National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for isfsi dry storage

  1. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations (ISFSI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trond Bjornard; Philip C. Durst

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes the requirements and best practices for implementing international nuclear safeguards at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), also known as Away-from- Reactor (AFR) storage facilities. These installations may provide wet or dry storage of spent fuel, although the safeguards guidance herein focuses on dry storage facilities. In principle, the safeguards guidance applies to both wet and dry storage. The reason for focusing on dry independent spent fuel storage installations is that this is one of the fastest growing nuclear installations worldwide. Independent spent fuel storage installations are typically outside of the safeguards nuclear material balance area (MBA) of the reactor. They may be located on the reactor site, but are generally considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the State Regulator/SSAC to be a separate facility. The need for this guidance is becoming increasingly urgent as more and more nuclear power plants move their spent fuel from resident spent fuel ponds to independent spent fuel storage installations. The safeguards requirements and best practices described herein are also relevant to the design and construction of regional independent spent fuel storage installations that nuclear power plant operators are starting to consider in the absence of a national long-term geological spent fuel repository. The following document has been prepared in support of two of the three foundational pillars for implementing Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). These are: i) defining the relevant safeguards requirements, and ii) defining the best practices for meeting the requirements. This document was prepared with the design of the latest independent dry spent fuel storage installations in mind and was prepared specifically as an aid for designers of commercial nuclear facilities to help them understand the relevant international requirements that follow from a country’s safeguards agreement with the IAEA. If these requirements are understood at the earliest stages of facility design, it will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards, and will help the IAEA implement nuclear safeguards worldwide, especially in countries building their first nuclear facilities. It is also hoped that this guidance document will promote discussion between the IAEA, State Regulator/SSAC, Project Design Team, and Facility Owner/Operator at an early stage to ensure that new ISFSIs will be effectively and efficiently safeguarded. This is intended to be a living document, since the international nuclear safeguards requirements may be subject to revision over time. More importantly, the practices by which the requirements are met are continuously modernized by the IAEA and facility operators for greater efficiency and cost effectiveness. As these improvements are made, it is recommended that the subject guidance document be updated and revised accordingly.

  2. Safeguards Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSI)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1) May 2012 Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations (ISFSI) Philip Casey Durst (INL Consultant) DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

  3. Thermal Modeling of NUHOMS HSM-15 and HSM-1 Storage Modules at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station ISFSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Collins, Brian A.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-10-01

    As part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the Department of Energy (DOE), visual inspections and temperature measurements were performed on two storage modules in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station’s Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Detailed thermal models models were developed to obtain realistic temperature predictions for actual storage systems, in contrast to conservative and bounding design basis calculations.

  4. Preliminary Thermal Modeling of HI-STORM 100 Storage Modules at Diablo Canyon Power Plant ISFSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2014-04-17

    Thermal analysis is being undertaken at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of inspections of selected storage modules at various locations around the United States, as part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development. This report documents pre-inspection predictions of temperatures for two modules at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant ISFSI identified as candidates for inspection. These are HI-STORM 100 modules of a site-specific design for storing PWR 17x17 fuel in MPC-32 canisters. The temperature predictions reported in this document were obtained with detailed COBRA-SFS models of these storage systems, with the following boundary conditions and assumptions. • storage module overpack configuration based on FSAR documentation of HI-STORM100S-218, Version B; due to unavailability of site-specific design data for Diablo Canyon ISFSI modules • Individual assembly and total decay heat loadings for each canister, based on at-loading values provided by PG&E, “aged” to time of inspection using ORIGEN modeling o Special Note: there is an inherent conservatism of unquantified magnitude – informally estimated as up to approximately 20% -- in the utility-supplied values for at-loading assembly decay heat values • Axial decay heat distributions based on a bounding generic profile for PWR fuel. • Axial location of beginning of fuel assumed same as WE 17x17 OFA fuel, due to unavailability of specific data for WE17x17 STD and WE 17x17 Vantage 5 fuel designs • Ambient conditions of still air at 50°F (10°C) assumed for base-case evaluations o Wind conditions at the Diablo Canyon site are unquantified, due to unavailability of site meteorological data o additional still-air evaluations performed at 70°F (21°C), 60°F (16°C), and 40°F (4°C), to cover a range of possible conditions at the time of the inspection. (Calculations were also performed at 80°F (27°C), for comparison with design basis assumptions.) All calculations are for steady-state conditions, on the assumption that the surfaces of the module that are accessible for temperature measurements during the inspection will tend to follow ambient temperature changes relatively closely. Comparisons to the results of the inspections, and post-inspection evaluations of temperature measurements obtained in the specific modules, will be documented in a separate follow-on report, to be issued in a timely manner after the inspection has been performed.

  5. Maine Yankee: Making the Transition from an Operating Plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, W.; McGough, M. S.

    2002-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company in making the transition from an operating nuclear power plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Maine Yankee (MY) is a 900-megawatt Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactor whose architect engineer was Stone & Webster. Maine Yankee was put into commercial operation on December 28, 1972. It is located on an 820-acre site, on the shores of the Back River in Wiscasset, Maine about 40 miles northeast of Portland, Maine. During its operating life, it generated about 1.2 billion kilowatts of power, providing 25% of Maine's electric power needs and serving additional customers in New England. Maine Yankee's lifetime capacity factor was about 67% and it employed more than 450 people. The decision was made to shutdown Maine Yankee in August of 1997, based on economic reasons. Once this decision was made planning began on how to accomplish safe and cost effective decommissioning of the plant by 2004 while being responsive to the community and employees.

  6. Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long Term

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage and Transportation of Used Fuel Rev0 | Department of Energy Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long Term Storage and Transportation of Used Fuel Rev0 Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long Term Storage and Transportation of Used Fuel Rev0 The report is intended to help assess and establish the technical basis for extended long-term storage and transportation of used nuclear fuel. It provides: 1) an overview of the ISFSI

  7. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimatesmore » of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.« less

  8. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimatesmore »of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.« less

  9. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  10. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project, Final Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-02-27

    EPRI is leading a project team to develop and implement the first five years of a Test Plan to collect data from a SNF dry storage system containing high burnup fuel.12 The Test Plan defined in this document outlines the data to be collected, and the storage system design, procedures, and licensing necessary to implement the Test Plan.13 The main goals of the proposed test are to provide confirmatory data14 for models, future SNF dry storage cask design, and to support license renewals and new licenses for ISFSIs. To provide data that is most relevant to high burnup fuel in dry storage, the design of the test storage system must mimic real conditions that high burnup SNF experiences during all stages of dry storage: loading, cask drying, inert gas backfilling, and transfer to the ISFSI for multi-year storage.15 Along with other optional modeling, SETs, and SSTs, the data collected in this Test Plan can be used to evaluate the integrity of dry storage systems and the high burnup fuel contained therein over many decades. It should be noted that the Test Plan described in this document discusses essential activities that go beyond the first five years of Test Plan implementation.16 The first five years of the Test Plan include activities up through loading the cask, initiating the data collection, and beginning the long-term storage period at the ISFSI. The Test Plan encompasses the overall project that includes activities that may not be completed until 15 or more years from now, including continued data collection, shipment of the Research Project Cask to a Fuel Examination Facility, opening the cask at the Fuel Examination Facility, and examining the high burnup fuel after the initial storage period.

  11. Preliminary Thermal Modeling of HI-Storm 100S-218 Version B Storage Modules at Hope Creek Cuclear Power Station ISFSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-30

    As part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development, a consortium of national laboratories and industry is performing visual inspections and temperature measurements of selected storage modules at various locations around the United States. This report documents thermal analyses in in support of the inspections at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station ISFSI. This site utilizes the HI-STORM100 vertical storage system developed by Holtec International. This is a vertical storage module design, and the thermal models are being developed using COBRA-SFS (Michener, et al., 1987), a code developed by PNNL for thermal-hydraulic analyses of multi assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. This report describes the COBRA-SFS model in detail, and presents pre-inspection predictions of component temperatures and temperature distributions. The final report will include evaluation of inspection results, and if required, additional post-test calculations, with appropriate discussion of results.

  12. Preliminary Thermal Modeling of Hi-Storm 100S-218 Version B Storage Modules at Hope Creek Nuclear Power Station ISFSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-30

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone M3FT-13PN0810022, “Report on Inspection 1”, under Work Package FT-13PN081002. Thermal analysis is being undertaken at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of inspections of selected storage modules at various locations around the United States, as part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development. This report documents pre-inspection predictions of temperatures for four modules at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station ISFSI that have been identified as candidates for inspection in late summer or early fall/winter of 2013. These are HI-STORM 100S-218 Version B modules storing BWR 8x8 fuel in MPC-68 canisters. The temperature predictions reported in this document were obtained with detailed COBRA-SFS models of these four storage systems, with the following boundary conditions and assumptions.

  13. Evaluation of impact tests of solid steel billet onto concrete pads, and application to generic ISFSI storage cask for tipover and side drop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, M.C.; Chen, T.F.; Murty, S.S.; Tang, D.T.; Mok, G.C.; Fischer, L.E.; Carlson, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Twelve tests were performed at LLNL to assess loading conditions on a spent fuel casts for side drops, end drops and tipover events. The tests were performed with a 1/3-scale model concrete pad to benchmark the structural analysis code DYNA3D. The side drop and tipover test results are discussed in this report. The billet and test pad were modified with DYNA3D using material properties and techniques used in earlier tests. The peak or maximum deceleration test results were compared to the simulated analytical results. It was concluded that an analytical model based on DYNA3D code and has been adequately benchmarked for this type of application. A generic or represented cask was modified with the DYNA3D code and evaluated for ISFSI side drop and tipover events. The analytical method can be applied to similar casks to estimate impact loads on storage casks resulting from low-velocity side or tip impacts onto concrete storage pads.

  14. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y.

    2012-07-06

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the United States raises the prospect of extended long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at operating and decommissioned nuclear power plant sites. Under U.S. federal regulations contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 72.42, the initial license term for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) must not exceed 40 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the expiration of the license term upon application by the licensee for a period not to exceed 40 years. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following: (1) Time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) that demonstrate that structures, systems, and components (SSCs) important to safety will continue to perform their intended function for the requested period of extended operation; and (2) a description of the aging management program (AMP) for management of issues associated with aging that could adversely affect SSCs important to safety. In addition, the application must also include design bases information as documented in the most recent updated final safety analysis report as required by 10 CFR 72.70. Information contained in previous applications, statements, or reports filed with the Commission under the license may be incorporated by reference provided that those references are clear and specific. The NRC has recently issued the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for renewal of used-fuel dry cask storage system (DCSS) licenses and Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), NUREG-1927, under which NRC may renew a specific license or a CoC for a term not to exceed 40 years. Both the license and the CoC renewal applications must contain revised technical requirements and operating conditions (fuel storage, surveillance and maintenance, and other requirements) for the ISFSI and DCSS that address aging effects that could affect the safe storage of the used fuel. The information contained in the license and CoC renewal applications will require NRC review to verify that the aging effects on the SSCs in DCSSs/ ISFSIs are adequately managed for the period of extended operation. To date, all of the ISFSIs located across the United States with more than 1,500 dry casks loaded with used fuel have initial license terms of 20 years; three ISFSIs (Surry, H.B. Robinson and Oconee) have received their renewed licenses for 20 years, and two other ISFSIs (Calvert Cliffs and Prairie Island) have applied for license renewal for 40 years. This report examines issues related to managing aging effects on the SSCs in DCSSs/ISFSIs for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuels, following an approach similar to that of the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report, NUREG-1801, for the aging management and license renewal of nuclear power plants. The report contains five chapters and an appendix on quality assurance for aging management programs for used-fuel dry storage systems. Chapter I of the report provides an overview of the ISFSI license renewal process based on 10 CFR 72 and the guidance provided in NUREG-1927. Chapter II contains definitions and terms for structures and components in DCSSs, materials, environments, aging effects, and aging mechanisms. Chapter III and Chapter IV contain generic TLAAs and AMPs, respectively, that have been developed for managing aging effects on the SSCs important to safety in the dry cask storage system designs described in Chapter V. The summary descriptions and tabulations of evaluations of AMPs and TLAAs for the SSCs that are important to safety in Chapter V include DCSS designs (i.e., NUHOMS{reg_sign}, HI-STORM 100, Transnuclear (TN) metal cask, NAC International S/T storage cask, ventilated storage cask (VSC-24), and the Westinghouse MC-10 metal dry storage cask) that have been and continue to be used by utilities across the country for dry storage of used fuel to date. The goal of this report is to help establish the technical basis for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel.

  15. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996.

  16. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  17. Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report on the use of dry-cask-storage technologies at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE} in response to the requirements of...

  18. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to ...

  19. Analysis of dose consequences arising from the release of spent nuclear fuel from dry storage casks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    The resulting dose consequences from releases of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) residing in a dry storage casks are examined parametrically. The dose consequences are characterized by developing dose versus distance curves using simplified bounding assumptions. The dispersion calculations are performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS2) code. Constant weather and generic system parameters were chosen to ensure that the results in this report are comparable with each other and to determine the relative impact on dose of each variable. Actual analyses of site releases would need to accommodate local weather and geographic data. These calculations assume a range of fuel burnups, release fractions (RFs), three exposure scenarios (2 hrs and evacuate, 2 hrs and shelter, and 24 hrs exposure), two meteorological conditions (D-4 and F-2), and three release heights (ground level - 1 meter (m), 10 m, and 100 m). This information was developed to support a policy paper being developed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff on an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) security rulemaking.

  20. Eddy Current for Sizing Cracks in Canisters for Dry Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2014-01-01

    The storage of used nuclear fuel (UNF) in dry canister storage systems (DCSSs) at Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSI) sites is a temporary measure to accommodate UNF inventory until it can be reprocessed or transferred to a repository for permanent disposal. Policy uncertainty surrounding the long-term management of UNF indicates that DCSSs will need to store UNF for much longer periods than originally envisioned. Meanwhile, the structural and leak-tight integrity of DCSSs must not be compromised. The eddy current technique is presented as a potential tool for inspecting the outer surfaces of DCSS canisters for degradation, particularly atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Results are presented that demonstrate that eddy current can detect flaws that cannot be detected reliably using standard visual techniques. In addition, simulations are performed to explore the best parameters of a pancake coil probe for sizing of SCC flaws in DCSS canisters and to identify features in frequency sweep curves that may potentially be useful for facilitating accurate depth sizing of atmospheric SCC flaws from eddy current measurements.

  1. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  2. US NRC-Sponsored Research on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Dry Storage Canister Materials in Marine Environments - 13344

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberson, Greg; Dunn, Darrell; Mintz, Todd; He, Xihua; Pabalan, Roberto; Miller, Larry

    2013-07-01

    At a number of locations in the U.S., spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is maintained at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). These ISFSIs, which include operating and decommissioned reactor sites, Department of Energy facilities in Idaho, and others, are licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 72. The SNF is stored in dry cask storage systems, which most commonly consist of a welded austenitic stainless steel canister within a larger concrete vault or overpack vented to the external atmosphere to allow airflow for cooling. Some ISFSIs are located in marine environments where there may be high concentrations of airborne chloride salts. If salts were to deposit on the canisters via the external vents, a chloride-rich brine could form by deliquescence. Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC), particularly in the presence of residual tensile stresses from welding or other fabrication processes. SCC could allow helium to leak out of a canister if the wall is breached or otherwise compromise its structural integrity. There is currently limited understanding of the conditions that will affect the SCC susceptibility of austenitic stainless steel exposed to marine salts. NRC previously conducted a scoping study of this phenomenon, reported in NUREG/CR-7030 in 2010. Given apparent conservatisms and limitations in this study, NRC has sponsored a follow-on research program to more systematically investigate various factors that may affect SCC including temperature, humidity, salt concentration, and stress level. The activities within this research program include: (1) measurement of relative humidity (RH) for deliquescence of sea salt, (2) SCC testing within the range of natural absolute humidity, (3) SCC testing at elevated temperatures, (4) SCC testing at high humidity conditions, and (5) SCC testing with various applied stresses. Results to date indicate that the deliquescence RH for sea salt is close to that of MgCl{sub 2} pure salt. SCC is observed between 35 and 80 deg. C when the ambient (RH) is close to or higher than this level, even for a low surface salt concentration. (authors)

  3. Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    dry cask storage system designs; and 4) AMPs and TLAAs for the SSCs that are important to safety in the DCSS designs. PDF icon Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems...

  4. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  5. Aging Management Program for Stainless Steel Dry Storage System Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Darrell S.; Lin, Bruce P.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2015-06-01

    This is a conference paper presenting an aging management program for stainless steel dry storage system canisters. NRC is lead author of paper. PNNL provided input.

  6. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis refinements and/or relaxation of conservatisms. However, possible design improvements will be summarized for future application. All assumptions and related design features, while appropriate for conceptual designs, must be technically justified for the final design. The pertinent thermal design requirements and underlying assumptions are summarized in Section 1.3. The majority of the thermal analyses, as described in Sections 4.2 and 4.3, focus on an acceptable conceptual design arrived at by refinement of a preliminary but unacceptable design. The results of the subject thermal analyses, as presented in Section 4.0, satisfy items 3 and 4 above.

  7. Structural Sensitivity of Dry Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Karri, Naveen K.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-09-27

    This LS-DYNA modeling study evaluated a generic used nuclear fuel vertical dry storage cask system under tip-over, handling drop, and seismic load cases to determine the sensitivity of the canister containment boundary to these loads. The goal was to quantify the expected failure margins to gain insight into what material changes over the extended long-term storage lifetime could have the most influence on the security of the containment boundary. It was determined that the tip-over case offers a strong challenge to the containment boundary, and identifies one significant material knowledge gap, the behavior of welded stainless steel joints under high-strain-rate conditions. High strain rates are expected to increase the material’s effective yield strength and ultimate strength, and may decrease its ductility. Determining and accounting for this behavior could potentially reverse the model prediction of a containment boundary failure at the canister lid weld. It must be emphasized that this predicted containment failure is an artifact of the generic system modeled. Vendor specific designs analyze for cask tip-over and these analyses are reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Another location of sensitivity of the containment boundary is the weld between the base plate and the canister shell. Peak stresses at this location predict plastic strains through the whole thickness of the welded material. This makes the base plate weld an important location for material study. This location is also susceptible to high strain rates, and accurately accounting for the material behavior under these conditions could have a significant effect on the predicted performance of the containment boundary. The handling drop case was largely benign to the containment boundary, with just localized plastic strains predicted on the outer surfaces of wall sections. It would take unusual changes in the handling drop scenario to harm the containment boundary, such as raising the drop height or changing the impact angle. The seismic load case was derived from the August 23, 2011 earthquake that affected the North Anna power station. The source of the data was a monitoring station near Charlottesville, Virginia, so the ground motion is not an exact match. Stresses on the containment boundary were so low, even from a fatigue standpoint, that the seismic load case is generally not a concern. Based on this study, it is recommended that high strain rate testing of welded stainless steel test samples be pursued to define the currently unknown material behavior. Additional modeling is recommended to evaluate specific dry storage cask system designs subjected to tip-over loads using a high level of model detail. Additional modeling of the canister interior components (basket, fuel assemblies, etc.) is also recommended, to evaluate the feasibility of fuel retrievability after a tip-over incident. Finally, additional modeling to determine how much degradation a system could undergo and still maintain the integrity of the confinement barrier should be performed.

  8. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  9. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  10. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  11. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanato, L.S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

  12. Activity release during the dry storage of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, M.K. ); Fettel, W.; Gunther, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that wet storage is the predominant storage method in the USA for spent fuel assemblies. Nevertheless, most utilities have stretched their storage capacities and several reactors will lose their full-core reserve in the 90's. A great variety of out-of-pool storage methods already exist, including the FUELSTOR vault-type dry storage concept. A FUELSTOR vault relies on double containment of the spent fuel (intact cladding as the primary containment and sealing of assemblies in canisters filled with an inert gas as the secondary containment) to reduce radiation levels at the outside wall of the vault to less than site boundary levels. Investigation of accident scenarios reveals that radiation release limits are only exceeded following complete failure of all canisters and simultaneous cladding breach for more than 40% of the rods (or for more than 1% of failed rods if massive fuel oxidation occurs following cladding failure). Such failures are considered highly improbable. Thus, it can be concluded that this type of dry storage is safe and individual canister monitoring is not required in the facility.

  13. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plan | Department of Energy High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to store Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) for many decades will have a near-term and potentially significant impact on nuclear plant licensing and operations. While dry storage of lower burnup SNF [less than 45 gigawatt days per metric ton uranium (GWD / MTU)] has occurred since 1986, dry storage

  14. Demonstrating the Safety of Long-Term Dry Storage - 13468

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullum, Rod; Brookmire, Tom; Kessler, John; Leblang, Suzanne; Levin, Adam; Martin, Zita; Nesbit, Steve; Nichol, Marc; Pickens, Terry

    2013-07-01

    Commercial nuclear plants in the United States were originally designed with the expectation that used nuclear fuel would be moved directly from the reactor pools and transported off site for either reprocessing or direct geologic disposal. However, Federal programs intended to meet this expectation were never able to develop the capability to remove used fuel from reactor sites - and these programs remain stalled to this day. Therefore, in the 1980's, with reactor pools reaching capacity limits, industry began developing dry cask storage technology to provide for additional on-site storage. Use of this technology has expanded significantly since then, and has today become a standard part of plant operations at most US nuclear sites. As this expansion was underway, Federal programs remained stalled, and it became evident that dry cask systems would be in use longer than originally envisioned. In response to this challenge, a strong technical basis supporting the long term dry storage safety has been developed. However, this is not a static situation. The technical basis must be able to address future challenges. Industry is responding to one such challenge - the increasing prevalence of high burnup (HBU) used fuel and the need to provide long term storage assurance for these fuels equivalent to that which has existed for lower burnup fuels over the past 25 years. This response includes a confirmatory demonstration program designed to address the aging characteristics of HBU fuel and set a precedent for a learning approach to aging management that will have broad applicability across the used fuel storage landscape. (authors)

  15. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohachek, Randy; Wallace, Bruce; Winston, Phil; Marschman, Steve

    2013-04-30

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at the INL to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for opening and handling full-sized dry storage casks. The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603, Irradiated Spent Fuel Storage Facility, provides the infrastructure to support handling and examining casks and their contents. Based on a reasonable set of assumptions, it is possible to receive, open, inspect, remove samples, close, and reseal large bolted-lid dry storage casks at the INL. The capability can also be used to open and inspect casks that were last examined at the TAN Hot Shop over ten years ago. The Castor V/21 and REA-2023 casks can provide additional confirmatory information regarding the extended performance of low-burnup (<45 GWD/MTU) used nuclear fuel. Once a dry storage cask is opened inside CPP-603, used fuel retrieved from the cask can be packaged in a shipping cask, and sent to a laboratory for testing. Testing at the INL’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) can occur starting with shipment of samples from CPP-603 over an on-site road, avoiding the need to use public highways. This reduces cost and reduces the risk to the public. The full suite of characterization methods needed to establish the condition of the fuel exists and MFC. Many other testing capabilities also exist at MFC, but when those capabilities are not adequate, samples can be prepared and shipped to other laboratories for testing. This report discusses how the casks would be handled, what work needs to be done to ready the facilities/capabilities, and what the work will cost.

  16. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy Bohachek; Charles Park; Bruce Wallace; Phil Winston; Steve Marschman

    2013-04-01

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at the INL to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for opening and handling full-sized dry storage casks. The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603, Irradiated Spent Fuel Storage Facility, provides the infrastructure to support handling and examining casks and their contents. Based on a reasonable set of assumptions, it is possible to receive, open, inspect, remove samples, close, and reseal large bolted-lid dry storage casks at the INL. The capability can also be used to open and inspect casks that were last examined at the TAN Hot Shop over ten years ago. The Castor V/21 and REA-2023 casks can provide additional confirmatory information regarding the extended performance of low-burnup (<45 GWD/MTU) used nuclear fuel. Once a dry storage cask is opened inside CPP-603, used fuel retrieved from the cask can be packaged in a shipping cask, and sent to a laboratory for testing. Testing at the INL’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) can occur starting with shipment of samples from CPP-603 over an on-site road, avoiding the need to use public highways. This reduces cost and reduces the risk to the public. The full suite of characterization methods needed to establish the condition of the fuel exists and MFC. Many other testing capabilities also exist at MFC, but when those capabilities are not adequate, samples can be prepared and shipped to other laboratories for testing. This report discusses how the casks would be handled, what work needs to be done to ready the facilities/capabilities, and what the work will cost.

  17. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage, Transportation, and Disposal in the U.S. | Department of Energy The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling, Storage, Transportation, and Disposal in the U.S. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling, Storage, Transportation, and Disposal in the U.S. PDF icon The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling, Storage, Transportation, and Disposal in the U.S. More Documents & Publications

  18. Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the shutdown Connecticut Yankee site. The ISFSI includes 40 multi-purpose canisters, within vertical concrete storage casks, containing 1019 used nuclear fuel assemblies [412.3 metric ton heavy metal (MTHM)] and 3 canisters of greater-than-class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. Photo courtesy of Connecticut

  19. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling R1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for handling and opening full-sized dry storage casks in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's plan for confirmatory dry storage project for high burnup fuel.

  20. Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperatures on the DBTT of High Burnup PWR

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cladding | Department of Energy Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperatures on the DBTT of High Burnup PWR Cladding Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperatures on the DBTT of High Burnup PWR Cladding The purpose of the research effort is to determine the effects of canister and/or cask drying and storage on radial hydride precipitation in, and potential embrittlement of, high-burnup (HBU) pressurized water reactor cladding alloys during cooling for a range of storage temperatures and hoop

  1. OVERVIEW OF CRITERIA FOR INTERIM WET & DRY STORAGE OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.; Vinson, D.; Iyer, N.; Fisher, D.

    2010-11-03

    Following discharge from research reactors, spent nuclear fuel may be stored 'wet' in water pools or basins, or it may be stored 'dry' in various configurations including non-sealed or sealed containers until retrieved for ultimate disposition. Interim safe storage practices are based on avoiding degradation to the fuel that would impact functions related to safety. Recommended practices including environmental controls with technical bases, are outlined for wet storage and dry storage of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based research reactor fuel. For wet storage, water quality must be maintained to minimize corrosion degradation of aluminum fuel. For dry storage, vented canister storage of aluminum fuel readily provides a safe storage configuration. For sealed dry storage, drying must be performed so as to minimize water that would cause additional corrosion and hydrogen generation. Consideration must also be given to the potential for radiolytically-generated hydrogen from the bound water in the attendant oxyhydroxides on aluminum fuel from reactor operation for dry storage systems.

  2. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  3. Safety Aspects of Dry Spent Fuel Storage and Spent Fuel Management - 13559

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.

    2013-07-01

    Dry storage systems are characterized by passive and inherent safety systems ensuring safety even in case of severe incidents or accidents. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of such passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more and more obvious. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Following safety aspects must be achieved throughout the storage period: - safe enclosure of radioactive materials, - safe removal of decay heat, - securing nuclear criticality safety, - avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. Furthermore, transport capability must be guaranteed during and after storage as well as limitation and control of radiation exposure. The safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks can be achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat must be ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility. The safe confinement of radioactive inventory has to be ensured by mechanical integrity of fuel assembly structures. This is guaranteed, e.g. by maintaining the mechanical integrity of the fuel rods or by additional safety measures for defective fuel rods. In order to ensure nuclear critically safety, possible effects of accidents have also to be taken into consideration. In case of dry storage it might be necessary to exclude the re-positioning of fissile material inside the container and/or neutron moderator exclusion might be taken into account. Unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the cask or canister vault system itself. In Germany dry storage of SF in casks fulfills both transport and storage requirements. Mostly, storage facilities are designed as concrete buildings above the ground, but due to regional constraints, one storage facility has also been built as a rock tunnel. The decay heat is always removed by natural air flow; further technical equipment is not needed. The removal of decay heat and shielding had been modeled and calculated by state-of-the-art computer codes before such a facility has been built. TueV and BAM present their long experience in the licensing process for sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Different storage systems and facilities in Germany, Europe and world-wide are compared with respect to the safety aspects mentioned above. Initial points are the safety issues of wet storage of SF, and it is shown how dry storage systems can ensure the compliance with the mentioned safety criteria over a long storage period. The German storage concept for dry storage of SF and HLW is presented and discussed. Exemplarily, the process of licensing, erection and operation of selected German dry storage facilities is presented. (authors)

  4. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  5. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  6. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (1.4 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.

    1981-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.4 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a stainless steel canister representative of actual fuel canisters, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel near-surface drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD, the spent fuel deep geologic storage test being conducted in Climax granite on the Nevada Test Site, and for five constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  7. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO/sub 2/ oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs.

  8. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  9. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  10. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demuth, Scott Francis; Sprinkle, James K.

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  11. The Effect of Weld Residual Stress on Life of Used Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald G. Ballinger; Sara E. Ferry; Bradley P. Black; Sebastien P. Teysseyre

    2013-08-01

    With the elimination of Yucca Mountain as the long-term storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in the United States, a number of other storage options are being explored. Currently, used fuel is stored in dry-storage cask systems constructed of steel and concrete. It is likely that used fuel will continue to be stored at existing open-air storage sites for up to 100 years. This raises the possibility that the storage casks will be exposed to a salt-containing environment for the duration of their time in interim storage. Austenitic stainless steels, which are used to construct the canisters, are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride-containing environments if a continuous aqueous film can be maintained on the surface and the material is under stress. Because steel sensitization in the canister welds is typically avoided by avoiding post-weld heat treatments, high residual stresses are present in the welds. While the environment history will play a key role in establishing the chemical conditions for cracking, weld residual stresses will have a strong influence on both crack initiation and propagation. It is often assumed for modeling purposes that weld residual stresses are tensile, high and constant through the weld. However, due to the strong dependence of crack growth rate on stress, this assumption may be overly conservative. In particular, the residual stresses become negative (compressive) at certain points in the weld. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a probabilistic model with quantified uncertainties for SCC failure in the dry storage casks. In this paper, the results of a study of the residual stresses, and their postulated effects on SCC behavior, in actual canister welds are presented. Progress on the development of the model is reported.

  12. The Ontario Hydro dry irradiated fuel storage program and concrete integrated container demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.J.; Grande, L. )

    1990-05-01

    The practicality of loading irradiated fuel into a concrete cask underwater in an existing pool facility has been successfully demonstrated. The cask holds about 7.7 metric-tons-uranium. Special design features allow the cask to be used for dry storage, for transportation, and for disposal without re-handling the fuel. The cask, called the concrete integrated container, or CIC, has been developed. This paper describes the loading, monitoring, and IAEA-based transportation certification of testing of the CIC.

  13. Corrosion experiments on stainless steels used in dry storage canisters of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Adams, J.P.; Faw, E.M.; Anderson, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    Nonradioactive (cold) experiments have been set up in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP)-1634, and radioactive (hot) experiments have been set up in the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) at ICPP. The objective of these experiments is to provide information on the interactions (corrosion) between the spent nuclear fuel currently stored at the ICPP and the dry storage canisters and containment materials in which this spent fuel will be stored for the next several decades. This information will be used to help select canister materials that will retain structural integrity over this period within economic, criticality, and other constraints. The two purposes for Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs) are for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel and for shipment to a final geological repository. Information on how corrosion products, sediments, and degraded spent nuclear fuel may corrode DPCs will be required before the DPCs will be allowed to be shipped out of the State of Idaho. The information will also be required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to support the licensing of DPCs. Stainless steels 304L and 316L are the most likely materials for dry interim storage canisters. Welded stainless steel coupons are used to represent the canisters in both hot and cold experiments.

  14. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Qiao, Hong; Larche, Michael R.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS®) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  15. Assessment of the integrity of spent fuel assemblies used in dry storage demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Dobbins, J.C.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1987-07-01

    This report summarizes the histories of 17 Zircaloy-clad spent fuel assemblies used in dry storage tests and demonstrations at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) and Climax facilities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 18th assembly was shipped to the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) and remained there for extensive characterization and as a source of specimens for whole-rod and rod-segment dry storage tests. The report traces the history of the assemblies after discharge from the Turkey Point Unit 3 pressurized-water reactor (1975 and 1977) through shipment (first arrival at EMAD in December 1978), dry storage tests and demonstrations, and shipment by truck cask from EMAD to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in May/June 1986. The principal objectives of this report are to assess and document the integrity of the fuel during the extensive dry storage activities at NTS and BCL, and to briefly summarize the dry storage technologies and procedures demonstrated in this program. The dry storage tests and demonstrations involved the following concepts and facilities: (1) surface drywells (EMAD); (2) deep drywells (425 m underground in the Climax granite formation); (3) concrete silo (EMAD); (4) air-cooled vault (EMAD); (5) electrically-heated module for fuel assembly thermal calibration and testing (EMAD/FAITM). 20 refs., 43 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Operational Challenges of Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12550

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichol, M. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Washington DC (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain used fuel repository program and a continuing climate of uncertainty in the national policy for nuclear fuel disposition, the likelihood has increased that extended storage, defined as more than 60 years, and subsequent transportation of used nuclear fuel after periods of extended storage may become necessary. Whether at the nation's 104 nuclear energy facilities, or at one or more consolidated interim storage facilities, the operational challenges of extended storage and transportation will depend upon the future US policy for Used Fuel Management and the future Regulatory Framework for EST, both of which should be developed with consideration of their operational impacts. Risk insights into the regulatory framework may conclude that dry storage and transportation operations should focus primarily on ensuring canister integrity. Assurance of cladding integrity may not be beneficial from an overall risk perspective. If assurance of canister integrity becomes more important, then mitigation techniques for potential canister degradation mechanisms will be the primary source of operational focus. If cladding integrity remains as an important focus, then operational challenges to assure it would require much more effort. Fundamental shifts in the approach to design a repository and optimize the back-end of the fuel cycle will need to occur in order to address the realities of the changes that have taken place over the last 30 years. Direct disposal of existing dual purpose storage and transportation casks will be essential to optimizing the back end of the fuel cycle. The federal used fuel management should focus on siting and designing a repository that meets this objective along with the development of CIS, and possibly recycling. An integrated approach to developing US policy and the regulatory framework must consider the potential operational challenges that they would create. Therefore, it should be integral to these efforts to redefine retrievability to apply to the dual purpose cask, and not to apply to individual assemblies. (authors)

  17. Dry-vault storage of spent fuel at the CASCAD facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baillif, L.; Guay, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new modular dry storage vault concept using vertical metallic wells cooled by natural convection has been developed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles to accommodate special fuels for high-level wastes. Basic specifications and design criteria have been followed to guarantee a double containment system and cooling to maintain the fuel below an acceptable temperature. The double containment is provided by two static barriers: At the reactor, fuels are placed in containers playing the role of the first barrier; the storage wells constitute the second barrier. Spent fuel placed in wells is cooled by natural convection: a boundary layer is created along the outer side of the well. The heated air rises along the well leading to a thermosiphon flow that extracts the heat released. For heat transfer, studies, computations, and experimental tests have been carried out to calculate and determine the temperature of the containers and the fuel rod temperatures in various situations. The CASCAD vault storage can be applied to light water reactor (LWR) fuels without any difficulties if two requirements are satisfied: (1) Spend fuels have to be inserted in tight canisters. (2) Spent fuels have to be received only after a minimum decay time of 5 yr.

  18. NUHOMS modular spent-fuel storage system: Performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strope, L.A.; McKinnon, M.A. ); Dyksterhouse, D.J.; McLean, J.C. )

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of a heat transfer and shielding performance evaluation of the NUTECH HOrizontal MOdular Storage (NUHOMS{reg sign}) System utilized by the Carolina Power and Light Co. (CP L) in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The ISFSI is located at CP L's H. B. Robinson Nuclear Plant (HBR) near Hartsville, South Carolina. The demonstration included testing of three modules, first with electric heaters and then with spent fuel. The results indicated that the system was conservatively designed, with all heat transfer and shielding design criteria easily met. 5 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Accelerated high-temperature tests with spent PWR and BWR fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porsch, G.; Fleisch, J.; Heits, B.

    1986-09-01

    Accelerated high-temperature tests on 25 intact pressurized water and boiling water reactor rods were conducted for more than 16 months at 400, 430, and 450/sup 0/C in a helium gas atmosphere. The pretest characterized rods were examined by nondestructive methods after each of the three test cycles. No cladding breaches occurred and the creep deformation remained below 1%, which was in good agreement with model calculations. The test atmospheres were analyzed for /sup 85/Kr and tritium. The /sup 85/Kr concentrations were negligible and the tritium release agreed with the theoretical predictions. It can be concluded that for Zircaloy-clad fuel, cladding temperatures up to 450/sup 0/C are acceptable for dry storage in inert cover gases.

  20. Examination of Spent PWR Fuel Rods After 15 Years in Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R.E.; Tsai, H.C.; Billone, M.C.; Hilton, B.A.

    2002-07-01

    Virginia Power Surry Nuclear Station Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel was stored in a dry inert atmosphere Castor V/21 cask at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) for 15 years at peak cladding temperatures decreasing from about 350 to 150 deg. C. Prior to the storage, the loaded cask was subjected to extensive thermal benchmark tests. The cask was opened to examine the fuel for degradation and to determine if it was suitable for extended storage. No rod breaches had occurred and no visible degradation or crud/oxide spallation were observed. Twelve rods were removed from the center of the T11 assembly and shipped from INEEL to the Argonne-West HFEF for profilometric scans. Four of these rods were punctured to determine the fission gas release from the fuel matrix and internal pressure in the rods. Three of the four rods were cut into five segments each, then shipped to the Argonne-East AGHCF for detailed examination. The test plan calls for metallographic examination of six samples from two of the rods, microhardness and hydrogen content measurements at or near the six metallographic sample locations, tensile testing of six samples from the two rods, and thermal creep testing of eight samples from the two rods to determine the extent of residual creep life. The results from the profilometry (12 rods), gas release measurements (4 rods), metallographic examinations (2 samples from 1 rod), and microhardness and hydrogen content characterization (2 samples from 1 rod) are reported here. The tensile and creep studies are just starting and will be reported at a later date, along with the additional characterization work to be performed. Although only limited pre-storage characterization is available, a number of preliminary conclusions can be drawn based on comparison with characterization of Florida Power Turkey Point rods of a similar vintage. Based on this comparison, it appears that little or no cladding thermal creep and fission gas release from the fuel pellets occurred during the thermal benchmark tests or storage. Measurements of the cladding outer-diameter, oxide thickness and wall thickness are in the expected range for cladding of the Surry exposure. The measured hydrogen content is consistent with the oxide thickness. The volume of hydrides varies azimuthally around the cladding, but there is little variation across the thickness, of the cladding. It is most significant that all of the hydrides appear to have retained the circumferential orientation typical of pre-storage PWR fuel rods. (authors)

  1. Development of a novel ultrasonic temperature probe for long-term monitoring of dry cask storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Wang, K.; Elmer, T. W.; Koehl, E.; Raptis, A. C. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States)

    2013-01-25

    With the recent cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository and the limited availability of wet storage utilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), more attention has been directed toward dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for long-term storage of SNF. Consequently, more stringent guidelines have been issued for the aging management of dry storage facilities that necessitate monitoring of the conditions of DCSSs. Continuous health monitoring of DCSSs based on temperature variations is one viable method for assessing the integrity of the system. In the present work, a novel ultrasonic temperature probe (UTP) is being tested for long-term online temperature monitoring of DCSSs. Its performance was evaluated and compared with type N thermocouple (NTC) and resistance temperature detector (RTD) using a small-scale dry storage canister mockup. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the UTP system developed at Argonne is able to achieve better than 0.8 Degree-Sign C accuracy, tested at temperatures of up to 400 Degree-Sign C. The temperature resolution is limited only by the sampling rate of the current system. The flexibility of the probe allows conforming to complex geometries thus making the sensor particularly suited to measurement scenarios where access is limited.

  2. Examination of spent PWR fuel rods after 15 years in dry storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R.E.; Tsai, H.C.; Billone, M.C.; Hilton, B.A.

    2002-02-11

    Virginia Power Surry Nuclear Station Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel was stored in a dry inert atmosphere Castor V/21 cask at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) for 15 years at peak cladding temperatures decreasing from about 350 to 150 C. Prior to the storage, the loaded cask was subjected to extensive thermal benchmark tests. The cask was opened to examine the fuel for degradation and to determine if it was suitable for extended storage. No rod breaches had occurred and no visible degradation or crud/oxide spallation were observed. Twelve rods were removed from the center of the T11 assembly and shipped from INEEL to the Argonne-West HFEF for profilometric scans. Four of these rods were punctured to determine the fission gas release from the fuel matrix and internal pressure in the rods. Three of the four rods were cut into five segments each, then shipped to the Argonne-East AGHCF for detailed examination. The test plan calls for metallographic examination of six samples from two of the rods, microhardness and hydrogen content measurements at or near the six metallographic sample locations, tensile testing of six samples from the two rods, and thermal creep testing of eight samples from the two rods to determine the extent of residual creep life. The results from the profilometry (12 rods), gas release measurements (4 rods), metallographic examinations (2 samples from 1 rod), and microhardness and hydrogen content characterization (2 samples from 1 rod) are reported here. The tensile and creep studies are just starting and will be reported at a later date, along with the additional characterization work to be performed. Although only limited prestorage characterization is available, a number of preliminary conclusions can be drawn based on comparison with characterization of Florida Power Turkey Point rods of a similar vintage. Based on this comparison, it appears that little or no cladding thermal creep and fission gas release from the fuel pellets occurred during the thermal benchmark tests or storage. Measurements of the cladding outer-diameter, oxide thickness and wall thickness are in the expected range for cladding of the Surry exposure. The measured hydrogen content is consistent with the oxide thickness. The volume of hydrides varies azimuthally around the cladding, but there is little variation across the thickness, of the cladding. It is most significant that all of the hydrides appear to have retained the circumferential orientation typical of prestorage PWR fuel rods.

  3. Simulated dry storage test of a spent PWR nuclear fuel assembly in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Oden, D.R.; Stidham, D.L.; Garnier, J.E.; Weeks, D.L.; Dobbins, J.C.

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of the dry storage test was to investigate the behavior of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel in air between 200 and 275/sup 0/C. Atmospheric air was used for the cover gas because of the interest in establishing regimes where air inleakage into an initially inert system would not cause potential fuel degradation. Samples of the cover gas atmosphere were extracted monthly to determine fission gas concentrations as a function of time. The oxygen concentration was monitored to detect oxygen depletion, which would signal oxidation of the fuel. The gas analyses indicated very low but detectable levels of /sup 85/Kr during the first month of the test. A large increase (five orders of magnitude) in /sup 85/Kr and the appearance of helium in the cover gas indicated that a fuel rod had breached during the second month of the test. Stress rupture calculations showed that the stresses and temperatures were too low to expect breaches to form in defect-free cladding. It is theorized that the breach occurred in a fuel rod weakened by an existing cladding or end cap defect. Calculations based on the rate of /sup 85/Kr release suggest that the diameter of the initial breach was about 25 microns. A post-test fuel examination will be performed to locate and investigate the cause of the cladding breach and to determine if detectable fuel degradation progressed after the breach occurred. The post-test evaluation will define the consequences of a fuel rod breach occurring in an air cover gas at 270/sup 0/C, followed by subsequent exposure to air at a prototypic descending temperature.

  4. Imaging Spent Fuel in Dry Storage Casks with Cosmic Ray Muons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, J. Matthew; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    Highly energetic cosmic ray muons are a natural source of ionizing radiation that can be used to make tomographic images of the interior of dense objects. Muons are capable of penetrating large amounts of shielding that defeats typical radiographic probes like neutrons or photons. This is the only technique which can examine spent nuclear fuel rods sealed inside dry casks.

  5. Application of nonlinear ultrasonics to inspection of stainless steel for dry storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, Timothy James II; Anderson, Brain E.; Remillieux, Marcel C.; Le Bas, Pierre -Yves; Pieczonka, Lukasz

    2015-09-22

    This report summarized technical work conducted by LANL staff an international collaborators in support of the UFD Storage Experimentation effort. The focus of the current technical work is on the detection and imaging of a failure mechanism known as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steel using the nonlinear ultrasonic technique known as TREND. One of the difficulties faced in previous work is in finding samples that contain realistically sized SCC. This year such samples were obtained from EPRI. Reported here are measurements made on these samples. One of the key findings is the ability to detect subsurface changes to the direction in which a crack is penetrating into the sample. This result follows from last year's report that demonstrated the ability of TREND techniques to image features below the sample surface. A new collaboration was established with AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland.

  6. PRESERVATION OF H2 PRODUCTION ACTIVITY IN NANOPOROUS LATEX COATINGS OF RHODOPSEUDOMONAS PALUSTRIS CGA009 DURING DRY STORAGE AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliken, C.; Piskorska, M.; Soule, T.; Gosse, J.; Flickinger, M.; Smith, G.; Yeager, C.

    2012-08-27

    To assess the applicability of latex cell coatings as an "off-the-shelf' biocatalyst, the effect of osmoprotectants, temperature, humidity and O{sub 2} on preservation of H{sub 2} production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris coatings was evaluated. Immediately following latex coating coalescence (24 h) and for up to 2 weeks of dry storage, rehydrated coatings containing different osmoprotectants displayed similar rates of H{sub 2} production. Beyond 2 weeks of storage, sorbitol- treated coatings lost all H{sub 2} production activity, whereas considerable H{sub 2} production was still detected in sucrose- and trehalose-stabilized coatings. The relative humidity level at which the coatings were stored had a significant impact on the recovery and subsequent rates of H{sub 2} production. After 4 weeks storage under air at 60% humidity, coatings produced only trace amounts of H{sub 2} (0-0.1% headspace accumulation), whereas those stored at <5% humidity retained 27-53% of their H{sub 2} production activity after 8 weeks of storage. When stored in argon at <5% humidity and room temperature, R. palustris coatings retained full H{sub 2} production activity for 3 months, implicating oxidative damage as a key factor limiting coating storage. Overall, the results demonstrate that biocatalytic latex coatings are an attractive cell immobilization platform for preservation of bioactivity in the dry state.

  7. Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  8. Evaluation of hoop creep behaviors in long-term dry storage condition of pre-hydrided and high burn-up nuclear fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Bang, J.G.; Kim, D.H.; Yang, Y.S.

    2007-07-01

    Related to the degradation of the mechanical properties of Zr-based nuclear fuel cladding tubes under long term dry storage condition, the mechanical tests which can simulate the degradation of the mechanical properties properly are needed. Especially, the degradation of the mechanical properties by creep mechanism seems to be dominant under long term dry storage condition. Accordingly, in this paper, ring creep tests were performed in order to evaluate the creep behaviors of high burn-up fuel cladding under a hoop loading condition in a hot cell. The tests are performed with Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding whose burn-up is approximately {approx}60,000 MWd/tU in the temperature range from 350 deg. to 550 deg.. The tests are also performed with pre-hydrided Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO up to 1,000 ppm. First of all, the hoop loading grip for the ring creep test was designed in order that a constant curvature of the specimen was maintained during the creep deformation, and the graphite lubricant was used to minimize the friction between the outer surface of the die insert and the inner surface of the ring specimen. The specimen for the ring creep test was designed to limit the deformation within the gauge section and to maximize the uniformity of the strain distribution. It was confirmed that the mechanical properties under a hoop loading condition can be correctly evaluated by using this test technique. In this paper, secondary creep rate with increasing hydrogen content are drawn, and then kinetic data such as pre-exponential factor and activation energy for creep process are also drawn. In addition, creep life are predicted by obtaining LMP (Larson-Miller parameter) correlation in the function of hydrogen content and applied stress to yield stress ratio. (authors)

  9. Final environmental impact statement for the construction and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation to store the Three Mile Island Unit 2 spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Docket Number 72-20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) fuel debris at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL). US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to design, construct, and operate at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The TMI-2 fuel debris would be removed from wet storage, transported to the ISFSI, and placed in storage modules on a concrete basemat. As part of its overall spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program, the US DOE has prepared a final programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) that provides an overview of the spent fuel management proposed for INEEL, including the construction and operation of the TMI-2 ISFSI. In addition, DOE-ID has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to describe the environmental impacts associated with the stabilization of the storage pool and the construction/operation of the ISFSI at the ICPP. As provided in NRC`s NEPA procedures, a FEIS of another Federal agency may be adopted in whole or in part in accordance with the procedures outlined in 40 CFR 1506.3 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Under 40 CFR 1506.3(b), if the actions covered by the original EIS and the proposed action are substantially the same, the agency adopting another agency`s statement is not required to recirculate it except as a final statement. The NRC has determined that its proposed action is substantially the same as actions considered in DOE`s environmental documents referenced above and, therefore, has elected to adopt the DOE documents as the NRC FEIS.

  10. Design criteria for an independent spent fuel storage installation (water pool type)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This standard is intended to be used by those involved in the ownership and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) in specifying the design requirements and by the designer in meeting the minimum design requirements of such installations. This standard continues the set of American National Standards on spent fuel storage design. Similar standards are: Design Objectives for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage Facilities at Nuclear Power Stations, N210-1976 (ANS-57.2); Design Objectives for Highly Radioactive Solid Material Handling and Storage Facilities in a Reprocessing Plant, ANSI N305-1975; and Guidelines for Evaluating Site-Related Parameters for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, ANSI/ANS-2.19-1981.

  11. Developing a Regulatory Framework for Extended Storage and Transportat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Final Test Plan Gap Analysis to Support Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long Term Storage and Transportation...

  12. Cold vacuum drying system conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-05-01

    This document summarizes the activities involved in the removal of the SNF from the leaking basins and to place it in stable dry storage.

  13. Spent fuel storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, R.H.; Bowidowicz, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper compares a small onsite wet storage pool to a dry cask storage facility in order to determine what type of spent fuel storage alternatives would best serve the utilities in consideration of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The Act allows the DOE to provide a total of 1900 metric tons (MT) of additional spent fuel storage capacity to utilities that cannot reasonably provide such capacity for themselves. Topics considered include the implementation of the Act (DOE away-from reactor storage), the Act's impact on storage needs, and an economic evaluation. The Waste Act mandates schedules for the determination of several sites, the licensing and construction of a high-level waste repository, and the study of a monitored retrievable storage facility. It is determined that a small wet pool storage facility offers a conservative and cost-effective approach for many stations, in comparison to dry cask storage.

  14. Drying '84

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baunack, F.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: mechanism of water sorption-desorption in polymers; progress in freeze drying; on drying of materials in through circulation system; safety aspects of spray drying; dewatering process enhanced by electroosmosis; pressure drop and particle circulation studies in modified slot spouted beds; and experience in drying coal slurries.

  15. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  16. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  17. Review of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Technical Gap Analysis Review of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Technical Gap Analysis While both wet and dry...

  18. Storage Statistics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Trends and Summaries Storage by Scientific Discipline Troubleshooting IO ... Storage Trends and Summaries Total Bytes Utilized The growth in NERSC's storage systems ...

  19. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - Interface_Levin

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Adam H. Levin AHL Consulting May 14, 2014 BWR - Boiling Water Reactor DOE - Department of Energy DSC - Dry Storage Canister ISF - Interim Storage Facility ISFSI - Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor SNF - Spent Nuclear Fuel 2 5/16/2014 2 The status of spent fuel storage across industry - what's out there and what is industry likely to turn over to DOE? Near-term spent fuel management at operating reactor sites - will industry change to meet DOE needs as

  1. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  2. Report on UQ and PCMM Analysis of Vacuum Drying for UFD S&T Gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Fluss

    2015-08-31

    This report discusses two phenomena that could affect the safety, licensing, transportation, storage, and disposition of the spent fuel storage casks and their contents (radial hydriding during drying and water retention after drying) associated with the drying of canisters for dry spent fuel storage. The report discusses modeling frameworks and evaluations that are, or have been, developed as a means to better understand these phenomena. Where applicable, the report also discusses data needs and procedures for monitoring or evaluating the condition of storage containers during and after drying. A recommendation for the manufacturing of a fully passivated fuel rod, resistant to oxidation and hydriding is outlined.

  3. File storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File storage File storage Disk Quota Change Request Form Euclid File Systems Euclid has 3 kinds of file systems available to users: home directories, scratch directories and...

  4. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Storage Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key component of the U.S. carbon management portfolio. Numerous studies have shown that CCS can account for up to 55 percent of the emissions reductions needed to stabilize and ultimately reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2. NETL's Carbon Storage Program is readying CCS technologies for widespread commercial deployment by 2020. The program's goals are: By 2015, develop technologies

  5. Technical bases for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    The experience base for water storage of spent nuclear fuel has evolved since 1943. The technology base includes licensing documentation, standards, technology studies, pool operator experience, and documentation from public hearings. That base reflects a technology which is largely successful and mundane. It projects probable satisfactory water storage of spent water reactor fuel for several decades. Interim dry storage of spent water reactor fuel is not yet licensed in the US, but a data base and documentation have developed. There do not appear to be technological barriers to interim dry storage, based on demonstrations with irradiated fuel. Water storage will continue to be a part of spent fuel management at reactors. Whether dry storage becomes a prominent interim fuel management option depends on licensing and economic considerations. National policies will strongly influence how long the spent fuel remains in interim storage and what its final disposition will be.

  6. Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2014-06-23

    ORNL Distinguished Scientist Parans Paranthaman is discovering new materials with potential for greatly increasing batteries' energy storage capacity and bring manufacturing back to the US.

  7. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2014-06-03

    ORNL Distinguished Scientist Parans Paranthaman is discovering new materials with potential for greatly increasing batteries' energy storage capacity and bring manufacturing back to the US.

  8. Dephosphorization when using DRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-21

    The increase in high quality steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) requires the use of scrap substitute materials, such as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) and Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI). Although DRI and HBI products have lower copper and nickel contents than most scrap materials, they can contain up to ten times more phosphorus. This project, led by Carnegie Mellon University’s Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, improves the understanding of how phosphorus behaves when DRI and HBI melt.

  9. Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

  10. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  11. File Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Storage File Storage Disk Quota Change Request Form Carver File Systems Carver has 3 kinds of file systems available to users: home directories, scratch directories and project directories, all provided by the NERSC Global File system. Each file system serves a different purpose. File System Home Scratch Project Environment Variable Definition $HOME $SCRATCH or $GSCRATCH No environment variable /project/projectdirs/ Description Global homes file system shared by all NERSC systems except

  12. File storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File storage File storage Disk Quota Change Request Form Euclid File Systems Euclid has 3 kinds of file systems available to users: home directories, scratch directories and project directories, all provided by the NERSC Global File system. Each file system serves a different purpose. File System Home Scratch Project Environment Variable Definition $HOME $SCRATCH or $GSCRATCH No environment variable /project/projectdirs/ Description Global homes file system shared by all NERSC systems except

  13. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Safety, Security & Resilience of Energy Infrastructure/Energy Storage - Energy StorageTara Camacho-Lopez2015-10-16T01:57:05+00:00 ESTP The contemporary grid limits renewable energy and other distributed energy sources from being economically and reliably integrated into the grid. While a national renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS) has yet to be established, 35 states have forged ahead with their own RPS programs and policies. As this generation becomes a larger

  14. DOE Awards Contract for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    under NRC regulations. The scope includes the management and operation of the Fort Saint Vrain (FSV) Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) facility in Colorado...

  15. Freeze drying method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-12-07

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  16. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  17. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  18. Natural Gas Dry Production (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Dry Production Supplemental Gaseous Fuels Interstate Receipts Receipts Across U.S. Borders Withdrawals from Underground Storage Consumption Interstate Deliveries Deliveries Across U.S. Borders Injections into Storage Balancing Item Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 21,315,507 22,901,879 24,033,266

  19. Effects of Multiple Drying Cycles on HBU PWR Cladding Alloys | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Effects of Multiple Drying Cycles on HBU PWR Cladding Alloys Effects of Multiple Drying Cycles on HBU PWR Cladding Alloys The purpose of this research effort is to determine the effects of canister/cask vacuum drying and storage on radial hydride precipitation in high-burnup (HBU) pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding alloys during cooling for a range of peak drying-storage temperatures, internal gas pressures, and hoop stresses. The HBU PWR cladding alloys have a wide range of

  20. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10-8 mol/s/cm2 were achieved.

  1. Drying '86. Volume 1-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujumdar, A.S. )

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 123 papers grouped under the headings of: Drying theory and modelling; Drying of granular materials; Spray drying; Drying of paper and wood products; Drying of foodstuff and biomaterials; Drying of agricultural products and grains; Superheated steam drying; Industrial drying systems and novel dryers; Use of solar energy in drying; Measurement and control of humidity and moisture; and Dewatering.

  2. NREL: Energy Storage - Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Transportation Research Energy Storage Printable Version Awards R&D 100 2013 NREL's energy storage innovation has been recognized with numerous awards. R&D 100 ...

  3. Full containment spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, K.

    1999-11-01

    Aspects of safety, environmental protection, and powder quality will continue to influence advances within spray dryer design and operation, and the concept of full containment spray drying offers a means to meet future industrial requirements. Process air recycle and powder containment within the drying chamber leads to no process air discharge to atmosphere, provides a more favorable operator environment around the spray dryer installation, reduces regions within the dryer layout where potential explosive powder/air mixtures can exist, improves yields, reduces powder losses, and provides easier cleaning operations with reduced wash water requirements.

  4. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage - Creation of 3D mesh from surface and background meshes using conformal decomposition finite-element method (CDFEM) for a LiCoO2 cathode: (a) reconstructed surface mesh from Avizo for particle phase, (b) background mesh for CDFEM, and (c) resultant 3D mesh for particle and electrolyte phases from CDFEM. Permalink Gallery Sandia Wins Funding for Two DOE-EERE Computer-Aided Battery-Safety R&D Projects Analysis, Capabilities, Computational Modeling & Simulation, Design,

  5. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  6. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  7. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  8. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  9. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  10. Spray-drying FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeager, K.

    1984-05-01

    Limited data are available on spray drying for SO/SUB/2 and particulate control to enable utilities to evaluate the claims of vendors. EPRI is sponsoring pilot- and full-scale testing of this technology and some results are presented.

  11. Discussion of Available Methods to Support Reviews of Spent Fuel Storage Installation Cask Drop Evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, M.

    2000-03-28

    Applicants seeking a Certificate of Compliance for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) cask must evaluate the consequences of a handling accident resulting in a drop or tip-over of the cask onto a concrete storage pad. As a result, analytical modeling approaches that might be used to evaluate the impact of cylindrical containers onto concrete pads are needed. One such approach, described and benchmarked in NUREG/CR-6608,{sup 1} consists of a dynamic finite element analysis using a concrete material model available in DYNA3D{sup 2} and in LS-DYNA,{sup 3} together with a method for post-processing the analysis results to calculate the deceleration of a solid steel billet when subjected to a drop or tip-over onto a concrete storage pad. The analysis approach described in NUREG/CR-6608 gives a good correlation of analysis and test results. The material model used for the concrete in the analyses in NUREG/CR-6608 is, however, somewhat troublesome to use, requiring a number of material constants which are difficult to obtain. Because of this a simpler approach, which adequately evaluates the impact of cylindrical containers onto concrete pads, is sought. Since finite element modeling of metals, and in particular carbon and stainless steel, is routinely and accurately accomplished with a number of finite element codes, the current task involves a literature search for and a discussion of available concrete models used in finite element codes. The goal is to find a balance between a concrete material model with a limited number of required material parameters which are readily obtainable, and a more complex model which is capable of accurately representing the complex behavior of the concrete storage pad under impact conditions. The purpose of this effort is to find the simplest possible way to analytically represent the storage cask deceleration during a cask tip-over or a cask drop onto a concrete storage pad. This report is divided into three sections. The Section II provides a summary of the literature search on concrete finite element models. The Section III discusses commercial codes. The Section IV provides recommendations.

  12. U.S. Gap Analysis to Support Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Brady D.; Alsaed, Abdelhalim -.; Stockman, Christine T.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2012-06-27

    Dry storage of used nuclear fuel in the United States will continue until a disposition pathway is chosen and implemented. As such, the duration of dry storage will be much longer than originally anticipated. This paper reviews the methodology used in and the results of an analysis to determine the technical data gaps that need to be addressed to assure the continued safe and secure storage of used nuclear fuel for extended periods. Six high priority and eleven medium priority mechanisms were identified that may degrade the safety functions of the dry storage structures, systems, and components.

  13. Draft dry year tools (generation/planning)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Dry Year Tools November 9, 2006 - Final Dry Year Guide: The Final Dry Year Guide (PDF, 5 pages, 44 kb) and Figure 1 - Dry Year Strategy (PDF,...

  14. Dry Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total natural gas proved reserves, 2014 million barrels and billion cubic feet 2014 Dry Natural Gas billion cubic feet billion cubic feet Alaska 6,805 241 6,745 Lower 48 States 382,036 14,788 361,959 Alabama 2,121 59 2,036 Arkansas 12,795 5 12,789 California 2,260 112 2,107 Coastal Region Onshore 277 12 261 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 84 4 80 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 1,823 96 1,690 State Offshore 76 0 76 Colorado 21,992 813 20,851

  15. Review of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Technical Gap Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While both wet and dry storage have been shown to be safe options for storing UNF, the focus of the program is on dry storage of commercial UNF at reactor or centralized locations. This report focuses on the knowledge gaps concerning extended storage identified in numerous domestic and international investigations and provides the UFDC’s gap description, any alternate gap descriptions, the rankings by the various organizations, evaluation of the priority assignment, and UFDC-recommended action based on the comparison.

  16. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  17. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  18. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  19. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  20. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  1. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  2. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  3. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  4. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  5. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  6. FAQs about Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    about Storage Capacity How do I determine if my tanks are in operation or idle or ... Do I have to report storage capacity every month? No, only report storage capacity with ...

  7. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Systems Home/Energy Storage Systems - NM Energy Policy-Implementation Plan_2015_(cover) Permalink Gallery Sandia Participates in Preparation of New Mexico Renewable Energy Storage Report Analysis, Capabilities, Customers & Partners, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, Energy Surety, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Sandia Participates in Preparation of New Mexico Renewable Energy Storage Report New Mexico Governor Martinez

  8. Sandia Energy » Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Participates in Preparation of New Mexico Renewable Energy Storage Report http:energy.sandia.govsandia-participates-in-preparation-of-new-mexico-renewable-energy-storage-...

  9. NREL: Energy Storage - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage News Keep up-to-date with NREL energy storage activities, research, and developments. October 30, 2015 NREL Innovation Improves Safety of Electric Vehicle Batteries ...

  10. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Energy Storage Systems HomeTag:Energy Storage Systems - Aquion Energy battery module installed at NELHA. Permalink Gallery Natural ...

  11. Report to Congress on Plan for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Decommissioned Reactors

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 Report to Congress on the Demonstration of the Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Decommissioned Nuclear Power Reactor Sites December 2008 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Washington, D.C. Report to Congress on the Demonstration of the Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel The picture on the cover is the Connecticut Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation site in Haddam, Connecticut, with 43 dry storage NRC-licensed dual-purpose

  12. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Objective Advance research from prototype dryer ... First commercial market is dry flavors designed to ... change from existing practice Requires novel dryer ...

  13. DRI Companies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Irvine, California Zip: 92614 Sector: Solar Product: US-based residential and commercial installer of turnkey solar systems, through subsidiary iDRI Energy. Coordinates:...

  14. Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  15. NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Thermal Management Infrared image of rectangular battery cell. Infrared thermal image of a lithium-ion battery cell with poor terminal design. Graph of relative ...

  16. NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Systems Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Systems Evaluation Photo of man standing between two vehicles and plugging the vehicle on the right into a charging station. NREL system evaluation has confirmed ...

  17. Transportation Storage Interface | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage Interface Transportation Storage Interface Regulation of Future Extended Storage and Transportation. PDF icon Transportation Storage Interface More Documents & Publications...

  18. Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Storage Energy storage isn’t just for AA batteries. Thanks to investments from the Energy Department's <a href="http://arpa-e.energy.gov/">Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)</a>, energy storage may soon play a bigger part in our electricity grid, making it possible to generate more renewable electricity. <a href="http://energy.gov/articles/energy-storage-key-reliable-clean-electricity-supply">Learn more</a>. Energy storage

  19. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dry Process Electrode Fabrication Dry Process Electrode Fabrication 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es134_wixom_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Dry Process Electrode Fabrication Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

  20. Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage The challenge of creating new advanced batteries and energy storage technologies is one of Argonne's key initiatives. By creating a multidisciplinary ...

  1. Storage Trends and Summaries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summaries Storage Trends and Summaries Total Bytes Utilized The growth in NERSC's storage systems amounts to roughly 1.7x per year. Total Bytes Utilized Number of Files Stored The ...

  2. Pumped Storage Hydropower

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to traditional hydropower, pumped-storage hydropower (PSH)—A type of hydropower that works like a battery, pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir for storage and...

  3. Report on Biomass Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    1999-01-12

    Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.

  4. Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, David R.

    2013-12-01

    Energy Storage Systems – An Old Idea Doing New Things with New Technology article for the International Assoication of ELectrical Inspectors

  5. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Troy A. Semelsberger Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Storage Summit Jan 27-29, 2015 Denver, CO Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials 2 Objectives 1. Assess chemical hydrogen storage materials that can exceed 700 bar compressed hydrogen tanks 2. Status (state-of-the-art) of chemical hydrogen storage materials 3. Identify key material characteristics 4. Identify obstacles, challenges and risks for the successful deployment of chemical hydrogen materials in a practical on-board hydrogen

  6. National Energy Storage Strategy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    National Grid Energy Storage Strategy Offered by the Energy Storage Subcommittee of the Electricity Advisory Committee Executive Summary Since 2008, there has been substantial progress in the development of electric storage technologies and greater clarity around their role in renewable resource integration, ancillary service markets, time arbitrage, capital deferral as well as other applications and services. These developments, coupled with the increased deployment of storage technologies

  7. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  8. Test Plan for the Boiling Water Reactor Dry Cask Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, Samuel; Lindgren, Eric R.

    2015-11-01

    The thermal performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are evaluated through detailed numerical analysis . These modeling efforts are completed by the vendor to demonstrate performance and regulatory compliance. The calculations are then independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the efficiency of internal conduction pathways and by increasing the internal convection through greater canister helium pressure. These same vertical, canistered cask systems rely on ventilation between the canister and the overpack to convect heat away from the canister to the environment for both above and below-ground configurations. While several testing programs have been previously conducted, these earlier validation attempts did not capture the effects of elevated helium pressures or accurately portray the external convection of above-ground and below-ground canistered dry cask systems. The purpose of the investigation described in this report is to produce a data set that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations presently used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern vertical, canistered dry cask systems. The BWR cask simulator (BCS) has been designed in detail for both the above-ground and below-ground venting configurations. The pressure vessel representing the canister has been designed, fabricated, and pressure tested for a maximum allowable pressure (MAWP) rating of 24 bar at 400 deg C. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly is being deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents the canister. The symmetric single assembly geometry with well-controlled boundary conditions simplifies interpretation of results. Various configurations of outer concentric ducting will be used to mimic conditions for above and below-ground storage configurations of vertical, dry cask systems with canisters. Radial and axial temperature profiles will be measured for a wide range of decay power and helium cask pressures. Of particular interest is the evaluation of the effect of increased helium pressure on allowable heat load and the effect of simulated wind on a simplified below ground vent configuration. While incorporating the best available information, this test plan is subject to changes due to improved understanding from modeling or from as-built deviations to designs. As-built conditions and actual procedures will be documented in the final test report.

  9. Extended Storage for Research and Test Reactor Spent Fuel for 2006 and Beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurt, William Lon; Moore, K.M.; Shaber, Eric Lee; Mizia, Ronald Eugene

    1999-10-01

    This paper will examine issues associated with extended storage of a variety of spent nuclear fuels. Recent experiences at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Hanford sites will be described. Particular attention will be given to storage of damaged or degraded fuel. The first section will address a survey of corrosion experience regarding wet storage of spent nuclear fuel. The second section will examine issues associated with movement from wet to dry storage. This paper also examines technology development needs to support storage and ultimate disposition.

  10. ,"Underground Natural Gas Storage by Storage Type"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by Storage Type" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","All Operators",6,"Monthly"...

  11. UFD Storage and Transportation - Transportation Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-08-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Transportation Task commenced in October 2010. As its first task, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compiled a list of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of transportation systems and their possible degradation mechanisms during extended storage. The list of SSCs and the associated degradation mechanisms [known as features, events, and processes (FEPs)] were based on the list of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage system SSCs and degradation mechanisms developed by the UFD Storage Task (Hanson et al. 2011). Other sources of information surveyed to develop the list of SSCs and their degradation mechanisms included references such as Evaluation of the Technical Basis for Extended Dry Storage and Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel (NWTRB 2010), Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification, Revision 1 (OCRWM 2008), Data Needs for Long-Term Storage of LWR Fuel (EPRI 1998), Technical Bases for Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (EPRI 2002), Used Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Extended Storage Collaboration Program (EPRI 2010a), Industry Spent Fuel Storage Handbook (EPRI 2010b), and Transportation of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, Issues Resolution (EPRI 2010c). SSCs include items such as the fuel, cladding, fuel baskets, neutron poisons, metal canisters, etc. Potential degradation mechanisms (FEPs) included mechanical, thermal, radiation and chemical stressors, such as fuel fragmentation, embrittlement of cladding by hydrogen, oxidation of cladding, metal fatigue, corrosion, etc. These degradation mechanisms are discussed in Section 2 of this report. The degradation mechanisms have been evaluated to determine if they would be influenced by extended storage or high burnup, the need for additional data, and their importance to transportation. These categories were used to identify the most significant transportation degradation mechanisms. As expected, for the most part, the transportation importance was mirrored by the importance assigned by the UFD Storage Task. A few of the more significant differences are described in Section 3 of this report

  12. Criticality safety evaluation for long term storage of FFTF fuel in interim storage casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, R.F.

    1995-05-11

    It has been postulated that a degradation phenomenon, referred to as ``hot cell rot``, may affect irradiated FFTF mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel during dry interim storage. ``Hot cell rot`` refers to a variety of phenomena that degrade fuel pin cladding during exposure to air and inert gas environments. It is thought to be a form of caustic stress corrosion cracking or environmentally assisted cracking. Here, a criticality safety analysis was performed to address the effect of the ``hot cell rot`` phenomenon on the long term storage of irradiated FFTF fuel in core component containers. The results show that seven FFTF fuel assemblies or six Ident-69 pin containers stored in core component containers within interim storage casks will remain safely subcritical.

  13. Heat storage duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

  14. Transportation Storage Interface

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Future Extended Storage and Transportation Transportation-Storage Interface James Rubenstone Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission National Transportation Stakeholders Forum May 2012 ♦ Knoxville, Tennessee Overview * Changing policy environment * Regulatory framework-current and future * Extended storage and transportation-technical information needs * Next Steps 2 Current Policy Environment * U.S. national policy for disposition of spent

  15. Thermochemical Energy Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Energy Storage Overview on German, and European R&D Programs and the work carried out at the German Aerospace Center DLR Dr. Christian Sattler christian.sattler@dlr.de Dr. Antje Wörner antje.woerner@dlr.de Thermochemical Energy Storage > 8 January 2013 www.DLR.de * Chart 1 Contents - Short Introduction of the DLR - Energy Program - Thermochemical Storage - Strategic basis: Germany and European Union - Processes - CaO/Ca(OH) 2 - Metal oxides (restructure) - Sulfur -

  16. Drying rate and temperature profile for superheated steam vacuum drying and moist air drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S.; Dakin, M. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Ltd., Rotorua (New Zealand). Mfg. Technologies Portfolio

    1999-07-01

    Two charges of green radiata pine sapwood lumber were dried, ether using superheated steam under vacuum (90 C, 0.2 bar abs.) or conventionally using hot moist air (90/60 C). Due to low density of the drying medium under vacuum, the circulation velocity used was 10 m/s for superheated steam drying and 5.0 m/s for moist air drying, and in both cases, the flow was unidirectional. In drying, stack drying rate and wood temperatures were measured to examine the differences between the superheated steam drying and drying using hot moist air. The experimental results have shown that the stack edge board in superheated steam drying dried faster than in the hot moist air drying. Once again due to the low density of the steam under vacuum, a prolonged maximum temperature drop across load (TDAL) was observed in the superheated steam drying, however, the whole stack dried slower and the final moisture content distribution was more variable than for conventional hot moist air drying.

  17. Warehouse and Storage Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    belongings. Basic Characteristics See also: Equipment | Activity Subcategories | Energy Use Warehouse and Storage Buildings... While the idea of a warehouse may bring to...

  18. Storage and Handling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Records Management Procedures for Storage, Transfer & Retrieval of Records from the Washington National Records Center (WNRC) or Legacy Management Business Center RETIREMENT OF RECORDS:

  19. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  20. Sorption Storage Technology Summary

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops on February 14 and 15, 2011.

  1. Hydrogen Storage Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For transportation, the overarching technical challenge for hydrogen storage is how to store the amount of hydrogen required for a conventional driving range (>300 miles) within the vehicular...

  2. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  3. energy storage development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  4. electric energy storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electric energy storage - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power ...

  5. energy storage deployment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  6. Materials for Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Energy Storage - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  7. NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    HITTMAN BUILDING <,' 2:. NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE I . ; " LEWISTON, ' NEW YORK : f? ... Survey and Site Assessment Program EnergyEnvironment Systems Division ;>::; Oak ...

  8. A new storage-ring light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Alex

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  9. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  10. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charles Beetz, Chief Scientist, ZoomEssence, Inc. U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28-29, 2015 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective ď‚— Advance research from prototype dryer to integrated pilot system for our ambient temperature spray drying technology ď‚— Several objectives: ď‚— Improve emulsion formulation ď‚— Develop an industrialized atomizer ď‚— Develop a

  11. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  12. Combined Corex/DRI technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flickenschild, A.J.; Reufer, F.; Eberle, A.; Siuka, D.

    1996-08-01

    A feasible steelmaking alternative, the Corex/direct reduction/electric arc furnace combination, provides an economic route for the production of high quality steel products. This combination is a major step into a new generation of iron and steel mills. These mills are based on the production of liquid steel using noncoking coal and comply with the increasing demands of environmental protection. The favorable production costs are based on: Utilization of Corex and DRI/HBI plants; Production of hot metal equal to blast furnace quality; Use of low cost raw materials such as noncoking coal and lump ore; Use of process gas as reducing agent for DRI/HBI production; and Use of electric arc furnace with high hot metal input as the steelmaking process. The high flexibility of the process permits the adjustment of production in accordance with the strategy of the steel mills. New but proven technologies and applications of the latest state of art steelmaking process, e.g., Corex, in conjunction with DRI production as basic raw material for an electric arc furnace, will insure high quality, high availability, optimized energy generation at high efficiency rates, and high product quality for steelmaking.

  13. The influence of the drying medium on high temperature convective drying of single wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1997-10-01

    High temperature convective drying of single wood chips with air and superheated steam respectively is studied theoretically. The two-dimensional model presented describes the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat. Transport mechanisms included are the convection of gas and liquid, intergas as well as bound water diffusion. In the initial part of the drying process, moisture is transported to the surface mainly due to capillary forces in the transversal direction where evaporation occurs. As the surface becomes dry, the drying front moves towards the center of the particle and an overpressure is simultaneously built up which affects the drying process. The differences between drying in air and steam respectively can be assigned to the physical properties of the drying medium. The period of constant drying rate which does not exist (or is very short) in air drying becomes more significant with decreasing amounts of air in the drying medium and is clearly visible in pure superheated steam drying. The maximal drying rate is larger in air drying, and shorter drying times are obtained since the heat flux to the wood chip particle increases with increasing amounts of air in the drying medium. The period of falling drying rate can be divided into two parts: in the first, the drying rate is dependent upon the humidity of the drying medium whereas in the second, there is no such correlation.

  14. Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Map of the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Zone of the United States. The zone contains the eastern side of California and follows the US border to cover the western half of Texas. The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. Best Practice Guides 40%

  15. Compressed Air Storage Strategies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Strategies Compressed Air Storage Strategies This tip sheet briefly discusses compressed air storage strategies. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET 9 PDF icon Compressed Air Storage ...

  16. Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Leading the charge in energy storage R&D Argonne National Laboratory is a global leader in the development of advanced energy storage technologies and has a ...

  17. Steam drying of products containing solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothmann, E.; Schluender, E.U. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1995-12-31

    Drying experiments with single, porous spheres wetted with mixtures of 2-propanol and water were performed using superheated steam, air, or steam-air mixtures as drying agent. Both the drying rate and the moisture composition were determined experimentally for different temperatures and compositions of the drying agent and for different initial compositions of the moisture. It is shown that evaporation of 2-propanol is enhanced by using superheated steam as drying agent instead of air due to steam condensing on the sample. While the overall drying rate increases with rising steam temperature, the evaporation rate of 2-propanol is hardly affected. When drying samples containing mixtures of 2-propanol and water, internal boiling can occur depending on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Vapor generated inside the sample may cause mechanical dewatering of the sample which greatly increases the drying rate.

  18. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  19. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  20. NREL: Transportation Research - Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Transportation Research Cutaway image of an automobile showing the location of energy storage components (battery and inverter), as well as electric motor, power ...

  1. EPRI Energy Storage Talking Points

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Storage Highlights * Grid energy storage may improve the reliability, resiliency, and flexibility of the grid, and can reduce the potential for future rate increases. * Because of ...

  2. Dry scrubbing of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, N.D.

    1982-06-01

    The advantages of dry scrubbing over wet scrubbing or spray drying are considered. One of the problem areas is that of waste disposal. The most cost-effective solutions are land disposal or landfill in clay cells. The factors influencing the selection of an SO/sub 2/ scrubbing system are discussed. Nahcolite appears to be the most promising agent for dry scrubbing.

  3. Hydrogen storage compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  4. APS Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next up previous Next: Main Parameters APS Storage Ring Parameters M. Borland, G. Decker, L. Emery, W. Guo, K. Harkay, V. Sajaev, C.-Y. Yao Advanced Photon Source September 8, 2010...

  5. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  6. Monitored Retrievable Storage Background

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    `The U.S. Government is seeking a site for a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). Employing proven technologies used in this country and abroad, the MRS will be an Integral part of the...

  7. Re-evaluation of monitored retrievable storage concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Smith, R.I.

    1989-04-01

    In 1983, as a prelude to the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility conceptual design, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that examined alternative concepts for storing spent LWR fuel and high- level wastes from fuel reprocessing. The evaluation was made considering nine concepts for dry away-from-reactor storage. The nine concepts evaluated were: concrete storage cask, tunnel drywell, concrete cask-in-trench, open-cycle vault, metal casks (transportable and stationary), closed-cycle vault, field drywell, and tunnel-rack vault. The purpose and scope of the re-evaluation did not require a repetition of the expert-based examinations used earlier. Instead, it was based on more detailed technical review by a small group, focusing on changes that had occurred since the initial evaluation was made. Two additional storage concepts--the water pool and the horizontal modular storage vault (NUHOMS system)--were ranked along with the original nine. The original nine concepts and the added two conceptual designs were modified as appropriate for a scenario with storage capacity for 15,000 MTU of spent fuel. Costs, area requirements, and technical and historical data pertaining to MRS storage were updated for each concept.

  8. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  9. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Heung, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR){sub X} where R is an organic ligand of the form C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}, and organometals of the form MO{sub x}Ry where R is an alkyl group, where M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x and y are integers and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 motes of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  10. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    2003-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR)x and MOxRy, where R is an alkyl group of the form C.sub.n H.sub.2n+1, M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x, and y are integers, and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 moles of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  11. SAND2011-6186P

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...Storage module III. ISFSI I. Pad II. Rebar III. Physical Protection IV. Monitoring Systems I. Remote inspection II. In-package sensors III. Security 7 7 What are the data gaps? ...

  12. compressed-gas storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compressed-gas storage - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  13. advanced hydrogen storage materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen storage materials - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  14. Materials for Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Energy Storage - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  15. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, J. T. (Palo Alto, CA); Larsen, R. S. (Menlo Park, CA); Shapiro, S. L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks.

  16. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  17. Secure Storage Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol; Caldwell, Blake A; Hicks, Susan Elaine; Koch, Scott M; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Pogge, James R; Scott, Stephen L; Shipman, Galen M; Sorrillo, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to help with this issue, which are a particular instances of the more general challenge of efficient host/guest IO that is the focus of interfaces like virtio. A collection of bridging technologies have been identified in Chapter 4, which can be helpful to overcome the limitations and challenges of supporting efficient storage for secure enclaves. The synthesis of native filesystem security mechanisms and bridging technologies led to an isolation-centric storage architecture that is proposed in Chapter 5, which leverages isolation mechanisms from different layers to facilitate secure storage for an enclave. Recommendations: The following highlights recommendations from the investigations done thus far. - The Lustre filesystem offers excellent performance but does not support some security related features, e.g., encryption, that are included in GPFS. If encryption is of paramount importance, then GPFS may be a more suitable choice. - There are several possible Lustre related enhancements that may provide functionality of use for secure-enclaves. However, since these features are not currently integrated, the use of Lustre as a secure storage system may require more direct involvement (support). (*The network that connects the storage subsystem and users, e.g., Lustre s LNET.) - The use of OpenStack with GPFS will be more streamlined than with Lustre, as there are available drivers for GPFS. - The Manilla project offers Filesystem as a Service for OpenStack and is worth further investigation. Manilla has some support for GPFS. - The proposed Lustre enhancement of Dynamic-LNET should be further investigated to provide more dynamic changes to the storage network which could be used to isolate hosts and their tenants. - The Linux namespaces offer a good solution for creating efficient restrictions to shared HPC filesystems. However, we still need to conduct a thorough round of storage/filesystem benchmarks. - Vendor products should be more closely reviewed, possibly to include evaluation of performance/protection of select products. (Note, we are investigation the option of evaluating equipment from Seagate/Xyratex.) Outline: The remainder of this report is structured as follows: - Section 1: Describes the growing importance of secure storage architectures and highlights some challenges for HPC. - Section 2: Provides background information on HPC storage architectures, relevant supporting technologies for secure storage and details on OpenStack components related to storage. Note, that background material on HPC storage architectures in this chapter can be skipped if the reader is already familiar with Lustre and GPFS. - Section 3: A review of protection mechanisms in two HPC filesystems; details about available isolation, authentication/authorization and performance capabilities are discussed. - Section 4: Describe technologies that can be used to bridge gaps in HPC storage and filesystems to facilitate...

  18. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K.

    1997-12-31

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  19. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  20. Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review - International Energy Storage

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Program Presentations | Department of Energy International Energy Storage Program Presentations Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review - International Energy Storage Program Presentations The U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) held an annual peer review on September 27, 2007 in San Francisco, CA. Eighteen presentations were divided into categories; those related to international energy storage programs are below. Other presentation categories were: Economics - Benefit Studies and

  1. Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas in Underground Storage Figure Working Gas in Underground Storage Compared with 5-Year Range Graph...

  2. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  3. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  4. Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam (Naperville, IL); Galvin, Thomas M. (Darien, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

  5. Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  6. Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/25/2011 eere.energy.gov Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Ned Stetson Storage Tech Team Lead Fuel Cell Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy 12/13/2011 Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Marni Lenahan December 13, 2011 Database Background * The Hydrogen Storage Materials Database was built to retain information from DOE Hydrogen Storage funded research and make these data more accessible. *

  7. storage | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geologic Storage Technologies & Simulation & Risk Assessment The Carbon Storage Program's Geologic Storage and Simulation and Risk Assessment (GSRA) Technology Area supports research to develop technologies that can improve containment and injection operations, increase reservoir storage efficiency, and prevent and mitigate unwanted migration of CO2 in all types of storage formations. Research conducted in the near and long term will augment existing technologies to ensure permanent

  8. Hydrogen Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Hydrogen Storage The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) is developing onboard automotive hydrogen storage systems that allow for a driving range of more than 300 miles while meeting cost, safety, and performance requirements. Why Study Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in applications including stationary power, portable power, and transportation. Hydrogen has the highest energy per mass of any

  9. Energy storage connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  10. Berkeley Storage Manager

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-01

    Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management of shared storage components on the Grid, They provide storage availability for the planning and execution of a Grid job. SRMs manage two types of resources: space and files. When managing space, SRMs negotiate space allocation with the requesting client, andlor assign default space quotas. When managing files, SRMs allocate space for files, invoke file transfer servicesmore » to move files into the space. phi files for a certain lifetime, release files upon the clients’ request, and use file replacement policies to optimize the use of the shared space. SPMs can be designed to provide effective sharing of files, by monitoring the activity of shared files, and make dynamic decisions on which files to replace when space is needed. In addition, SRMs perform automatic gathage collection of unused files by removing selected files whose lifetime has expired when space is needed. BeStMan is a Java implementation of SRM functionality by the Scientific Data Management Group at LBNL. It manages multiple disks as well as the HPSS mass storage system, and can be adapted to other storage systems. The BeStMan package contains the SRM server, the SRM client tools, and SRM testing tools.« less

  11. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  12. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  13. Storage tracking refinery trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, J.

    1996-05-01

    Regulatory and marketplace shakeups have made the refining and petrochemical industries highly competitive. The fight to survive has forced refinery consolidations, upgrades and companywide restructurings. Bulk liquid storage terminals are following suit. This should generate a flurry of engineering and construction by the latter part of 1997. A growing petrochemical industry translates into rising storage needs. Industry followers forecasted flat petrochemical growth in 1996 due to excessive expansion in 1994 and 1995. But expansion is expected to continue throughout this year on the strength of several products.

  14. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  15. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  16. DRI Research Parks Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research Parks Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: DRI Research Parks Ltd Place: United States Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Academic Research...

  17. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301977" ,"Release Date:","11...

  18. dry-regen | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No.: FC26-07NT43089 Schematic of RTI's Dry Carbonate Process (click image to enlarge) Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International completed two projects, NT43089 and...

  19. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  20. Underground Natural Gas Storage by Storage Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History All Operators Natural Gas in Storage 7,306,429 7,615,688 7,988,797 8,317,848 8,305,034 8,039,759 1973-2015 Base Gas 4,371,340 4,363,455 4,364,233 4,364,778 4,367,380 4,362,559 1973-2015 Working Gas 2,935,089 3,252,232 3,624,564 3,953,070 3,937,654 3,677,200 1973-2015 Net Withdrawals -282,834 -309,104 -371,987 -331,026 12,618 264,608 1973-2015 Injections 378,490 394,079 435,352 401,063 201,400 138,069 1973-2015 Withdrawals 95,656 84,975

  1. Underground Natural Gas Storage by Storage Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History All Operators Net Withdrawals -17,009 -347,562 -7,279 545,848 -252,958 -538,735 1967-2015 Injections 3,291,395 3,421,813 2,825,427 3,155,661 3,838,826 3,638,954 1935-2015 Withdrawals 3,274,385 3,074,251 2,818,148 3,701,510 3,585,867 3,100,219 1944-2015 Salt Cavern Storage Fields Net Withdrawals -58,295 -92,413 -19,528 28,713 -81,890 -56,095 1994-2015 Injections 510,691 532,893 465,005 492,143 634,045 607,160 1994-2015 Withdrawals 452,396 440,480 445,477

  2. Hydrogen Storage Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Storage Fact Sheet Hydrogen Storage Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing hydrogen storage. PDF icon Hydrogen Storage More Documents & Publications US DRIVE Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap Hydrogen & Our Energy Future Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials

  3. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  4. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible)...

  5. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Energy Storage

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Systems (ESS) Presentations | Department of Energy Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Presentations Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Presentations The 2008 Peer Review Meeting for the DOE Energy Storage and Power Electronics Program (ESPE) was held in Washington DC on Sept. 29-30, 2008. Current and completed program projects were presented and reviewed by a group of industry professionals. The 2008 agenda was composed of 28 projects that

  6. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  7. Combinatorial Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Reactions and Their Application to Destabillzed Hydride Mixtures Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials...

  8. Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Materials R&D Workshop Hydrogen Storage Lab PI Workshop: HyMARC and NREL-Led Characterization Effort Combinatorial Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials...

  9. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy...

  10. Smart Storage Pty Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Storage Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Smart Storage Pty Ltd Place: Australia Product: Australia-based developer of hybrid battery storage solutions. References: Smart...

  11. EnStorage Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: EnStorage Inc Place: Israel Zip: 30900 Product: Israel-based energy storage technology developer, developing a regenerative fuel cell energy storage...

  12. Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure Working Gas in Underground Storage Compared with 5-Year Range Graph....

  13. EIA - Natural Gas Storage Data & Analysis

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Storage Weekly Working Gas in Underground Storage U.S. Natural gas inventories held in underground storage facilities by East, West, and Producing regions (weekly). Underground...

  14. Ultrafine Hydrogen Storage Powders - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Ultrafine Hydrogen Storage Powders Ames Laboratory Contact AMES ...

  15. Modular Electromechanical Batteries for Storage of Electrical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Modular Electromechanical Batteries for Storage of Electrical Energy for Land-Based Electric Vehicles Lawrence ...

  16. Solubility of aluminum and silica in Spodic horizons as affected by drying and freezing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonsson, M.; Berggren, D.; Gustafsson, J.P.

    1999-10-01

    The release of toxic Al{sup 3+} is one of the most serious consequences of anthropogenic soil acidification. Therefore, the mechanisms controlling Al solubility have been a topic of intense research for more than a decade. For convenience, soil samples are often dried before storage and experimental use. However, the literature offers examples of drying that results in changes in pH, solubility of organic matter, and dissolution rates of Al. In this study, the authors examined the solubility of Al and Si in fresh soil and in soil that had been dried or deep-frozen. Five Spodosol B horizon soils were subjected to batch titrations, where portions of each soil were equilibrated with solutions with varying concentrations of acid or base added. Extractions with acid oxalate and Na pyrophosphate indicated the presence of imogolite-type materials (ITM) in three of the soils. In the other two soils most secondary solid-phase Al was associated with humic substances. Deep-freezing did not significantly change pH nor the concentration of Al or Si as compared with fresh soil. Drying, on the other hand, yielded pH increases of up to 0.3 units at a given addition of acid or base, whereas Al{sup 3+} changed only slightly, implying a higher Al solubility in all of the soils. Furthermore, dissolved silica increased by up to 200% after drying, except in a soil that almost completely lacked oxalate-extractable Si. The authors suggest that drying enhanced the dissolution of ITM by disrupting soil organic matter, thus exposing formerly coated mineral surfaces. In the soil where dissolved Si did not change with drying, it has been demonstrated that Al-humus complexes controlled Al solubility. They suggest that fissures in the organic material caused by drying may have exposed formerly occluded binding sites that had a higher Al saturation than had sites at the surface of humus particles.

  17. Recent progress of spray drying in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jinxin, T.; Zonglian, W.; Lixin, H.

    1999-10-01

    The development of spray drying technique during past 10 years of China is reviewed. Main achievements in research, development and utilization of three types of atomization are described and summarized. General trend of spray drying research and development in 21st century is forecasted.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  19. Storage Ring | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Electron Storage Ring The 7-GeV electrons are injected into the 1104-m-circumference storage ring, a circle of more than 1,000 electromagnets and associated equipment, located...

  20. Status of Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The current status in terms of weight, volume, and cost of various hydrogen storage technologies is shown below. These values are estimates from storage system developers and the R&D community...

  1. Con Edison Energy Storage Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Con Edison Energy Storage Activities June 15, 2015 EIA Conference Con Edison Energy Storage (ES) 2 Presentation Overview * Introduction to Con Edison * Potential benefits of storage on our system * Unique urban challenges * Con Edison storage related activities * Going forward Con Edison: Overview 3 Customers Infrastructure Service Territory Electric 3.4 million One of the worlds largest underground electric systems All 5 boroughs of NYC and Westchester County Gas 1.1 million 4,333 miles of gas

  2. Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration" held December 13, 2011.

  3. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  4. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1988-08-01

    Recent programmatic developments in Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) have prompted renewed and widespread interest in this field. In mid 1987 the Defense Nuclear Agency, acting for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office, issued a request for proposals for the design and construction of SMES Engineering Test Model (ETM). Two teams, one led by Bechtel and the other by Ebasco, are now engaged in the first phase of the development of a 10 to 20 MWhr ETM. This report presents the rationale for energy storage on utility systems, describes the general technology of SMES, and explains the chronological development of the technology. The present ETM program is outlined; details of the two projects for ETM development are described in other papers in these proceedings. The impact of high T/sub c/ materials on SMES is discussed. 69 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch

  6. Carbon Capture & Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page 2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  7. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  8. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  9. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  10. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  11. Carbon Capture & Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  12. Transmission and Storage Operations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transmission and Storage Operations Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Mitigation Workshop Mary Savalle, PMP, LSSGB Compression Reliability Engineer November 12, 2014 Agenda * DTE Gas Snapshot * NOx & CO - Combustion stability * Methane - Packing - Blowdowns * Capture vs Flare 2 SNAPSHOT * DTE Gas - 41 Units * Age Range: 8-59yrs (Average 45yrs) - 118,200HP * 1,000-15,000HP - 7 different manufacturers * Cooper-Bessemer, Solar, Waukesha, DeLaval, IR, CAT, Ariel - Complete Mixture *

  13. Maui energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  14. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  15. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Batiy, Valiriy; Sizov, Andriy; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  16. Fact Sheet: Energy Storage Technology Advancement Partnership...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Advancement Partnership (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Energy Storage Technology Advancement Partnership (October 2012) The Energy Storage Technology Advancement Partnership ...

  17. Airless drying -- Developments since IDS'94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbing, T.J.

    1999-09-01

    Since its introduction to IDS'94 delegates, significant progress has been made with the development of airless drying technology. The ceramic industry internationally is beginning to benefit from both the energy use and drying time reductions it achieves, while on the basis of further theoretical work carried out since 1993 other industries, including the bioenergy sector, should also soon begin to exploit its advantages. As global warming becomes a reality and oil reserves decline, superheated steam drying and gasification of biomass will contribute to the mitigation of those problems.

  18. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  19. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Processors is an Agricultural Drying low temperature direct use geothermal facility in Brady Hot Springs E of Fernley, Nevada. This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  20. Spray drying for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhudy, R.

    1988-09-01

    Recent pilot plant tests indicate that spray drying, now used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions from low-sulfur coal, can also be effective for high-sulfur coal. Spray drying coupled with baghouse particulate removal is the most effective configuration tested to date, removing over 90% of SO/sub 2/ while easily meeting New Source Performance Standards for particulate emissions. 2 figures, 1 table.

  1. Dry lake reveals evidence of Southwestern 'megadroughts'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry lake reveals evidence of Southwestern 'megadroughts' Dry lake reveals evidence of Southwestern 'megadroughts' A portion of the research indicates that an ancient period of warming may be analogous to natural present-day climate conditions. February 28, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  2. 1.2.1.1 Harvest, Collection and Storage Quarter 3 Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn M Wendt; William A Smith; Kara G Cafferty; Ian J Bonner; Qiyang Huang; Rachel D Colby

    2014-07-01

    Single pass baling of corn stover is required in order to meet targets for the herbaceous biomass 2017 logistics design case. Single-pass pass stover harvest is based on the grain harvest and generally results in stover with a moisture content of 30-50% wet basis (w.b). Aerobic storage of corn stover with high moisture results in high levels of dry matter loss (DML), up to 25%. Anaerobic storage (ensiling) reduces DML to less than 5%, but additional costs are associated with handling and transporting the extra moisture in the biomass. This milestone provides a best-estimate of costs for using high moisture feedstock within the conventional baled logistics system. The costs of three (3) anaerobic storage systems that reduce dry matter losses (bale wrap, silage tube, and silage drive over pile) are detailed in this milestone and compared to both a conventional dry-baled corn stover case and a high moisture bale case, both stored aerobically. The total logistics cost (harvest, collection, storage, and transportation) of the scenarios are as follows: the conventional multi-pass dry bale case and the single-pass high moisture case stored aerobically were nearly equivalent at $61.15 and $61.24/DMT. The single-pass bale wrap case was the lowest at $57.63/DMT. The bulk anaerobic cases were the most expensive at $84.33 for the silage tube case and $75.97 for the drive over pile, which reflect the additional expense of transporting high-moisture bulk material; however, a reduction in preprocessing costs may occur because these feedstocks are size reduced in the field. In summary, the costs estimates presented in this milestone report can be used to determine if anaerobic storage of high-moisture corn stover is an economical option for dry matter preservation.

  3. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  4. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  5. Interim storage study report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  6. Hydrogen Storage System Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Challenges Advanced Composite Materials for Cold and Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Applications in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles October 29 th , 2015 Mike Veenstra Ford Research & Advanced Engineering Production fuel cell vehicles are being produced or planned by every major automotive OEM Toyota Honda Hyundai (credit: SA / ANL) Customer Expectations Driving Range Refueling Time Cargo Space Vehicle Weight Durability Cost Safety 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 Gasoline Hydrogen (700 bar) Natural

  7. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host technology transfer meetings and occasional field excursions. A total of 15 technology transfer/strategic planning workshops were held.

  8. Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact Us 100 Area 118-K-1 Burial Ground 200 Area 222-S Laboratory 242-A Evaporator 300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area Canyon Facilities Cold Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment Facility Environmental

  9. NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Modeling and Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The lab's state-of-the-art multi-physics models are used to examine thermal, electrical, electrochemical, chemical, and mechanical behavior of energy storage cells and systems. ...

  10. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Disposal in the U.S. More Documents & Publications Preliminary Report on Dual-Purpose Canister Disposal Alternatives (FY13) The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...

  11. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Griebenow, B.L.; Wade, M.A.

    1990-07-25

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples.

  12. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  13. Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Aq...

  14. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle...

  15. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to th

  16. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  17. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  18. Energy Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage Energy Storage One of the distinctive characteristics of the electric power sector is that the amount of electricity that can be generated is relatively fixed over short periods of time, although demand for electricity fluctuates throughout the day. Developing technology to store electrical energy so it can be available to meet demand whenever needed would represent a major breakthrough in electricity distribution. Helping to try and meet this goal, electricity storage devices can

  19. Advanced dry scrubbing on Ohio coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amrhein, G.T.; Kudlac, G.A.; Smith, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} emissions while burning high-sulfur Ohio coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. Dry scrubbing involves injecting an atomized mist of sorbent-containing slurry droplets into hot flue gas. The reaction products exit the scrubber as a dry powder that can be filtered from the gas and recycled or disposed. The project consists of testing an advanced dry scrubber system on two high sulfur Ohio coals. All testing will be conducted in the 5 MBtu pilot facility at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The facility consists of a test furnace, a dry scrubber using a B and W DuraJet{trademark} two fluid atomizer, a pulse-jet baghouse, and an ash slaking system. Tests were conducted with and without recycling the solids collected from the baghouse. During recycle operation the solids were slurried with water and injected into the dry scrubber with the fresh lime slurry. Test results will be presented, including SO{sub 2} removal (70--99%), calcium to sulfur ratios (1.1--1.9), dry scrubber outlet temperatures (10--30 F), and system performance. An advanced feature of the project was the use of the B and W patented Droplet Impingement Device which removes large slurry droplets from the gas stream prior to the baghouse to prevent baghouse deposition. This allows operation at low approach temperatures.

  20. Energy Storage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    around the clock. Some of the major issues concerning energy storage include cost, efficiency, and size. Benefits Make Renewable Energy Viable Allow for intermittent energy...

  1. Automotive Energy Storage Systems 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Automotive Energy Storage Systems 2015, the ITB Group’s 16th annual technical conference, was held from March 4–5, 2015, in Novi, Michigan.

  2. Non-Treaty Storage Agreement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Initiatives Columbia River Treaty Non Treaty Storage Agreement 2012 Long Term NTSA Previous Agreements NEPA Planning and Review Documents...

  3. Energy Storage Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Storage Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. At NREL's Energy Storage Laboratory in the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), research focuses on the integration of energy storage systems (both stationary and vehicle-mounted) and interconnection with the utility grid. Focusing on battery technologies, but also hosting ultra-capacitors and other electrical energy storage technologies, the laboratory will provide all resources necessary to develop, test, and prove energy storage system performance and compatibility with distributed energy systems. The laboratory will also provide robust vehicle testing capability, including a drive-in environmental chamber, which can accommodate commercial-sized hybrid, electric, biodiesel, ethanol, compressed natural gas, and hydrogen fueled vehicles. The Energy Storage Laboratory is designed to ensure personnel and equipment safety when testing hazardous battery systems or other energy storage technologies. Closely coupled with the research electrical distribution bus at ESIF, the Energy Storage Laboratory will offer megawatt-scale power testing capability as well as advanced hardware-in-the-loop and model-in-the-loop simulation capabilities. Some application scenarios are: The following types of tests - Performance, Efficiency, Safety, Model validation, and Long duration reliability. (2) Performed on the following equipment types - (a) Vehicle batteries (both charging and discharging V2G); (b) Stationary batteries; (c) power conversion equipment for energy storage; (d) ultra- and super-capacitor systems; and (e) DC systems, such as commercial microgrids.

  4. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E. )

    1988-10-01

    In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  5. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  6. The Petascale Data Storage Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Garth; Long, Darrell; Honeyman, Peter; Grider, Gary; Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Roth, Philip; Felix, Evan; Ward, Lee

    2013-07-01

    Petascale computing infrastructures for scientific discovery make petascale demands on information storage capacity, performance, concurrency, reliability, availability, and manageability.The Petascale Data Storage Institute focuses on the data storage problems found in petascale scientific computing environments, with special attention to community issues such as interoperability, community buy-in, and shared tools.The Petascale Data Storage Institute is a collaboration between researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Michigan, and the University of California at Santa Cruz.

  7. Energy Storage Components and Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  8. Energy Storage | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thus, energy storage and power electronics hold substantial promise for transforming the electric power industry. High voltage power electronics, such as switches, inverters, and ...

  9. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage » Materials-Based Storage » Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's (FCTO's) chemical hydrogen storage materials research focuses on improving the volumetric and gravimetric capacity, transient performance, and efficient, cost-effective regeneration of the spent storage material. Technical Overview The category of chemical hydrogen storage materials generally refers to covalently bound hydrogen in either solid or

  10. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David G.

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  11. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  12. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch spacing: two-bunch mode 328

  13. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch spacing: two-bunch mode 328

  14. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch spacing: two-bunch mode 328

  15. Storage Ring Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Ring Parameters Print General Parameters Parameter Value Beam particle electron Beam energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Injection energy 1.9 GeV (1.0-1.9 GeV possible) Beam current (all operation is in top-off with ΔI/I ≤ 0.3%) 500 mA in multibunch mode 2 x 17.5 mA in two-bunch mode Filling pattern (multibunch mode) 256-320 bunches; possibility of one or two 5- to 6-mA "camshaft" bunches in filling gaps Bunch spacing: multibunch mode 2 ns Bunch spacing: two-bunch mode 328

  16. Superconducting energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giese, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  17. Core assembly storage structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Charles E. (Northridge, CA); Brunings, Jay E. (Chatsworth, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  18. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Tao (Columbia, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  19. Organic additive systems for spray-drying and dry pressing silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, W.J. Jr.; Reed, J.S.

    1996-06-01

    Silicon nitride granules for dry pressing were prepared by spray-drying slurries containing polyethylene glycol as the primary binder combined with other organic additives. Differences in slurry viscosity, granule character, pressing behavior and green strength were found to depend on the choice of deflocculant.

  20. Method and apparatus for drying web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orloff, David I.; Kloth, Gerald R.; Rudemiller, Gary R.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drying a web of paper utilizing impulse drying techniques. In the method of the invention for drying a paper web, the paper web is transported through a pair of rolls wherein at least one of the rolls has been heated to an elevated temperature. The heated roll is provided with a surface having a low thermal diffusivity of less than about 1.times.10.sup.-6 m.sup.2 /s. The surface material of the roll is preferably prepared from a material selected from the group consisting of ceramics, polymers, glass, inorganic plastics, composite materials and cermets. The heated roll may be constructed entirely from the material having a low thermal diffusivity or the roll may be formed from metal, such as steel or aluminum, or other suitable material which is provided with a surface layer of a material having a low thermal diffusivity.

  1. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  2. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (Livermore, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  3. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  4. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  5. Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier Research Centers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier Research Centers Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier Research Centers DOE: Grid Storage and the Energy Frontier Research Centers Grid Storage...

  6. Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review - International Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Energy Storage Program Presentations Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review - International Energy Storage Program Presentations The U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems ...

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several key documents written in the last three years that provide information on the status, economics, technology, and impact of CCS. These are cited throughout this text and identified as key references at the end of this manuscript. When coupled with improvements in energy efficiency, renewable energy supplies, and nuclear power, CCS help dramatically reduce current and future emissions (US CCTP 2005, MIT 2007). If CCS is not available as a carbon management option, it will be much more difficult and much more expensive to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Recent estimates put the cost of carbon abatement without CCS to be 30-80% higher that if CCS were to be available (Edmonds et al. 2004).

  8. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over...

  9. Hopper File Storage and I/O

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Storage and IO File Storage and IO Disk Quota Change Request Form Hopper File Systems Hopper has 5 user file systems which provide different degrees of storage, performance...

  10. FE Carbon Capture and Storage News

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DC 20585202-586-6660 en NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage Potential http:energy.govfearticlesnetl-s-2015-carbon-storage-atlas-shows-...

  11. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G.

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  12. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Esherick, P.; Parmeter, J.E.; Rieger, D.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-09-29

    A method for dry etching of transition metals is disclosed. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorus-containing {pi}-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the {pi}-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the {pi}-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex.

  13. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Esherick, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Parmeter, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rieger, Dennis J. (Tijeras, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

  14. Mathematical models of cocurrent spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negiz, A.; Lagergren, E.S.; Cinar, A.

    1995-10-01

    A steady state mathematical model for a cocurrent spray dryer is developed. The model includes the mass, momentum, and energy balances for a single drying droplet as well as the total energy and mass balances of the drying medium. A log normal droplet size distribution is assumed to hold at the exit of the twin-fluid atomizer located at the top of the drying chamber. The discretization of this log normal distribution with a certain number of bins yields a system of nonlinear coupled first-order differential equations as a function of the axial distance of the drying chamber. This system of equations is used to compute the axial changes in droplet diameter, density, velocity, moisture, and temperature for the droplets at each representative bin. Furthermore, the distributions of important process parameters such as droplet moisture content, diameter, density, and temperature are also obtainable along the length of the chamber. On the basis of the developed model, a constrained nonlinear optimization problem is solved, where the exit particle moisture content is minimized with respect to the process inputs subjected to a fixed mean particle diameter at the chamber exit. Response surface studies based on empirical models are also performed to illustrate the effectiveness of these techniques in achieving the optimal solution when an a priori model is not available. The structure of empirical models obtained from the model is shown to be in agreement with the structure of the empirical models obtained from the experimental studies.

  15. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T; Andersson, Anna M

    2014-10-07

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001storage batteries.

  16. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  17. Hydrogen Storage - Current Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage - Current Technology Hydrogen Storage - Current Technology Hydrogen storage is a significant challenge for the development and viability of hydrogen-powered vehicles. On-board hydrogen storage in the range of approximately 5-13 kg is required to enable a driving range of greater than 300 miles for the full platform of light-duty automotive vehicles using fuel cell power plants. Hydrogen Storage Technologies Current on-board hydrogen storage approaches involve compressed hydrogen gas

  18. Carbon Storage Newsletter | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Storage Newsletter Each month, NETL compiles the Carbon Storage Newsletter to summarize recent public and private sector carbon storage news from around the world. Subscription information and directions for this free resource is available via the Subscription Directions webpage. A comprehensive archive of the Carbon Storage Newsletter is available below. Please note that prior to 2013, NETL's Carbon Storage Newsletter was known as the Carbon Sequestration Newsletter. 2016 Carbon Storage

  19. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered and a typical plant layout was developed. In addition a geomechanical review of the proposed cavern design was performed, evaluating the stability of the mine rooms and shafts, and the effects of the refrigerated gas temperatures on the stability of the cavern. Capital and operating cost estimates were also developed for the various temperature cases considered. The cost estimates developed were used to perform a comparative market analysis of this type of gas storage system to other systems that are commercially used in the region of the study.

  20. Analytic Challenges to Valuing Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Ookie; O'Malley, Mark; Cheung, Kerry; Larochelle, Philippe; Scheer, Rich

    2011-10-25

    Electric grid energy storage value. System-level asset focus for mechanical and electrochemical energy storage. Analysis questions for power system planning, operations, and customer-side solutions.

  1. National Hydrogen Storage Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Hydrogen Storage Project National Hydrogen Storage Project In July 2003, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a "Grand Challenge" to the global scientific community for...

  2. California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun...

  3. Overview of Gridscale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage (GRIDS) Program Presentation by Mark Johnson, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, at the Flow Cells for Energy Storage...

  4. Energy Storage Computational Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Storage Computational Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Storage Computational Tool AgencyCompany Organization: Navigant Consulting...

  5. Sandia Energy - 2013 Electricity Storage Handbook Published

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Electricity Storage Handbook Published Home Infrastructure Security Energy Surety Energy Grid Integration Partnership News News & Events Energy Assurance Energy Storage Systems...

  6. The Solar Storage Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Place: Palo Alto, California Zip: 1704 Product: US-based start-up developing energy production and storage systems. References: The Solar Storage Company1 This...

  7. Zibo Storage Battery Factory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Storage Battery Factory Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zibo Storage Battery Factory Place: Zibo, Shandong Province, China Zip: 255056 Product: China-based affiliate of CSIC...

  8. Storage Resource Unit (SRU) Formula Coefficients

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formula Coefficients Storage Resource Unit (SRU) Formula Coefficients The coefficients in the Storage Resource Unit (SRU) formula were arrived at from the following considerations:...

  9. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company

  10. EIA - Analysis of Natural Gas Storage

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Prices This presentation provides information about EIA's estimates of working gas peak storage capacity, and the development of the natural gas storage industry....

  11. Washington Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun...

  12. Mississippi Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun...

  13. Pennsylvania Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May...

  14. Panel 3, Electrolysis for Grid Energy Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis for Grid Energy Storage DOE-Industry Canada Workshop May 15, 2014 INTRODUCTION HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR ENERGY STORAGE AND CLEAN FUEL PRODUCTION ITM POWER INC. ITM ...

  15. DRAFT "Energy Advisory Committee" - Energy Storage Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report: Revision 2 DRAFT "Energy Advisory Committee" - Energy Storage Subcommittee Report: Revision 2 Energy storage plays a vital role in all forms of business and affects the ...

  16. Webinar Presentation: Energy Storage Solutions for Microgrids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation: Energy Storage Solutions for Microgrids (November 2012) Webinar Presentation: Energy Storage Solutions for Microgrids (November 2012) On November 7, 2012, Clean ...

  17. Energy Storage Demonstration Project Locations | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Demonstration Project Locations Energy Storage Demonstration Project Locations Map of the United States showing the location of Energy Storage Demonstration projects created with ...

  18. Hydrogen Electrochemical Energy Storage Device - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Hydrogen Electrochemical ...

  19. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity With Data for September 2015 | Release ... Containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. ...

  20. Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... changed to active. References Methodology Related Links Storage Basics Field Level Annual Capacity Data Map of Storage Facilities Natural Gas Data Tables Short-Term Energy Outlook

  1. Prediction of Novel Hydrogen Storage Reactions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on the Prediction of Novel Hydrogen Storage Reactions was given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

  2. Panel 2, Geologic Storage of Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anna S. Lord Geologist Geotechnology & Engineering Department & Peter H. Kobos Principal Staff Economist, Ph.D. Earth Systems Department 2 Geologic Storage Why underground storage? ...

  3. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed from the MCO back to the K Basins.

  5. Sandia Energy » Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    feed 0 Bay-Area National Labs Team to Tackle Long-Standing Automotive Hydrogen-Storage Challenge http:energy.sandia.govbay-area-national-labs-team-to-tackle-long-stan...

  6. Production, Storage, and FC Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Production, Storage, and FC Analysis to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of systems analysis in DOE Hydrogen Program.

  7. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, Mitchell; Morris, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  8. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap May Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 This roadmap is a document of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership. U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary, non-binding, and nonlegal partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; USCAR, representing Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors; Tesla Motors; five energy companies -BP America, Chevron Corporation, Phillips 66

  9. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  10. Hydrogen storage gets new hope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen storage gets new hope Hydrogen storage gets new hope A new method for "recycling" hydrogen-containing fuel materials could open the door to economically viable hydrogen-based vehicles. September 1, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos

  11. Characteristics of fuel crud and its impact on storage, handling, and shipment of spent fuel. [Fuel crud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazelton, R.F.

    1987-09-01

    Corrosion products, called ''crud,'' form on out-of-reactor surfaces of nuclear reactor systems and are transported by reactor coolant to the core, where they deposit on external fuel-rod cladding surfaces and are activated by nuclear reactions. After discharge of spent fuel from a reactor, spallation of radioactive crud from the fuel rods could impact wet or dry storage operations, handling (including rod consolidation), and shipping. It is the purpose of this report to review earlier (1970s) and more recent (1980s) literature relating to crud, its characteristics, and any impact it has had on actual operations. Crud characteristics vary from reactor type to reactor type, reactor to reactor, fuel assembly to fuel assembly in a reactor, circumferentially and axially in an assembly, and from cycle to cycle for a specific facility. To characterize crud of pressurized-water (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs), published information was reviewed on appearance, chemical composition, areal density and thickness, structure, adhesive strength, particle size, and radioactivity. Information was also collected on experience with crud during spent fuel wet storage, rod consolidation, transportation, and dry storage. From experience with wet storage, rod consolidation, transportation, and dry storage, it appears crud spallation can be managed effectively, posing no significant radiological problems. 44 refs., 11 figs.

  12. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  13. Biomass Engineering: Size reduction, drying and densification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Biomass Engineering: Size reduction, drying and densification March 25th, 2015 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Technology Review Area: Feedstock Supply and Logistics Jaya Shankar Tumuluru (PI) Research Team: Neal Yancey, Craig C Conner, Tyler Westover, Richard McCulloch, Kara Cafferty, and Mitch Plummer Organization: Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology, Idaho National Laboratory DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO)

  14. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krahn, D.E.

    1998-02-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  15. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  16. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  17. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energy’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  18. Energy Storage Management for VG Integration (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you economically manage integration costs of storage and variable generation.

  19. Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap, November 2005

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Document describing plan for research into and development of hydrogen storage technology for transportation applications.

  20. Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beatty, Ronald L. (Farragut, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  1. Physical Hydrogen Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Storage » Physical Hydrogen Storage Physical Hydrogen Storage Physical storage is the most mature hydrogen storage technology. The current near-term technology for onboard automotive physical hydrogen storage is 350 and 700 bar (5,000 and 10,000 psi) nominal working-pressure compressed gas vessels-that is, "tanks." While low-pressure liquid hydrogen, near the normal boiling point of 20 K, is routinely used for bulk hydrogen storage and transport, there is currently little

  2. Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  3. Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  4. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates High performance walls represent a high priority...

  5. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy- Important Lessons From Fenton...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy- Important Lessons From Fenton Hill Abstract The concept of Hot Dry Rock...

  6. Dry Lake II Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    II Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Dry Lake II Wind Farm Facility Dry Lake II Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner...

  7. Texas--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Texas--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  8. Alabama--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  9. http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/summary/nvut.html

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    in such cases. Western Regional Climate Center, wrcc@dri.edu Big Ben Ranger Stn (COOP) Page 1 of 1 WRCC cgi generated image map 5162011 http:www.wrcc.dri.edusummarynvut.html...

  10. Annual Report: Carbon Storage (30 September 2012)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Storage Carbon Storage Carbon Storage Annual Report: Carbon Storage 30 September 2012 NETL Technical Report Series NETL-TRS-Carbon Storage-2012 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

  11. Onboard Storage Tank Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Onboard Storage Tank Workshop Onboard Storage Tank Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories co-hosted the Onboard Storage Tank Workshop on April 29th, 2010. Onboard storage tank experts gathered to share lessons learned about research and development (R&D) needs; regulations, codes and standards (RCS); and a path forward to enable the successful deployment of hydrogen storage tanks in early market fuel cell applications. The workshop also included initial

  12. NERSC Nick Balthaser NERSC Storage Systems Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archival Storage at NERSC Nick Balthaser NERSC Storage Systems Group nabalthaser@lbl.gov NERSC User Training March 8, 2011 * NERSC Archive Technologies Overview * Use Cases for the Archive * Authentication * Storage Clients Available at NERSC * Avoiding Common Mistakes * Optimizing Data Storage and Retrieval Agenda NERSC Archive Technologies * The NERSC archive is a hierarchical storage management system (HSM) * Highest performance requirements and access characteristics at top level * Lowest

  13. Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presentation on NIST Combinatorial Methods at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland. PDF icon ht_nist_bendersky.pdf More Documents & Publications High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop Hydrogen Storage Lab PI Workshop: HyMARC and

  14. Sorbent Storage Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage » Materials-Based Storage » Sorbent Storage Materials Sorbent Storage Materials The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's sorbent storage materials research focuses on increasing the dihydrogen binding energies and improving the hydrogen volumetric capacity by optimizing the material's pore size, pore volume, and surface area, as well as investigating effects of material densification. Technical Overview Illustration of a sorbent showing the location of hydrogen molecules relative to open

  15. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system

  16. Long Wavelength Catalytic Infrared Drying System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long Wavelength Catalytic Infrared Drying System Long Wavelength Catalytic Infrared Drying System New Infrared Drying System Removes Moisture More Efficiently Without Heating Surrounding Air Conventional drying systems for wood particulates, typically in the form of sawdust or chips, currently employ a rotary drum dryer that shoots a raw flame through a 20' to 30' rotating drum while tumbling the wood product. Product scorching and air emission problems, particularly with carbon, NOx, and

  17. DRI Model of the U.S. Economy -- Model Documentation:

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Provides documentation on Data Resources, Inc., DRI Model of the U.S. Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input/Output Model. It also describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations.

  18. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable energy features to the public.

  19. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. Lithographic dry development using optical absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deirdre; Schuck, P. James; Schmidt, Martin

    2013-08-20

    A novel approach to dry development of exposed photo resist is described in which a photo resist layer is exposed to a visible light source in order to remove the resist in the areas of exposure. The class of compounds used as the resist material, under the influence of the light source, undergoes a chemical/structural change such that the modified material becomes volatile and is thus removed from the resist surface. The exposure process is carried out for a time sufficient to ablate the exposed resist layer down to the layer below. A group of compounds found to be useful in this process includes aromatic calixarenes.

  1. Bioenergy Impacts Â… Billion Dry Tons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Oak Ridge National Laboratory published research that shows that U.S. resources could sustainably produce by 2030 at least one billion dry tons of non-food biomass resources, yielding up to 60 billion gallons of biofuels, as well as bio- based chemicals, products, and electricity. This could potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 500 million tons per year, create 1.5 million new jobs, and keep about $200 billion extra in the U.S. economy each year. Research is showing that U.S.

  2. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, Edward F. (Naperville, IL); Cassidy, Dale A. (Valparaiso, IN); Dates, Leon R. (Elmwood Park, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive material storage system for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together, whereby the plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or

  3. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  4. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  5. Inductive storage pulse circuit device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M. (Los Alamos, NM); Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    Inductive storage pulse circuit device which is capable of delivering a series of electrical pulses to a load in a sequential manner. Silicon controlled rectifiers as well as spark gap switches can be utilized in accordance with the present invention. A commutation switching array is utilized to produce a reverse current to turn-off the main opening switch. A commutation capacitor produces the reverse current and is initially charged to a predetermined voltage and subsequently charged in alternating directions by the inductive storage current.

  6. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Au, Ming (Augusta, GA)

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  7. Prestressed elastomer for energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI); Speranza, Donald (Canton, MI)

    1982-01-01

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle. The device includes a power isolating assembly (14), an infinitely variable transmission (20) interconnecting an input shaft (16) with an output shaft (18), and an energy storage assembly (22). The storage assembly includes a plurality of elastomeric rods (44, 46) mounted for rotation and connected in series between the input and output shafts. The elastomeric rods are prestressed along their rotational or longitudinal axes to inhibit buckling of the rods due to torsional stressing of the rods in response to relative rotation of the input and output shafts.

  8. Gelcasting compositions having improved drying characteristics and machinability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A.; Walls, Claudia A. H.

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting composition has improved drying behavior, machinability and shelf life in the dried and unfired state. The composition includes an inorganic powder, solvent, monomer system soluble in the solvent, an initiator system for polymerizing the monomer system, and a plasticizer soluble in the solvent. Dispersants and other processing aides to control slurry properties can be added. The plasticizer imparts an ability to dry thick section parts, to store samples in the dried state without cracking under conditions of varying relative humidity, and to machine dry gelcast parts without cracking or chipping. A method of making gelcast parts is also disclosed.

  9. Progress and Status of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant's New Solid Waste Management and Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rausch, J.; Henderson, R.W.; Penkov, V.

    2008-07-01

    A considerable amount of dry radioactive waste from former NPP operation has accumulated up to date and is presently stored at the Ignalina NPP site, Lithuania. Current storage capacities are nearly exhausted and more waste is to come from future decommissioning of the two RMBKtype reactors. Additionally, the existing storage facilities does not comply to the state-of-the-art technology for handling and storage of radioactive waste. In 2005, INPP faced this situation of a need for waste processing and subsequent interim storage of these wastes by contracting NUKEM with the design, construction, installation and commissioning of new waste management and storage facilities. The subject of this paper is to describe the scope and the status of the new solid waste management and storage facilities at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. In summary: The turnkey contract for the design, supply and commission of the SWMSF was awarded in December 2005. The realisation of the project was initially planned within 48 month. The basic design was finished in August 2007 and the Technical Design Documentation and Preliminary Safety Analyses Report was provided to Authorities in October 2007. The construction license is expected in July 2008. The procurement phase was started in August 2007, start of onsite activities is expected in November 2007. The start of operation of the SWMSF is scheduled for end of 2009. (authors)

  10. Biomass drying technologies. Final report, September 1997--May 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomaa, E.

    1998-07-01

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the drying medium are discussed more closely, with comparison to the methods of drying using air or flue gas as the drying medium. Available types of steam dryers are described with reference to operating conditions, energy requirements, and types of biomass dried. Energy aspects are considered, as well as possibilities of steam utilization to recover the latent heat of vaporization. Thermal energy required for drying of biomass is calculated using tabulated values of steam properties. The amount of steam to provide the thermal energy needed for biomass drying, at different pressures and temperatures applicable in steam dryers, is calculated for both indirectly and directly heated steam dryers. The calculated heat requirement values of steam dryers have been compared with those reported in the literature. Further, anticipated emissions from flue gas and steam drying processes have been summarized.

  11. Drying/self-assembly of nanoparticle suspensions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Plimpton, Steven James; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The most feasible way to disperse particles in a bulk material or control their packing at a substrate is through fluidization in a carrier that can be processed with well-known techniques such as spin, drip and spray coating, fiber drawing, and casting. The next stage in the processing is often solidification involving drying by solvent evaporation. While there has been significant progress in the past few years in developing discrete element numerical methods to model dense nanoparticle dispersion/suspension rheology which properly treat the hydrodynamic interactions of the solvent, these methods cannot at present account for the volume reduction of the suspension due to solvent evaporation. As part of LDRD project FY-101285 we have developed and implemented methods in the current suite of discrete element methods to remove solvent particles and volume, and hence solvent mass from the liquid/vapor interface of a suspension to account for volume reduction (solvent drying) effects. To validate the methods large scale molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to follow the evaporation process at the microscopic scale.

  12. Canister storage building evaluation of nuclear safety for solidified high-level waste transfer and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kidder, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-17

    This document is issued to evaluate the safety impacts to the Canister Storage Building from transfer and storage of solidified high-level waste.

  13. Panel 4, Hydrogen Energy Storage Policy Considerations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage Policy Considerations Hydrogen Storage Workshop Jeffrey Reed Southern California Gas Company May 15, 2014 0 Methane is a Great Storage Medium 1 SoCalGas' storage fields are the largest energy storage resource in the region Goleta Playa Del Rey Honor Rancho Aliso Canyon 2 And There's a Fully Built Delivery System N S E W LINE 235 LINE 335 LEGEND NOT TO SCALE RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR STATION CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR STATION PRESSURE LIMITING STATION STORAGE FIELD 4/00 P AC IF IC GA S

  14. Advanced research in solar-energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute is reviewed. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800/sup 0/C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  15. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  16. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Li, Yingwel (Ann Arbor, MI); Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  17. Tritium Handling and Safe Storage

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-1129-2015 September 2015 DOE STANDARD TRITIUM HANDLING AND SAFE STORAGE U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. TS DOE-STD-1129-2015 ii TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................................. 1 ACRONYMS

  18. Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of...

  19. The U.S. National Hydrogen Storage Project Overview (presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The U.S. National Hydrogen Storage Project Overview (presentation) The U.S. National Hydrogen Storage Project Overview (presentation) Status of Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D...

  20. US DRIVE Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap US DRIVE Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap ...

  1. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  2. Sandia Energy - Sandian Spoke at the New York Energy Storage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spoke at the New York Energy Storage Expo Home Infrastructure Security Energy Grid Integration News News & Events Energy Storage Systems Energy Storage Sandian Spoke at the New...

  3. On-Board Storage Systems Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Board Storage Systems Analysis On-Board Storage Systems Analysis Presentation by Argonne National Laboratory on on-board storage systems analysis. wkshpstorageahluwalia.pdf...

  4. Agenda for the Hydrogen Delivery and Onboard Storage Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Delivery and Onboard Storage Analysis Workshop Agenda for the Hydrogen Delivery and Onboard Storage Analysis Workshop Agenda for the Hydrogen Delivery and Onboard Storage...

  5. Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements to Meet the 2017 On Board...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements to Meet the 2017 On Board Hydrogen Storage Technical Targets Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements to Meet the 2017 On Board Hydrogen Storage Technical Targets...

  6. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Presentations The 2008 Peer Review Meeting for the DOE Energy Storage and Power Electronics ...

  7. Sandia Energy - New Mexico Renewable Energy Storage Task Force

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Storage Task Force Home Infrastructure Security Renewable Energy Energy Partnership News News & Events Energy Storage Systems Energy Storage New Mexico Renewable...

  8. Hydrogen storage compositions (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Hydrogen storage compositions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen storage compositions Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such...

  9. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is ...

  10. Fact Sheet: Advanced Implementation of Energy Storage Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Implementation of Energy Storage Technologies - Community Energy Storage for Grid Support (August 2013) Fact Sheet: Advanced Implementation of Energy Storage Technologies ...

  11. Flywheel Energy Storage Device for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Flywheel Energy Storage Device for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About ...

  12. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Source: PB Energy Storage Services Inc.

  13. Hybrid Radical Energy Storage Device - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Hybrid Radical Energy Storage Device National Renewable Energy Laboratory ...

  14. FY06 DOE Energy Storage Program PEER Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 DOE Energy Storage Program PEER Review FY07 DOE Energy Storage Program PEER Review John D. Boyes Sandia National Laboratories Mission Mission Develop advanced electricity storage ...

  15. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide...

  16. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's chemical hydrogen storage R&D is focused on developing low-cost energy-efficient regeneration systems for these irreversible hydrogen storage systems. Significant technical issues remain...

  17. NETL: Carbon Storage Technology R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Storage Technology Carbon Storage Infrastructure Core Research and Development Supporting Activities 1 2 3 slideshow html by WOWSlider.com v5.4 The objective of DOE's Carbon...

  18. Post regulation circuit with energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Daniel L.; Cook, Edward G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply and provides energy storage. The charge regulation circuit according to the present invention provides energy storage without unnecessary dissipation of energy through a resistor as in prior art approaches.

  19. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the...

  20. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 10:17am ...

  1. Hydrogen Storage Research and Development Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's hydrogen storage research and development (R&D) activities are aimed at increasing the gravimetric and volumetric energy density and reducing the cost of hydrogen storage systems for...

  2. Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations - Day 1, Session 1 The U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) conducted a record-breaking Update Conference at ...

  3. Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations - Day 3, Session 3 The U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) conducted a record-breaking Update Conference at ...

  4. Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4 Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations - Day 2, Session 4 The U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) conducted a record-breaking Update Conference at ...

  5. Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 Energy Storage Systems 2010 Update Conference Presentations - Day 2, Session 2 The U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) conducted a record-breaking Update Conference at ...

  6. Jason Hick! Storage Systems Group NERSC User Group Storage Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC User Group Storage Update Feb 2 6, 2 014 The compute and storage systems 2014 Sponsored C ompute S ystems Carver, P DSF, J GI, K BASE, H EP 8 x F DR I B /global/ scratch 4 PB /project 5 PB /home 250 TB 45 P B s tored, 2 40 P B capacity, 4 0 y ears o f community d ata HPSS 48 GB/s 2.2 P B L ocal Scratch 70 GB/s 6.4 P B L ocal Scratch 140 GB/s 80 GB/s Ethernet & I B F abric Science F riendly S ecurity ProducKon M onitoring Power E fficiency WAN 2 x 10 Gb 1 x 100 Gb Science D ata N etwork

  7. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  8. 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-12-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years.

  9. 2014 Carbon Storage | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Infrastructure for CCS August 12-14, 2014 Sheraton Station Square Hotel, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania TUESDAY, AUGUST 12, 2014 - GRAND STATION BALLROOM FUTURE OF CARBON STORAGE RESEARCH Julio Friedmann, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal, U.S. Department of Energy Carbon Storage Program Overview Traci Rodosta, Carbon Storage Technology Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  10. Panel 3, Electrolysis for Grid Energy Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis for Grid Energy Storage DOE-Industry Canada Workshop May 15, 2014 INTRODUCTION HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR ENERGY STORAGE AND CLEAN FUEL PRODUCTION ITM POWER INC. ITM POWER INC. ENERGY STORAGE | CLEAN FUEL Positioned well...... Energy Storage: * Pioneers of HES / P2G initiative in CA * Board member of CHBC - Title sponsor at Spring summit, 5 th May in Long beach * Committee member CHBC HES * Member of FCHEA, CHFCA, OFCC, Clean Fuel: * Founder member of H 2 USA and H 2 FIRST *

  11. Thermochemical Energy Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Energy Storage Thermochemical Energy Storage This presentation summarizes the introduction given by Christian Sattler during the Thermochemical Energy Storage Workshop on January 8, 2013. PDF icon tces_workshop_2013_sattler.pdf More Documents & Publications Lessons Learned: Devolping Thermochemical Cycles for Solar Heat Storage Applications Reducing c-Si Module Operating Temperature via PV Packaging Components Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical

  12. Combinatorial Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Combinatorial Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland. PDF icon ht_ge_soloveichik.pdf More Documents & Publications Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage Reactions and Their Application to Destabillzed

  13. Carbon Capture and Storage | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Storage Carbon Capture and Storage Through Office of Fossil Energy R&D the United States has become a world leader in carbon capture and storage science and technology. PDF icon Fossil Energy Research Benefits - Carbon Capture and Storage More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - PSRP Updates 6-25-10_v2 A Legacy of Benefit Fossil Energy FY 2013 Budget-in-Brief

  14. Storage - Challenges and Opportunities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Storage - Challenges and Opportunities This presentation by Nitin Natesan of Linde was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013. PDF icon csd_workshop_9_natesan.pdf More Documents & Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Hydrogen Transmission and Distribution Workshop H2A Delivery: GH2 and LH2 Forecourt Land Areas

  15. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  16. Metal Hydride Storage Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage » Metal Hydride Storage Materials Metal Hydride Storage Materials The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's (FCTO's) metal hydride storage materials research focuses on improving the volumetric and gravimetric capacities, hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics, cycle life, and reaction thermodynamics of potential material candidates. Technical Overview Figure shows pressure composition isotherms and van't Hoff traces for metal hydride materials. Metal hydrides (MHx) are the most

  17. NRC Technical Research Program to Evaluate Extended Storage and Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12547

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R.E.; Compton, K.; Gordon, M.; Ahn, T.; Gonzales, H.; Pan, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Any new direction proposed for the back-end of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cycle will require storage of SNF beyond the current licensing periods. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established a technical research program to determine if any changes in the 10 CFR part 71, and 72 requirements, and associated guidance might be necessary to regulate the safety of anticipated extended storage, and subsequent transport of SNF. This three part program of: 1) analysis of knowledge gaps in the potential degradation of materials, 2) short-term research and modeling, and 3) long-term demonstration of systems, will allow the NRC to make informed regulatory changes, and determine when and if additional monitoring and inspection of the systems is necessary. The NRC has started a research program to obtain data necessary to determine if the current regulatory guidance is sufficient if interim dry storage has to be extended beyond the currently approved licensing periods. The three-phased approach consists of: - the identification and prioritization of potential degradation of the components related to the safe operation of a dry cask storage system, - short-term research to determine if the initial analysis was correct, and - a long-term prototypic demonstration project to confirm the models and results obtained in the short-term research. The gap analysis has identified issues with the SCC of the stainless steel canisters, and SNF behavior. Issues impacting the SNF and canister internal performance such as high and low temperature distributions, and drying have also been identified. Research to evaluate these issues is underway. Evaluations have been conducted to determine the relative values that various types of long-term demonstration projects might provide. These projects or follow-on work is expected to continue over the next five years. (authors)

  18. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  19. Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report

    Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (EIA)

    Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report PERFORMANCE EVALUATION for 2011 through 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 September 2014 U.S. Energy Information Administration | PERFORMANCE EVALUATION for 2011 through 2013 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  20. Sandia's research spans generation, storage,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research spans generation, storage, and load management at the component and systems levels and examines advanced materials, controls, and communications to achieve the Labs' vision of a reliable, low-carbon electric infrastructure. DETL research is conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and other customers, often in collaboration with industry and academic partners. Advanced R&D Expertise & Partnerships DETL's reconfigurable infrastructure

  1. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-12-20

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module. 4 figures.

  2. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ternes, Mark P. (Knoxville, TN); Kedl, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

  3. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Crowell, Jeffrey A. W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  4. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-05-29

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  5. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  6. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  7. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  8. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  9. Tritium Handling and Safe Storage

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE-HDBK-1129-2008 December 2008 DOE HANDBOOK TRITIUM HANDLING AND SAFE STORAGE U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. TS DOE-HDBK-1129-2008 ii This page is intentionally blank. DOE-HDBK-1129-2008 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE FOREWORD................................................................................................................................ ix ACRONYMS

  10. Tritium Handling and Safe Storage

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-1129-2007 March 2007 ____________________ DOE HANDBOOK TRITIUM HANDLING AND SAFE STORAGE U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1129-2007 ii This page is intentionally blank. DOE-HDBK-1129-2007 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE FOREWORD............................................................................................................................... vii

  11. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module.

  12. Dry Run, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dry Run, Ohio: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.1042277, -84.330494 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":...

  13. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Dry Natural Gas Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301981" ,"Release...

  14. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Dry Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301981"...

  15. Low Temperature Direct Use Agricultural Drying Geothermal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ,"group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"","text":"DryingLowTemperatureGeothermalFacility" title"Geothermal...

  16. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  17. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  18. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

  19. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  20. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  1. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  2. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  3. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  4. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","09...

  5. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  6. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 140 1 6 246 29 419 188 302 10 2 2010's 263 573 11 357 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Alabama Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  7. Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 4,531 0 13 0 0 96 0 10 0 5 2010's 131 36 2 91 165 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Alaska Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural

  8. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 336 8 66 63 24 31 4 298 19 54 2010's 393 6,760 1 4 248 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  9. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  10. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  11. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  12. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  13. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  14. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","09...

  15. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

  16. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  17. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  18. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  19. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 479 24 35 201 13 104 48 1,043 0 0 2010's 529 643 0 11 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Michigan Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  20. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 9 57 10 225 3 6 20 41 90 3 2010's 40 44 30 72 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Montana Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural

  1. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 124 87 19 7 0 54 11 0 31 196 2010's 374 0 0 12 20 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Ohio Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas

  2. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 568 17 978 729 946 6 1,147 484 258 92 2010's 530 758 12 478 23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Utah Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  3. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 28 718 0 0 0 1 133 0 2 0 2010's 124 3 0 1 573 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural

  4. Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 47 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved

  5. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 190 259 43 230 140 44 18 65 17 2 2010's 17 124 887 31 1,092 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Kansas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  6. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 432 50 2 0 5 1 432 4 10 0 2010's 0 100 0 1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas

  7. ,"Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic...

  8. ,"California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic...

  9. ,"Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  12. Underground and earth sheltered food storage: historical, geographic, and economic considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunkel, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    Storage structures now used for bulk grain and beans have been derived from a combination of scientific experiments and tradition. Recent generations of US farmers have grown up with the understanding that grain is best stored in round metal bins or wooden cribs aboveground. It is generally thought that natural wind movements in the crib structures and forced air flow from aeration fans in metal bins will keep grain and beans safe, i.e., free of moisture accumulation and the resulting insect and fungal growth, and protected from germination, all of which deteriorate the commodity. North American farmers further believe that the low temperature of northern winters combined with careful use of aerating fans will keep the grain dry or beans safe (less than 14% moisture content) for years of storage. Traditional forms of grain and bean storage in other parts of the world have evolved differently. With the exception of North America, the people of every continent in the world have developed underground structures for long-term storage of food. A review of the varieties of underground structures that have evolved throughout the world, and research related to underground storage of grain and beans is presented.

  13. COMPLETION OF THE FIRST INTEGRATED SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL TRANSSHIPMENT/INTERIM STORAGE FACILITY IN NW RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Hoeibraaten, S.; Gran, H.C.; Foshaug, E.; Godunov, V.

    2003-02-27

    Northwest and Far East Russia contain large quantities of unsecured spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from decommissioned submarines that potentially threaten the fragile environments of the surrounding Arctic and North Pacific regions. The majority of the SNF from the Russian Navy, including that from decommissioned nuclear submarines, is currently stored in on-shore and floating storage facilities. Some of the SNF is damaged and stored in an unstable condition. Existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing this amount of fuel. Additional interim storage capacity is required. Most of the existing storage facilities being used in Northwest Russia do not meet health and safety, and physical security requirements. The United States and Norway are currently providing assistance to the Russian Federation (RF) in developing systems for managing these wastes. If these wastes are not properly managed, they could release significant concentrations of radioactivity to these sensitive environments and could become serious global environmental and physical security issues. There are currently three closely-linked trilateral cooperative projects: development of a prototype dual-purpose transport and storage cask for SNF, a cask transshipment interim storage facility, and a fuel drying and cask de-watering system. The prototype cask has been fabricated, successfully tested, and certified. Serial production is now underway in Russia. In addition, the U.S. and Russia are working together to improve the management strategy for nuclear submarine reactor compartments after SNF removal.

  14. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Mertyurek, Ugur; Belles, Randy; Scaglione, John M.

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is utilized or referenced, justification has been provided as to why the data can be utilized for BWR fuel.

  15. 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Energy Storage |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energy Storage 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Energy Storage Energy storage research and development merit review results PDF icon 2010_amr_02.pdf More Documents & Publications 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Energy Storage Technologies 2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Energy Storage Technologies 2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Energy Storage Technologies

  16. Drying low rank coal and retarding spontaneous ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixel, J.C.; Bellow, E.J.; Heaney, W.F.; Facinelli, S.H.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described of producing a dried particulate coal fuel having a reduced tendency to ignite spontaneously comprising spraying and intimately mixing the dried coal with an aqueous emulsion of a material selected from the group consisting of foots oils, petrolatum filtrate, and hydrocracker recycle oil.

  17. Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhian; Rahimi, Meraj; Tang, David; Aissa, Mourad; Flaganan, Michelle; Wagner, John C.

    2013-07-01

    The recent experiments conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on high burnup fuel cladding material property show that the ductile to brittle transition temperature of high burnup fuel cladding is dependent on: (1) cladding material, (2) irradiation conditions, and (3) drying-storage histories (stress at maximum temperature) [1]. The experiment results also show that the ductile to brittle temperature increases as the fuel burnup increases. These results indicate that the current knowledge in cladding material property is insufficient to determine the structural performance of the cladding of high burnup fuel after it has been stored in a dry cask storage system for some time. The uncertainties in material property and the elevated ductile to brittle transition temperature impose a challenge to the storage cask and transportation packaging designs because the cask designs may not be able to rely on the structural integrity of the fuel assembly for control of fissile material, radiation source, and decay heat source distributions. The fuel may reconfigure during further storage and/or the subsequent transportation conditions. In addition, the fraction of radioactive materials available for release from spent fuel under normal condition of storage and transport may also change. The spent fuel storage and/or transportation packaging vendors, spent fuel shippers, and the regulator may need to consider this possible fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the packages' ability to meet the safety requirements of Part 72 and Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the impact of fuel reconfiguration on the safety of the dry storage systems and transportation packages. The NRC Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation has formed a task force to work on the safety and regulatory concerns in relevance to high burnup fuel storage and transportation. This paper discusses the staff's preliminary considerations on the safety implication of fuel reconfiguration with respect to nuclear safety (subcriticality control), radiation shielding, containment, the performance of the thermal functions of the packages, and the retrievability of the contents from regulatory perspective. (authors)

  18. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

  19. STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

    2001-11-01

    This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is estimated to be $132,000. The gas processing costs are estimated to be $2.05 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($0.055 per Mcf) of gas injected into and withdrawn from the facility based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost. In Phase II of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine mechanical properties of salt at low temperature. This was followed by thermomechanical finite element simulations to evaluate the structural stability of the cavern during refrigerated storage. The high thermal expansion coefficient of salt is expected to result in tensile stresses leading to tensile failure in the roof, walls, and floor of the cavern as it is cooled. Tensile fracturing of the cavern roof may result in loss of containment of the gas and/or loss of integrity of the casing shoe, deeming the conversion of this facility not technically feasible.

  20. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.