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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwaterusing iron?oxidecoatedcoalbottomash JohannaL. using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash Title Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Mathieu, Johanna L., Ashok J. Gadgil, Susan E. Addy, and Kristin Kowolik Journal Environmental Science and Health Keywords airflow and pollutant transport group, arsenic, bangladesh, coal bottom ash, drinking water, indoor environment department, water contaminants, water treatment Abstract We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6×10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90% (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90% of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2 ≥ 0.99) increase from 2.4×105 to 7.2×105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to be less expensive than filtration of micron-scale particles, further contributing to the affordability of a community-scale water treatment center

3

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to be less expensive than filtration of micron-scale particles, further contributing to the affordability of a community-scale water treatment center.

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Arsenic Remediation of Bangladesh Drinking Water using Iron-oxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arsenic Remediation of Bangladesh Drinking Water using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash Title Arsenic Remediation of Bangladesh Drinking Water using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash...

5

Polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for medical imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the most versatile and safe materials used in medicine are polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. This dissertation describes several formulations for in vivo imaging applications. The paramagnetic polymer-coated ...

Chen, Suelin, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

1983-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

7

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Rashid Khan, M.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

9

Preparation of Polymer-Coated Functionalized Ferrimagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple chemical method to synthesize PMAA coated maghemite nanoparticles is described. Monomer methacrylic acid molecules were absorbed onto the synthesized ferrimagnetic nanoparticles followed by polymerization. The ...

Yu, Shi

10

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an MCL. Table 9. US EPA TCLP Contaminant Regulatory Levels (Hazardous Waste Fact Sheet: TCLP: Toxicity Characteristic2010. http://www.ehso.com/cssepa/TCLP%20fact%20sheet%20from%

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Why Sequence Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? The goal of this project is to obtain complete genome sequences for six different freshwater iron (Fe)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Four of these are oxygen-dependent iron-oxidizing β-proteobacteria, and three of these, Sideroxydans lithotrophicus, Gallionella capsiferriformans, and strain TW-2, are capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth (that is, obtaining energy by the oxidation of inorganic compounds) using Fe(II) as sole energy source under microaerobic (low-oxygen) conditions. The fourth organism, Leptothrix cholodnii, is a sheath-forming heterotrophic (i.e., using complex organic compounds for nutrition) organism that oxidizes both Fe(II) and Mn(II) and deposits a ferromanganic coating on its sheath. In addition,

12

Enzymes of respiratory iron oxidation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes experimental progress in characterizing and identifying redox proteins in a number of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Sections of the paper are entitled (1) In Situ electrolysis was explored to achieve enhanced yields of iron-oxidizing bacteria, (2)Structure/function studies were performed on redox-active biomolecules from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, (3) Novel redox-active biomolecules were demonstrated in other iron autotrophs, and (4) New probes of metalloprotein electron-transfer reactions were synthesized and characterized.

Blake, R. II.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Argonne CNM News: Hollow Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Lithium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hollow Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications Hollow iron oxide nanoparticles Transmission electron micrograph of hollow iron oxide nanoparticles....

14

In Situ Iron Oxide Emplacement for Groundwater Arsenic Remediation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron oxide-bearing minerals have long been recognized as an effective reactive media for arsenic-contaminated groundwater remediation. This research aimed to develop a technique that could facilitate in situ oxidative precipitation of Fe3+ in a soil (sand) media for generating a subsurface iron oxide-based reactive barrier that could immobilize arsenic (As) and other dissolved metals in groundwater. A simple in situ arsenic treatment process was successfully developed for treating contaminated rural groundwater using iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS). Using imbibition flow, the system facilitated the dispersive transport of ferrous iron (Fe2+) and oxidant solutions in porous sand to generate an overlaying blanket where the Fe2+ was oxidized and precipitated onto the surface as ferric oxide. The iron oxide (FeOx) emplacement process was significantly affected by (1) the initial surface area and surface-bound iron content of the sand, (2) the pH and solubility of the coating reagents, (3) the stability of the oxidant solution, and (4) the chemical injection schedule. In contrast to conventional excavate-and-fill treatment technologies, this technique could be used to in situ replace a fresh iron oxide blanket on the sand and rejuvenate its treatment capacity for additional arsenic removal. Several bench-scale experiments revealed that the resultant IOCS could treat arsenic-laden groundwater for extended periods of time before approaching its effective life cycle. The adsorption capacity for As(III) and As(V) was influenced by (1) the amount of iron oxide accumulated on the sand surface, (2) the system pH, and (3) competition for adsorption sites from other groundwater constituents such as silicon (Si) and total dissolved solids (TDS). Although the IOCS could be replenished several times before exhaustion, the life cycle of the FeOx reactive barrier may be limited by the gradual loss of hydraulic conductivity induced by the imminent reduction of pore space over time.

Abia, Thomas Sunday

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Hydrogen production from the steam-iron process with direct reduction of iron oxide by chemical looping combustion of coal char  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results performed with a fluidized-bed reactor supported the feasibility of the three processes including direct reduction of iron oxide by char, H{sub 2} production by the steam-iron process, and the oxidation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} resulting from the steam-iron process to the original Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by air. Chars resulting from a Chinese lignite loaded with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were used successfully as a reducing material, leading to the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to FeO and Fe for the steam-iron process, which was confirmed by both the off-gases concentrations and X-ray diffractometer analysis. The reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by K-10-char at 1073 K is desirable from the perspective of the carbon conversion rate and high concentration of CO{sub 2}. The carbon in char was completely converted to CO{sub 2} when the mass ratio of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/K-10-char was increased to 10/0.3. The oxidation rate of K-10-char by Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} without a gasifying agent was comparable to the K-10-char steam gasification rate. The fractions of FeO and Fe in the reduced residue were 43 and 57%, respectively, in the case of 3 g of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 0.5 g of K-10-char, which was verified by the total H{sub 2} yield equaling 1000 mL/g K-10-char from the steam-iron process. The time that it took to achieve complete oxidation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by air with an 8.7% O{sub 2} concentration at 1073 K was about 15 min. 53 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing-biao Yang; Ning-sheng Cai; Zhen-shan Li [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

Natesan, K.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we focused on getting a bench-scale test system to expose alloy coupons to simulated gasifier environment. The test facility was designed to allow about 20 specimen coupons to be exposed simultaneously for an extend period to a simulated coal gas stream at temperatures up to 1000 C. The simulated gas stream contained about 26%H{sub 2}, 39%CO, 17%CO{sub 2}, 1.4% H{sub 2}S and balance steam. We successfully ran a 100+h test with coated and uncoated stainless steel coupons. The tested alloys include SS304, SS316, SS405, SS409, SS410, and IN800. The main finding is that Ti/Ta coating provides excellent protection to SS405 under conditions where uncoated austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloy coupons are badly corroded. Cr coatings also appear to afford some protection against corrosion.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Advanced electric power generation systems use a coal gasifier to convert coal to a gas rich in fuels such as H{sub 2} and CO. The gas stream contains impurities such as H{sub 2}S and HCl, which attack metal components of the coal gas train, causing plant downtime and increasing the cost of power generation. Corrosion-resistant coatings would improve plant availability and decrease maintenance costs, thus allowing the environmentally superior integrated gasification combined cycle plants to be more competitive with standard power-generation technologies. A startup meeting was held at the National Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA site on July 28, 2003. SRI staff described the technical approach of the project.

Gopala N. Krishnan

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

H.Y. Sohn

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide  

SciTech Connect

A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Iron-oxide catalyzed silicon photoanode for water splitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents an integrated study of high efficiency photoanodes for water splitting using silicon and iron-oxide. The fundamental limitations of silicon to water splitting applications were overcome by an ultrathin ...

Jun, Kimin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the hightemperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several 409 low alloy steel samples after coating them in our fluidized bed reactor and also after exposing them to our corrosion test. We report the following findings: 1. A protective coating was deposited inside a porous 409 steel sample to protect it from sulfidation attack. The coating was based on a combination of Si diffusion layer, Nb interlayer and nitrides of titanium and silicon. 2. Analysis of solid coupons exposed to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that multilayer metal/ceramic coatings provide a better protection than ceramic coatings. 3. Deposition of several ceramic/metal multilayer coatings showed that coatings with niobium and tantalum interlayers have good adhesion. However, coatings with a tungsten interlayer suffered localized delaminating and coatings with Zr interlayers showed poor adhesion. 4. Analysis of solid coupons, coated with the above-mentioned multilayer films, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that niobium is the best candidate for interlayer material.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several coated and exposed samples of 409 steel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and report on the findings of four samples: (1) Analysis of two porous coupons after exposure to the porous metal particulate filter of the coal gasification power plant at 370 C for 2140 hours revealed that corrosion takes place in the bulk of the sample while the most external zone surface survived the test. (2) Coating and characterization of several porous 409 steel coupons after being coated with nitrides of Ti, Al and/or Si showed that adjusting experimental conditions results in thicker coatings in the bulk of the sample. (3) Analysis of coupons exposed to simulated coal gas at 370 C for 300 hours showed that a better corrosion resistance is achieved by improving the coatings in the bulk of the samples.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several coated and exposed samples of 409 steel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). We report here on findings of this analysis: (1) A SS409 coupon that was coated with multilayered combined nitrides of Ti, Al, and Si showed adherent coatings on the surface; (2) A similarly coated coupon, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h, revealed that the coating has cracked during the exposure; (3) An SS409 coupon that was coated with nitrides of Ti and Si with a barrier layer of tungsten in between to improve the adhesion of the coating and to prevent outward diffusion of iron to the surface. (4) A porous coupon was coated with nitrides of Ti and Al and examination of the coupon revealed deposition of Ti at the interior surfaces. A similarly prepared coupon was exposed to simulated coal gas at 370 C for 300 h, and it showed no corrosion.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

25

Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide photochemical diodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor photochemical diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The photochemical diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

Somorjai, Gabor A. (Berkeley, CA); Leygraf, Christofer H. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

Somorjai, Gabor A. (Berkeley, CA); Leygraf, Christofer H. (Berkeley, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Performance of composite coatings in a coal-fired boiler environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four samples of thermal spray coatings, each made from different core wire consumables by twin wire arc spray, were exposed for 18 months in a coal-fired boiler environment. The tests are described and the performance of each coating is evaluated. Results indicated that the four consumable wire alloys showed remarkable resistance to fly ash erosion and corrosion over the period of the test.

Nava, J.C. [ME Technical Services, Bridgeton, MO (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Radiofrequency characterization of polydimethylsiloxane - iron oxide based nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Colloidal iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 15+/-1nm up to 29+/-3nm are used as pure dielectric fillers for nanoparticles-doped nanocomposites. We show that their superparamagnetic behavior allows them to increase the real dielectric ... Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles, Nanocomposite, Polydimethylsiloxane, Radiofrequency

Ferruccio Pisanello, Rosa De Paolis, Daniela Lorenzo, Simone Nitti, Giuseppina Monti, Despina Fragouli, Athanassia Athanassiou, Liberato Manna, Luciano Tarricone, Massimo De Vittorio, Luigi Martiradonna

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period we tested coated alloy coupons under conditions designed to mimic the conditions in the filter unit after the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The filter unit is another important area where corrosion has caused unscheduled downtime, and the remedy has been the use of sintered metal tubes made of expensive alloys such as inconel. The objective of our test was to determine if those coatings on 400-series steel that were not able to withstand the harsher conditions of the HTHRU, may be sufficiently resistant for use in the filter unit, at the reduced temperatures. Indeed, most of our coatings survived well; the exceptions were the coated porous samples of SS316. We continued making improvements to our coatings apparatus and the procedure began during the last quarter. As a result of these modifications, the coupons we are now producing are uniform. We describe the improved procedure for preparing diffusion coatings. Finally, because porous samples of steel in grades other than SS316 are not readily available, we also decided to procure SS409 powder and fabricate our own sintered porous coupons.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The primary activity this period was preparation and presentation of the findings on this project at the Twenty-Third annual Pittsburgh Coal Conference. Dr. Malhotra attended this conference and presented a paper. A copy of his presentation constitutes this quarterly report.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. In previous tests, we had frequently encountered problems with our steam generator that were exacerbated by the very low flow rates that we needed. During this period we installed a new computer-controlled system for injecting water into the steam generator that eliminated this problem. We also tested alloy coupons coated by using the improved procedures described in our last quarterly report. Most of these coatings were nitrided Ti and Ta coatings, either by themselves, or sometimes with barrier layers of Al and Si nitrides. The samples were tested for 300 h at 900 C in a gas stream designed to mimic the environment in the high temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). Three samples that showed least corrosion were exposed for an additional 100 h.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Iron/Iron Oxide Core/Shell Nanoparticles for MRI and Magnetic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk Nanoceramics and Nanocomposites: Processed by Pulsed Electric Current ... Iron/Iron Oxide Core/Shell Nanoparticles for MRI and Magnetic Hyperthermia.

35

Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Effect of temperature and iron-oxide nano-particle inclusions on the ultrasound vaporization pressure of perfluorocarbon droplets for disease detection and therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature and Iron-Oxide Nano-particle inclusions on the22 1.9.1 Why Iron-Oxide NanoTemperature and Iron-Oxide Nano-particle inclusions on the

Amirriazi, Seyed Saleh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we conducted two 300-hour tests. In the first test, we exposed samples at 900 C under conditions simulating the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The second test was at 370 C, corresponding to the filter units following the HTHRU. The tests were showed the resilience of silicon nitride as a coating component, and the new coating procedures better penetrated the pores in sintered metal filter samples. Finally, we also received samples that were exposed in the Wabash River plant. Unfortunately, all these samples, that were prepared last year, were severely eroded and/or corroded.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

A Novel Low-Temperature Fiffusion Aluminide Coating for Ultrasupercritical Coal-Fried Boiler Applications  

SciTech Connect

An ultrasupercritical (USC) boiler with higher steam temperature and pressure is expected to increase the efficiency of the coal-fired power plant and also decrease emissions of air pollutants. Ferritic/martensitic alloys have been developed with good creep strength for the key components in coal-fired USC plants. However, they typically suffer excessive steam-side oxidation, which contributes to one of main degradation mechanisms along with the fire-side corrosion in coal-fired boilers. As the steam temperature further increases in USC boilers, oxidation of the tube internals becomes an increasing concern, and protective coatings such as aluminide-based diffusion coatings need to be considered. However, conventional aluminizing processes via pack cementation or chemical vapor deposition are typically carried out at elevated temperatures (1000-1150 C). Thermochemical treatment of ferritic/martensitic alloys at such high temperatures could severely degrade their mechanical properties, particularly the alloy's creep resistance. The research focus of this project was to develop an aluminide coating with good oxidation resistance at temperatures {le} 700 C so that the coating processing would not detrimentally alter the creep performance of the ferritic/martensitic alloys. Nevertheless, when the aluminizing temperature is lowered, brittle Al-rich intermetallic phases, such as Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl{sub 3}, tend to form in the coating, which may reduce the resistance to fatigue cracking. Al-containing binary masteralloys were selected based on thermodynamic calculations to reduce the Al activity in the pack cementation process and thus to prevent the formation of brittle Al-rich intermetallic phases. Thermodynamic computations were carried out using commercial software HSC 5.0 for a series of packs containing various Cr-Al binary masteralloys. The calculation results indicate that the equilibrium partial pressures of Al halides at 700 C were a function of Al content in the Cr-Al alloys. Cr-25Al and Cr-15Al were chosen as the masteralloys in the pack cementation process. In contrast to pure Al masteralloy which led to the formation of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} coatings at 650 C, a coating consisting of a thin Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} outer layer and an FeAl inner layer was formed at 700 C with the Cr-25Al masteralloy. By switching to the Cr-15Al masteralloy, thin FeAl coatings ({approx}12 {micro}m) containing < 50 at.% Al were achieved at 700 C. The effect of the amount of masteralloys on coating growth was also studied by employing packs containing 2NH{sub 4}Cl-x(Cr-15Al)-(98-x)Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where x = 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 wt.%. It was noticed that when the Cr-15Al masteralloy was increased from 10 to 40 wt.% in the pack, both coating thickness and surface Al content increased, suggesting that gas phase kinetics played an important role in Al deposition. However, with further increase of the masteralloy, solid state diffusion became the rate-limiting factor. The long-term oxidation performance of the aluminide coatings synthesized at 700 C with Cr-25Al and Cr-15Al masteralloys was evaluated in the water vapor environment at 650-700 C. The low-temperature pack coatings demonstrated excellent oxidation resistance at 650 C in humid air after {approx}1.2 yr testing. Longer lifetimes can be expected for these thin coatings due to minimal interdiffusion at this testing temperature. Exposure at 700 C was conducted to accelerate coating failure via increased interdiffusion of Al with the substrate alloy. The coatings also exhibited good oxidation protection up to 6,000-8,000 h at 700 C, with longer testing needed for coating failure to occur. Furthermore, the oxidation results indicate that in addition to the Al reservoir (as determined by the Al content and coating thickness), the initial coating surface quality had a significant impact on the oxidation behavior. In addition, the effect of various pack aluminide coatings on the creep resistance of coated T91 was investigated. Three representative types of coatings with

Zhang, Ying

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

39

Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

Grindley, T.

1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

40

Production of high density fuel through low temperature devolatilization of fossil fuels with hydrogen and iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for producing high-energy high-density fuels and valuable co-products from fossil fuel sources which comprises the low temperature devolatilization of a fossil fuel such as coal in a moving fluid-bed reactor at a temperature of about 450-650C in the presence of hydrogen and iron oxides. The method is advantageous in that high quality liquid fuels are obtained in addition to valuable co-products such as elemental iron, elemental sulfur and carbon black, and the process is carried out efficiently with a large number of recyclable steps. In addition, the hydropyrolysis of the present invention can produce a highly reactive low-sulfur char which is convertible into a slurry fuel. 1 fig.

Khan, M.R.

1990-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10A1-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S. [GZS College of Engineering & Technology, Bathinda (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Interactions of Fe(II) with the iron oxidizing bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microbial anaerobic iron oxidation has long been of interest to biologists and geologists, both as a possible mechanism for the creation of banded iron formations before the rise of oxygen, and as a model system for organisms ...

Bird, Lina J. (Lina Joana)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Enzymes of respiratory iron oxidation. Progress report, March 1990--June 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes experimental progress in characterizing and identifying redox proteins in a number of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Sections of the paper are entitled (1) In Situ electrolysis was explored to achieve enhanced yields of iron-oxidizing bacteria, (2)Structure/function studies were performed on redox-active biomolecules from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, (3) Novel redox-active biomolecules were demonstrated in other iron autotrophs, and (4) New probes of metalloprotein electron-transfer reactions were synthesized and characterized.

Blake, R. II

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated April 28, 2004) Spot coal prices in the East rose steadily since Labor Day 2003, with rapid escalations ...

46

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 26) The average spot prices for reported coal purchases rose once again ...

47

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated August 12) According to Platts Coal Outlooks Weekly Price Survey (August 11), the ...

48

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 2) The average spot prices for coal traded last week were relatively ...

49

Dopant Site Determination in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Utilizing X-ray  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dopant Site Determination in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Utilizing X-ray Dopant Site Determination in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Utilizing X-ray Absorption Techniques Monday, September 9, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Dr. Vanessa Pool The dopant behavior of spinels has been investigated for over half a century and yet new insight into this class of materials is still being made today. In this work, the question of dopant site preference is explored for the nanoparticle regime. Iron oxide nanoparticles have numerous exciting applications. To realize these applications, controlling the preferred dopant site and valence within the host material is important. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) are element specific techniques with magnetic contrast that give insights into the material composition. Using both

50

Doped, porous iron oxide films and their optical functions and anodic photocurrents for solar water splitting  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication and morphological, optical, and photoelectrochemical characterization of doped iron oxide films is presented. The complex index of refraction and absorption coefficient of polycrystalline films are determined through measurement and modeling of spectral transmission and reflection data using appropriate dispersion relations. Photoelectrochemical characterization for water photo-oxidation reveals that the conversion efficiencies of electrodes are strongly influenced by substrate temperature during their oblique-angle physical vapor deposition. These results are discussed in terms of the films' morphological features and the known optoelectronic limitations of iron oxide films for application in solar water splitting devices.

Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Mao, Samuel S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Antoun, Bonnie R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

51

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated July 7, 2004) In the trading week ended July 2, the average spot coal prices tracked by EIA were mixed.

52

Pulmonary toxicity and kinetic study of Cy5.5-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by optical imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advances in the development of nanotechnology and devices now make it possible to accurately deliver drugs or genes to the lung. Magnetic nanoparticles can be used as contrast agents, thermal therapy for cancer, and be made to concentrate to target sites through an external magnetic field. However, these advantages may also become problematic when taking into account safety and toxicological factors. This study demonstrated the pulmonary toxicity and kinetic profile of anti-biofouling polymer coated, Cy5.5-conjugated thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (TCL-SPION) by optical imaging. Negatively charged, 36 nm-sized, Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION was prepared for optical imaging probe. Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION was intratracheally instilled into the lung by a non-surgical method. Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION slightly induced pulmonary inflammation. The instilled nanoparticles were distributed mainly in the lung and excreted in the urine via glomerular filtration. Urinary excretion was peaked at 3 h after instillation. No toxicity was found under the concentration of 1.8 mg/kg and the half-lives of nanoparticles in the lung and urine were estimated to be about 14.4 {+-} 0.54 h and 24.7 {+-} 1.02 h, respectively. Although further studies are required, our results showed that Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION can be a good candidate for use in pulmonary delivery vehicles and diagnostic probes.

Cho, Wan-Seob [Division of Toxicologic Pathology, Department of Toxicological Research, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 231 Jinhoungno Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Respiratory Medicine Unit, ELEGI/Colt Laboratory, Centre for Inflammation Research, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wcho@staffmail.ed.ac.uk; Cho, Minjung; Kim, Seoung Ryul; Choi, Mina; Lee, Jeong Yeon; Han, Beom Seok [Division of Toxicologic Pathology, Department of Toxicological Research, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 231 Jinhoungno Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sue Nie [Division of Genetic Toxicology, Department of Toxicological Research, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 231 Jinhoungno Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Kyung; Jon, Sangyong [Research Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnology, Department of Life Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jayoung [Division of Toxicologic Pathology, Department of Toxicological Research, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 231 Jinhoungno Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water electricity. Here we show that this approach can also be used as a technique to generate spherical nano

54

Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent  

SciTech Connect

A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

55

Iron-oxide Aerogel and Xerogel Catalyst Formulations: Characterization by 57Fe Mssbauer and XAFS Spectroscopies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron in various iron-oxide aerogel and xerogel catalyst formulations ({ge}85% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}; {le}10% K, Co, Cu, or Pd) developed for possible use in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction has been examined by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The seventeen samples consisted of both as-prepared and calcined aerogels and xerogels and their products after use as catalysts for FTS or the WGS reaction. Complementary XAFS spectra were obtained on the occurrence of the secondary elements in some of the same materials. A broad, slightly asymmetric, two-peak Moessbauer spectrum was obtained from the different as-prepared and calcined catalyst formulations in the majority of cases. Such spectra could only be satisfactorily fit with three quadrupole doublet components, but no systematic trends in the isomer shift and quadrupole splitting parameters and area ratios of the individual components could be discerned that reflected variations in the composition or preparation of the aerogel or xerogel materials. However, significant reductions were noted in the Moessbauer effective thickness (recoilless absorption effect per unit mass of iron) parameter, {chi}{sub eff}/g, determined at room temperature, for aerogels and xerogels compared to bulk iron oxides, reflecting the openness and lack of rigidity of the aerogel and xerogel structures. Moessbauer measurements for two aerogels over the range from 15 to 292 K confirmed the greatly diminished nature of this parameter at room temperature. Major increases in the effective thickness parameter were observed when the open structure of the aerogel or xerogel collapsed during calcination resulting in the formation of iron oxides (hematite, spinel ferrite). Similar structural changes were indicated by increases in this parameter after use of iron-oxide aerogels as catalysts for FTS or the WGS reaction, during which the iron-oxide aerogel was converted to a mixture of nonstoichiometric magnetite and the Haegg carbide, {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, or nonstoichiometric magnetite, respectively.

Huggins, F.; Bali, S; Huffman, G; Eyring, E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Behavior of Coal-Based Direct Reduction Reaction of Iron Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... a MW-L0316V microwave oven and Leica-DM-RXP polarizing microscope. ... A Path Planning Study of Multi-pass Heat Treatment using High Power Direct...

57

Effects of Ceric Oxide Coatings on Materials Performance of 430 Steel in Coal Synthetc Gas  

SciTech Connect

The surfaces of low silicon and aluminum 430 stainless steel (UNS 43000) coupons with and without ceria (CeO2) surface treatment were investigated after exposure to simulated coal syngas based fuel at 800 C. The results indicate a different mechanism of carburization for the ceria treated steel than that for the untreated steel.

Ziomek-Moroz, M. Jablonski, P

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

58

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Galitsky. "Arsenic Remediation of Bangladesh Drinking Water using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash." In Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: Mechanism, Analysis, and Remediation,...

59

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kowolik. "Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash." Environmental Science and Health (2010). Sethuraman, Vijay A., Kristin Kowolik, and...

60

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kowolik. "Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash." Environmental Science and Health (2010). 2009 Addy, Susan E., Ashok J. Gadgil,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Susan Addy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kowolik. "Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash." Environmental Science and Health (2010). 2009 Addy, Susan E., Ashok J. Gadgil,...

62

Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part II. Rates of reduction of composite pellets in a rotary hearth furnace simulator  

SciTech Connect

A new ironmaking concept is being proposed that involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) with an iron-bath smelter. The RHF makes use of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets as the charge material and the final product is direct-reduced iron (DRI) in the solid or molten state. This part of the research includes the development of a reactor that simulated the heat transfer in an RHF. The external heat-transport and high heating rates were simulated by means of infrared (IR) emitting lamps. The reaction rates were measured by analyzing the off-gas and computing both the amount of CO and CO{sub 2} generated and the degree of reduction. The reduction times were found to be comparable to the residence times observed in industrial RHFs. Both artificial ferric oxide (PAH) and naturally occurring hematite and taconite ores were used as the sources of iron oxide. Coal char and devolatilized wood charcoal were the reductants. Wood charcoal appeared to be a faster reductant than coal char. However, in the PAH-containing pellets, the reverse was found to be true because of heat-transfer limitations. For the same type of reductant, hematite-containing pellets were observed to reduce faster than taconite-containing pellets because of the development of internal porosity due to cracking and fissure formation during the Fe2O{sub 3}-to-Fe3O{sub 4} transition. This is, however, absent during the reduction of taconite, which is primarily Fe3O{sub 4}. The PAH-wood-charcoal pellets were found to undergo a significant amount of swelling at low-temperature conditions, which impeded the external heat transport to the lower layers. If the average degree of reduction targeted in an RHF is reduced from 95 to approximately 70 pct by coupling the RHF with a bath smelter, the productivity of the RHF can be enhanced 1.5 to 2 times. The use of a two- or three-layer bed was found to be superior to that of a single layer, for higher productivities.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.

Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1997-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Assembly of Colloidal Nanoparticles into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates by Dip-Coating Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the assembly behavior of colloidal nanoparticles into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates is investigated. Approximately 20-nm-diameter iron oxide (Fe2O3) particles stabilized by oleic acid and 5-nm-diameter CdSe ... Keywords: Anodic aluminum oxide, colloid nanoparticle, dip coating, self-assembly

Il Seo; Chang-Woo Kwon; Hyun Ho Lee; Yong-Sang Kim; Ki-Bum Kim; Tae-Sik Yoon

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Evaluation of coal minerals and metal residues as coal-liquefaction catalysts. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The catalytic activity of various minerals, metallic wastes, and transition metals was investigated in the liquefaction of various coals. The effects of coal type, process variables, coal cleaning, catalyst addition mode, solvent quality, and solvent modification on coal conversion and oil production were also studied. Coal conversion and oil production improved significantly by the addition of pyrite, reduced pyrite, speculite, red mud, flue dust, zinc sulfide, and various transition metal compounds. Impregnation and molecular dispersion of iron gave higher oil production than particulate incorporation of iron. However, the mode of molybdenum addition was inconsequential. Oil production increased considerably both by adding a stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and pyrite and by simultaneous impregnation of coal with iron and molybdenum. Hydrogenation activity of disposable catalysts decreased sharply in the presence of nitrogen compounds. The removal of heteroatoms from process solvent improved thermal as well as catalytic coal liquefaction. The improvement in oil production was very dramatic with a catalyst.

Garg, D.; Givens, E. N.; Schweighardt, F. K.; Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Huang, W. J.; Shridharani, K.; Clinton, J. H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Moessbauer studies of pretreated ultrafine iron oxide catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates that a 24 hour-pretreatment in CO at 260{degrees}C and 8 atm. in a tetralin solvent almost completely converts uftrafine iron oxide (about 3 nm) to iron carbide. However, pretreatment in hydrogen under the same conditions resulted in reduction of about 33% of the iron to metallic Fe; the remainder was Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Exposure of the CO pretreated catalyst to a 1:1 HDCO synthesis gas resulted in the gradual reoxidation of the carbides to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. During the first 2 hours of exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreated sample to synthesis gas,.the metallic Fe was converted to iron carbides. Further exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreatment sample to synthesis gas did not result in a composition change of the catalyst. Therefore, it is concluded that iron carbides with different oxidation characteristics were formed in these two cases.

Chenshi Huang; Davis, B.H. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research); Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Inst. for Mining and Minerals Research)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Framboidal iron oxide: Chondrite-like material from the black mat, Murray Springs, Arizona  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the end of the Pleistocene a Younger Dryas black mat was deposited on top of the Pleistocene sediments inmany parts of North America. A study of themagnetic fraction ({approx}10,900 50 B.P.) fromthe basal section of the black mat at Murray Springs, AZ revealed the presence of amorphous iron oxide framboids in a glassy iron-silica matrix. These framboids are very similar in appearance and chemistry to those reported from several types of carbonaceous chondrites. The glass contains iron, silicon, oxygen, vanadium and minor titanium, while the framboidal particles contain calcium as well. The major element chemistry of both the spherules and the glass matrix are consistent with the chemistry of material associated with meteorite impact sites and meteorites. Electron microscopy confirms that the glassy material is indeed amorphous, and also shows that what appear to be individual oxide particles are amorphous as well. The latter appears consistent with their overall morphology that, while euhedral, typically shows significant fracture. Based on these data, we argue that these particles are the product of a hypervelocity impact.

Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Hull, Sharon [University of Manitoba, Canada

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Framboidal iron oxide: Chondrite-like material from the black mat, Murray Springs, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

At the end of the Pleistocene, many large mammals became extinct in North America1. The three most common theories for this phenomenon include climate change, overkill, or disease. Recently, researchers suggested that an extraterrestrial (ET) event may have caused sudden climate change that devastated these large mammals and had profound effects on the Clovis culture2,3. Critics of the ET event or impact theory note the lack of evidence such as an impact crater, impact material, shocked quartz, or tektites4. Here we present for the first time chemical and textural evidence of impact material from the Clovis-age, Murray Springs black mat layer, Arizona, USA. The impact material contains iron oxide spherules (framboids) in a glassy iron-silica matrix, which is one indicator of a possible meteorite impact. The spherules also contain elevated concentrations of vanadium and little titanium. The chemistry of both the spherules and matrix is consistent with the chemistry of impact material associated with other meteorite impact sites and meteorite showers.

Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Hull, Sharon [University of Manitoba, Canada; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; HaynesJr., C. Vance [University of Arizona; Bergen, Laura [University of Manitoba, Canada

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Population dynamics of iron-oxidizing communities in pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The iron-oxidizing microbial community in two pilot plants for the treatment of acid mine water was monitored to investigate the influence of different process parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and retention time on the stability of the system to evaluate the applicability of this treatment technology on an industrial scale. The dynamics of the microbial populations were followed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) over a period of several months. For a more precise quantification, two TaqMan assays specific for the two prominent groups were developed and the relative abundance of these taxa in the iron-oxidizing community was verified by real-time PCR. The investigations revealed that the iron-oxidizing community was clearly dominated by two groups of Betaproteobacteria affiliated with the poorly known and not yet recognized species 'Ferrovum myxofaciens' and with strains related to Gallionella ferruginea, respectively. These taxa dominated the microbial community during the whole investigation period and accelerated the oxidation of ferrous iron despite the changing characteristics of mine waters flowing into the plants. Thus, it is assumed that the treatment technology can also be applied to other mine sites and that these organisms play a crucial role in such treatment systems. 32 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab.

Elke Heinzel; Eberhard Janneck; Franz Glombitza; Michael Schlmann; Jana Seifert [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany). Interdisciplinary Ecological Center

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extensive research continued on catalysts based on novel anion-treated (mainly sulfated) oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron [Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/SO{sub 4}]. In addition, sulfated oxides of tin as well as molybdenum promoted iron oxides were used. Incorporation of small amounts of sulfate, molybdate, or tungstate anions by wet precipitation/impregnation methods was found to increase the surface acidic character of iron oxides; more importantly, it reduced the grain sizes significantly with corresponding increases in specific surface areas. These anion-treated iron and tin oxides were more active for direct coal liquefaction and coal-heavy oil coprocessing than their untreated counterparts. With these catalyst systems, higher conversion levels are obtained as compared to the soluble precursors of iron and molybdenum at the same catalyst metalloading (3500 ppm iron and 50 ppm molybdenum with respect to coal). Sulfated iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were equally active as coal liquefaction catalysts. The sulfate, molybdate, and tungstate anions were found to have similar promotional effects on the properties and activities of iron oxides. One step in the synthesis of anion-treated iron and tin oxides is precipitation as hydroxides using either urea or ammonium hydroxide. The catalysts prepared using urea as a precipitation agent were more reproducible than those using ammonium, hydroxide in terms of activities and properties. These catalysts/catalyst precursors were characterized by several techniques to determine their physical (size and structure related) and chemical (acidity) properties. Sulfated and molybdated iron oxides were found to have grain sizes as small as 10-20 nm. An attempt was made to correlate the physicochemical properties of these catalysts with their activity for coal liquefaction.

Huffman, G.P. [ed.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

WATER-GAS SHIFT KINETICS OVER IRON OXIDE CATALYSTS AT MEMBRANE REACTOR CONDITIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the second year of a project investigating water-gas shift catalysts for use in membrane reactors. It has been established that a simple iron high temperature shift catalyst becomes ineffective in a membrane reactor because the reaction rate is severely inhibited by the build-up of the product CO{sub 2}. During the past year, an improved microkinetic model for water-gas shift over iron oxide was developed. Its principal advantage over prior models is that it displays the correct asymptotic behavior at all temperatures and pressures as the composition approaches equilibrium. This model has been used to explore whether it might be possible to improve the performance of iron high temperature shift catalysts under conditions of high CO{sub 2} partial pressure. The model predicts that weakening the surface oxygen bond strength by less than 5% should lead to higher catalytic activity as well as resistance to rate inhibition at higher CO{sub 2} partial pressures. Two promoted iron high temperature shift catalysts were studied. Ceria and copper were each studied as promoters since there were indications in the literature that they might weaken the surface oxygen bond strength. Ceria was found to be ineffective as a promoter, but preliminary results with copper promoted FeCr high temperature shift catalyst show it to be much more resistant to rate inhibition by high levels of CO{sub 2}. Finally, the performance of sulfided CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts under conditions of high CO{sub 2} partial pressure was simulated using an available microkinetic model for water-gas shift over this catalyst. The model suggests that this catalyst might be quite effective in a medium temperature water-gas shift membrane reactor, provided that the membrane was resistant to the H{sub 2}S that is required in the feed.

Carl R.F. Lund

2001-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

72

Final Report: The Impact of Carbonate on Surface Protonation, Electron Transfer and Crystallization Reactions in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Colloids  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses key issues of importance in the geochemical behavior of iron oxides and in the geochemical cycling of carbon and iron. For Fe, we are specifically studying the influence of carbonate on electron transfer reactions, solid phase transformations, and the binding of carbonate to reactive sites on the edges of particles. The emphasis on carbonate arises because it is widely present in the natural environment, is known to bind strongly to oxide surfaces, is reactive on the time scales of interest, and has a speciation driven by acid-base reactions. The geochemical behavior of carbonate strongly influences global climate change and CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies. Our goal is to answer key questions with regards to specific site binding, electron transfer reactions, and crystallization reactions of iron oxides that impact both the geochemical cycling of iron and CO{sub 2} species. Our work is focused on the molecular level description of carbonate chemistry in solution including the prediction of isotope fractionation factors. We have also done work on critical atmospheric species.

Dixon, David Adams [The University of Alabama

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

73

Synthesis of high intrinsic loss power aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted hydrothermal-reduction route  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticle were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results showed that certain concentrations of citric acid (CA) are required to obtain only magnetic iron oxides with mean particle sizes around 8 nm. CA acts as a modulator and reducing agent in iron oxide formation which controls nanoparticle size. The XRD, magnetic and heating measurements showed that the temperature and time of hydrothermal reaction can affect the magnetic properties of obtained ferrofluids. The synthesized ferrofluids were stable at pH 7. Their mean hydrodynamic size was around 80 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.158. The calculated intrinsic loss power (ILP) was 9.4 nHm{sup 2}/kg. So this clean and cheap route is an efficient way to synthesize high ILP aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. - Graphical abstract: Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction method with citric acid as reductant which is an efficient way to synthesize aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid acted as reducing agent and surfactant in the route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a facile, low energy and environmental friendly route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were monodispersed and stable at pH of 7. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated intrinsic loss power of the synthesized ferrofluids was very high.

Behdadfar, Behshid, E-mail: bbehdadfar@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, Ahmad [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat [School of Pharmacy, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Morales, Maria del Puerto [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Mozaffari, Morteza [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Moessbauer studies of pretreated ultrafine iron oxide catalysts. Partial quarterly progress report, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates that a 24 hour-pretreatment in CO at 260{degrees}C and 8 atm. in a tetralin solvent almost completely converts uftrafine iron oxide (about 3 nm) to iron carbide. However, pretreatment in hydrogen under the same conditions resulted in reduction of about 33% of the iron to metallic Fe; the remainder was Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Exposure of the CO pretreated catalyst to a 1:1 HDCO synthesis gas resulted in the gradual reoxidation of the carbides to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. During the first 2 hours of exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreated sample to synthesis gas,.the metallic Fe was converted to iron carbides. Further exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreatment sample to synthesis gas did not result in a composition change of the catalyst. Therefore, it is concluded that iron carbides with different oxidation characteristics were formed in these two cases.

Chenshi Huang; Davis, B.H. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Inst. for Mining and Minerals Research

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Coal Direct Chemical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit for Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants with In-Situ CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-NT0005289 Ohio State chemical looping metal carrier. Ohio State chemical looping metal carrier. The Ohio State University Research Foundation will further develop coal direct chemical looping (CDCL) technology. CDCL uses a patented iron oxide-based composite oxygen carrier and can be retrofit to existing coal-fired power plants. The development of the CDCL system will be conducted through experimental testing under bench- and sub-pilot scales. Related Papers and Publications: Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture [PDF-2.43MB] (July 2013) Presented by Samuel Bayham of the Ohio State University Research Foundation at the 2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting.

76

Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its Mitigation-The Ohio State University Background When coal derived synthesis gas (syngas) is used in place of natural...

77

Thermal Barrier Coatings for Resistance Against Attack by Molten ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thermal Barrier Coatings for Resistance Against Attack by Molten Silicate Deposits from CMAS Sand, Volcanic Ash, or Coal Fly Ash Ingested...

78

Protective Coatings Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that fireside corrosion of waterwall panels in coal-fired boilers increased with the introduction of low NOx combustion systems since the early 1980s. This report describes ongoing work to evaluate protective coating solutions used to mitigate the wastage due to corrosion, and to determine which provide the greatest resistance to the circumferential cracking phenomena. It includes recent laboratory corrosion assisted thermal fatigue tests and analyses of field-exposed samples of ...

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

79

In situ investigation of ion-induced dewetting of a thin iron-oxide film on silicon by high resolution scanning electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Using our new in situ high resolution scanning electron microscope, which is integrated into the UNILAC ion beamline at the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany, we investigated the swift heavy ion induced dewetting of a thin iron oxide layer on Si. Besides heterogeneous hole nucleation at defects and spontaneous (homogeneous) hole nucleation, we could clearly identify a dewetting mechanism, which is similar to the spinodal dewetting observed for liquid films. Instead of being due to capillary waves, it is based on a stress induced surface instability. The latter results in the formation of a wavy surface with constant dominant wave-length and increasing amplitude during ion irradiation. Dewetting sets in as soon as the wave-troughs reach the film-substrate interface. Inspection of the hole radii and rim shapes indicates that removal of the material from the hole area occurs mainly by plastic deformation at the inner boundary and ion induced viscous flow in the peripheral zone due to surface tension.

Amirthapandian, S. [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Universitaet Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Material Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Schuchart, F.; Garmatter, D.; Bolse, W. [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Universitaet Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

A study of high-temperature soaking has been continued. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids were used. Large pyridine extractabilities of more than 70 wt% were obtained for aR cases. A better understanding Of the mechanism is important for the development of coal preconversion using the high-temperature soaking. To investigate the mechanism of the change in coal solubilization by high-temperature soaking, a simple soaking experiment was conducted. The extract from the Illinois No. 6 coal was treated in toluene at three different temperatures, and the treated samples were analyzed by coal swelling using the recently developed method. Furthermore, effects of soaking time, soaking temperature, soluble portions, and coal rank were examined by using actual coal liquids. Although a cross-linked, three-dimensional macromoleculer model has been widely accepted for the structure of coat it has previously been reported that significant portions (far more generally believed) of coal molecules are physically associated. It is known, as reviewed in that paper, that most portions of bituminous coal can be disintegrated in coal derived liquids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 300--400{degrees}C (high-temperature soaking). It was proposed that electron donors and acceptors of low molecular mass contained in these materials substitute coal-coal complexes with charge-transfer interactions. This is physical dissociation of associated coal molecules. However, chemical reactions may occur at these temperatures.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

High Performance Polymer Composite Coated Hollow Fiber Membranes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coated Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post Combustion CO 2 Capture and Separation From Coal-fired Power Plants Background The mission of the U.S. Department of EnergyNational...

82

Efficient laser-induced 6-8 keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets  

SciTech Connect

The performance of new iron-based laser-driven x-ray sources has been tested at the OMEGA laser facility for production of x rays in the 6.5-8.5 keV range. Two types of targets were experimentally investigated: low-density iron oxide aerogels (density 6-16 mg/cm{sup 3}) and stainless steel foil-lined cavity targets (steel thickness 1-5 {mu}m). The targets were irradiated by 40 beams of the OMEGA laser (500 J/beam, 1 ns pulse, wavelength 351 nm). All targets showed good coupling with the laser, with <5% of the incident laser light backscattered by the resulting plasma in all cases (typically <2.5%). The aerogel targets produced T{sub e}=2 to 3 keV, n{sub e}=0.12-0.2 critical density plasmas yielding a 40%-60% laser-to-x-ray total conversion efficiency (CE) (1.2%-3% in the Fe K-shell range). The foil cavity targets produced T{sub e}{approx} 2 keV, n{sub e}{approx} 0.15 critical density plasmas yielding a 60%-75% conversion efficiency (1.6%-2.2% in the Fe K-shell range). Time-resolved images illustrate that the volumetric heating of low-density aerogels allow them to emit a higher K-shell x-ray yield even though they contain fewer Fe atoms. However, their challenging fabrication process leads to a larger shot-to-shot variation than cavity targets.

Perez, F.; Kay, J. J.; Patterson, J. R.; Kane, J.; May, M.; Emig, J.; Colvin, J.; Gammon, S.; Satcher, J. H. Jr.; Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Villette, B.; Girard, F.; Reverdin, C. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Sorce, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of Rochester - Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E. River Rd, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Jaquez, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Bioactive Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Tailoring the Surface Properties of Parylene Biocompatible Coating: Martina Cihova1; Quoc Nguyen2; Varshni Singh2; 1Karlsruhe Institute of...

84

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal 101 Lesson 1: Cleaning Up Coal Clean Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still...

85

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

The Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of various Two-Stage Liquefaction (TSL) process configurations was conducted at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility between July 1982 and September 1986. The facility combines three process units. There are the liquefaction unit, either thermal (TLU) or catalytic, for the dissolution of coal, the Critical Solvent Deashing unit (CSD) for the separation of ash and undissolved coal, and a catalytic hydrogenation unit (HTR) for product upgrading and recycle process solvent replenishment. The various TSL process configurations were created by changing the process sequence of these three units and by recycling hydrotreated solvents between the units. This report presents a description of the TSL configurations investigated and an analysis of the operating and performance data from the period of study. Illinois No. 6 Burning Star Mine coal Wyodak Clovis Point Mine coal were processed. Cobalt-molybdenum and disposable iron-oxide catalysts were used to improve coal liquefaction reactions and nickel-molybdenum catalysts were used in the hydrotreater. 28 refs., 31 figs., 13 tabs.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

EIA - Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal...

88

Formulations for iron oxides dissolution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Environmental Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2009... thermal cycle lifetime when compared to conventional EB-PVD coatings. ... widely used on turbine engine blades/vanes as stand-alone overlayers. .... thin film provides a flexible, low-cost platform for surface engineering.

90

STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION  

SciTech Connect

Major objectives of the present project are to develop a better understanding of the roles of the catalyst and the liquefaction solvent in the coal liquefaction process. An open question concerning the role of the catalyst is whether intimate contact between the catalyst and the coal particles is important or required. To answer this question, it had been planned to coat an active catalyst with a porous silica coating which was found to retain catalyst activity while preventing actual contact between catalyst and coal. Consultation with people in DuPont who coat catalysts for increasing abrasion resistance have indicated that only portions of the catalyst are coated by their process (spray drying) and that sections of uncoated catalyst remain. For that reason, it was decided to suspend the catalyst in a basket separated from the coal in the reactor. The basket walls were to be permeable to the liquefaction solvent but not to the coal particles. Several such baskets were constructed of stainless steel with holes which would not permit passage of coal particles larger than 30 mesh. Liquefactions run with the coal of greater than 30 mesh size gave normal conversion of coal to liquid in the absence of catalyst in the basket, but substantially increased conversion when Ni/Mo on alumina catalyst was in the basket. While this result is interesting and suggestive of some kind of mass transfer of soluble material occurring between the catalyst and the coal, it does not eliminate the possibility of breakdown of the coal particle into particle sizes permeable to the basket. Indeed, a small amount of fine coal has been found inside the basket. To determine whether fine coal from breakdown of the coal particles is responsible for the conversion, a new basket is being prepared with 0.5{micro}m pore size.

Michael T. Klein

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cleanest Coal Technology Clean Coal 101 Lesson 5: The Cleanest Coal Technology-A Real Gas Don't think of coal as a solid black rock. Think of it as a mass of atoms. Most of the...

92

Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Study Guide: WHAT IS COAL? Coal looks like a shiny black rock. Coal has lots of energy in it. When it is burned, coal makes heat and light energy. Th e cave men used coal for...

93

Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Six runs on the bench unit were successfully completed this quarter. The runs covered twenty five different operating conditions and yield periods, and involved 336 hours of operation. In the bench unit, increased temperature of first stage operation (410{degree}C) and direct addition of the powdered solid sodium aluminate to the feed as first stage catalyst improved both coal and carbon monoxide conversion. To achieve 90%+ overall coal conversion, temperatures of 430{degree}C+ were required in the second stage. Oil yields (pentane soluble liquid product) in excess of 65 wt % based on MAF Black Thunder coal, were achieved both with iron oxide/dimethyl disulfide and ammonium molybdate/carbon disulfide second stage catalysts. C{sub l}-C{sub 3} hydrogen gas yields were modest, generally 7-8 wt % on MAF coal, and overall hydrogen consumption (including first stage shift hydrogen) was in the order of 7-8 wt % on MAF coal. The ammonium molybdate catalyst system appeared to give slightly higher oil yields and hydrogen consumption, as was expected, but the differences may not be significant.

Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L. [Canadian Energy Development, Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

94

Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy...

95

Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and processing techniques for these coatings. In addition, we investigated the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and oxidation protection ability of the coatings. Coatings were developed to provide oxidation protection to both ferritic and austentic alloys and Ni-based alloys. The coatings that we developed are based on low viscosity pre-ceramic polymers. Thus they can be easily applied to any shape by using a variety of techniques including dip-coating, spray-coating and painting. The polymers are loaded with a variety of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have two primary roles: control of the final composition and phases (and hence the properties); and control of the shrinkage during thermal decomposition of the polymer. Thus the selection of the nanoparticles was the most critical aspect of this project. Based on the results of the processing studies, the performance of selected coatings in oxidizing conditions (both static and cyclic) was investigated.

Rajendra Bordia

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Low-friction coatings for air bearings in fuel cell air compressors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In an effort to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, hybrid vehicles incorporating fuel cell systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers, their suppliers, federal agencies (specifically, the US Department of Energy) and national laboratories. The fuel cell system will require an air management subsystem that includes a compressor/expander. Certain components in the compressor will require innovative lubrication technology in order to reduce parasitic energy losses and improve their reliability and durability. One such component is the air bearing for air turbocompressors designed and fabricated by Meruit, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory recently developed a carbon-based coating with low friction and wear attributes; this near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coating is a potential candidate for use in turbocompressor air bearings. The authors present here an evaluation of the Argonne coating for air compressor thrust bearings. With two parallel 440C stainless steel discs in unidirectional sliding contact, the NFC reduced the frictional force four times and the wear rate by more than two orders of magnitude. Wear mechanism on the uncoated surface involved oxidation and production of iron oxide debris. Wear occurred on the coated surfaces primarily by a polishing mechanism.

Ajayi, O. O.; Fenske, G. R.; Erdemir, A.; Woodford, J.; Sitts, J.; Elshot, K.; Griffey, K.

2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

97

EIA Energy Kids - Coal  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sometimes, coal-fired electric power plants are built near coal mines to lower ... industries and businesses with their own power plants use coal to generate ...

98

Coal industry annual 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Knocking the NOx Out of Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 3: Knocking the NOx Out of Coal How NOx Forms NOx Formation Air is mostly nitrogen molecules (green in the above diagram) and...

100

Coal and bituminous reserves  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 5 of this book contains sections entitled: other coal processes; underground processing of coal; and other important energy sources.

NONE

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Coating Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 14 Compositions of unmelted frit batches for high-temperature service silicate-based coatings...Sodium nitrate 5.0 4.0 4.4 . . . 3.8 . . . . . . Fluorspar 4.5 3.2 2.8 . . . 3.0 . . . . . . Tricobalt tetroxide 0.6 . . . 0.4 . . . 0.5 . . . . . . Nickel oxide 0.6 . . . 0.4 . . . 0.6 . . . . . . Manganese dioxide 1.8 . . . 1.1 . . . 1.1 . . . . . . Barium carbonate . . . . . . . . . 26.3 . . . 56.6 56.6...

102

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

University Coal Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation Clean Coal Crosscutting Research University Coal Research University Coal Research Clean Coal Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Hydrogen from Coal Coal...

104

O A L Section 2. Coal  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Section 2. Coal Coal prices are developed for the following three categories: coking coal; steam coal (all noncoking coal); and coal coke imports and exports.

105

Corrosion resistant coating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Thompson, K.G.; Bryan, C.J.

1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

106

Produced Conversion Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical conversion coatings are commonly applied to Mg alloys as paint bases and in some cases as stand-alone protection. Traditional conversion coatings...

107

Coal technology program. Progress report, May 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two successful operability tests with sustained operation of the bench-scale hydrocarbonizer were achieved with Illinois No. 6 coal diluted with char. Several activities in the area of nondestructive testing of coatings are reviewed. Failure analysis activities included examination of several components from the solvent refined coal plants at Wilsonville, Alabama, and Tacoma, Washington. In the gas-fired potassium boiler project, all of the design work were completed except for several of the instrument and control drawings. In the design studies of a coal-fired alkali metal vapor topping cycle, the first phase of a cycle analysis and the design and analysis of a metal vapor turbine were completed. A report entitled ''Critical Component Test Facility--Advance Planning for Test Modules'' presents the planning study for the conceptual design of component test modules on a nonsite-specific basis. Engineering studies, project evaluation and process and program analysis of coal conversion processes were continued. A report on the landfill storage of solid wastes from coal conversion is being finalized. In the coal-fueled MIUS project, a series of successful tests of the coal feeding system and a report on the analysis of 500-hr fire-side corrosion tests in a fluidized bed combustor were completed.

None

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Paint Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 4   Test requirements and time to failure of various coatings...20??30 0.8??1.2 150 200??500 Light zinc phosphate+lacquer paint 23??28 0.9??1.1 120 150??250 Dry film lubrication, air cured 8??13 0.3??0.5 ? 50??100 Heavy zinc phosphate+dry film lubrication, baked 12??25 0.5??1.0 100 500??1000 CARC topcoat 46??56 1.8??2.2 ? 25??50 Light zinc phosphate+CARC primer+topcoat 76??127 3??5...

109

Surface modified coals for enhanced catalyst dispersion and liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the study is to enhance catalyst loading and dispersion in coal for improved liquefaction by preadsorption of surfactants and catalysts on to the coal. During this reporting period, zeta potential measurements were conducted to assess the surface charge on the raw, pretreated and catalyzed coal samples. The surface area, transmission spectroscopy and luminescence intensity of the raw coal and pretreated coal samples were also determined to assess the quality of the coal surface. Across a broad range of pH values, the raw coal had an overall negative charge. Coal treated with anionic surfactant SDS maintained an overall net negative surface negative charge. The interaction between the coal and cationic surfactant DDAB caused the opposite effect resulting in a more positive coal surface charge. Although one would have expected little or no effect of the neutral surfactant Triton X-100, there appears to be some difference in the results of the raw coal and the coal treated with Triton X-100. The authors believe that the Triton not only binds to the nonpolar sites but also has a strong affinity for the polar sites through electrostatic bonding and interaction between the hydrophobic tails. The addition of molybdenum to coal pretreated with DDAB caused a reduction in the positive charge of the coal surface probably due to possible ionic interaction between the coal surface, the surfactant and the catalyst. The adsorption isotherm of the coal was characteristic of isotherms for porous samples and the surface area of the coal increased from 30 m{sup 2}/g to 77 m{sup 2}/g when washed with deionized water. This suggests coal washing may be one method of increasing the surface area for surfactant adsorption. Although the transmission measurements provided valuable information about the coal it resulted in little information on the amount of adsorbed Triton. However, the maximum solid-liquid ratio for optimum surfactant loading of Triton X-100 was determined via the UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The luminescence intensity measurements showed that the coal and surfactants luminescence weakly. No statistically significant influence was observed from the actions of the surfactants or surfactant-molybdenum catalyst. Qualitative inspection however, showed that SDS might effectively coat coal surfaces and influence catalyst dispersion. Also, catalysts appeared to be better distributed among coal particles and in finer clusters when DDAB and Triton surfactants were used.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

110

Coal gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A standard series of two staged gas generators (GG) has been developed in the United States for producing gas with a combustion heat from 4,700 to 7,600 kilojoules per cubic meter from coal (U). The diameter of the gas generators is from 1.4 to 3.65 meters and the thermal capacity based on purified cold gas is from 12.5 to 89 million kilojoules per hour. Certain standard sized gas generators have undergone experimental industrial tests which showed that it is most expedient to feed the coal into the gas generators pneumatically. This reduces the dimensions of the charging device, makes it possible to use more common grades of structural steels and reduces the cost of the gas. A double valve reliably prevents ejections of the gasification product and promotes the best distribution of the coal in the gas generator. The gas generators may successfully operate on high moisture (up to 36 percent) brown coal. Blasting with oxygen enriched to 38 percent made it possible to produce a gas with a combustion heat of 9,350 kilojoules per cubic meter. This supports a combustion temperature of 1,700C.

Rainey, D.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

A study of high-temperature soaking has been continued. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids were used. Large pyridine extractabilities of more than 70 wt% were obtained for aR cases. A better understanding Of the mechanism is important for the development of coal preconversion using the high-temperature soaking. To investigate the mechanism of the change in coal solubilization by high-temperature soaking, a simple soaking experiment was conducted. The extract from the Illinois No. 6 coal was treated in toluene at three different temperatures, and the treated samples were analyzed by coal swelling using the recently developed method. Furthermore, effects of soaking time, soaking temperature, soluble portions, and coal rank were examined by using actual coal liquids. Although a cross-linked, three-dimensional macromoleculer model has been widely accepted for the structure of coat it has previously been reported that significant portions (far more generally believed) of coal molecules are physically associated. It is known, as reviewed in that paper, that most portions of bituminous coal can be disintegrated in coal derived liquids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 300--400{degrees}C (high-temperature soaking). It was proposed that electron donors and acceptors of low molecular mass contained in these materials substitute coal-coal complexes with charge-transfer interactions. This is physical dissociation of associated coal molecules. However, chemical reactions may occur at these temperatures.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Coal industry annual 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Coal industry annual 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

116

Superoleophilic Particles and Coatings  

Researchers at ORNL have developed a superoleophilic coating that pins a layer of oil to a specially coated substrate and particularly to the surface of the coating. The pinning action keeps the oil from leeching out of the coating, even when the ...

117

Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activities during this reporting period were the continuation of test section detail design and developing specifications for auxiliary systems and facilities.

Dan Davies

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

118

ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activity during this reporting period were the evaluation of syngas combustor concepts, the evaluation of test section concepts and the selection of the preferred rig configuration.

Scott Reome; Dan Davies

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Coal industry annual 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

122

2014 Coal Form Proposals  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Survey Form Changes Proposed for 2014. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has begun the process of re-clearing the coal survey ...

123

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

124

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices (updated December 27, 2006) This report summarizes spot coal prices for the business weeks ended December 1, 8, and 15.

125

Annual Coal Report 2001  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA-0584 (2001) Annual Coal Report 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy

126

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Metallurgical coal markets became volatile when the thriving Chinese steel industry in late 2003 and 2004 made outsized demands for coking coal and met coke, ...

127

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: November 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution...

128

Apparatus for coating powders  

SciTech Connect

A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coatings: Interplay Among Coating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and resistant to environmental damage from ingested sand particles ( categorized ... A Study on the Hot Corrosion Resistance of Metal-cemet-glass Coating on...

130

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

131

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

132

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Biomass to Liquids Hydrogen-from-Coal RD&D ENERGY ANALYSIS About Us Search Products Contacts SMART GRID ANALYSIS BASELINE STUDIES QUALITY GUIDELINES NETL-RUA About NETL-RUA...

133

Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

134

Clean Coal Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal Research Clean Coal Research Clean Coal Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Hydrogen from Coal Coal to Liquids Major Demonstrations Crosscutting Research Carbon Capture and...

135

Coal gasification construction materials: an overview  

SciTech Connect

Materials performance test results are presented for two coal gasification processes, HYGAS SNG process, which converts any type of coal to substitute natural gas (SNG), and U-GAS fuel gas process, which converts coal to a low- or medium-heat value gas. A description of the pilot plant for each process and discussion of some experiences with materials and components used in plant construction is presented. Metals performance inside the gasifier reactors and in off-gas locations depended upon the character of the process. At moderate operating temperatures (427/sup 0/C), low-carbon steels are advisable. Very high-temperature environments may not only require use of exotic alloys, clads, and/or coatings but may also preclude extensive use of internal piping/valving in scale-up designs. Inconel 182, 600, and Monel 400 have all performed erratically in the plants; but in quench and purification sections, austenitic stainless steels performed well. 9 references. (BLM)

Arnold, J.M. (Inst. of Gas Tech., Chicago, IL); Laurens, R.M.; Danyluk, S.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Superoleophilic Particles and Coatings  

UT-B ID 201002370 06.2012 Technology Summary Researchers at ORNL have developed a superoleophilic coating that pins a layer of oil to a specially coated substrate and ...

138

Subbituminous and bituminous coal dominate U.S. coal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

While almost all coal consumed in the United States is used to generate electricity (90% in 2010), coal is not entirely homogeneous. Coal is ...

139

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Alternate Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Alternate Hydrogen Production In the Alternate Production technology pathway, clean syngas from coal is converted to high-hydrogen-content liquid...

140

The Effect of Circulating Coal Slurry Water Hardness on Coal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to investigate the effect of gypsum on flotation and coal slurry settling during coal slurry recirculation, the water hardness and proton conductivity of coal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Coal Tar and Bedrock  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characterization of bedrock groundwater and coal tar impacts is one of the most complicated tasks associated with managing manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. This report provides an overview of the fate and transport of coal tar in bedrock and the methods available to investigate coal tar at particular sites and discusses how to develop a decision-making framework for coal tar investigations.

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

142

Thermal Spray Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 35   Thermal spray coatings used for hardfacing applications...piston ring (internal combustion);

143

Nanocomposite Thermal Spray Coatings.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-Term Surface Restoration Effect Introduced by Advanced Lubricant Additive Nanocomposite Thermal Spray Coatings. New Hardfacing Overlay Claddings...

144

Coating Surfaces with Superhydrophobic Powder  

Researchers at ORNL have developed a method of modifying existing coating techniques to include a bonded superhydrophobic outer coating layer. ...

145

Spin coating of electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

PIT Coating Requirements Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

MINTEER, D.J.

2000-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

147

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 153 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M060(2011) (Washington, DC, 2011). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

148

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

149

Coal Market Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M060(2012) (Washington, DC, 2012). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

150

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

151

Prebaked Anode from Coal Extract  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We previously reported that the coal extract prepared from non-hydrogenative extraction of thermal coals using two-ring-aromatic solvent (Hyper-coal) is suitable...

152

Coal desulfurization with sodium hypochlorite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wet desulfurization of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Illinois No. 6 coal were conducted with sodium hypochlorite in the laboratory. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was (more)

Li, Wei, M.S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Temperature-programmed decomposition desorption of mercury species over activated carbon sorbents for mercury removal from coal-derived fuel gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mercury (Hg{sup 0}) removal process for coal-derived fuel gas in the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process will be one of the important issues for the development of a clean and highly efficient coal power generation system. Recently, iron-based sorbents, such as iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), supported iron oxides on TiO{sub 2}, and iron sulfides, were proposed as active mercury sorbents. The H{sub 2}S is one of the main impurity compounds in coal-derived fuel gas; therefore, H{sub 2}S injection is not necessary in this system. HCl is also another impurity in coal-derived fuel gas. In this study, the contribution of HCl to the mercury removal from coal-derived fuel gas by a commercial activated carbon (AC) was studied using a temperature-programmed decomposition desorption (TPDD) technique. The TPDD technique was applied to understand the decomposition characteristics of the mercury species on the sorbents. The Hg{sup 0}-removal experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor at 80-300{sup o}C using simulated fuel gas and a commercial AC, and the TPDD experiments were carried out in a U-tube reactor in an inert carrier gas (He or N{sub 2}) after mercury removal. The following results were obtained from this study: (1) HCl contributed to the mercury removal from the coal-derived fuel gas by the AC. (2) The mercury species captured on the AC in the HCl{sup -} and H{sub 2}S-presence system was more stable than that of the H{sub 2}S-presence system. (3) The stability of the mercury surface species formed on the AC in the H{sub 2}S-absence and HCl-presence system was similar to that of mercury chloride (HgClx) species. 25 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

M. Azhar Uddin; Masaki Ozaki; Eiji Sasaoka; Shengji Wu [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Coal data: A reference  

SciTech Connect

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

ORNL/Sub/95-SU604/05 Weldability of Fe-Al-Cr Overlay Coatings for Corrosion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

claddings is currently being investigated for the corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx furnaces been considered as coatings for the protection of waterwall boiler tubes found in coal-fired furnaces. These iron-aluminum based alloys are potentially good candidates for boiler tube coatings because they have

156

NETL: Coal & Power Systems - Brief History of Coal Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

History of Coal Coal & Power Systems Brief History of Coal Use Steam Locomotive In the 1800s, one of the primary uses of coal was to fuel steam engines used to power locomotives....

157

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Closely Aligned Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > C&CBTL > Closely Aligned Programs Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Closely Aligned Programs The Department of Energy's (DOE) Coal & CoalBiomass to Liquids...

158

Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commercial (point sources) Coal Oil Other Area sourcesSource Stationary fuel combugtion Electric utilities Coal Oil

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2004 Coal Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2025. Coal continues to dominate fuel markets in developing Asia. Figure 52. World Coal Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 53. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2001 and 2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 54. Coal Share of Regional Energy Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since

162

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

163

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

164

Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coatings: Interplay Among Coating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cold Sprayed Aluminum Based Glassy Coatings for Improved Corrosion and Wear ... Effect of Thermal Cycling and Sliding on the Structure of Cu-Nb Nanolaminates ... Based on Oscillatory Voltage Wave Forms for Insulating Film Depositions.

165

Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

Baxter, L.L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

167

Coal feed lock  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

International perspectives on coal preparation  

SciTech Connect

The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Effects of Measurement Materials and Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Viscosity of synthetic Eastern and Western United States Coal Slags  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viscosity of the molten ash (slag) resulting from the mineral constituents in carbon feedstock used in slagging gasifiers is critical for controlling the gasification process. The viscosity of two synthetic slags with compositions resembling the mineral impurities in average eastern and western coal feedstock was examined at temperatures from 13001500 C using a rotating bob viscometer. A few combinations of atmospheres and experimental materials were investigated with respect to one another to determine slag viscosity. A CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere (CO/CO{sub 2} = 1.8, corresponding to a P{sub O{sub 2}} = 108 atm) is required to sustain ferrous ions in FeO-containing slags, an environment that is oxidizing to most metals. Iron oxide in the slag prevents usage of Fe parts. In unpurified Ar, the Fe metal surface oxidizes. Using purified argon prevents iron measurement components from oxidation; however, the metallic surfaces act as nucleation sites for the reduction of the Fe oxide in the slag into metallic Fe. Dissolution of ceramic materials into the slag, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}, occurs in both atmospheres. Therefore, evaluating slag properties in the laboratory is challenging. The measured viscosities of two synthetic slags in this study diverged depending upon material selection. This difference is likely attributable to container/spindle-slag interactions. Viscosity measurements of the eastern coal slag using all ceramic parts agreed best with FactSage prediction above 1350 C, with an average activation energy of 271.2 kJ. For western coal slag, the dissolution of container/spindle materials was substantial during the measurement, with precipitation of crystalline phase noted. The experimental viscosity data of the western coal slag agreed best with Kalmanovitch prediction above 1350 C. The activation energy changed dramatically for both data sets of western coal slag, likely indicating the Newtonian-to-non-Newtonian transition.

Zhu, Jingxi; Tetsuya, Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Recent Approaches and Challenges in Smart Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-healing coatings -Self-cleaning and superhydrophobic coatings - Chemical Conversion Coatings - Nano- and Micro-capsules Based Polymer Coatings

171

Pelletization of fine coals  

SciTech Connect

The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

Sastry, K.V.S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Tag: coat drive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9/all en Warm coats, big thanks 9/all en Warm coats, big thanks http://www.y12.doe.gov/community/warm-coats-big-thanks

Y-12 employees help people face some of the coldest temperatures East Tennessee has seen in a long time.
  • coats-big-thanks" rel="tag" title="Warm coats, big thanks">Read more about Warm coats, big thanks Thu, 09 Jan 2014 19:23:39 +0000 pam

  • 174

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders  

    SciTech Connect

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    175

    NETL: Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPPs)  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Coal Sources Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPPs) Where is the coal in the United States? Coal Across the U.S. The U.S. contains coal resources in various places. The coal occurs...

    176

    Protective Coatings Assessment  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    This report describes assessments of ceramic and thermal spray coatings that have advanced significantly or recently been marketed for use in the utility boiler industry to reduce slagging, mitigate fireside corrosion and potentially, circumferential cracking due to cyclic temperature variations. These innovations promise to enhance coating quality as well as reduce time and labor required to protect large areas of the boiler waterwalls. Coatings may also enable plants to improve production rates; thereb...

    2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    177

    Solar selective absorption coatings  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    178

    Solar selective absorption coatings  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    179

    Field Guide: Coatings Assessment  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has numerous products to help plant personnel meet the challenges of working with aging systems, structures, and components, but none that comprehensively address protective coatings and linings. This field guide provides a compilation of protective coating and lining information in a form that allows the user to have a ready reference available during condition assessment of the various protective coatings and linings used in the plant.

    2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    180

    Thermodynamic Analyses of Iron Oxides Redox Reactions  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    To clarify such confusions, the elementary thermodynamic data of various iron ... and water vapor are used to calculate the changes of thermodynamic quantities such as .... Heat Transfer Characteristic in a Slag Heat Recovery Chamber ... Numerical Simulation of Electro-magnetic Flow Control Phenomenon in a Tundish.

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    181

    The First Coal Plants  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

    182

    Indonesian coal mining  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

    NONE

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    183

    Stacker speeds coal recovery  

    SciTech Connect

    The Spring Creek Coal Co., near Decker, Montana, features the only stacker/reclaimer in the U.S. to stockpile and reclaim coal produced by a dragline/truck-shovel operation.

    Jackson, D.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    184

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    March 2011 DOEEIA-0121 (201004Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2010 March 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal...

    185

    Coal Market Module  

    Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

    6, DOEEIA-M060(2006) (Washington, DC, 2006). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for...

    186

    Microbial solubilization of coal  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    187

    Overview of coal conversion  

    SciTech Connect

    The structure of coal and the processes of coal gasification and coal liquefaction are reviewed. While coal conversion technology is not likely to provide a significant amount of synthetic fuel within the next several years, there is a clear interest both in government and private sectors in the development of this technology to hedge against ever-diminishing petroleum supplies, especially from foreign sources. It is evident from this rather cursory survey that there is some old technology that is highly reliable; new technology is being developed but is not ready for commercialization at the present state of development. The area of coal conversion is ripe for exploration both on the applied and basic research levels. A great deal more must be understood about the reactions of coal, the reactions of coal products, and the physics and chemistry involved in the various stages of coal conversion processes in order to make this technology economically viable.

    Clark, B.R.

    1981-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    188

    Coal Production 1992  

    SciTech Connect

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

    1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    189

    Chemicals from coal  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    190

    Coal News and Markets  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Over the past month and a half, NAP spot coal prices have been flat or declining (graph above). ... (the walls of coal left in place to support the roof), ...

    191

    Polymeric and Conversion Coatings  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Oct 19, 2011 ... Ongoing research reveals that the search for appropriate conversion ... of the coated alloy was ~ 250 mV more noble compared to bare alloy.

    192

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    193

    Thermal Barrier Coatings  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Thermal Barrier Coatings Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States...

    194

    COPPER COATED URANIUM ARTICLE  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    Various techniques and methods for obtaining coppercoated uranium are given. Specifically disclosed are a group of complex uranium coatings having successive layers of nickel, copper, lead, and tin.

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    195

    Alternate Coating Methods  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Oct 28, 2009 ... The cold spray process can prepare thick coatings (> 1 cm) with many ... protection, thermal insulation, thermal dissipation, wear resistance,...

    196

    NETL: Coal Utilization By-Products (CUB)  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Coal Utilization Byproducts Innovations for Existing Plants Solid Waste (Coal Utilization...

    197

    Coal gasification apparatus  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    198

    Method for fluorinating coal  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

    Huston, John L. (Skokie, IL); Scott, Robert G. (Westmont, IL); Studier, Martin H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    199

    Ore components in coal  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The dependence of the mineral content in coal and concentrates on the degree of metamorphism is analyzed.

    Kh.A. Ishhakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    200

    Coal Industry Annual, 1996  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

    Fred Freme

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    201

    Coal Industry Annual, 1997  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

    Fred Freme

    1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    202

    Coal Industry Annual, 1995  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

    Fred Freme

    1996-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    203

    Coal Industry Annual, 1998  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

    Fred Freme

    2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    204

    Coal Industry Annual, 1994  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

    Fred Freme

    1996-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    205

    Coal Industry Annual, 1999  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

    Information Center

    206

    Coal Industry Annual, 2000  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

    Information Center

    207

    Coal News and Markets  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    ... (Energy Publishing, Coal & Energy Price Report, Bulletin, ... Although, the soaring demands of the Chinese steel industry are still with us, ...

    208

    Flash hydrogenation of coal  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

    Manowitz, Bernard (Brightwaters, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY); Sheehan, Thomas V. (Hampton Bays, NY); Winsche, Warren E. (Bellport, NY); Raseman, Chad J. (Setauket, NY)

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    209

    Proceedings: Coal Combustion Workshop  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The primary objective of the 2007 Coal Combustion workshop was to present a holistic view of the various combustion processes required for minimal emissions, peak performance, and maximum reliability in a coal-fired power plant. The workshop also defined needs for future RD in coal combustion technology.

    2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    210

    Coal production 1989  

    SciTech Connect

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

    1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    211

    Coal Market Module  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

    Michael Mellish

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    212

    Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

    213

    Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of ...

    214

    Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    Prices in 2007 real $ Coal Prices Coal prices have been farprices. Factors like coal prices and EOR revenues affect theCoal Prices..

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    215

    Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information ...  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of ...

    216

    Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

    DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    217

    ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG  

    SciTech Connect

    The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program initiated this quarter, provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principle activity during this first reporting period were preparing for and conducting a project kick-off meeting, working through plans for the project implementation, and beginning the conceptual design of the test section.

    Scott Reome; Dan Davies

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    218

    Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes  

    SciTech Connect

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    219

    Thermal barrier coating  

    SciTech Connect

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    220

    Chemical Conversion Coating  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Table 16   Applications of aluminum using chemical conversion coatings...doors 6063 Acrylic paint (b) Cans 3004 Sanitary lacquer Fencing 6061 None applied Chromate conversion coatings Aircraft fuselage skins 7075 clad with 7072 Zinc chromate primer Electronic chassis 6061-T4 None applied Cast missile bulkhead 356-T6 None applied Screen 5056 clad with 6253 Clear varnish...

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    221

    Airborne Particulate Monitoring  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    ... Measurement Science and Standards 4 Page 5. Coal fly ash (~10 m) Iron-oxide particles from arc welding (~10 m) ... Coal combustion ...

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    222

    Coal recovery process  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

    Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    223

    Thermal barrier coatings  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    224

    Catalytic thermal barrier coatings  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    225

    LEVELING METAL COATINGS  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A method is described for applying metallic coatings to a cylinder of uranium. An aluminum-silicon coat is applied by a process consisting of first cleaning the article by immersion for 5 minutes in 50% nitric acid at 65 C. The article then is dipped through a flux, prepared by adding 10% sodium fluoride to 90% of a flux comprising 53% potassium chloride, 42% lithium chloride, and 5% sodium chloride at 560 for 2 minutes and then directly into a molten metal bath comprising 99% aluminun and 12% silicon at 620 C for 3 minutes. While the coating is yet molten the article is transferred to a pair of steel rollers and rolled until the coating solidifies. By varying the composition of the flux other metals such as zinc, lead or the like may be coated on uranium in a similar manner.

    Gage, H.A.

    1959-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    226

    Laser Processing and Hard Coatings  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Mar 5, 2013 ... Advances in Surface Engineering: Alloyed and Composite Coatings II: Laser Processing and Hard Coatings Sponsored by: TMS Materials...

    227

    Coal | Department of Energy  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international energy officials toured Kemper, the nation's largest carbon capture and storage facility, in Liberty, Mississippi. A small Mississippi town is making history with the largest carbon capture

    228

    Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Trends, 2001 - 2010 Trends, 2001 - 2010 Transportation infrastructure overview In 2010, railroads transported over 70 percent of coal delivered to electric power plants which are generally concentrated east of the Mississippi River and in Texas. The U.S. railroad market is dominated by four major rail companies that account for 99 percent of U.S. coal rail shipments by volume. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by mode Rail Barge Truck Figure 2. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by rail, 2010 figure data Figure 3. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by barge, 2010 figure data Figure 4. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by truck, 2010 figure data The Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, where coal is extracted in

    229

    Coal production: 1980  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    US coal production and related data are reported for the year 1980, with similar data for 1979 given for comparison. The data here collected on Form EIA-7A, coal production report, from 3969 US mines that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1980. Among the items covered are production, prices, employment, productivity, stocks, and recoverable reserves. Data are reported by state, county, coal producing district, type of mining, and by type of coal (anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite). Also included are a glossary of coal terms used, a map of the coal producing disricts, and form EIA-7A with instructions. 14 figures, 63 tables.

    Not Available

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    230

    Coal: the new black  

    SciTech Connect

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    231

    Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents  

    SciTech Connect

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

    Tarrer, Arthur R. (Auburn, AL); Shridharani, Ketan G. (Auburn, AL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    232

    Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    233

    Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    234

    Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

    Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    235

    Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

    Flynn, Paul L. (5139 Fox Park Dr., Fairview, PA 16415); Giammarise, Anthony W. (527 Lincoln Ave., Erie, PA 16505)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    236

    Measurement and Calculation of Electrochemical Potentials in Hydrogenated High Temperature Water, including an Evaluation of the Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia/Iron-Iron Oxide (Fe/Fe3O4) Probe as Reference Electrode  

    DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

    The importance of knowing the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP, also referred to as E{sub con}) of nickel-base alloys in hydrogenated water is related to the need to understand the effects of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen concentration ([H{sub 2}]) on primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). Also, the use of a reference electrode (RE) can improve test quality by heightening the ability to detect instances of out-of-specification or unexpected chemistry. Three methods are used to measure and calculate the ECP of nickel-based alloys in hydrogenated water containing {approx} 1 to 150 scc/kg H{sub 2} (0.1 to 13.6 ppm H{sub 2}) at 260 to 360 C. The three methods are referred to as the specimen/component method, the platinum (Pt) method, and the yttria-stabilized zirconia/iron-iron oxide (YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) RE method. The specimen/component method relies upon the assumption that the specimen or component behaves as a hydrogen electrode, and its E{sub corr} is calculated using the Nernst equation. The present work shows that this method is valid for aqueous H{sub 2} levels {ge} {approx} 5 to 10 scc/kg H{sub 2}. The Pt method uses a voltage measurement between the specimen or component and a Pt electrode, with the Pt assumed to behave as a hydrogen electrode; this method is valid as long as the aqueous H{sub 2}level is known. The YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which represents a relatively new approach for measuring E{sub corr} in this environment, can be used even if the aqueous H{sub 2} level is unknown. The electrochemical performance of the YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} probe supports its viability as a RE for use in high temperature hydrogenated water. Recent design modifications incorporating a teflon sealant have improved the durability of this RE (however, some of the REs do still fail prematurely due to water in-leakage). The Pt method is judged to represent the best overall approach, though there are cases where the other methods are superior. For example, the specimen/component method provides the simplest approach for calculating the E{sub corr} of plant components, and the YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} RE method provides the best approach if the H{sub 2} level is unknown, or in off-nominal chemistry conditions. The present paper describes the use of these methods to determine the ECP of a specimen or component versus the ECP of the nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition, which is important since prior work has shown that this parameter (ECP-ECP{sub Ni/NiO}) can be used to assess aqueous H{sub 2} effects on PWSCC.

    Steven A. Attanasio; David S. Morton; Mark A. Ando

    2001-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    237

    Coal sector profile  

    SciTech Connect

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

    1990-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    238

    Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    239

    Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit for Pulverized Coal-Fired...  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit for Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants with In-Situ CO 2 Capture Background Pulverized coal (PC)-fired power plants provide nearly 50% of...

    240

    Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    the costs have on the price of coal delivered by railroadsindicate that the price of coal delivered by railroads ismake up the delivered price of coal that electric plants are

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    241

    Effect of Temperature Gradient on Industrial Coal Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractory Materials in Slagging Gasifiers  

    SciTech Connect

    Infiltration characteristics of industrial coal slag into alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) refractory material with a temperature gradient induced along the slag's penetration direction are compared to those obtained under near-isothermal conditions. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450C and a CO/CO{sub 2} ratio of 1.8, which corresponds to an oxygen partial pressure of ~10{sup ?8} atm. The refractory under the near-isothermal temperature profile, with higher average temperatures, demonstrated a greater penetration depth than its counterpart that was under the steeper temperature gradient. Slag that did not infiltrate into the refractory due to the induced temperature gradient, pooled and solidified on the top of the sample. Within the pool, a conglomerated mass of troilite (FeS) formed separately from the surrounding slag. Microscopy of the cross-sectioned infiltrated refractories revealed that the slag preferentially corroded the matrix regions closer to the top surface. Furthermore, the formation of a thick layer of hercynite (FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at the top of refractory/slag interface significantly depleted the slag of its iron-oxide content with respect to its virgin composition. A qualitative description of the penetration process is provided in this article.

    Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Bennett, James P.; Dridhar, Seetharaman

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    242

    PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    243

    Contaminants in coals and coal residues. [10 refs  

    SciTech Connect

    Most of the major enviromental pollutants from coals originate as impurities in the coal structure. These include various organic compounds, minerals, and trace elements that are released into the air and water when coal is mined, processed and utilized. The use of coal preparation to produce cleaner burning fuels involves an environmental compromise, wherein reduced emissions and solid wastes from coal burning sources are achieved at the expense of greater environmental degradation from coal cleaning wastes.

    Wewerka, E.M.; Williams, J.M.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    244

    Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4Q 2009 4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by transportation mode. The data sources beginning with the 2008 Coal Distribution Report

    245

    WCI Case for Coal  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Coal Coal The role of as an energy source The role of coal as an energy source Key Messages * Energy demand has grown strongly and will continue to increase, particularly in developing countries where energy is needed for economic growth and poverty alleviation. * All energy sources will be needed to satisfy that demand by providing a diverse and balanced supply mix. * Coal is vital for global energy security. It is abundantly available, affordable, reliable and easy and safe to transport. * In an energy hungry world the challenge for coal, as for other fossil fuels, is to further substantially reduce its greenhouse gas and other emissions, while continuing to make a major contribution to economic and social development and energy security. * Coal is part way down a technology pathway that has already delivered major

    246

    NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Reference Shelf  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Reference Shelf Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Reference Shelf Documents Papers Presentations DOCUMENTS 2012 Technology Readiness Assessment-Analysis of Active Research Portfolio...

    247

    Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    248

    DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    249

    Annul Coal Consumption by Country (1980 -2009) Total annual coal  

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Annul Coal Consumption by Country (1980 -2009) Total annual coal consumption by country, 1980 to 2009 (available as Quadrillion Btu). Compiled by Energy Information Administration...

    250

    NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Project Information  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Project Information CoalBiomass Feed and Gasification Development of Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes for Co-Gasification FE0005293 Development of Kinetics and Mathematical...

    251

    Superhydrophic Coatings - ORNL  

    The result is a coating which causes liquids to bead up on the surface of a ... Brian R. DUrson and John T. Simpson, ... Materials Science UT-Battelle, LLC

    252

    Coating Manufacturing Methods  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Oct 30, 2013 ... Examples will include energy saving (smart radiators for satellites, low emissivity ... Finally, specific functional applications such as electrical contact and coatings on ... The study is supported by RFBR, research project No.

    253

    Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings  

    SciTech Connect

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    254

    Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

    The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

    255

    Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

    The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

    256

    COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    257

    Back Issues of the Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    coal > Quarterly Coal Report > Quarterly Coal Report Back Issues Quarterly Coal Report Back Issues of the Quarterly Coal Report Year 4thquarter 3rdquarter 2ndquarter 1stquarter QCR...

    258

    Pulverized coal fuel injector  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    259

    Integrated coal liquefaction process  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

    Effron, Edward (Springfield, NJ)

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    260

    Gasification of Lignite Coal  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    This report on the gasification of lignite coal is presented in two parts. The first includes research into technology options for preparing low-rank fuels for gasification, gasifiers for converting the coal into synthesis gas, and technologies that may be used to convert synthesis gas into valuable chemical products. The second part focuses on performance and cost screening analyses for either Greenfield or retrofit gasification options fueled by low-rank lignite coal. The work was funded through Tailor...

    2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    261

    METAL COATING BATHS  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

    Robinson, J.W.

    1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    262

    Spin coating apparatus  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

    Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    263

    Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    264

    Fuel blending with PRB coal  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

    McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr. [Roberts and Schaefer, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    265

    Coal liquefaction quenching process  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    266

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

    December 2010 DOEEIA-0121 (201003Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2010 December 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and...

    267

    Coal Combustion Products: Challenges  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Products: Challenges and Opportunities American Coal Ash Association Conference St. Petersburg, FL January 27-30, 2003 Carl O. Bauer National Energy Technology Laboratory...

    268

    Initiators of coal hydrogenation  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The results are given of an investigation of the influence of additions of certain organosilicon compounds of cyclic and linear nature on the coal hydrogenation process.

    Krichko, A.A.; Dembovskaya, E.A.; Gorlov, E.G.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    269

    Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

    This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

    270

    Coal Development (Nebraska)  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

    This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

    271

    Direct Coal Liquefaction  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    solvent. * The coal fragments are further hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude oil. * This synthetic crude must then undergo refinery upgrading and hydrotreating to...

    272

    Weekly NYMEX Coal Futures  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) Report provides settlement price data for Central Appalachian (CAPP), Western Powder River Basin (PRB), and Eastern CSX Transportation (CSX) coal futures.

    Information Center

    273

    Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    figure data Figure 7 shows the percent change in average real rates for those state-to-state ... Estimated transportation rates for coal delivered to electric ...

    274

    Coal News and Markets  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Speaking about Consol Energys 1Q05 earnings, J. Brett Harvey, president and CEO, noted that the pricing environment for our coal is excellent, ...

    275

    Handbook of coal analysis  

    SciTech Connect

    The Handbook deals with the various aspects of coal analysis and provides a detailed explanation of the necessary standard tests and procedures that are applicable to coal in order to help define usage and behavior relative to environmental issues. It provides details of the meaning of various test results and how they might be applied to predict coal behavior during use. Emphasis is on ASTM standards and test methods but ISO and BSI standards methods are included. Chapter headings are: Coal analysis; Sampling and sample preparation; Proximate analysis; Ultimate analysis; Mineral matter; Physical and electrical properties; Thermal properties; Mechanical properties; Spectroscopic properties; Solvent properties; and Glossary.

    James G. Speight

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    276

    Thailand's gas line underway: coating a major achievement  

    SciTech Connect

    Using primarily local personnel and materials, Bredero Price International's Thai pipe-coating plant has prepared some 374 miles of 34 and 28-in. pipe for service in the Gulf of Thailand gas-pipeline project. The enamel-coating shop cleaned, primed and coated all the pipe with coal-tar enamel, glass-fiber mat, felt, and a kraft-paper outer wrap; the cement-coating facility then added a concrete-weight coating to the portion of the pipe earmarked for offshore duty. Scheduled for a 1981 completion, the pipeline will initially carry 250 million CF/day to power-generating plants in Bangpakong and South Bangkok; the volume transported will eventually reach 500 million CF/day when addition offshore production is tied in to the line and an offshore compressor station added.

    Hale, D.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    277

    Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Clean Coal Technology Program Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration A DOE Assessment DOENETL-20051217 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy National Energy...

    278

    Clean coal technologies market potential  

    SciTech Connect

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    279

    NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Clean Coal Today Newsletter  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Demonstrations Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today is a quarterly newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Office of Clean Coal. Among other things, Clean Coal Today highlights progress under the Clean Coal Power Initiative, the Power Plant Improvement Initiative, and the few remaining projects of the original Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Reporting on coal R&D performed at government laboratories, as well as in conjunction with stakeholders, it provides key information on FE's coal-related activities, most of which are directed toward near-zero emissions, ultra-efficient technologies of the future. Subscriptions are free – to have your name placed on the mailing list, contact the Editor at Phoebe.Hamill@hq.doe.gov.

    280

    STEO November 2012 - coal supplies  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to decline in 2013, primarily because of continuing economic weakness in Europe, lower international coal prices, and higher coal production in Asia. However, U.S. coal exports next year are still expected to top 100 million tons for the third year in a row

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    281

    HS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    Coal Coal Fossil Energy Study Guide: Coal Coal is the most plentiful fuel in the fossil family. The United States has more coal reserves than any other country in the world. In fact, one-fourth of all known coal in the world is in the United States, with large deposits located in 38 states. The United States has almost as much energ y in coal that can be mined as the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. TYPES OF COAL Coal is a black rock made up of large amounts of carbon. Like all fossil fuels, coal can be burned to release energy. Coal contains elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; has various amounts of minerals; and is itself considered to be a mineral of organic origin. Due to the variety of materials buried over time in the

    282

    State coal profiles, January 1994  

    SciTech Connect

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

    1994-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    283

    Coal liquefaction process  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    284

    Dry piston coal feeder  

    SciTech Connect

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

    Hathaway, Thomas J. (Belle Meade, NJ); Bell, Jr., Harold S. (Madison, NJ)

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    285

    Method for coal liquefaction  

    SciTech Connect

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

    Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    286

    Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

    Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    287

    Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV); McGee, James P. (Morgantown, WV)

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    288

    Effect of Grit Blasting on Substrate Roughness and Coating Adhesion  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Statistically designed experiments were performed to compare the surface roughnesses produced by grit blasting A36/1020 steel with different abrasives. Grit blast media, blast pressure, and working distance were varied using a Box-type statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. The surface textures produced by four metal grits (HG16, HG18, HG25, and HG40) and three conventional grits (copper slag, coal slag, and chilled iron) were compared. Substrate roughness was measured using surface profilometry and correlated with operating parameters. The HG16 grit produced the highest surface roughness of all the grits tested. Aluminum and zinc-aluminum coatings were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates using a Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) process. Bond strength of the coatings was measured with a portable adhesion tester in accordance with ASTM standard D4541. The coatings on substrates roughened with steel grit exhibit superior bond strength to those on substrates prepared with conventional grit. For aluminum coatings sprayed onto surfaces prepared with the HG16 grit, the bond strength was most influenced by current, spray distance, and spray gun pressure (in that order). The highest bond strength for the zinc-aluminum coatings was attained on surfaces prepared using the metal grits.

    Dominic Varacalle; Donna Guillen; Doug Deason; William Rhodaberger; Elliott Sampson

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    289

    Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination State, Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

    290

    By Coal Origin State  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Florida Total - - 15 - 15 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Total 196 - 15 - 211 Georgia Railroad 189 - 1 - 190 Georgia Truck

    291

    Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Origin State, Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

    292

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2Q) 2Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report April-June 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed to Paulette Young at (202) 426-1150, email

    293

    By Coal Destination State  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Colorado Total 2,113 - - - 2,113 Colorado Railroad 2,113 - - - 2,113 Illinois Total 336 - - - 336 Illinois River 336 - - - 336 Indiana Total 1,076

    294

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed

    295

    METHOD OF PROTECTIVELY COATING URANIUM  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A method is described for protectively coating uranium with zine comprising cleaning the U for coating by pickling in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, dipping the cleaned U into a bath of molten zinc between 430 to 600 C and containing less than 0 01% each of Fe and Pb, and withdrawing and cooling to solidify the coating. The zinccoated uranium may be given a; econd coating with another metal niore resistant to the corrosive influences particularly concerned. A coating of Pb containing small proportions of Ag or Sn, or Al containing small proportions of Si may be applied over the zinc coatings by dipping in molten baths of these metals.

    Eubank, L.D.; Boller, E.R.

    1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    296

    Coal Technology Program progress report, March 1976  

    DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

    Shakedown tests of the bench-scale hydrocarbonization system were successfully completed. Wyodak coal was fed to the reactor at a rate of 9.9 lb/hr where it was hydrocarbonized at 1050/sup 0/F under 20-atm hydrogen pressure. Laboratory results including settling tests, bench-scale settling tests, and sample ageing tests were continued. Two of ten compounds tested with the laboratory-scale apparatus were effective in increasing settling rates of solids in Solvent Refined Coal unfiltered oil, but bench-scale tests failed to show any improvements in the settling rate over the untreated SRC-UFO. Analytical chemistry efforts involved the removal and concentration of organic components in by-product waters from fossil fuel conversion processes. A sephadex gel is being used to achieve hydrophilic-lipophilic separations in organic mixtures as a step in the analysis of fossil fuel related materials. Engineering Evaluations of the Synthiol and Hydrocarbonization Processes continued with the Synthiol process flow diagrams, heat and material balances, and utilities requirements being completed. Inspection techniques were developed for wear- and process-resistant coatings. Orders were placed for the Incoloy 800 tubing and a smaller quantity of Inconel 600 tubing for the tube matrix in the coal-fueled MIUS fluidized bed. An engineering feasibility review of General Atomic's proposal to ERDA for a bench-scale test program on thermochemical water splitting for hydrogen production was completed. (auth)

    Not Available

    1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    297

    COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    P.J. and Wells, J.H. , Coal, Coke and Coal Chemicals, 108, (of coal, carbon, char. coke, and other coal derived orpulverized coal, char, coke, solvent refined coal, and coal

    Chin, W.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    298

    Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program |  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program December 18, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Uncovering Coal’s Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program The challenges confronting the environmentally sound use of our country's fossil energy resources are best addressed through collaborative research and development. That's why this approach, which stretches federal dollars, is at the heart of the Office of Fossil Energy's University Coal Research (UCR) Program. Managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UCR program funds university research to improve understanding of the chemical and physical properties of coal, one of our nation's most abundant

    299

    Hydrogen Permeation Resistant Coatings  

    DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

    As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings may be applied to these ferrous alloys to retard hydrogen ingress. Hydrogen is known to be very mobile in materials of construction. In this study, the permeation resistance of bare stainless steel samples and coated stainless steel samples was tested. The permeation resistance was measured using a modular permeation rig using a pressure rise technique. The coating microstructure and permeation results will be discussed in this document as will some additional testing.

    KORINKO, PAUL; ADAMS, THAD; CREECH, GREGGORY

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    300

    Consensus Coal Production Forecast for  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 2009-2030 Prepared for the West Virginia Summary 1 Recent Developments 2 Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 10 Risks References 27 #12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2009 iii List of Tables 1. W.Va. Coal Production

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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    301

    Focus on Alaska's coal '80  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Papers are presented under the broad headings of: Northern Alaskan coals; Beluga-Yentna coal field; resource development and utilization; transportation and economics; coal mining methods and regulations; and, federal and state policies concerning coal development. There is also a panel discussion, and luncheon and banquet speeches. 36 papers have been abstracted separately.

    Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (eds.)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    302

    Coal market momentum converts skeptics  

    SciTech Connect

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    303

    Fiber coating method  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

    Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    304

    Fiber coating method  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

    Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    305

    MS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL America has more coal than any other fossil fuel resource. Th e United States also has more coal reserves than any other single country in the world. In fact, 1/4 of all the known coal in the world is in the United States. Th e United States has more energy in coal that can be mined than the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. Currently, coal is mined in 25 of the 50 states. Coal is used primarily in the United States to generate electricity. In fact, it is burned in power plants to produce nearly half of the electricity we use. A stove uses about half a ton of coal a year. A water heater uses about two tons of coal a year. And a refrigerator, that's another half-ton a year. Even though you

    306

    Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    307

    Nontoxic foul-release coatings  

    SciTech Connect

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) under project RP-1689-9 evaluated 30 non-toxic coatings for biofouling control on steel and concrete surfaces of cooling water intakes and piping. Seven coatings were evaluated at seven sites for 2 year. The remaining 23 coatings were exposed for a variety of time lengths at the Battelle Marine Laboratory at Daytona Beach, Florida. Accelerated corrosion tests and inspection of the test panels to determine coating life were also conducted. Results of several utility conducted tests were also solicited. Silicone-based coatings performed the best with predicted lives of 2 to 4 year. Although the non-toxic coatings can be fouled by biogrowth, the rate of fouling is less and the coating can be easily cleaned. A cost-benefit methodology is presented to aid utilities to assess the potential use of non-toxic foul-release coatings at power plant cooling systems. 12 refs., 16 figs., 35 tabs.

    Not Available

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    308

    Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    309

    China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    310

    Coal News and Markets - Energy Information Administration  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    "Coal News and Markets Report" summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB ...

    311

    EIA Energy Kids - Coal - Energy Information Administration  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Coal Basics Coal takes millions of years to create. Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons.

    312

    DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Coal Distribution Constraints  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Coal Distribution Constraints Project Summary Full Title: Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost Project ID: 199 Principal Investigator: David McCollum...

    313

    WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

    Bhat, M.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    314

    Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2011  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) presents U.S. coal production, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, coal quality, and stocks data.

    315

    China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    12 2.6. International coal prices and18 International coal prices and trade In parallel with thesocial stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    316

    Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    Nanolens Window Coatings for Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting Kyle J. Alvine Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Kyle.alvine@pnnl.gov / (509) - 372 - 4475 April 4 th , 2013 Demonstration of the effect To develop a novel, low-cost window coating to double daylight penetration to offset lighting energy use 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: PNNL is developing a novel, low-cost window coating to redirect daylight deeper into buildings to significantly offset lighting energy.

    317

    Superhydrophobic Coatings - Energy Innovation Portal  

    Technology Marketing Summary ORNL researchers have developed a variety of materials and processes to produce coatings with superhydrophobic properties ...

    318

    Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Nanolens Window Coatings for Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting Kyle J. Alvine Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Kyle.alvine@pnnl.gov / (509) - 372 - 4475 April 4 th , 2013 Demonstration of the effect To develop a novel, low-cost window coating to double daylight penetration to offset lighting energy use 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: PNNL is developing a novel, low-cost window coating to redirect daylight deeper into buildings to significantly offset lighting energy.

    319

    Understanding Compatibilities between Advanced Coatings and ...  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Oxidation Studies of HVAS-sprayed Nanostructured Coatings at Elevated Temperature Oxide Based Thermal Sprayed Coatings for Metal Dusting Applications.

    320

    By Coal Destination State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Colorado Railroad 600 - - - 600 Illinois River 203 - 13 - 217 Indiana River 180 - - - 180 Kentucky Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Kentucky (West) Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Utah Railroad 18 - - -

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    321

    Coal combustion products (CCPs  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

    322

    By Coal Destination State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,486 155 328 - 1,970 Alabama Railroad 1,020 - 75 - 1,095 Alabama River 417 - - - 417 Alabama Truck 49 155 253 - 458 Colorado Total 195 - - - 195 Colorado Railroad 195 - - - 195 Illinois Total 127 - 18 - 145 Illinois Railroad 20 - - - 20 Illinois River 107 - 18 - 125 Indiana Total

    323

    By Coal Origin State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2012 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Georgia Total s - s - s Georgia Truck s - s - s Indiana Total - 98 - - 98 Indiana Railroad - 98 - - 98 Kentucky Total - - 12 - 12 Kentucky Truck - - 12 - 12 Ohio Total - 30 - - 30 Ohio

    324

    By Coal Destination State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Colorado Total 621 2 - - 623 Colorado Railroad 621 2 - - 623 Illinois Total 113 - 11 - 123 Illinois River 113 - 11 - 123 Indiana Total 265 - - - 265 Indiana Railroad

    325

    By Coal Origin State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Georgia Total s - - - s Georgia Truck s - - - s Indiana Total - 72 - - 72 Indiana Railroad - 72 - - 72 Tennessee Total - - 7 - 7 Tennessee Truck - - 7 - 7 Origin State Total 1,896

    326

    By Coal Destination State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Colorado Railroad 575 - - - 575 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 241 - - - 241 Kentucky Railroad 827 - 12 - 839 Kentucky (East) Railroad 76 - - - 76 Kentucky (West) Railroad

    327

    By Coal Destination State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Colorado Railroad 514 - - - 514 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 172 - - - 172 Kentucky Railroad 635 - 11 - 647 Kentucky (East) Railroad 45 - - - 45 Kentucky (West)

    328

    By Coal Destination State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Colorado Railroad 385 - - - 385 Illinois River 15 - - - 15 Indiana Railroad 1 - - - 1 Indiana River 350 - - - 350 Indiana Total 351 - - - 351 Kentucky Railroad 682 - 2 - 685 Kentucky (East)

    329

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2010 June 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/quarterly/ _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

    330

    By Coal Destination State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Colorado Railroad 640 - - - 640 Illinois River 123 - - - 123 Indiana River 312 - - - 312 Kentucky Railroad 622 - 36 - 658 Kentucky (East) Railroad 96 - 36 - 132 Kentucky (West)

    331

    By Coal Destination State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Colorado Total 468 - - - 468 Colorado Railroad 468 - - - 468 Illinois Total 90 - 26 - 116 Illinois River 90 - 26 - 116 Indiana Total 181 - - - 181 Indiana River 181 -

    332

    By Coal Destination State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2012 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Colorado Total 82 - - - 82 Colorado Railroad 82 - - - 82 Illinois Total 149 - 14 - 163 Illinois Railroad 44 - - - 44 Illinois River 105 - 14 - 119 Indiana Total 99 - - - 99

    333

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1Q) 1Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2008 July 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

    334

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2009 September 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

    335

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7/01Q) 7/01Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2007 June 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

    336

    By Coal Origin State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Georgia Railroad 23 - - - 23 Georgia Truck s - - - s Georgia Total 23 - - - 23 Indiana Railroad - 115 - - 115 Indiana Truck - 71 - - 71 Indiana Total - 186 - - 186 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Tennessee Truck

    337

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3Q) 3Q) Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2008 December 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

    338

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2008 September 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

    339

    Quarterly Coal Report  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8/04Q) 8/04Q) Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2008 March 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

    340

    A commitment to coal  

    SciTech Connect

    Quin Shea explores the need for power generated with coal and the advanced technologies that will generate that power more efficiently and cleanly in the future. The article considers the air and waste challenges of using coal, including progress toward reducing emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, and mercury; efforts to address CO{sub 2}, including voluntary programs like the Climate Challenge, Power Partners, and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate; and the regulation and beneficial use of coal-combustion byproducts (e.g., fly ash, bottom ash, flue gas desulfurization materials, boiler slag). 17 refs.

    Shea, Q. [Edison Electric Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    341

    Underground gasification of coal  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

    Pasini, III, Joseph (Morgantown, WV); Overbey, Jr., William K. (Morgantown, WV); Komar, Charles A. (Uniontown, PA)

    1976-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    342

    Coal liquefaction process  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    343

    Aqueous coal slurry  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    344

    Coal liquefaction process  

    DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    345

    Coatings for gas turbines; Specialized coatings boost, maintain turbine efficiency  

    SciTech Connect

    Airlines have been coating their jet engines for the past 30 years, thereby avoiding corrosion, erosion and wear. More recently, operators of mechanical-drive gas turbines have come to realize the value of coatings as a way to keep down costs. This paper describes specialized coatings technology which has evolved for gas turbines. Coatings have been designed for specific areas and even specific components within the turbine. Because operators must often request these coatings when buying new equipment or at overhaul, a basic understanding of the technology is presented.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    346

    Coating method for graphite  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1975-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    347

    Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

    348

    Coal Utilization Science Program  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Description The Coal Utilization Science (CUS) Program sponsors research and development (R&D) in fundamental science and technology areas that have the potential to result in major improvements in the efficiency, reliability, and environmental performance of advanced power generation systems using coal, the Nation's most abundant fossil fuel resource. The challenge for these systems is to produce power in an efficient and environmentally benign manner while remaining cost effective for power providers as well as consumers. The CUS Program is carried out by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program supports DOE's Strategic Plan to:

    349

    Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Methodology Methodology EIA uses the confidential version of the STB Waybill data, which includes actual revenue for shipments that originate and terminate at specific locations. The STB Waybill data are a sample of all rail shipments. EIA's 2011 report describes the sampling procedure. EIA aggregates the confidential STB data to three different levels: national, coal-producing basin to state, and state to state. EIA applies STB withholding rules to the aggregated data to identify records that must be suppressed to protect business-sensitive data. Also, EIA adds additional location fields to the STB data, identifying the mine from which the coal originates, the power plant that receives the coal, and, in some cases, an intermediate delivery location where coal is terminated by the initial carrier but then

    350

    Aqueous coal slurry  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    351

    Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

    A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

    352

    Coal markets squeeze producers  

    SciTech Connect

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    353

    Proximate analysis of coal  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    354

    Coal liquefaction process  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    355

    Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    356

    International Coal Market Analysis  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    As this report is being finalized in November 2007, international steam coal freight-on-board (FOB) prices are at levels not seen since 1980-1982, shipping rates are at unprecedented high levels, and currency fluctuations are altering the degree to which major individual countries are impacted. This report systematically examines the history of the international coal trade, the major exporting and importing countries, and the drivers behind how trade functions. In addition, the report examines in depth t...

    2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    357

    Coal liquefaction process  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

    Karr, Jr., Clarence (Morgantown, WV)

    1977-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    358

    American coal imports 2015  

    SciTech Connect

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

    Frank Kolojeski [TransGlobal Ventures Corp. (United States)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    359

    Method for coal liquefaction  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    360

    Weekly Coal Production by State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Weekly Coal Production Weekly Coal Production Data for week ended: December 14, 2013 | Release date: December 19, 2013 | Next release date: December 30, 2013 For the week ended December 14, 2013: U.S. coal production totaled approximately 18.9 million short tons (mmst) This production estimate is 3.1% higher than last week's estimate and 2.9% lower than the production estimate in the comparable week in 2012 Coal production east of the Mississippi River totaled 8.2 mmst Coal production west of the Mississippi River totaled 10.8 mmst U.S. year-to-date coal production totaled 957.1 mmst, 1.9% lower than the comparable year-to-date coal production in 2012 EIA revises its weekly estimates of state-level coal production using Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) quarterly coal production data.

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    361

    Powdered coal air dispersion nozzle  

    SciTech Connect

    An improved coal/air dispersion nozzle introduces fuel into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine as a finely atomized, dispersed spray for a uniform combustion. The nozzle has an inlet that receives finely powdered coal from a coal transport or coal/air fluidizer system and a scroll swirl generator is included within the nozzle to swirl a fluidized coal/air mixture supplied to the inlet of the nozzle. The scroll is in the form of a thin, flat metal sheet insert, twisted along its length, and configured to prevent build-up of coal particles within the nozzle prior to ejection from its outlet. Airblast air jets are included along the length of the nozzle body to assist in the discharge of the fluidized coal from the nozzle outlet and an angular pintle tip overlies the outlet to redirect coal/air mixture through a desired fluidized coal spray angle.

    Kosek, T.P.; Steinhilper, E.A.

    1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    362

    Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    363

    China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    worlds largest CBM (coal-bed methane) power plant. In orderunder the China United Coal-bed Methane Corporation (CUCBM)quandary. 3.3.4. Coal-bed and coal-mine methane Effective

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    364

    EIA projections of coal supply and demand  

    SciTech Connect

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    365

    Coal Severance Tax (Montana) | Department of Energy  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    coal taxes to: (a) allow the severance taxes on coal production to remain a constant percentage of the price of coal; (b) stabilize the flow of tax revenue from coal mines to local...

    366

    Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig  

    DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    367

    Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois) | Department of...  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois) Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Program Info State...

    368

    Coal News and Markets - Energy Information Administration  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Coal Prices and Earnings (updated October 7, 2005) (Today's updates are limited to spot coal prices in the graph below)

    369

    Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

    Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    370

    Materials - Coatings & Lubricants  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Coatings and Lubricants: Coatings and Lubricants: Super-Hard and Ultra-Low-Friction Films for Friction and Wear Control Ali Erdemir researches nanolubricants. Ali Erdemir researches nanolubricants. The many rolling, rotating and sliding mechanical assemblies in advanced transportation vehicles present friction and wear challenges for automotive engineers. These systems operate under severe conditions-high loads, speeds and temperatures-that currently available materials and lubricants do not tolerate well. Improving the surface friction and wear characteristics of the mechanical system components is an opportunity for engineers, and the use of super-hard, slippery surface films offers promise. Argonne scientists have developed a number of smooth, wear-resistant, low-friction nanocomposite nitride and diamond-like carbon films that have

    371

    Antithrombogenic Polymer Coating.  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    An article having a non-thrombogenic surface and a process for making the article are disclosed. The article is formed by (i) coating a polymeric substrate with a crosslinked chemical combination of a polymer having at least two amino substituted side chains, a crosslinking agent containing at least two crosslinking functional groups which react with amino groups on the polymer, and a linking agent containing a first functional group which reacts with a third functional group of the crosslinking agent, and (ii) contacting the coating on the substrate with an antithrombogenic agent which covalently bonds to a second functional group of the linking agent. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone, the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, the linking agent is a polyhydrazide and the antithrombogenic agent is heparin.

    Huang, Zhi Heng (San Ramon, CA); McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Flint, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2003-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    372

    DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR SINGLE CRYSTAL TURBINE BLADES  

    DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

    Turbine blades in coal derived syngas systems are subject to oxidation and corrosion due to high steam temperature and pressure. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are developed to address these problems. The emphasis is on prime-reliant design and a better coating architecture, having high temperature and corrosion resistance properties for turbine blades. In Phase I, UES Inc. proposed to develop, characterize and optimize a prime reliant TBC system, having smooth and defect-free NiCoCrAlY bond layer and a defect free oxide sublayer, using a filtered arc technology. Phase I work demonstrated the deposition of highly dense, smooth and defect free NiCoCrAlY bond coat on a single crystal CMSX-4 substrate and the deposition of alpha-alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) sublayer on top of the bond coat. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation test and pre- and post-characterization of these layers, in Phase I work, (with and without top TBC layer of commercial EB PVD YSZ) revealed significant performance enhancement.

    Amarendra K. Rai

    2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    373

    Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

    Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    374

    NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Hydrogen and Clean Fuels...  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Strategies Central Hydrogen Production Coal Supply Regions CLICK ON IMAGE TO SEE LARGER VIEW Coal is a plentiful domestic resource, and is available in several major regions of the...

    375

    NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Hydrogen and Clean Fuels...  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    of hydrogen and nitrogen. CLICK ON IMAGE TO SEE LARGER VIEW Hydrogen is produced from coal in a process that is similar to SMR but more complex because coal is not a single...

    376

    DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" CEP Aug. 78. Feed

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    377

    NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids - Solicitations  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    by Gasification. Small-Scale Coal-biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis; FE0010231 Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal...

    378

    International Energy Outlook 1999 - Coal  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    coal.jpg (1776 bytes) coal.jpg (1776 bytes) Coal’s share of world energy consumption falls slightly in the IEO99 forecast. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia, but it is projected to lose market share to natural gas in some other areas of the world. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1996. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 30

    379

    STEO December 2012 - coal demand  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in...

    380

    2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide  

    SciTech Connect

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

    NONE

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    381

    Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

    The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

    382

    U.S. Coal Reserves  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    U.S. Coal Reserves presents detailed estimates of U.S. coal reserves by State, as well as descriptions of the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates.

    Information Center

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    383

    2008 Coal Age buyers guide  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

    NONE

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    384

    A study of coal formation  

    SciTech Connect

    Coal is a solid, brittle, more or less distinctly stratified, combustible, carbonaceous rock. It is being rediscovered as a reliable energy source, which, historically provided the resource base for the industrialization of the United States economy. A firm understanding of growth in coal development is important to the national energy scene so that the implications of factors influencing coal growth upon the industry`s ability to realize national energy objectives may be determined. As a result, the future of coal development will be facilitated by compiling basic facts on coal reserves, production, and utilization. In view of this, a review and assessment of facts pertaining to the nature and origin of coal is presented. The various properties and uses of coal are then described, followed by a discussion of the process of coal formation.

    Jubert, K.; Stevens, G.; Masudi, H.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    385

    Low-rank coal research  

    DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    386

    Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

    Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    387

    Plants of the Coal Age  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Coal Age Nature Bulletin No. 330-A February 1, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation PLANTS OF THE COAL...

    388

    The world price of coal  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    389

    Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Destination, 2001 Coal-Exporting State and Destination Metallurgical Steam Total Alaska - 761 761 South Korea - 761 761 Alabama 4,667 167 4,834 Argentina 155 - 155 Belgium 989 - 989 Brazil 1,104 - 1,104 Bulgaria 82 - 82 Egypt 518 - 518 Italy 115 - 115 Netherlands 56 83 139 Spain 412 84 496 Turkey 581 - 581 United Kingdom 654 - 654 Kentucky 2,130 - 2,130 Canada 920 - 920 France 22 - 22 Iceland 9 - 9 Italy 430 - 430 Netherlands 417 - 417 Spain 9 - 9 United Kingdom 323 - 323 Pennsylvania 1,086 14,326 15,722 Belgium - 203 203 Brazil 372 - 373 Canada - 12,141 12,418 France - 84 84 Germany 495 165 661 Ireland - 136 136 Netherlands 219 879 1,097 Norway - - 7 Peru - - 21 Portugal - 634 634 United Kingdom - 85 85 Venezuela - - 3 Utah - 1,420 1,420 Japan - 1,334 1,334 Taiwan - 86 86 Virginia 4,531

    390

    Coal combustion system  

    SciTech Connect

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    391

    Coal gasification apparatus. [Patent application  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

    Nagy, C.K.

    1981-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    392

    Sustainable development with clean coal  

    SciTech Connect

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    393

    Table 6. Coal production and number of mines by State and coal...  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal production and number of mines by State and coal rank, 2011" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Bituminous",,"Subbituminous",,"Lignite",,"Anthracite",,"Total" "Coal-Producing State and...

    394

    Coal Gasification Report.indb  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Integrated Coal Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies Produced for the Department of Energy (DOE)/ National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Gasification Technologies Council (GTC) September 2004 Coal-Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Strategies and Recommendations Final Report Study Performed by:

    395

    EIA - AEO2010 - Coal projections  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Projections Coal Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Coal Projections Figure 88. Coal production by region, 1970-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 89. U.S. coal production in six cases, 2008, 2020, and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 90. Average annual minemouth coal prices by region, 1990-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 91. Average annual delivered coal prices in four cases, 1990-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 92. Change in U.S. coal consumption by end use in two cases, 2008-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Coal production increases at a slower rate than in the past In the AEO2010 Reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation, along with the startup of several CTL plants, leads to growth in coal production averaging 0.2 percent per year from 2008 to 2035. This is significantly less than the 0.9-percent average growth rate for U.S. coal production from 1980 to 2008.

    396

    Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    Center for Products Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC., U.S.A. SYNOPSIS Over one hundred million tonnes of coal

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    397

    UV Curable Coatings -- Marketing Kit  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Ultra violet (UV) curable coatings are being successfully applied to electric motors, metal shafts, cell phones, printing, plastic packaging, and wood laminates. Demand is expected to expand to an even greater number of end products as issues related to environmental well-being, finish quality, cost reductions, and manufacturing efficiencies drive this market. This UV Curable Coatings-Marketing Kit is designed to help utility sales and marketing personnel present UV curable coating opportunities to custo...

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    398

    COAL & POWER SYSTEMS  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    COAL & POWER SYSTEMS COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS STRENGTH THROUGH SCIENCE... A "GREENER, SOONER" PHILOSOPHY Coal, natural gas, and oil fuel about 70 percent of the electricity generated in the United States. As promising as renewable and other alternative fuels are, it will be several decades before they can make significant energy contributions to the Nation's

    399

    By Coal Origin State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Georgia Railroad 52 - - - 52 Georgia Truck s - 5 - 5 Georgia Total 52 - 5 - 57 Indiana Railroad - 65 - - 65 Origin State Total 1,855 304 313 - 2,472 Railroad 996 81 89 - 1,165

    400

    By Coal Origin State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Georgia Total s - 3 - 3 Georgia Truck s - 3 - 3 Ohio Total - 3 - - 3 Ohio River - 3 - - 3 Origin State Total 1,942 163 338 - 2,443 Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 River 741 3 - - 745 Truck 52 160

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    401

    By Coal Origin State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Georgia Truck s - 2 - 2 Indiana Railroad - 148 - - 148 Ohio Railroad - 25 - - 25 Ohio River - 18 - - 18 Ohio Total - 43 - - 43 Origin State Total 1,760 373 305 - 2,438 Railroad 1,040 191 80 - 1,311 River

    402

    Annual Coal Report 2012  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Coal Report 2012 Annual Coal Report 2012 December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. iii U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Contacts This publication was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). General information about the data in this report can be obtained from:

    403

    Coal | Open Energy Information  

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coal Coal Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data From AEO2011 report Full figure data for Figure 101. Reference Case Tables Table 1. Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary Table 15. Coal Supply, Disposition and Price Table 21. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - New England Table 22. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic Table 23. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central Table 24. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central Table 25. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic Table 26. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central Table 27. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South

    404

    Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

    405

    Catalytic Coal Gasification Process  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Catalytic Coal Gasification Process for the Production of Methane-Rich Syngas Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Production of Methane-Rich Syngas from Fuels Using Multi-functional Catalyst/Capture Agent." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Reducing pollution emitted by coal and waste power plants in an economically viable manner and building power plants that co-generate fuels and chemicals during times of low electricity demand are pressing goals for the energy industry. One way to achieve these goals in an economically viable manner is through the use of a catalytic gasifier that

    406

    By Coal Origin State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Railroad 105 - 1 - 106 Georgia Truck s - 4 - 4 Georgia Total 105 - 5 - 110 Indiana Railroad - 106 - - 106 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Origin State Total 2,065 259 321 - 2,644

    407

    By Coal Origin State  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Georgia Railroad 9 - - - 9 Georgia Truck 7 - 5 - 12 Georgia Total 16 - 5 - 21 Indiana Railroad - 126 - - 126 Tennessee Truck - - 1 - 1 Origin State Total 2,320 353 325 - 2,998 Railroad 848 137 83 - 1,068

    408

    coal | OpenEI  

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coal coal Dataset Summary Description This dataset is from the report Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature (J. Macknick, R. Newmark, G. Heath and K.C. Hallett) and provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released August 28th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords coal consumption csp factors geothermal PV renewable energy technologies Water wind withdrawal Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies (xlsx, 32.3 KiB)

    409

    Pyrolysis of coal  

    SciTech Connect

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

    Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    410

    Coal Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    Study Guide - High School Coal Study Guide - High School Coal Study Guide - High School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide for...

    411

    Coal Study Guide - Middle School | Department of Energy  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    - Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Coal Study Guide - High...

    412

    NETL: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) - Round...  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    4 Coal Processing for Clean Fuels - Coal Preparation Technologies Self-Scrubbing Coal(tm): An Integrated Approach to Clean Air - Project Brief PDF-483KB Custom Coals...

    413

    Table F17: Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports ...  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Table F17: Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2011 State Coal Coal Coke Residential a Commercial Industrial Electric ...

    414

    Table F18: Coal Price and Expenditure Estimates and Imports ...  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Table F18: Coal Price and Expenditure Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2011 State Coal Coal Coke Prices Expenditures Prices ...

    415

    Thermal and Cold Sprayed Coatings  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Mar 5, 2013... Coating Evaluated by Micro and Nano Indentation: Meysam Keshavarz1; Mohd Hasbullah bin Hj.Idris1; 1UTM,Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    416

    Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods  

    SciTech Connect

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

    Seabaugh, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH); Swartz, Scott L. (Columbus, OH); Dawson, William J. (Dublin, OH); McCormick, Buddy E. (Dublin, OH)

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    417

    PNNL Coal Gasification Research  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    418

    Clean Coal Power Initiative  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    419

    Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    8, 2013 8, 2013 Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program The challenges confronting the environmentally sound use of our country's fossil energy resources are best addressed through collaborative research and development. That's why this approach, which stretches federal dollars, is at the heart of the Office of Fossil Energy's University Coal Research (UCR) Program. Managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UCR program funds university research to improve understanding of the chemical and physical properties of coal, one of our nation's most abundant resources. The program has forged partnerships between academia and the private sector that have led to advances not only in how we use coal, but

    420

    NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    C&CBTL C&CBTL Coal and Power Systems Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids program effort is focused on technologies to foster the commercial adoption of coal and coal/biomass gasification and the production of affordable liquid fuels and hydrogen with excellent environmental performance. U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness Advanced Fuels Synthesis U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    421

    Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

    Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    422

    Carbonaceous film coating  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

    Maya, L.

    1988-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    423

    Wear-resistant materials for coal conversion and utilization. First progress report, October 1979-April 1980  

    SciTech Connect

    Studies of wear-resistant materials were concentrated mostly on hard coatings and surface treatments, such as chemical vapor deposited materials, thermal-sprayed materials with post-deposition laser treatments, and surface-bonded materials. Several coatings were found to have extremely good erosion resistance. A nickel-bonded titanium diboride material was found to have extremely high erosion resistance. An erosion data bank for existing and promising valve materials was begun. Erosion test results at six impingment angles and four particle velocities were produced. Testing of a 6-inch ball-valve ball coated with a Cr-Ni-B coating in a laboratory ball-valve testing facility reached the half-way point; 10,000 open-close cycles in coal-ash.

    Block, F.E.; Kelley, J.E.; Leavenworth, H.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    424

    Pretreatment of coal during transport  

    SciTech Connect

    Many available coals are "caking coals" which possess the undesirable characteristic of fusing into a solid mass when heated through their plastic temperature range (about 400.degree. C.) which temperature range is involved in many common treatment processes such as gasification, hydrogenation, carbonization and the like. Unless the caking properties are first destroyed, the coal cannot be satisfactorily used in such processes. A process is disclosed herein for decaking finely divided coal during its transport to the treating zone by propelling the coal entrained in an oyxgen-containing gas through a heated transport pipe whereby the separate transport and decaking steps of the prior art are combined into a single step.

    Johnson, Glenn E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Neilson, Harry B. (Clairton, PA); Forney, Albert J. (Coraopolis, PA); Haynes, William P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1977-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    425

    Permits handbook for coal development  

    SciTech Connect

    This coal permits handbook was prepared for Region VIII comprised of the states of Colorado, Utah, Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The first part of the handbook provides the background and overview of information on coal with emphasis on federal and state regulatory authority and includes a status report on litigation affecting the coal industry. A discussion on specific analyses of the majority of environmental permits required to operate and develop coal mines comprises the second part of the book. Significant supportive information including the content of state regulations and standards, sample forms, guidelines, and a discussion of coal severance taxation are included on the appendices. (BLM)

    Wayman, C.H.; Genasci, G.A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    426

    Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization  

    SciTech Connect

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    427

    National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    428

    Coated ceramic breeder materials  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A lithium containing ceramic breeder material is described which is coated with a neutron multiplier such as Beryllium (Be), Beryllium Oxide (BeO), or other material having a higher thermal conductivity than the lithium ceramic material itself. In addition to exhibiting certain thermal conductivity properties, the neutron multiplier must be capable of withstanding the high temperatures (700/sup 0/ to 1300/sup 0/K) experienced in a breeder blanket of a fusion reactor. State of the art considerations have indicated several possible configurations for the lithium containing ceramic breeders, including a sphere-pac arrangement or sintered pellets or blocks. When one adds a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO into a sphere-pac bed of lithium containing ceramic breeders, current concepts include mixing the neutron multiplier randomly into the sphere-pac bed in the form of small spheres of a size comparable to that of the lithium ceramic particles. The present invention shows that a sphere-pac bed of breeder particles coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be and BeO has an improved thermal conductivity when compared with that of a bed of uncoated breeder particles randomly mixed with Be or BeO spheres having the same breeder/multiplier composition ratio.

    Tam, S.W.; Johnson, C.E.

    1986-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    429

    International Energy Outlook 2001 - Coal  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Coal picture of a printer Printer Friendly Version (PDF) Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since the late 1980s, a trend that is expected to continue. Although 1999 world consumption, at 4.7 billion short tons,9 was 15 percent higher than coal use in 1980, it was lower than in any year since 1984 (Figure 51). The International Energy Outlook 2001 (IEO2001) reference case projects some growth in coal use between 1999 and 2020, at an average annual rate of 1.5 percent, but with considerable variation among regions.

    430

    Definition: Coal | Open Energy Information  

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coal Coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Coal A combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. It is formed from plant remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time (typically millions of years). It is the most abundant fossil fuel produced in the United States.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later

    431

    International Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1997. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 33 percent between 1985 and 1997, displaced in considerable measure by

    432

    Coal-oil slurry preparation  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    433

    Coal mine methane global review  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

    NONE

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    434

    Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content-Fueled Turbines - University of California, Irvine  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content-Fueled Turbines-University of California, Irvine Background Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and components in the hot section of gas turbines are degraded by coal-derived high hydrogen content (HHC) synthesis gas (syngas). In this project the University of California, Irvine (UCI) will provide an improved mechanistic understanding of the degradation of critical turbine system materials in HHC-fueled

    435

    Coal liquefaction process  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

    Maa, Peter S. (Baytown, TX)

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    436

    Initiators of coal hydrogenation  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The initiators examined include cyclic and linear silico-organic compounds, the effects of which on the hydrogenation process are studied. The substances not only localize the active radicals before these are stabilised by hydrogen, but actually activate the destruction reaction of the coal substance and in this way generate atomic hydrogen: radical polymerization inhibitors thus convert to activators and hydrogen transfer. (8 refs.)

    Krichko, A.A.; Dembovskaya, E.A.; Gorlov, E.G.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    437

    Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

    SciTech Connect

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    438

    Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process  

    SciTech Connect

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    439

    HYDROGEN FROM COAL  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    MT R 20 0 2- 31 M itr et ek T ec h n ic a l Pap e r HYDROGEN FROM COAL November 2001 D. Gray G. Tomlinson JULY 2002 ii Customer: U.S. DOE NETL Contract No.: DE-AM26-99FT40465 Dept....

    440

    Healy clean coal project  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. The emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better then the federal New Source Performance Standards. (VC)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    441

    Kinetics of coal pyrolysis  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    442

    European coal mining technology  

    SciTech Connect

    Most new developments in mechanized longwall coal technology have been pioneered by European mines and equipment manufacturers. But ironically, the most successful adaptations of European-inspired longwalling systems have occurred in North America, Australia, South Africa and elsewhere, enabling those mines to achieve even greater productivity and cost-effective utilization than the Europeans enjoy. This anomaly has little to do with mining talents, but arises instead from a pair of factors: 1) the extremely difficult mining and geological conditions of European coal basins; and 2) the profound differences between the management style and operating routines of the largely state-owned mines of Europe and the privately-owned, profit oriented mining companies abroad. Nevertheless, Europe continues to lead the way in new developments, driven by the chemistry of tough mining conditions and the commitments of its national mining industries to invest in new technology. As a third ingredient, the supra-national European Economic Community (EEC) plays an important role in promoting and funding new developments through its various agencies. A recent EEC information symposium on new methods of coal winning at Luxembourg focused on state-of-the-art longwall technology. Thus a look at current Euopean RandD programs yields pointers as to what the international coal industry may expect in the future.

    Wyllie, B.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    443

    Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    444

    Biochemical transformation of coals  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    445

    Thin film ion conducting coating  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    446

    Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: ? Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). ? Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). ? Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). ? Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    447

    Photovoltaic Electrical Contacts and Cell Coatings | Department...  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaic Electrical Contacts and Cell Coatings Photovoltaic Electrical Contacts and Cell Coatings August 19, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis The outermost layers of photovoltaic (PV)...

    448

    Abradable Coatings Increase Gas Turbine Engine Efficiency  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Oct 11, 2007 ... This brief article covers the uses of abradable coatings, their development and their function. Wear at high speed, effect of tip width and coating...

    449

    Solar selective absorption coatings - Energy Innovation Portal  

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron ...

    450

    Coal cleaning effects during H-Coal catalytic liquefaction of a western Kentucky coal. [Effect of coal cleaning on oil yield  

    SciTech Connect

    Two H-Coal bench-scale liquefaction tests were performed to compare the hydroliquefaction behavior of two Kentucky No. 11 coals from the same mine: a run-of-mine coal with 17.49 W % ash and a deep-cleaned coal with 6.21 W % ash. The tests were conducted using a syncrude mode of operation. The deep-cleaned coal exhibited greater coal conversion and greater residual oil yield than the run-of-mine coal. On a dry coal basis, the deep-cleansed coal yielded approximately 19% more C/sub 4/ to 975/sup 0/F distillate than the run-of-mine coal. The process requirement of a pumpable vacuum still bottoms product would result in a 10% higher C/sub 4/ to 975/sup 0/F yield from the deep-cleaned coal than from the run-of-mine coal in a commercial H-Coal plant.

    Bernard, R.F.

    1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    451

    Moist caustic leaching of coal  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    452

    Ceramic composite coatings  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching metal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

    Wicks, G.G.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    453

    Ceramic composite coating  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching metal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

    Wicks, G.G.

    1989-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    454

    Ceramic composite coating  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching etal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    455

    High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

    Gencsoy, Hasan T. (Morgantown, WV)

    1977-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    456

    Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals  

    SciTech Connect

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    457

    CoalFleet Guideline for Advanced Pulverized Coal Power Plants  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The CoalFleet Guideline for Advanced Pulverized Coal Power Plants provides an overview of state-of-the art and emerging technologies for pulverized coal-fired generating units along with lessons learned for current plants worldwide. The Guideline aims to facilitate the timely deployment of reliable, next-generation generating units that incorporate: Higher steam conditions for higher efficiency and reduced generation of pollutants Advanced environmental controls for reduced emissions and environmental im...

    2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    458

    High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

    Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    460

    Apparatus and process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    461

    Apparatus and process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

    Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    462

    EIS-0047: Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration | Department...  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    7: Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration EIS-0047: Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration...

    463

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution...  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2011 By Coal Destination State ...

    464

    Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals  

    SciTech Connect

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    465

    Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    million tons of coal in 2030, up from about 1,150 million2030 .Figure 42: Projected annual tonnage flows in 2030, Scenario

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    466

    NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Alternate Hydrogen Production  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

    467

    NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Hydrogen and Clean Fuels...  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

    468

    NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Systems Studies  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

    469

    NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Reference Shelf  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

    470

    NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Systems Studies  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    security and a sustainable hydrogen economy by economically producing hydrogen from coal. Hydrogen represents a clean alternative fuel that can help to reduce the nation's...

    471

    NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - H2 Projects  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Demonstration of Pressurizing CoalBiomass Mixtures Using Posimetric Solids Pump Technology PDF-626KB (Feb 2011) Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for...

    472

    NETL: Coal and Power Systems  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Systems Systems Technologies Coal and Power Systems Advancing our Nation's Portfolio of Coal RD&D Technologies - Rotating Images Advancing our Nation's Portfolio of Coal RD&D Technologies - Read More! Focus of NETL RD&D RD&D efforts in coal and power systems fall into three categories: Technologies that enable existing coal power plants to cost-effectively meet environmental requirements. NETL and its research partners are developing environmental control technologies for retrofitting existing power plants, with application to new plants as well. Key areas of research include cost-effective control of mercury, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fine particulate emissions; beneficial uses for coal utilization byproducts; and innovations to minimize the impact of

    473

    COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION  

    SciTech Connect

    The agglomeration of ultrafine-size coal particles in an aqueous suspension by means of microscopic gas bubbles was demonstrated in numerous experiments with a scale model mixing system. Coal samples from both the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam and the Upper Freeport Seam were used for these experiments. A small amount of i-octane was added to facilitate the process. Microscopic gas bubbles were generated by saturating the water used for suspending coal particles with gas under pressure and then reducing the pressure. Microagglomerates were produced which appeared to consist of gas bubbles encapsulated in coal particles. Since dilute particle suspensions were employed, it was possible to monitor the progress of agglomeration by observing changes in turbidity. By such means it became apparent that the rate of agglomeration depends on the concentration of microscopic gas bubbles and to a lesser extent on the concentration of i-octane. Similar results were obtained with both Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Upper Freeport coal.

    MEIYU SHEN; ROYCE ABBOTT; T.D. WHEELOCK

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    474

    NETL: Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Coal/Biomass Feed & Gasification Coal/Biomass Feed & Gasification Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification The Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology is advancing scientific knowledge of the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal and/or coal-biomass mixtures. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal/biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems, identifying potential impacts on downstream components, catalyst and reactor optimization, and characterizing the range of products and product quality. Active projects within the program portfolio include the following: Coal-biomass fuel preparation Development of Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes for Co-Gasification Coal-biomass gasification modeling

    475

    Coal News and Markets - Energy Information Administration  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal News and Markets Coal News and Markets Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 24, 2013 "Coal News and Markets Report" summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Powder River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States. The report includes data on average weekly coal commodity spot prices, total monthly coal production, eastern monthly coal production, electric power sector coal stocks, and average cost of metallurgical coal at coke plants and export docks. The historical data for coal commodity spot market prices are proprietary and not available for public release. Average weekly coal commodity spot prices (dollars per short ton)

    476

    Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration  

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    current Coal Distribution Report current Coal Distribution Report Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: November 7, 2012 | Next Release Date: November 2013 | full report Archive Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin Foreign distribution of U.S. coal by major coal-exporting States and destination Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation1 Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation1

    477

    Sustainable Coal Use | Department of Energy  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    Sustainable Coal Use Sustainable Coal Use Coal is a vital energy resource, not only for the United States, but also for many developed and developing economies around the world....

    478

    Volatile coal prices reflect supply, demand uncertainties  

    SciTech Connect

    Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.

    Ryan, M.

    2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    479

    Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    480

    Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

    SciTech Connect

    The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

    NONE

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iron-oxide coated coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
    While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
    they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
    We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
    to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


    481

    Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

    E-Print Network (OSTI)

    Coal prices have been far less volatile than natural gas prices.Coal Prices Figure 9 is similar to Figure 8 except the natural gas pricesCoal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis interested in natural gas prices

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    482

    Coal mining technology, economics and policy 1989  

    SciTech Connect

    This book contains papers reported on a conference on Coal Mining Technology, Economics and policy 1989. Topics covered include: automation and controls; coal policy; coal preparation; Environment; and Management.

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    483

    Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

    William Watson

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    484

    FE Clean Coal News  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    clean-coal-news Office of Fossil Energy Forrestal clean-coal-news Office of Fossil Energy Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585202-586-6503 en NETL Innovations Recognized with R&D 100 Awards http://energy.gov/fe/articles/netl-innovations-recognized-rd-100-awards NETL Innovations Recognized with R&D 100 Awards

    485

    Capitalizing on coal  

    SciTech Connect

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) predicts that the equivalent of 44 baseload coal fired power plants will be needed to keep pace with US electricity demand by 2025. Potential builders are looking for greater certainty on a number of energy, environmental and regulatory issues before they invest. The work of the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) in advocating solutions to create this certainty is reported in this article. It is asking Congress to put transmission assets on a par with other major assets and reduce their depreciable lives from 20 to 15 years, and calling for repeal legislation that limits investment in the regulated energy industry. EEI is advocating federal environmental legislation similar to the Clean Skies Act that would lower emissions faster, with greater certainty, and with greater cost savings. EEI is encouraging FERC to work with states to increase certainty of builders recovering their investment in coal plants. 2 photos.

    McMahon, F. [Edison Electric Institute (United States). Alliance of Energy Suppliers

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    486

    Coal Study Guide for Elementary School | Department of Energy  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

    Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate...

    487

    2009 University Coal Research Program  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    2009 University Coal Research Program 2009 University Coal Research Program Description The University Coal Research (UCR) Program provides grants to U.S. colleges and universities to support fundamental research and to develop efficient and environmentally responsible fossil energy technologies. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), the program is carried out by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

    488

    A pulverized coal fuel injector  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO{sub 2} formation.

    Rini, M.J.; Towle, D.P.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    489

    Thallium in Coal Combustion Products  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element that is present in coal and coal combustion products (CCPs). Thallium is of interest because it has a relatively low maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water. This Technical Brief provides EPRI data on thallium in CCPs, along with general information on its occurrence, health effects, and treatment. Most of the information presented is summarized from the 2008 EPRI Technical Report 1016801, Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Product Leachate: ..

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    490

    Exploration for deep coal  

    Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

    NONE

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    491

    Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

    SciTech Connect

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    492

    Coal Bed Methane Primer  

    SciTech Connect

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    493

    Zero emission coal  

    DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    494

    (Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms)  

    SciTech Connect

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) characterize selected aerobic bacterial strains for their abilities to depolymerize lignite coal polymers, and isolate and identify the extracellular enzymes responsible for depolymerization of the coal; (2) characterize selected strictly anaerobic bacteria, that were previously shown to reductively transform coal substructure model compounds, for the ability to similarly transform polymeric coal; and (3) isolate more strains of anaerobic bacteria by enrichment using additional coal substructure model compounds and coal as substrates.

    Crawford, D.L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    495

    Moist caustic leaching of coal  

    DOE Patents (OSTI)

    A process is claimed for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300{degrees}C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

    Nowak, M.A.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    496

    Coal Data Publication Revision Policy  

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    THEN Survey Manager determines impact: WHAT happens next to the database and in our coal reports: Respondent provides data that are clearly incorrect or revised data for any...

    497

    Coal Mine Safety Act (Virginia)  

    Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

    This Act is the primary legislation pertaining to coal mine safety in Virginia. It contains information on safety rules, safety standards and required certifications for mine workers, prohibited...

    498

    NETL: Clean Coal Power Initiative  

    NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

    Deepwater Technology Enhanced Oil Recovery Gas Hydrates Natural Gas Resources Contacts Coal & Power Systems Major Demonstrations Innovations for Existing Plants Gasification...

    499

    ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

    DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC