2 and USW G-3/GU-3, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szabo, B.J.; Kyser, T.K.

    1985-12-31

    Fracture and cavity filling calcite and opal in the unsaturated zone of three drill cores at Yucca Mountain were analyzed for uranium and stable isotope contents, and were dated by the uranium-series method. Stable isotope data indicate that the water from which the calcite precipitated was meteoric in origin. The decrease in {sup 18}O and increase in {sup 13}C with depth are interpreted as being due to the increase in temperature in drill holes corresponding to an estimated maximum geothermal gradient of 43{sup 0} per km. Of the eighteen calcite and opal deposits dated, four of the calcite and all four of the opal deposits yield dates older than 400,000 years and ten of the remaining calcite deposits yield dates between 26,000 and 310,000 years. The stable isotope and uranium data together with the finite uranium-series dates of precipitation suggest a complex history of fluid movements, rock and water interactions, and episodes of fracture filling during the last 310,000 years. 10 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water Sven P. Nielsen Risř National Laboratory Working OF INVESTIGATION 11 3 DESCRIPTION OF INVESTIGATION 12 4 RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER 13 5 SAMPLING 15 6 27 #12;4 #12;5 Preface This project for investigation of radioactivity in drinking water shall

  18. Water isotopes and the general circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noone, David

    quantities are equator to pole temperature gradient, and the vertical thermal stratification #12;Isotopic" is the fractionation factor is a function of temperature F depends on large scale circulation and thermal state Both, temperature gradient/condensation) 2. Entrainment of non-depleted water (humidity, stratification/sheer) #12

  19. INTRODUCTION The oxygen isotopic compositions of minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    González, Luis A.

    .5 ka) and the associated migration of prairie into and out of the area (the prairie period; Dorale et of the Gulf of Mexico, Pacific, andArctic air masses (Bryson, 1966; Fig. 1). Gulf of Mexico air sup- plies of Mexico air masses and its precipitation is isotopically more negative than gulf moisture (e.g., typically

  20. H.R.G.K. Hack. Slopes in rock. An overview of engineering geology in the Netherlands. pp. 111-119 SLOPES IN ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hack, Robert

    H.R.G.K. Hack. Slopes in rock. An overview of engineering geology in the Netherlands. pp. 111-119 SLOPES IN ROCK H.R.G.K. Hack ITC (Int.Inst. for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences), Section Engineering 'the rock is hard' (normally meaning: do not bother with further study because 111 #12;H.R.G.K. Hack

  1. The boron isotope systematics of the Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming) hydrothermal system: A reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, M.R. (Bristol Univ. (England)); Sturchio, N.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Boron concentrations and isotope compositions have been measured in fourteen hot spring waters, two drill hole waters, an unaltered rhyolite flow, and hydrothermally altered rhyolite from the geothermal system in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The samples are representative of the major thermal areas within the park and span the range of fluid types. For the fluids, the B concentrations range from 0.043-2.69 mM/kg, and the {delta}{sup 11}B values range from {minus}9.3 to +4.4{per thousand}. There is no relationship between the dissolved B concentrations or isotope compositions with the concentration of any major element (other than Cl) or physical property. Each basin is characterized by a restricted range in B/Cl ratios and {delta}{sup 11}B values. Hot spring waters from the Norris Basin, Upper Geyser Basin, Calcite Springs, and Clearwater have {delta}{sup 11}B values close to that of unaltered rhyolite ({minus}5.2{per thousand}) and are interpreted to have derived their B from this source. Waters from Mammoth Hot Springs, Sheepeater, and Rainbow Springs have lower {delta}{sup 11}B values close to {minus}8{per thousand}. These lower values may reflect leaching of B from sedimentary rocks outside the Yellowstone caldera, but they are similar to the {delta}{sup 11}B value of hydrothermally altered rhyolite ({minus}9.7{per thousand}). Hence, the light boron isotope compositions recorded in these hot spring waters may reflect leaching of previously deposited hydrothermal minerals. Cooler springs along the Yellowstone River just outside the park boundary have lower B concentrations and higher {delta}{sup 11}B values that may reflect mixing with shallow meteoric water.

  2. Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure isotope effect of SF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure report experimental observations of the vapor pressure isotope effect, including 33 S/32 S and 34 S/32. That equilibrium involves a reversed vapor pressure isotope effect; i.e., vapor is between 2& and 3& higher in 34 S

  3. Proceedings of the scientific visit on crystalline rock repository development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Miksova, Jitka

    2013-02-01

    A scientific visit on Crystalline Rock Repository Development was held in the Czech Republic on September 24-27, 2012. The visit was hosted by the Czech Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA), co-hosted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of the visit was to promote technical information exchange between participants from countries engaged in the investigation and exploration of crystalline rock for the eventual construction of nuclear waste repositories. The visit was designed especially for participants of countries that have recently commenced (or recommenced) national repository programmes in crystalline host rock formations. Discussion topics included repository programme development, site screening and selection, site characterization, disposal concepts in crystalline host rock, regulatory frameworks, and safety assessment methodology. Interest was surveyed in establishing a %E2%80%9Cclub,%E2%80%9D the mission of which would be to identify and address the various technical challenges that confront the disposal of radioactive waste in crystalline rock environments. The idea of a second scientific visit to be held one year later in another host country received popular support. The visit concluded with a trip to the countryside south of Prague where participants were treated to a tour of the laboratory and underground facilities of the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre.

  4. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  5. Strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, K.R.; Halley, R.B.; Simmons, K.R.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1988-02-01

    /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios determined for samples from a 350 m core of Neogene lagoonal, shallow-water limestones from Enewetak Atoll display a remarkably informative trend. Like the recently published data for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) carbonates, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr at Enewetak increases monotonically but not smoothly from the early Miocene to the Pleistocene. The data show intervals of little or no change in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, punctuated by sharp transitions to lower values toward greater core depths. The sharp transitions correlate with observed solution disconformities caused by periods of subaerial erosion, whereas the intervals of little or no change in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr correspond to intervals of rapid accumulation of shallow-water carbonate sediments. When converted to numerical ages using the published DSDP 590B trend, the best-resolved time breaks are at 282 m (12.3 to 18.2 Ma missing) and 121.6 m (3.0 to 5.3 Ma missing) below the lagoon floor. At Enewetak, Sr isotopes offer a stratigraphic resolution for these shallow-marine Neogene carbonates comparable to that of nannofossil zonation in deep-sea carbonates (0.3-3 m.y.). In addition, the correlation of times of Sr-isotope breaks at Enewetak with times of rapid Sr-isotope change in the DSDP 590B samples confirms the importance of sea-level changes in the evolution of global-marine Sr isotopes and shows that the Sr-isotope response to sea-level falls is rapid.

  6. Enriching stable isotopes: Alternative use for Urenco technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhorst, H.; de Jong, P.G.T.; Dawson, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    The International Urenco Group utilizes a technologically advanced centrifuge process to enrich uranium in the fissionable isotope {sup 235}U. The group operates plants in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany and currently holds a 10% share of the multibillion dollar world enrichment market. In the early 1990s, Urenco embarked on a strategy of building on the company`s uniquely advanced centrifuge process and laser isotope separation (LIS) experience to enrich nonradioactive isotopes colloquially known as stable isotopes. This paper summarizes the present status of Urenco`s stable isotopes business.

  7. Superhard nanophase cutter materials for rock drilling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronov, O.; Tompa, G.; Sadangi, R.; Kear, B.; Wilson, C.; Yan, P.

    2000-06-23

    The Low Pressure-High Temperature (LPHT) System has been developed for sintering of nanophase cutter and anvil materials. Microstructured and nanostructured cutters were sintered and studied for rock drilling applications. The WC/Co anvils were sintered and used for development of High Pressure-High Temperature (HPHT) Systems. Binderless diamond and superhard nanophase cutter materials were manufactured with help of HPHT Systems. The diamond materials were studied for rock machining and drilling applications. Binderless Polycrystalline Diamonds (BPCD) have high thermal stability and can be used in geothermal drilling of hard rock formations. Nanophase Polycrystalline Diamonds (NPCD) are under study in precision machining of optical lenses. Triphasic Diamond/Carbide/Metal Composites (TDCC) will be commercialized in drilling and machining applications.

  8. Multiporosity Flow in Fractured Low-Permeability Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Heath, Jason E

    2015-01-01

    A multiporosity extension of classical double and triple porosity fractured rock flow models for slightly compressible fluids is presented. The multiporosity model is an adaptation of the multirate solute transport model of Haggerty and Gorelick (1995) to viscous flow in fractured rock reservoirs. It is a generalization of both pseudo-steady-state and transient interporosity flow double porosity models. The model includes a fracture continuum and an overlapping distribution of multiple rock matrix continua, whose fracture-matrix exchange coefficients are specified through a discrete probability mass function. Semi-analytical cylindrically symmetric solutions to the multiporosity mathematical model are developed using the Laplace transform to illustrate its behavior. The multiporosity model presented here is conceptually simple, yet flexible enough to simulate common conceptualizations of double and triple porosity flow. This combination of generality and simplicity makes the multiporosity model a good choice ...

  9. Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1986-12-16

    This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2], corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H[sub 2]O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered. 1 fig.

  10. Performance and safety parameters for the high flux isotope reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Primm III, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Primm Consulting, LLC, 945 Laurel Hill Road, Knoxville, TN 37923 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A Monte Carlo depletion model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cycle 400 and its use in calculating parameters of relevance to the reactor performance and safety during the reactor cycle are presented in this paper. This depletion model was developed to serve as a reference for the design of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel for an ongoing study to convert HFIR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU fuel; both HEU and LEU depletion models use the same methodology and ENDF/B-VII nuclear data as discussed in this paper. The calculated HFIR Cycle 400 parameters, which are compared with measurement data from critical experiments performed at HFIR, data included in the HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR), or data reported by previous calculations, provide a basis for verification or updating of the corresponding SAR data. (authors)

  11. Performance and Safety Parameters for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [Primm Consulting, LLC

    2012-01-01

    A Monte Carlo depletion model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cycle 400 and its use in calculating parameters of relevance to the reactor performance and safety during the reactor cycle are presented in this paper. This depletion model was developed to serve as a reference for the design of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel for an ongoing study to convert HFIR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU fuel; both HEU and LEU depletion models use the same methodology and ENDV/B-VII nuclear data as discussed in this paper. The calculated HFIR Cycle 400 parameters, which are compared when available with measurement data from critical experiments performed at HFIR, data included in the HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR), or data reported by previous calculations, provide a basis for verification or updating of the corresponding SAR data.

  12. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-10-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have (1) Studied relationships between velocity and permeability. (2) Used independent experimental methods to measure the elastic moduli of clay minerals as functions of pressure and saturation. (3) Applied different statistical methods for characterizing heterogeneity and textures from scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) images of shale microstructures. (4) Analyzed the directional dependence of velocity and attenuation in different reservoir rocks (5) Compared Vp measured under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stress conditions in sands. (6) Studied stratification as a source of intrinsic anisotropy in sediments using Vp and statistical methods for characterizing textures in sands.

  13. Isotope characterization of shallow aquifers in the Horombe region, South of Madagascar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fareze, L P; Ramaroson, V; Andriambololona, Raoelina; Andriamiarintsoa, G; Razafitsalama, P R; Rahobisoa, J J; Randrianarison, H; Ranaivoarisoa, A; Marah, H

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the problem of evaluation of the recharge mechanism and the characterization of the groundwater flow system in the basement shallow aquifer, which is one of the groundwater resource in the semi-arid South region of Madagascar. Stable isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) and tritium are used to achieve with accuracy the hydrogeological and geochemical dynamics study. Chemical analysis is used to provide complementary information to the investigation. A space distribution of tritium concentration and isotopic composition in groundwater shows evidence of two opposite categories of aquifers, which is confirmed by the chemical analysis results and by the geological features of the study site. Some groundwater flow path directions have been identified in the study area thanks to the tritium concentration space distribution and the geological formation. Besides, the groundwater recharge of the shallow aquifers in the South of Madagascar has been characterized by the exponential mixing mode...

  14. Improved permeability prediction using multivariate analysis methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Jiang

    2009-05-15

    Predicting rock permeability from well logs in uncored wells is an important task in reservoir characterization. Due to the high costs of coring and laboratory analysis, typically cores are acquired in only a few wells. Since most wells are logged...

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the processing sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the ground water from further degradation. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the processing sites on land administered by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project.

  16. Hot dry rock energy: Hot dry rock geothermal development program. Progress report. Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, J.; Brown, M. [eds.

    1995-03-01

    Extended flow testing at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test facility concluded in Fiscal Year 1993 with the completion of Phase 2 of the long-term flow test (LTFT) program. As is reported in detail in this report, the second phase of the LTFT, although only 55 days in duration, confirmed in every way the encouraging test results of the 112-day Phase I LTFT carried out in Fiscal Year 1992. Interim flow testing was conducted early in FY 1993 during the period between the two LTFT segments. In addition, two brief tests involving operation of the reservoir on a cyclic schedule were run at the end of the Phase 2 LTFT. These interim and cyclic tests provided an opportunity to conduct evaluations and field demonstrations of several reservoir engineering concepts that can now be applied to significantly increase the productivity of HDR systems. The Fenton Hill HDR test facility was shut down and brought into standby status during the last part of FY 1993. Unfortunately, the world`s largest, deepest, and most productive HDR reservoir has gone essentially unused since that time.

  17. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor Project: FY12 Progress and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Orton, Christopher R.; Jordan, David V.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Bender, Sarah; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Unlu, Kenan; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2012-09-27

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in reprocessing facilities in support of the goal of "...(minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism." The MIP Monitor measures distributions of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. These indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to spectral patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. The monitor utilizes this multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy of reprocessing streams to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. Multivariate analysis methods common in chemometrics, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS), act as pattern recognition techniques, which can detect small deviations from the expected, nominal condition. By targeting multiple gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, relatively high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. The automated multivariate analysis can provide a level of data obscurity, giving a built-in information barrier to protect sensitive or proprietary operational data. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments have been performed in previous years to demonstrate the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting. Development of the MIP Monitor approach continues to evaluate the efficacy of the monitor for automated, real-time or near-real-time application. This report details follow-on research and development efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development related to the MIP Monitor for fiscal year 2012 (FY12).

  18. Measuring of fissile isotopes partial antineutrino spectra in direct experiment at nuclear reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Sinev

    2009-02-22

    The direct measuring method is considered to get nuclear reactor antineutrino spectrum. We suppose to isolate partial spectra of the fissile isotopes by using the method of antineutrino spectrum extraction from the inverse beta decay positron spectrum applied at Rovno experiment. This admits to increase the accuracy of partial antineutrino spectra forming the total nuclear reactor spectrum. It is important for the analysis of the reactor core fuel composition and could be applied for non-proliferation purposes.

  19. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH/sup -/, CO/sup - -//sub 3/) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states.

  20. Undesirable options - The U. S. isotope crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    When a Canadian reactor failed in late 1990, it shut off a principle supply of iridium-192, an isotope critical to gamma radiography. Following the failure of the Canadian reactor, iridium sources inside the US were largely undependable in terms of both cost and schedule. The scheduling problems are outlined in the following testimony; prices increased 35% on one occasion, and then saw another increase of 60%. On August 3, 1992 Congressman Mike Synar requested that ASNT member Donny Dicharry present testimony on behalf of ASNT, the Nondestructive Testing Management Association (NDTMA), and Source Production and Equipment Co., Inc. (SPEC) concerning the Department of Energy's isotope program and the iridium-192 shortage. Excerpts from the testimony are given.

  1. Regioselective synthesis using the deuterium isotope effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyano, M.

    1981-04-24

    Dehydration of 1a by various procedures invariably produced more exo olefin 2a than endo olefin 3a. This could be reversed by introduction of deuterium in the Me-21 group of the starting material. Thus, dehydration of 1b could afford more endo olefin 3b than exo olefin 2b due to the deuterium isotope effect. A regioselective synthesis of 18-oxoprogesterone (15a) from 3..beta..-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one (5a) was carried out taking advantage of the deuterium isotope effect as depicted in Scheme I. The key steps were dehydration of 7b to predominantly endo olefin 9b and removal of the deuteriums from 18-oxoprogesterone-17..cap alpha..,21,21,21-d/sub 4/ (15b) to give 15a.

  2. Hydrogen isotopic exchange over palladium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carstens, D.H.W.; Encinias, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently developed the laser-Raman technique as a means of unambiguously measuring the partial pressures of all possible hydrogen isotopes in the gas phase. Using this technique we have investigated the hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a number of metals. This report presents detailed data for isotopic exchange in the palladium hydride system over the temperature range 26{degree}C to -100{degree}C at a pressure of 7 atm. First order kinetic rate constants and activation energies are summarized for the forward (hydride to deuteride) and reverse (deuteride to hydride) exchange processes. In addition, we have found that small amounts (100 ppm) of impurities in the exchange gases considerably slow the exchange kinetics with the effect increasing down the series CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

    2011-04-01

    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  4. Ion beam analyses of radionuclide migration in heterogeneous rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, Ursula; Missana, Tiziana; Garcia-Gutierrez, Miguel [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Patelli, Alessandro [CIVEN, Via delle Industrie 5, Venezia-Marghera 30175 (Italy); Rigato, Valentino; Ceccato, Daniele [LNL-INFN, Viale dell' Universita 2, Legnaro-Padova 35020 (Italy)

    2013-07-18

    The migration of radionuclides (RN) in the environment is a topic of general interest, for its implications on public health, and it is an issue for the long-term safety studies of deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level radioactive waste. The role played by colloids on RN migration is also of great concern. Diffusion and sorption are fundamental mechanisms controlling RN migration in rocks and many experimental approaches are applied to determine transport parameters for low sorbing RN in homogeneous rocks. However, it is difficult to obtain relevant data for high sorbing RN or colloids, for which diffusion lengths are extremely short, or within heterogeneous rocks, where transport might be different in different minerals. The ion beam techniques Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and micro-Particle Induced X-Ray Emission ({mu}PIXE), rarely applied in the field, were selected for their micro-analytical potential to study RN diffusion and surface retention within heterogeneous rocks. Main achievements obtained during last 12 years are highlighted.

  5. Rheological properties of minerals and rocks Shun-ichiro Karato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Rheological properties of minerals and rocks Shun-ichiro Karato Yale University Department Earth" (edited by S. Karato) Wiley-Blackwell #12; 2 SUMMARY Plastic deformation in Earth and planetary. The rheological properties in the upper mantle are controlled mostly by temperature, pressure and water content

  6. A Holocene lacustrine rock platform around Storavatnet, Ostery, western

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossen, Haakon

    structures, and the time and mode of formation. Location Osterřy Island is at 60 300 N, just inland from, western Norway. The lake was converted to a reservoir in 1920 and therefore is subject to frequent changes Zealand, with an oceanic climate, Allen et al. (2002) interpreted the formation of a lacustrine rock

  7. Controlled Rocking Approach for the Seismic Resistance of Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    for the design of a single bridge pier for a specified seismic demand and set of capacity protection limitsControlled Rocking Approach for the Seismic Resistance of Structures Michael POLLINO and Michel response that can allow the system to self-center after the excitation ceases. This approach to seismic

  8. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-06-30

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have studied (1) Methods for detection of stress-induced velocity anisotropy in sands. (2) We have initiated efforts for velocity upscaling to quantify long-wavelength and short-wavelength velocity behavior and the scale-dependent dispersion caused by sediment variability in different depositional environments.

  9. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-08-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have continued our work on analyzing well logs and microstructural constraints on seismic signatures. We report results of three studies in this report. The first one deals with fractures and faults that provide the primary control on the underground fluid flow through low permeability massive carbonate rocks. Fault cores often represent lower transmissibility whereas the surrounding damaged rocks and main slip surfaces are high transmissibility elements. We determined the physical properties of fault rocks collected in and around the fault cores of large normal faults in central Italy. After studying the P- and S-wave velocity variation during cycles of confining pressure, we conclude that a rigid pore frame characterizes the fault gouge whereas the fractured limestone comprises pores with a larger aspect ratio. The second study was to characterize the seismic properties of brine as its temperature decreases from 25 C to -21 C. The purpose was to understand how the transmitted wave changes with the onset of freezing. The main practical reason for this experiment was to use partially frozen brine as an analogue for a mixture of methane hydrate and water present in the pore space of a gas hydrate reservoir. In the third study we analyzed variations in dynamic moduli in various carbonate reservoirs. The investigations include log and laboratory data from velocity, porosity, permeability, and attenuation measurements.

  10. ACG Practical Rock Mechanics and Ground Support in Mining Courses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    CENTRE FOR GEOMECHANICS Ph: +61 8 6488 3300 Fax: +61 8 6488 1130 info for Geomechanics. Practical Rock Mechanics (Introduction) Short Course 28­29 July 2014 Course objectives This course is designed to develop specific underground mining geomechanics competencies for mine geologists

  11. Fluid Migration During Ice/Rock Planetesimal Differentiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raney, Robert 1987-

    2012-12-12

    fast melt water can segregate from the core of an ice-rich planetesimal. To answer this question we treat the core as two phase flow problem: a compacting viscous “solid” (ice/rock mixture) and a segregating liquid (melt water). The model developed...

  12. Rock dilation, nonlinear deformation, and pore pressure change under shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    Rock dilation, nonlinear deformation, and pore pressure change under shear Yariv Hamiel a criterion and pore pressure response to a fault slip. We investigate the poroelastic response of two an increase of pore pressure with mean stress (according to Skempton coefficient B) under undrained conditions

  13. Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in fractured porous rock 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baek, Inseok

    1994-01-01

    phase, a carrier phase, and a stationary solid phase. In the basic model, one-dimensional advection in a single planar fracture of infinite extent is coupled with diffusion in the rock matrix perpendicular to the fracture. In this study, a full...

  14. Technical Note Evaluation of mechanical rock properties using a Schmidt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ze'ev, Reches

    December 1999 1. Introduction The Schmidt Hammer was developed in 1948 for non-destructive testing±6]. Such fast, non-destructive and in situ evaluations of rock mechanical parameters reduce the expenses for sample collection and laboratory testing. Consequently, the mechanical parameters can be deter- mined

  15. Overview of conservation treatments applied to rock glyph archaeological sites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandridge, Debra E

    2000-01-01

    . Conservation efforts to save the world's ancient rock glyphs have been approached from a scientific basis for only the last twenty-five years. Many site managers, both private and public, have little knowledge of, or training in, the use of treatments that can...

  16. Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks. FY15 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yifeng

    2015-08-20

    The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of longterm disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media.

  17. WATERJET ASSISTED POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND INDENTATION DRILLING OF ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    improved drilling rates can provide a significant benefit, justifying the costs and effort required both of drilling and completions of the wells can account for 25 ­ 50% of the cost of the electricity whichWATERJET ASSISTED POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND INDENTATION DRILLING OF ROCK Santi, P, Bell, S

  18. Process of breaking and rendering permeable a subterranean rock mass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lekas, Mitchell A. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01

    The process of the present invention involves the following steps: producing, as by hydrofracing, a substantially horizontal fracture in the subterranean rock mass to be processed; emplacing an explosive charge in the mass in spaced juxtaposed position to the fracture; enlarging the fracture to create a void space thereat, an initial lifting of the overburden, and to provide a free face juxtaposed to and arranged to cooperate with the emplaced explosive charge; and exploding the charge against the free face for fragmenting the rock and to distribute the space, thus providing fractured, pervious, rubble-ized rock in an enclosed subterranean chamber. Firing of the charge provides a further lifting of the overburden, an enlargement of the chamber and a larger void space to distribute throughout the rubble-ized rock within the chamber. In some forms of the invention an explosive charge is used to produce a transitory enlargement of the fracture, and the juxtaposed emplaced charge is fired during the critical period of enlargement of the fracture.

  19. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  20. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (?15N and ?18O) but all methods testedmore »are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions.« less

  1. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  2. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  3. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  4. Layered rocks beneath the Phanerozoic platform of the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-03-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks lies hidden beneath the Phanerozoic cover of the central US over large regions. A thick sequence of Precambrian layered rocks in imaged on the COCORP transect across southern Illinois and Indiana. The thickness of this layered sequence varies from 1-3 times the thickness of the overlying Phanerozoic section of the Illinois basin. The layered sequence is observed for close to 200 km in an east-west direction. Similar layered reflections are seen on the COCORP data from Hardeman Co., TX, and neighboring southwest Oklahoma. Both of these known occurrences lie within the region of the middle Proterozoic Granite/Rhyolite province of the US midcontinent, an area within which scattered wells to basement commonly encounter 1.3-1.5 Ga undeformed granite and/or compositionally similar rhyolite. Therefore, these layered assemblages may comprise a thick sequence of silicic volcanic and sedimentary rocks (perhaps also injected by mafic sills) between scattered volcanic-intrusive centers, such as exposed in the St. Francois Mountains of southeast Missouri. However, in places such as Illinois and Indiana, the near absence of deep wells leaves the possibility that the upper portion of these layered rocks may locally be of late Proterozoic or earliest Paleozoic age. The reprocessing of available industry data, analyzed in conjunction with the existing COCORP data, includes extended vibroseis correlation. These industry data are invaluable in the author's effort to expand the known distribution of these layered rocks (e.g., into north-central Illinois) and to map their structures.

  5. Proton elastic scattering from tin isotopes at 295 MeV and systematic change of neutron density distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Terashima; H. Sakaguchi; H. Takeda; T. Ishikawa; M. Itoh; T. Kawabata; T. Murakami; M. Uchida; Y. Yasuda; M. Yosoi; J. Zenihiro; H. P. Yoshida; T. Noro; T. Ishida; S. Asaji; T. Yonemura

    2008-02-02

    Cross sections and analyzing powers for proton elastic scattering from $^{116,118,120,122,124}$Sn at 295 MeV have been measured for a momentum transfer of up to about 3.5 fm$^{-1}$ to deduce systematic changes of the neutron density distribution. We tuned the relativistic Love-Franey interaction to explain the proton elastic scattering of a nucleus whose density distribution is well known. Then, we applied this interaction to deduce the neutron density distributions of tin isotopes. The result of our analysis shows the clear systematic behavior of a gradual increase in the neutron skin thickness of tin isotopes with mass number.

  6. Tracer Fluid Flow through Porous Media: Theory Applied to Acid Stimulation Treatments in Carbonate Rocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakaria Mohamed Reda, Ahmed

    2014-07-29

    Most carbonate rocks are heterogeneous at multiple length scales. These heterogeneities strongly influence the outcome of the acid stimulation treatments which are routinely performed to improve well productivity. At the pore scale, carbonate rocks...

  7. The Use of Random Forest in Rock-glacier Automatic Detection based on Satellite Imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freitas, Nando de

    and observed global warming (Barsch, 1996), rock-glaciers are46 also threatened by major human activities variables derived10 from remote sensing imagery, together with the truth label (presence/absence of rock-11

  8. Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems I. Fluid Mixing and Chemical Geothermometry Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  9. Integration of Rock Physics and Seismic Inversion for Carbonate Reservoir Characterization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tingting

    2014-12-12

    Carbonate reservoir characterization based on rock physics and seismic inversion helps in better understanding the influence of deposition and diagenesis on rock property. In this dissertation, I first study a modern carbonate platform to understand...

  10. Nonlinear Elastic Wave Experiments: Learning About the Behavior of Rocks and Geomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (historically) the macroscopic experiments that led to our cur- rent understanding of the peculiar nonlinearity of rocks were studied and all were found to be highly nonlinear; notably, sedimentary rocks (which are oil

  11. Geochemistry of silicate-rich rocks can curtail spreading of carbon dioxide in subsurface aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Silvana S. S.; Andres, J. T. H.

    2014-12-11

    in carbonate rocks the streaming of dissolved carbon dioxide persists, the chemical interactions in silicate-rich rocks may curb this transport drastically and even inhibit it altogether. These results challenge our view of carbon sequestration...

  12. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  13. Energy level effects during multiphoton dissociation and the laser separation of closely spaced isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreou, D.

    1996-09-01

    A novel approach for enhancing the selectivity of the desired isotope in the molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) process is presented. The scheme consists of simultaneously applying two laser beams with frequencies corresponding to those between the ground and the first energy excitation level and the ground and the second energy excitation level, respectively. Practical relations on the properties of the spherical-top molecules are derived and a semiclassical analysis of the electromagnetic interaction within the limits of the experimental conditions applied in actual MLIS experiments shows that the selectivity, defined as the ratio of the absorption cross sections of the two isotopes, increases by a factor of 10{endash}20 times in the case of the uranium isotopes. In addition, it is demonstrated that during the multiphoton absorption process energy-level splittings due to induced magnetic dipoles and induced electric quadrupoles are by no means negligible. They become significant during multiphoton processes where two or more photons are lost during the interaction process. At high pumping powers they become dominant and inhibit selectivity. They cancel out during interaction processes where there is no change in the total number of photons, such as scattering. These effects can be avoided by applying the laser beams to the molecular gas in arrangements which in principle are equivalent to a Mach{endash}Zehnder interferometer with the molecules substituted for the reuniting beam splitter. Moreover, the induced electric quadrupoles (E2) are fully exploited. The application of the results and the concepts described herein can render the MLIS process the most economic and practical method for the commercial separation of the uranium isotopes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Coupled hydro-mechanical processes in crytalline rock and in induratedand plastic clays: A comparative discussion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Blumling, Peter; Bernier, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    at Grimsel. In Coupled Thermo-Hydro- Mechanical-ChemicalCOUPLED HYDRO-MECHANICAL PROCESSES IN CRYTALLINE ROCK AND IN

  15. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2004-03-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  16. Beta-decay measurements of neutron-deficient cesium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parry, R.F.

    1983-03-01

    Beta decay endpoint energy measurements of the neutron deficient cesium isotopes were done using an energy spectrum shape fitting technique. This was a departure from the typical method of endpoint energy analysis, the Fermi-Kurie plot. A discussion of the shape fitting procedure and its improved features are discussed. These beta endpoint measurements have led to total decay energies (Q/sub EC/) of the neutron deficient /sup 119/ /sup 123/Cs isotopes. The total decay energies of /sup 122m/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 6.95 +- 0.25 MeV) and /sup 119/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 6.26 +- 0.29 MeV) were new measurements. The total decay energies of /sup 123/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 4.05 +- 0.18 MeV), /sup 122g/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 7.05 +- 0.18 MeV), /sup 121/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 5.21 +- 0.22 MeV), and /sup 120/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 7.38 +- 0.23 MeV) were measurements with significantly improved uncertainties as compared to the literature. Further, a combination of the energy levels derived from previous literature gamma-gamma coincident measurements and the experimental beta-coincident gamma decay energies has supported an improved level scheme for /sup 121/Xe and the proposal of three new energy levels in /sup 119/Xe. Comparison of the experimental cesium mass excesses (determined with our Q/sub EC/ values and known xenon mass excesses) with both the literature and theoretical predicted values showed general agreement except for /sup 120/Cs. Possible explanations for this deviation are discussed.

  17. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and the Helium Isotope Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan Cooke

    2015-10-09

    The conventional approach to search for departures from the standard model of physics during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis involves a careful, and subtle measurement of the mass fraction of baryons consisting of helium. Recent measurements of this quantity tentatively support new physics beyond the standard model but, historically, this method has suffered from hidden systematic uncertainties. In this letter, I show that a combined measurement of the primordial deuterium abundance and the primordial helium isotope ratio has the potential to provide a complementary and reliable probe of new physics beyond the standard model. Using the recent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance and assuming that the measured pre-solar 3He/4He meteoritic abundance reflects the primordial value, a bound can be placed on the effective number of neutrino species, Neff(BBN) = 3.01 (+0.95 -0.76, with 95 per cent confidence). Although this value of Neff supports the standard model, it is presently unclear if the pre-solar 3He/4He ratio reflects the primordial value. New astrophysical measurements of the helium isotope ratio in near-pristine environments, together with updated calculations and experimental values of several important nuclear reactions (some of which are already being attempted), will lead to much improved limits on possible departures from the standard model. To this end, I describe an analysis strategy to measure the 3He I flux emitted from nearby low metallicity H II regions. The proposed technique can be attempted with the next generation of large telescopes, and will be easier to realize in metal-poor H II regions with quiescent kinematics.

  18. Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest...

  19. Mass- and field-shift isotope parameters for the $2s - 2p$ resonance doublet of lithium-like ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiguang Li; Cédric Nazé; Michel Godefroid; Stephan Fritzsche; Gediminas Gaigalas; Paul Indelicato; Per Jönsson

    2012-07-26

    It was recently shown that dielectronic recombination measurements can be used for accurately inferring changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radii of highly-charged lithium-like neodymium [Brandau et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 073201 (2008)]. To make use of this method to derive information about the nuclear charge distribution for other elements and isotopes, accurate electronic isotope shift parameters are required. In this work, we calculate and discuss the relativistic mass- and field-shift factors for the two $2s ^{2}S_{1/2} - 2p ^{2}P^{o}_{1/2,3/2}$ transitions along the lithium isoelectronic sequence. Based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method, the electron correlation and the Breit interaction are taken into account systematically. The analysis of the isotope shifts for these two transitions along the isoelectronic sequence demonstrates the importance and competition between the mass shifts and the field shifts.

  20. Mass- and field-shift isotope parameters for the $2s - 2p$ resonance doublet of lithium-like ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jiguang; Godefroid, Michel; Fritzsche, Stephan; Gaigalas, Gediminas; Indelicato, Paul; Jönsson, Per

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that dielectronic recombination measurements can be used for accurately inferring changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radii of highly-charged lithium-like neodymium [Brandau et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 073201 (2008)]. To make use of this method to derive information about the nuclear charge distribution for other elements and isotopes, accurate electronic isotope shift parameters are required. In this work, we calculate and discuss the relativistic mass- and field-shift factors for the two $2s ^{2}S_{1/2} - 2p ^{2}P^{o}_{1/2,3/2}$ transitions along the lithium isoelectronic sequence. Based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method, the electron correlation and the Breit interaction are taken into account systematically. The analysis of the isotope shifts for these two transitions along the isoelectronic sequence demonstrates the importance and competition between the mass shifts and the field shifts.