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Sample records for iron works fw

  1. Oregon Iron Works Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oregon Iron Works Inc Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  2. {In Archive} Fw: NEPA for German Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fw: NEPA for German Fuel Maxcine Maxted to: lsaraka 11/14/2014 08:14 AM Cc: Drew Grainger Archive: This message is being viewed in an archive. I got this late yesterday. Thanks, Maxcine Maxted (803) 208-0506 pager 20767 ----- Forwarded by Maxcine Maxted/DOE/Srs on 11/14/2014 08:14 AM ----- From: Herbert Crapse/DOE/Srs To: Jean Ridley/DOE/Srs@Srs, Maxcine Maxted/DOE/Srs@SRS, Date: 11/13/2014 02:25 PM Subject: Fw: NEPA for German Fuel As requested. I have reviewed their input for accuracy and find

  3. 550 FW 3 Documenting and Implementing Decisions | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    550 FW 3 Documenting and Implementing Decisions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: 550 FW 3 Documenting and Implementing...

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Rogers Iron Works Co - MO...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    of Ohio Analytical Data Sheet 9908; August 2, 1956 MO.10-2 - MemorandumChecklist, Williams to File; Subject: Rogers Iron; June 1, 1990 MO.10-3 - DOE Memorandum; Williams to the...

  5. The Fish and Wildlife Service Manual, Part 603 FW 2 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: The Fish and Wildlife Service Manual, Part 603 FW 2PermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook...

  6. The Fish and Wildlife Service Manual, Part 340 FW 3: Rights-of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: The Fish and Wildlife Service Manual, Part 340 FW 3: Rights-of-Way and Road ClosingsPermitting...

  7. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  8. Automatic mesh adaptivity for CADIS and FW-CADIS neutronics modeling of difficult shielding problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, A. M.; Peplow, D. E.; Mosher, S. W.; Wagner, J. C.; Evans, T. M.; Wilson, P. P.; Sawan, M. E.

    2013-07-01

    The CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques dramatically increase the efficiency of neutronics modeling, but their use in the accurate design analysis of very large and geometrically complex nuclear systems has been limited by the large number of processors and memory requirements for their preliminary deterministic calculations and final Monte Carlo calculation. Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to reduce the memory requirements of CADIS and FW-CADIS without sacrificing their efficiency improvement. First, a macro-material approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm de-couples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility. Using these algorithms resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation and, additionally, increased the efficiency of the Monte Carlo simulation by a factor of at least 3.4. The three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved using an FW-CADIS simulation on a regular computer cluster, obviating the need for a world-class super computer. (authors)

  9. Calibration of SIOM-5FW film in the range of 0.1-4 keV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chenais-Popovics, C.; Reverdin, C.; Ioannou, I.

    2006-06-15

    The SIOM-5FW film produced for the sub-keV x-ray detection range was calibrated here in a wide energy range (0.1-4 keV). A single set of parameters valid in the whole measured energy range was determined for the calibration of the Shangai 5F (SIOM-5FW) film from a parametric fit of the data. The sensitivity of the SIOM-5FW film was measured to be four times lower than that of the Kodak DEF film at 2.5 keV photon energy. Modeling of the DEF and SIOM-5FW films provides a good comparison of their sensitivity in the 0.1-10 keV range.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Anaeromyxobacter sp. Fw109-5, an anaerobic, metal-reducing bacterium isolated from a contaminated subsurface environment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hwang, C.; Copeland, A.; Lucas, S.; Lapidus, A.; Barry, K.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, E.; Tice, H.; Pitluck, S.; Sims, D.; et al

    2015-01-22

    We report the genome sequence of Anaeromyxobacter sp. Fw109-5, isolated from nitrate- and uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) site, Oak Ridge Reservation, TN. The bacterium’s genome sequence will elucidate its physiological potential in subsurface sediments undergoing in situ uranium bioremediation and natural attenuation.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Anaeromyxobacter sp. Fw109-5, an Anaerobic, Metal-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from a Contaminated Subsurface Environment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hwang, C.; Copeland, A.; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Barry, Kerrie W.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, S.; Sims, David R.; et al

    2015-01-22

    We report the genome sequence of Anaeromyxobacter sp. Fw109-5, isolated from nitrate- and uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) site, Oak Ridge Reservation, TN. The bacterium’s genome sequence will elucidate its physiological potential in subsurface sediments undergoing in situ uranium bioremediation and natural attenuation.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Anaeromyxobacter sp. Fw109-5, an Anaerobic, Metal-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from a Contaminated Subsurface Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, C.; Copeland, A.; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Barry, Kerrie W.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, S.; Sims, David R.; Brettin, T.; Bruce, David; Detter, J. C.; Han, Cliff F.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, F.; Land, M.; Hauser, L.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Richardson, P. M.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Sanford, Robert A.; Loeffler, Frank E.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2015-01-22

    We report the genome sequence of Anaeromyxobacter sp. Fw109-5, isolated from nitrate- and uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) site, Oak Ridge Reservation, TN. The bacterium’s genome sequence will elucidate its physiological potential in subsurface sediments undergoing in situ uranium bioremediation and natural attenuation.

  13. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus FW-101-2B, an Organic Acid-Oxidizing Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Uranium(VI)-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsay, Bradley D.; Hwang, Chiachi; Woo, Hannah L.; Carroll, Sue L.; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Samuel; Peters, Lin; Chertkov, Olga; Held, Brittany; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff S.; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pagani, Loanna; Woyke, Tanja; Arkin, Adam P.; Dehal, Paramvir; Chivian, Dylan; Criddle, Craig S.; Wu, Weimin; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry C.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2015-03-12

    Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus subsp. oakridgensis FW-101-2B is an anaerobic, organic acid/alcohol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing ?-proteobacterium. FW-101-2B was isolated from contaminated groundwater at The Field Research Center at Oak Ridge National Lab after in situ stimulation for heavy metal-reducing conditions. The genome will help elucidate the metabolic potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium reduction.

  14. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus FW-101-2B, an Organic Acid-Oxidizing Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Uranium(VI)-Contaminated Groundwater

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramsay, Bradley D.; Hwang, Chiachi; Woo, Hannah L.; Carroll, Sue L.; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Samuel; et al

    2015-03-12

    Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus subsp. oakridgensis FW-101-2B is an anaerobic, organic acid/alcohol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing δ-proteobacterium. FW-101-2B was isolated from contaminated groundwater at The Field Research Center at Oak Ridge National Lab after in situ stimulation for heavy metal-reducing conditions. The genome will help elucidate the metabolic potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium reduction.

  15. Understanding the Factors Affecting the Formation of Carbonyl Iron Electrodes in Rechargeable Alkaline Iron Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable iron-based alkaline batteries such as iron - air and nickel - iron batteries are attractive for large-scale electrical energy storage because iron is inexpensive, globally-abundant and environmentally-friendly. Further, the iron electrode is known for its robustness to repeated charge/discharge cycling. During manufacturing these batteries are charged and discharged 20 to 50 times during which the discharge capacity of the iron electrode increases gradually and attains a stable value. This process of achieving stable capacity is called formation. In this study we have focused our efforts on understanding the effect of electrode design on formation. We have investigated the role of wetting agent, pore-former additive, and sulfide additive on the formation of carbonyl iron electrodes. The wetting agent increased the rate of formation while the pore-former additive increased the final capacity. Sodium sulfide added to the electrolyte worked as a de-passivation agent and increased the final discharge capacity. We have proposed a phenomenological model for the formation process that predicts the rate of formation and final discharge capacity given the design parameters for the electrode. The understanding gained here will be useful in reducing the time lost in formation and in maximizing the utilization of the iron electrode. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.021301jes] All rights reserved.

  16. Electrical and thermal transport properties of iron and iron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrical and thermal transport properties of iron and iron-silicon alloy at high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrical and thermal transport properties ...

  17. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  18. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

  19. Steelmaking with iron carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, G.H.; Stephens, F.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The concept of using iron carbide in steelmaking is not new. Tests were run several decades ago, using carbide made from ore, in steelmaking furnaces. The problem was that at that time, the need for the product was not clear and the economics of production were not favorable. In the early 1970's Frank M. Stephens, Jr., conceived the basis for the present process, and considerable development work has been done during the past decade to bring the carbide production process to its present state, with the first commercial unit now under construction. The process utilizes the following overall reaction to produce Fe[sub 3]C from ore: 3Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] + 5H[sub 2] + 2 CH[sub 4][equals]2 Fe[sub 3]C + 9 H[sub 2]O. Hydrogen gas from a natural gas reformer is blended with natural gas to form the process gas that is recirculated through the fluid bed reactor, the cooling tower, to remove reaction product water, and back through the reactor again, after reheating. The closed loop nature of the process means that virtually 100% of the process reagents are utilized by the process. The only exception is that a small stream of the process gas is burned as fuel in the reheating step, in order to maintain the level of inerts in the process gas at an acceptable level. The quantity of the bleed stream is entirely dependent on the concentration of inert gases in the fuel supply.

  20. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in point. The complex chemistry associated with the iron-based catalyst has made even the identity of the active catalyst at work an unsolved mystery. At the ALS, de Smit et al....

  1. Electrochemical Deposition of Iron Nanoneedles on Titanium Oxide Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan Y. X.; Zhang L.; Gan B.J.

    2011-10-01

    Iron as a catalyst has wide applications for hydrogen generation from ammonia, photodecomposition of organics, and carbon nanotube growth. Tuning the size and shape of iron is meaningful for improving the catalysis efficiency. It is the objective of this work to prepare nanostructured iron with high surface area via electrochemical deposition. Iron nanoneedles were successfully electrodeposited on Ti supported TiO2 nanotube arrays in a chlorine-based electrolyte containing 0.15 M FeCl2 {center_dot} 4H2O and 2.0 M HCl. Transmission electron microscopic analysis reveals that the average length of the nanoneedles is about 200 nm and the thickness is about 10 nm. It has been found that a high overpotential at the cathode made of Ti/TiO2 nanotube arrays is necessary for the formation of the nanoneedles. Cyclic voltammetry test indicates that the electrodeposition of iron nanoneedles is a concentration-limited process.

  2. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  3. How it works

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How it works MINERvA is a particle physics experiment, located at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. MINERvA was designed to perform high-precision measurements of neutrino interactions on a wide variety of materials, including water, helium, carbon, iron, lead, and plastic. MINERvA is located 100 meters underground, and sits directly in front of the MINOS near detector. The source of MINERvA's neutrino beam is the Neutrinos at the Main Injector beamline, or NuMI. NuMI

  4. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iran Deal is Working The Iran Deal is Working Addthis Topic Nuclear Security & Safety Since the Iran Deal came into effect in October 2015, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) verified that Iran undertook critical steps to ensure its four pathways to a nuclear bomb are blocked. Watch to see how the Iran Deal is working

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a

  5. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  6. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Michael R.; Arnold, Robert G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  7. Work Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work Plan NSSAB Members Vote on Work Plan Tasks; The Nevada Site Specific Advisory Board operates on a fiscal year basis and conducts work according to a NSSAB generated and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved work plan. FY 2016 Work Plan Work plan items focus on providing recommendations to the DOE regarding the following subjects: soil contamination from historic atmospheric nuclear testing, remediation of contaminated facilities used to support historic testing, groundwater studies

  8. Iron and Steel (2010 MECS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014

  9. Snapshot of iron response in Shewanella oneidensis by gene network reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P.; Luo, Feng; Xiong, Wenlu; Joachimiak, Marcin; Wu, Liyou; Dehal, Paramvir; Jacobsen, Janet; Yang, Zamin; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Arkin, Adam P.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-10-09

    Background: Iron homeostasis of Shewanella oneidensis, a gamma-proteobacterium possessing high iron content, is regulated by a global transcription factor Fur. However, knowledge is incomplete about other biological pathways that respond to changes in iron concentration, as well as details of the responses. In this work, we integrate physiological, transcriptomics and genetic approaches to delineate the iron response of S. oneidensis. Results: We show that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. Temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, and a gene co-expression network was reconstructed. Modules of iron acquisition systems, anaerobic energy metabolism and protein degradation were the most noteworthy in the gene network. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that genes in each of the modules might be regulated by DNA-binding proteins Fur, CRP and RpoH, respectively. Closer inspection of these modules revealed a transcriptional regulator (SO2426) involved in iron acquisition and ten transcriptional factors involved in anaerobic energy metabolism. Selected genes in the network were analyzed by genetic studies. Disruption of genes encoding a putative alcaligin biosynthesis protein (SO3032) and a gene previously implicated in protein degradation (SO2017) led to severe growth deficiency under iron depletion conditions. Disruption of a novel transcriptional factor (SO1415) caused deficiency in both anaerobic iron reduction and growth with thiosulfate or TMAO as an electronic acceptor, suggesting that SO1415 is required for specific branches of anaerobic energy metabolism pathways. Conclusions: Using a reconstructed gene network, we identified major biological pathways that were differentially expressed during iron depletion and repletion. Genetic studies not only demonstrated the importance of iron acquisition and protein degradation for iron depletion, but also characterized a novel transcriptional factor (SO1415) with a role in anaerobic energy metabolism.

  10. Working Copy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    At DOE Working At DOE Working At DOE Only Here...Will you Define the Future of Energy The people of DOE are engaged in a wide range of challenging and innovative work - from participating in groundbreaking international initiatives like the Global Nuclear Partnership, to solar power demonstration projects, to projects that convert captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into fuel, plastics, and fertilizers. Only here can the diversity of activities throughout our

  11. Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarma, Balu; Downing, Kenneth B.

    1999-01-01

    A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (i) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (ii) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (iii) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: e) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550.degree. C. and f) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 tonne per square meter.

  12. Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarma, B.; Downing, K.B.

    1999-03-23

    A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: (a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; (b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (1) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (2) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (3) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; (c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and (d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: (1) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550 C and (2) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 ton per square meter. 13 figs.

  13. A study of kinetics and mechanisms of iron ore reduction in ore/coal composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, S.; Lu, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    Blast furnace ironmaking technology, by far the most important ironmaking process, is based on coke and iron ore pellets (or sinter) to produce liquid iron. However, there has been a worldwide effort searching for a more economical and environmental friendly alternative process for the production of liquid iron. The essential requirement is that it should be minimized in the usage of metallurgical coke and agglomerate of iron ore concentrates. With iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, there are two approaches: (a) Smelting reduction; melting the ore before reduction; (b) Reduction of the ore in solid state followed by melting. The present work is on the fundamentals of the latter. It consists of a better designed experimental study including pressure gradient measurement, and a more rigorous non-isothermal and non-isobaric mathematical model. Results of this work may be applied to carbothermic processes, such as FASTMET and LB processes, as well as recycling of fines in steel plants.

  14. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  15. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  16. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, William W.

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  17. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  18. Reaction of iron and steel slags with refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, S.; Anderson, M.W.

    1993-04-01

    Slag corrosion and erosion has been a major wear factor for refractories wear in contact with molten iron and steel. In blast furnace ironmaking, the slag/iron interface plays a more important role than does the slag/refractory interface. On the other hand in steelmaking, the slag in the ladles and tundish predominantly affect refractory wear. This paper presents the results of a detailed microstructural evaluation of (a) slag and slag/iron interactions with A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-C refractories for ironmaking in blast furnaces, (b) basic oxygen furnace and ladle slag interactions with alumina spinel refractories for steelmaking, and (c) slag interactions with working refractory lining for continuous casting tundishes. Results will also be presented on refractory wear/failure due to simultaneous corrosion and penetration by the slag.

  19. AMI FW UPGRADEABILITY TEST PROCEDURE AND SECURITY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Isabelle B

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is producing NISTIR 7823 to define test requirements for Smart Meter upgradability. The term Smart Meter refers specifically to advanced electric meters being deployed to enhance management of electricity distribution for residential and industrial consumers. The underlying functional and security requirements for Smart Meter upgradability are specified in NEMA standard SG-AMI 1-2009. The purpose of NISTIR 7823 is to describe conformance test requirements that may be used voluntarily by testers and/or test laboratories to determine whether Smart Meters and Upgrade Management Systems conform to the requirements of NEMA SG-AMI 1-2009.

  20. 550 FW 3 NEPA Decision Documents | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Handbook Abstract Outlines required NEPA documents for FWS NEPA process. Author Fish and Wildlife Service Published Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996 DOI Not Provided Check...

  1. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1998-07-22

    The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  2. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of iron-based superconductors. The team was able to settle the correlations debate by showing that electrons in the iron-based families that were studied favor itinerant...

  3. Kumba Iron Ore | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. Kumba Iron Ore is a company located in Pretoria, South Africa . References "Kumba Iron Ore" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  4. Iron Edison Battery Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a company based in Lakewood, Colorado. Iron Edison is redefining off-grid energy storage using advanced Nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) battery technology. Vastly out-lasting the 7...

  5. GLASSES CONTAINING IRON (II III) OXIDES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE TECHNETIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HEO J; XU K; CHOI JK; HRMA PR; UM W

    2011-11-07

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) has posed serious environmental threats as US Department of Energy's high-level waste. This work reports the vitrification of Re, as surrogate for Tc-99, by iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses, respectively. Iron-phosphate glasses can dissolve Re as high as {approx} 1.2 wt. %, which can become candidate waste forms for Tc-99 disposal, while borosilicate glasses can retain less than 0.1 wt. % of Re due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Vitrification of Re as Tc-99's mimic was investigated using iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses. The retention of Re in borosilicate glasses was less than 0.1 wt. % and more than 99 wt. % of Re were volatilized due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Because the retention of Re in iron-phosphate glasses is as high as 1.2 wt. % and the volatilization is reduced down to {approx}50 wt. %, iron-phosphate glasses can be one of the glass waste form candidates for Tc (or Re) disposal. The investigations of chemical durability and leaching test of iron-phosphate glasses containing Re are now underway to test the performance of the waste form.

  6. Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casey, Charles P.; Guan, Hairong

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

  7. Technology development for iron F-T catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this work were twofold. The first objective was to design and construct a pilot plant for preparing precipitated iron oxide F-T precursors and demonstrate that the rate of production from this plant is equivalent to 100 lbs/day of dried metal oxide. Secondly, these precipitates were to be used to prepare catalysts capable of achieving 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion with {le} 5 mole percent selectivity to methane + ethane.

  8. Iron production maintenance effectiveness system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augstman, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    In 1989, an internal study in the Coke and Iron Maintenance Department identified the opportunities available to increase production, by decreasing unscheduled maintenance delays from 4.6%. A five year front loaded plan was developed, and presented to the company president. The plan required an initial investment of $1.4 million and a conservative break-even point was calculated to be 2.5 years. Due to budget restraints, it would have to be self-funded, i.e., generate additional production or savings, to pay for the program. The program began in 1991 at number 2 coke plant and the blast furnaces. This paper will describe the Iron Production Maintenance Effectiveness System (ME), which began with the mechanical and pipefitting trades.

  9. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print Wednesday, 24 February 2010 00:00 In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of

  10. Weldability and hot ductility of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ash, D.I.; Edwards, G.R. . Center for Welding and Joining Research); David, S.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The weldability of iron aluminide alloys is discussed. Although readily welded with electron beam (EB) and gas-tungsten arc (GTA) techniques, iron aluminides are sometimes susceptible to cracking during cooling when welded with the GTA welding process. Taken into account are the effects of microstructural instability (grain growth), weld heat input (cooling rate) and environment on the hot ductility of an iron aluminide alloy designated FA-129. 64 refs., 59 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  12. High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel oxide oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fugacity buffers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel oxide oxygen fugacity buffers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel oxide oxygen fugacity buffers The chemical potential of oxygen in natural and experimental samples is commonly reported relative to a specific oxygen fugacity (fO{sub 2}) buffer. These buffers are precisely known at 1 bar, but under high

  13. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. ���¢�������¢ Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  14. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is...

  15. Method for producing iron-based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Diehl, J. Rodney (Pittsburgh, PA); Kathrein, Hendrik (McMurray, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

  16. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electron Microscopy and Related Methods Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related ...

  17. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  18. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between different theoretical models and experimental data indicated that, instead of localized states due to strong electron interactions, electrons in iron pnictides prefer...

  19. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    At bottom left, the kinds of iron species found in two transects of the Southern Ocean are ... (ACC stands for Antarctic Circumpolar Current.) The map shows chlorophyll ...

  20. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccha...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the...

  1. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrick, Howard F.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1982-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a bimodal distribution of gamma prime phase within a network of dislocations, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25% to 45% nickel, 10% to 16% chromium, 1.5% to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025.degree. C. to 1075.degree. C. for 2-5 minutes, cold-worked about 20% to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775.degree. C. for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  2. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-04-03

    A method is described for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25 to 45% nickel, 10 to 16% chromium, 1.5 to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025 to 1075/sup 0/C for 2 to 5 minutes, cold-worked about 20 to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775/sup 0/C for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650 to 700/sup 0/C for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  3. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase, the alloy consisting essentially of about 40 to 50% nickel, 7.5 to 14% chromium, 1.5 to 4% niobium, 0.3 to 0.75% silicon, 1 to 3% titanium, 0.1 to 0.5% aluminum, 0.02 to 1% carbon, 0.002 to 0.0015% boron and the remain substantially all iron. To obtain optimal results, the alloy is cold-worked 20 to 60% followed by heating at 1050.degree. C. for 1/2 hour with an air-cool plus heating at 800.degree. C. for 2 hours with a furnace cool to 625.degree. C. The alloy is then held at 625.degree. C. for 12 hours, followed by an air-cool.

  4. FEASIBILITY OF MEASURING IRON IN VIVO USING FAST 14 MEV NEUTRONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.

    2005-05-01

    In this short report, I reassess the feasibility of measuring iron in vivo in the liver and heart of thalassemia patients undergoing chelation therapy. Despite the multiplicity of analytical methods for analyzing iron, only two, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic susceptibility, are suitable for in vivo applications, and these are limited to the liver because of the heart's beat. Previously, a nuclear method, gamma-resonance scattering, offered a quantitative measure of iron in these organs; however, it was abandoned because it necessitated a nuclear reactor to produce the radioactive source. I reviewed and reassessed the status of two alternative nuclear methods, based on iron spectroscopy of gamma rays induced by fast neutron inelastic scattering and delayed activation in iron. Both are quantitative methods with high specificity for iron and adequate penetrating power to measure it in organs sited deep within the human body. My experiments demonstrated that both modalities met the stated qualitative objectives to measure iron. However, neutron dosimetry revealed that the intensity of the neutron radiation field was too weak to reliably assess the minimum detection limits, and to allow quantitative extrapolations to measurements in people. A review of the literature, included in this report, showed that these findings agree qualitatively with the published results, although the doses reported were about three orders-of-magnitude higher than those I used. Reviewing the limitations of the present work, steps were outlined for overcoming some of the shortcomings. Due to a dearth of valid quantitative alternatives for determining iron in vivo, I conclude that nuclear methods remain the only viable option. However, from the lessons learned, further systematic work is required before embarking on clinical studies.

  5. The production of iron carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.M.; Scheel, J.

    1997-12-31

    From start-up in 1994 to present, Nucor`s Iron Carbide plant has overcome many obstacles in achieving design production. Many of these impediments were due to flaws in equipment design. With the integration existing within the plant, limitations in any one system reduced the operating capacity of others. For this reason, as modifications were made and system capacities were increased, the need for additional modifications became apparent. Subsequently, operating practices, maintenance scheduling, employee incentives, and production objectives were continually adapted. This paper discusses equipment and design corrections and the quality issues that contributed to achieving the plant`s production capacity.

  6. Microbial reduction of iron ore (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a...

  7. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print Wednesday, 30 April 2008 00:00 It is now known that the iron present...

  8. Ordered iron aluminide alloys having an improved room-temperature ductility and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for improving the room temperature ductility and strength of iron aluminide intermetallic alloys. The process involves thermomechanically working an iron aluminide alloy by means which produce an elongated grain structure. The worked alloy is then heated at a temperature in the range of about 650.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. to produce a B2-type crystal structure. The alloy is rapidly cooled in a moisture free atmosphere to retain the B2-type crystal structure at room temperature, thus providing an alloy having improved room temperature ductility and strength.

  9. Marine Diatoms Survive Iron Droughts in the Ocean by Storing Iron in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ferritin Marine Diatoms Survive Iron Droughts in the Ocean by Storing Iron in Ferritin Almost all organisms require iron as a co-factor in numerous metalloproteins and enzymes. In particular, phytoplankton, which are aquatic, free-drifting, single-celled organisms that can harvest energy from the sun, have an elevated demand for iron due to the large role it plays in their photosynthetic machinery. In 30-40% of the world's oceans iron concentrations are low enough to limit the growth of

  10. Evaluation of Characterization Techniques for Iron Pipe Corrosion Products

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Iron Oxide Thin Films (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Evaluation of Characterization Techniques for Iron Pipe Corrosion Products and Iron Oxide Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Characterization Techniques for Iron Pipe Corrosion Products and Iron Oxide Thin Films A common problem faced by drinking water studies is that of properly characterizing the corrosion products (CP) in iron pipescor synthetic Fe (hydr)oxides used to simulate

  11. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Iron and Steel More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October

  12. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus; Muftikian, Rosy; Korte, Nic

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products.

  13. IRON COATED URANIUM AND ITS PRODUCTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1960-03-15

    A method of applying a protective coating to a metallic uranium article is given. The method comprises etching the surface of the article with an etchant solution containlng chloride ions, such as a solution of phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid, cleaning the etched surface, electroplating iron thereon from a ferrous ammonium sulfate electroplating bath, and soldering an aluminum sheath to the resultant iron layer.

  14. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  15. Thermo-Mechanical Processing and Properties of a Ductile Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, R.R.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-07-14

    Thermo-mechanical processing of ductile irons is a potential method for enhancing their mechanical properties. A ductile cast iron containing 3.6% C, 2.6% Si and 0.045% Mg was continuously hot-and-warm rolled or one-step press-forged from a temperature in the austenite range (900{degrees}C-1100{degrees}C) to a temperature below the A, temperature. Various amounts of reduction were used (from 60% to more than 90%) followed by a short heat ent at 600`C. The heat ent lead to a structure of fine graphite in a matrix of ferrite and carbides. The hot-and- warm worked materials developed a pearlitic microstructure while the press-forged material developed a spheroidite-like carbide microstructure in the matrix. Cementite-denuded ferrite zones were developed around graphite stringers in the hot-and-warm worked materials, but such zones were absent in the press-forged material. Tensile properties including tensile strength and total elongation were measured along the direction parallel and transverse to the rolling direction and along the direction transverse to the press-forging direction. The tensile ductility and strength both increased with a decrease in the amount of hot-and-warm working. The press- forged materials showed higher strength (645 MPa) than the hot-and-warrn worked materials (575 MPa) when compared at the same ductility level (22% elongation).

  16. Technology development for iron fisher-tropsch catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1997-07-15

    The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. the catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the standard-catalyst developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis, The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. the oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studies at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity, and aging characteristics.

  17. Technology Development for Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1997-12-16

    The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the `standard-catalyst` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  18. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS ...

  19. Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Low-energy spin excitations have been...

  20. Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption ...

  1. Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors Title: Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors Authors: Guo, Jing ; Chen, Xiao-Jia ...

  2. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.

    1986-09-16

    An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  3. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs' blood and muscle cells during decay, and were able to identify iron-facilitated reactions that...

  4. Laboratory Shock Experiments on Basalt - Iron Sulfate Mixes at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory Shock Experiments on Basalt - Iron Sulfate Mixes at 40 - 50 GPa and their ... Title: Laboratory Shock Experiments on Basalt - Iron Sulfate Mixes at 40 - 50 GPa and ...

  5. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  6. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come...

  7. Co-Production of Electricity and Hydrogen Using a Novel Iron-based Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilaly, Ahmad; Georgas, Adam; Leboreiro, Jose; Arora, Salil; Head, Megann; Trembly, Jason; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

    2011-09-30

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a hydrogen production technology for gasification applications based on a circulating fluid-bed reactor and an attrition resistant iron catalyst. The work towards achieving this objective consisted of three key activities: • Development of an iron-based catalyst suitable for a circulating fluid-bed reactor • Design, construction, and operation of a bench-scale circulating fluid-bed reactor system for hydrogen production • Techno-economic analysis of the steam-iron and the pressure swing adsorption hydrogen production processes. This report describes the work completed in each of these activities during this project. The catalyst development and testing program prepared and iron-based catalysts using different support and promoters to identify catalysts that had sufficient activity for cyclic reduction with syngas and steam oxidation and attrition resistance to enable use in a circulating fluid-bed reactor system. The best performing catalyst from this catalyst development program was produced by a commercial catalyst toll manufacturer to support the bench-scale testing activities. The reactor testing systems used during material development evaluated catalysts in a single fluid-bed reactor by cycling between reduction with syngas and oxidation with steam. The prototype SIP reactor system (PSRS) consisted of two circulating fluid-bed reactors with the iron catalyst being transferred between the two reactors. This design enabled demonstration of the technical feasibility of the combination of the circulating fluid-bed reactor system and the iron-based catalyst for commercial hydrogen production. The specific activities associated with this bench-scale circulating fluid-bed reactor systems that were completed in this project included design, construction, commissioning, and operation. The experimental portion of this project focused on technical demonstration of the performance of an iron-based catalyst and a circulating fluid-bed reactor system for hydrogen production. Although a technology can be technically feasible, successful commercial deployment also requires that a technology offer an economic advantage over existing commercial technologies. To effective estimate the economics of this steam-iron process, a techno-economic analysis of this steam iron process and a commercial pressure swing adsorption process were completed. The results from this analysis described in this report show the economic potential of the steam iron process for integration with a gasification plant for coproduction of hydrogen and electricity.

  8. Evaluation of the fabricability of advanced iron aluminide-clad austenitic stainless steel tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohn, W.R.; Topolski, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    Researchers at Babcock & Wilcox Alliance Research Center have investigated methods to produce bimetallic tubing consisting of iron aluminide-clad austenitic stainless steel for practical use in fossil fueled energy equipment. In the course of this work, the compatibility of iron aluminide with four candidate austenitic stainless steel substrates was first evaluated using diffusion couples. Based on these results, a combination of iron aluminide and 304 stainless steel was selected for further development. Two composite billets of this combination were then prepared and extruded in separate trails at 2200F and 2000F. Both extrusions yielded 2-inch OD clad tubes, each approximately 18 feet long. Results of the evaluation show that the tube extruded at 2000F had a sound, integrally bonded clad layer throughout its entire length. However, the tube extruded at 2200F exhibited regions of disbonding between the clad layer and the substrate. In supplement to this work, an assessment of the technical and economic merits of iron aluminide-clad austenitic stainless steel components in power generation systems was conducted by B&W Fossil Power Division. Future activities should include an investigation of lower extrusion processing temperatures to optimize the fabrication of high quality iron-aluminide clad tubing.

  9. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1998-06-02

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

  10. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:08 The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is

  11. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus; Muftikian, Rosy; Korte, Nic

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds.

  12. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus; Muftikian, Rosy; Korte, Nic

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds.

  13. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-03-18

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

  14. Synthesis of iron based hydrocracking catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Eldredge, Patricia A. (Barboursville, VA); Ladner, Edward P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A method of preparing a fine particle iron based hydrocracking catalyst and the catalyst prepared thereby. An iron (III) oxide powder and elemental sulfur are reacted with a liquid hydrogen donor having a hydroaromatic structure present in the range of from about 5 to about 50 times the weight of iron (III) oxide at a temperature in the range of from about 180.degree. C. to about 240.degree. C. for a time in the range of from about 0 to about 8 hours. Various specific hydrogen donors are disclosed. The catalysts are active at low temperature (<350.degree. C.) and low pressure.

  15. Electrochemical polishing of thread fastener test specimens of nickel-chromium iron alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kephart, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical polishing device and method for selective anodic dissolution of the surface of test specimens comprised, for example, of nickel-chromium-iron alloys, which provides for uniform dissolution at the localized sites to remove metal through the use of a coiled wire electrode (cathode) placed in the immediate proximity of the working, surface resulting in a polished and uniform grain boundary.

  16. Alteration of Iron-Rich Lacustrine Sediments by Dissimilatory Iron-Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe,S.; Roberts, J.; Weisener, C.; Fowle, D.

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of Fe during bacterial anaerobic respiration in sediments and soils not only causes the degradation of organic matter but also results in changes in mineralogy and the redistribution of many nutrients and trace metals. Understanding trace metal patterns in sedimentary rocks and predicting the fate of contaminants in the environment requires a detailed understanding of the mechanisms through which they are redistributed during Fe reduction. In this work, lacustrine sediments from Lake Matano in Indonesia were incubated in a minimal media with the dissimilatory iron reducing (DIR) bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens 200R. These sediments were reductively dissolved at rates slower than pure synthetic goethite despite the presence of an 'easily reducible' component, as defined by selective extractions. DIR of the lacustrine sediments resulted in the substrate-dependent production of abundant quantities of extracellular polymeric substances. Trace elements, including Ni, Co, P, Si, and As, were released from the sediments with progressive Fe reduction while Cr was sequestered. Much of the initial trace metal mobility can be attributed to the rapid reduction of a Mn-rich oxyhydroxide phase. The production of organo-Fe(III) reveals that DIR bacteria can generate significant metal complexation capacity. This work demonstrates that DIR induces the release of many elements associated with Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides, despite secondary mineralization.

  17. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Animal, Vegetable or Mineral? Iron is a limiting nutrient in many parts of the oceans, nowhere more so than in the Southern Ocean's photic zone, which receives enough sunlight for...

  18. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-07-29

    A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

  19. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which prevents two electrons from occupying the same site, resulting in a so-called Mott insulator. The lack of information on the strength of electron correlation in the iron...

  20. MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iron and Steel MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Iron and Steel More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006

  1. Center for Inverse Design Highlight: Iron Chalcogenide PV Absorbers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Absorbers The Center for Inverse Design has identified the iron-based ternary chalcogenide materials Fe 2 SiS 4 and Fe 2 GeS 4 as promising new photovoltaic materials, which circumvent the problems historically encountered with iron sulfide FeS 2 (iron pyrite). There is intense interest in earth-abundant materials, including iron-bearing systems, for the widespread development of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to sustainably meet growing energy needs. The inverse

  2. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  3. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  4. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  5. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  6. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  7. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  8. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  9. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  10. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  11. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  12. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  13. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  14. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-04-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. 10 figs.

  15. Temperature and melting of laser-shocked iron releasing into an LiF window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Henry, E.; Vinci, T.; Faral, B.; Tomasini, M.; Telaro, B.; Batani, D.

    2005-06-15

    Absolute reflectivity and self-emission diagnostics are used to determine the gray-body equivalent temperature of laser-shocked iron partially releasing into a lithium fluoride window. Pressure and reflectivity are measured simultaneously by means of velocity interferometer system for any reflector interferometers. In the temperature-pressure plane, a temperature plateau in the release is observed which is attributed to iron's melting line. Extrapolation of data leads to a melting temperature at Earth's inner-outer core boundary of 7800{+-}1200 K, in good agreement with previous works based on dynamic compression. Shock temperatures were calculated and found to be in the liquid phase.

  16. Interagency Working Groups

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) works closely with agencies and partner organizations to coordinate interagency working groups

  17. Microstructural Characterization of Nodular Ductile Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, H K

    2012-01-03

    The objective of this study is to quantify the graphite particle phase in nodular ductile iron (NDI). This study provides the basis for initializing microstructure in direct numerical simulations, as part of developing microstructure-fracture response models. The work presented here is a subset of a PhD dissertation on spall fracture in NDI. NDI is an ideal material for studying the influence of microstructure on ductile fracture because it contains a readily identifiable second-phase particle population, embedded in a ductile metallic matrix, which serves as primary void nucleation sites. Nucleated voids grow and coalesce under continued tensile loading, as part of the micromechanisms of ductile fracture, and lead to macroscopic failure. For this study, we used 2D optical microscopy and quantitative metallography relationships to characterize the volume fraction, size distribution, nearest-neighbor distance, and other higher-order metrics of the graphite particle phase. We found that the volume fraction was {Phi} = 0.115, the average particle diameter was d{sub avg} = 25.9 {mu}m, the Weibull shape and scaling parameters were {beta} = 1.8 and {eta} = 29.1 {mu}m, respectively, the (first) nearest neighbor distance was L{sub nn} = 32.4 {mu}m, the exponential coefficients for volume fraction fluctuations was A{sub {Phi}} = 1.89 and B{sub {Phi}} = -0.59, respectively. Based on reaching a coefficient-of-variation (COV) of 0.01, the representative volume element (RVE) size was determined to be 8.9L{sub nn} (288 {mu}m).

  18. Following iron speciation in the early stages of magnetite magnetosome biomineralization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Olszewska, Agata; Faivre, Damien; Prozorov, Tanya

    2016-02-26

    Understanding magnetosome magnetite biomineralization is of fundamental interest to devising the strategies for bioinspired synthesis of magnetic materials at the nanoscale. Thus, we investigated the early stages of magnetosome formation in this work and correlated the size and emergent crystallinity of magnetosome nanoparticles with the changes in chemical environment of iron and oxygen by utilizing advanced analytical electron microscopy techniques. We observed that magnetosomes in the early stages of biomineralization with the sizes of 5–10 nm were amorphous, with a majority of iron present as Fe3+, indicative of ferric hydroxide. The magnetosomes with intermediate sizes showed partially crystalline structure withmore » a majority of iron present as Fe3+ and trace amounts of Fe2+. The fully maturated magnetosomes were indexed to magnetite. Furthermore, our approach provides spatially resolved structural and chemical information of individual magnetosomes with different particle sizes, attributed to magnetosomes at different stages of biomineralization.« less

  19. MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY STUDIES OF IRON CATALYSTS USED IN SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.P. Huffman; K. R. P. M. Rao; F.E. Huggins

    1998-02-01

    Iron and cobalt are the two principal choices as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. As discussed in a recent review by Wender each metal has certain advantages and disadvantages. Davis and co-workers have recently discussed the advantages of iron-based F-T catalysts in some detail. In order to understand the catalytic reaction mechanisms of iron during F-T synthesis, it is critical to identify the active catalytic phases. Moreover, from a practical point of view, it is equally important to identify the reactions and transformations that deactivate the catalysts. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is perhaps the best technique available for quantitative characterization of the iron phases in complex samples. For the past several years, our group has been using Moessbauer spectroscopy to characterize the iron-based catalysts prepared and tested for F-T synthesis in a number of DOE-sponsored programs. The results of this investigation have been summarized in detail in DOE reports and in a number of publications released over the past few years. A list of the principal publications resulting from this work is given. A brief summary of the highlights of the results presented in these papers is presented in the current report.

  20. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  1. Reaction of Inconel 690 and 693 in Iron Phosphate Melts: Alternative Glasses for Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Delbert E.

    2005-09-13

    The corrosion resistance of candidate materials used for the electrodes (Inconel 690 & 693) and the melt contact refractory (Monofrax K-3) in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) has been investigated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) during the period from June 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (DE-FG02-04ER63831). The unusual properties and characteristics of iron phosphate glasses, as viewed from the standpoint of alternative glasses for vitrifying nuclear and hazardous wastes which contain components that make them poorly suited for vitrification in borosilicate glass, were recently discovered at UMR. The expanding national and international interest in iron phosphate glasses for waste vitrification stems from their rapid melting and chemical homogenization which results in higher furnace output, their high waste loading that varies from 32 wt% up to 75 wt% for the Hanford LAW and HLW, respectively, and the outstanding chemical durability of the iron phosphate wasteforms which meets all present DOE requirements (PCT and VHT). The higher waste loading in iron phosphate glasses, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass, can reduce the time and cost of vitrification considerably since a much smaller mass of glass will be produced, for example, about 43% less glass when the LAW at Hanford is vitrified in an iron phosphate glass according to PNNL estimates. In view of the promising performance of iron phosphate glasses, information is needed for how to best melt these glasses on the scale needed for practical use. Melting iron phosphate glasses in a JHM is considered the preferred method at this time because its design could be nearly identical to the JHM now used to melt borosilicate glasses at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Westinghouse Savannah River Co. Therefore, it is important to have information for the corrosion of candidate electrode and refractory materials in iron phosphate melts in a JHM. During the period from June 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005, the corrosion resistance of coupons of Inconel 690 & 693 metals and Monofrax K-3 refractory, partially submerged in several iron phosphate melts at 950-1200?C, has been investigated to determine whether iron phosphate glasses could be melted in a JHM equipped with such electrodes and refractory in the same manner as now being used to melt borosilicate glass. These representative iron phosphate melts, which contained 30 wt% Hanford LAW and 40 wt% Idaho SBW simulants, did not corrode the Inconel 690 to any greater extent than what has been reported for Inconel 690 in the borosilicate melt in the JHM at DWPF. Inconel 693 appeared to be an even better candidate for use in iron phosphate melts since its corrosion rate (1.8 to 25.4 ?m/day) was only about one half that (5.4 to 45.4 ?m/day) of Inconel 690. The dynamic corrosion measured for the candidate refractory, Monofrax K-3, by iron phosphate melts is quite encouraging since the measured corrosion (0.011 to 0.132 mm/day at 9.2 rpm) is less than the corrosion (0.137 mm/day) that has been reported in the JHM used to melt borosilicate glass at DWPF. During the period covered by this final report, the results of the research on iron phosphate glasses have been described in seven technical papers and have been presented at one national meeting. In addition to the principal investigator, one research professor and one undergraduate research aide were supported by this project.

  2. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY); Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  3. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  4. OSCARS Collaborative Work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OSCARS Collaborative Work Engineering Services The Network OSCARS How It Works Who's Using OSCARS? OSCARS and Future Tech OSCARS Standard and Open Grid Forum OSCARS Developers...

  5. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization Rb Promoted Iron Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar,A.; Jacobs, G.; Ji, Y.; Hamdeh, H.; Davis, B.

    2008-01-01

    Rubidium promoted iron Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were prepared with two Rb/Fe atomic ratios (1.44/100 and 5/100) using rubidium nitrate and rubidium carbonate as rubidium precursors. Results of catalytic activity and deactivation studies in a CSTR revealed that rubidium promoted catalysts result in a steady conversion with a lower deactivation rate than that of the corresponding unpromoted catalyst although the initial activity of the promoted catalyst was almost half that of the unpromoted catalyst. Rubidium promotion results in lower methane production, and higher CO2, alkene and 1-alkene fraction in FTS products. M{umlt o}ssbauer spectroscopic measurements of CO activated and working catalyst samples indicated that the composition of the iron carbide phase formed after carbidization was -Fe5 C2 for both promoted and unpromoted catalysts. However, in the case of the rubidium promoted catalyst, '-Fe2.2C became the predominant carbidic phase as FTS continued and the overall catalyst composition remained carbidic in nature. In contrast, the carbide content of the unpromoted catalyst was found to decline very quickly as a function of synthesis time. Results of XANES and EXAFS measurements suggested that rubidium was present in the oxidized state and that the compound most prevalent in the active catalyst samples closely resembled that of rubidium carbonate.

  6. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced...

  7. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Films | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films

  8. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.

    1985-10-28

    Disclosed is an improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  9. Baotou Iron and Steel Group Baotou Steel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Baotou Iron and Steel Group (Baotou Steel) Place: Baotou, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Baotou-based iron and steel maker as well as a rare...

  10. Iron County, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is classified as ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number 5 Climate Zone Subtype B. Registered Energy Companies in Iron County, Utah Solar Unlimited USA Places in Iron County, Utah...

  11. City of Mountain Iron, Minnesota (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Mountain Iron, Minnesota (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Mountain Iron Place: Minnesota Phone Number: (218)748-7570 Website: www.mtniron.com...

  12. Minnesota Jobs to Come with Efficient Iron Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New energy-efficient iron plant offers a ray of hope for workers after local mining company shuts down.

  13. Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Plutonium subsurface mobility is primarily controlled by its oxidation state, which in turn is loosely coupled to the oxidation state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on

  14. Service and Repair Work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Service and Repair Work Whenever on-site service or repair work needs to be done, a Procurement Work Sheet (PWS) must be completed, and possibly an IWS, authorized and released. PWS is required for service work even if there are no apparent hazards. PWS is required for work in Jupiter Laser Facility even if you have a PWS for service/repairs in another location. To complete a PWS for service work in Jupiter Laser Facility, please contact Sean Holte (2-3905, pager #05312). Notify Brent Stuart and

  15. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  16. UCRL-JRNL-228174 Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JRNL-228174 Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes S. A. Steiner, T. F. Baumann, J. Kong, J. H. Satcher, M. S. Dresselhaus February 20, 2007 Langmuir Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the University of California nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or

  17. Work with Biological Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work with Biological Materials Print Planning A complete Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS) is required before work can be done at the ALS. This ESS is either a part of the proposal...

  18. HQ Work Control Permit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To ensure safe operations when undertaking work at DOE Headquarters, the Office of Headquarters Health and Safety has developed a Work Permit document (doc) to help ensure the safety of all workers...

  19. STATEMENT OF WORK

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    PART III - SECTION J APPENDIX B STATEMENT OF WORK Table of Contents 1.0 General.................................................................................................................... 273 2.0 Laboratory Mission and Scope of Work. ................................................................ 274 3.0 Science & Technology. ........................................................................................... 275 3.1 Defense Programs.

  20. Work plan (Nov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work Plans & Manuals Work Plans & Manuals This list contains audit and inspections manuals and a list of planned reviews to be conducted by the Office of Audits and Inspections. Documents Available for Download November 20, 2014 Work Plan FY 2016 Planned Audits and Inspections for FY 2016 December 23, 2014 Audit Manual 2014 Office of Inspector General Audit Manual

    ARM STM Cloud Modeling Working Group Session AGENDA Brief introduction of new ARM funded modeling projects:

  1. Interagency Sustainability Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Interagency Sustainability Working Group (ISWG) is the coordinating body for sustainable buildings in the federal government.

  2. Administering Work Force Discipline

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-05-14

    The order provides requirements and responsibilities for administering work force discipline and corrective actions. Supersedes DOE O 3750.1.

  3. The Romelt Process -- Prospects for pig iron production in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, M.W.; Weston, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    The iron and steel industry in North America is undergoing dramatic changes and is being driven by three factors. First, the introduction of new technologies and pace of innovation has placed North America at the forefront of commercializing new technologies. Second, new technologies have changed the market for steelmaking raw materials and stimulated an industry-wide discussion of the ``value in use`` of scrap and scrap substitutes. Finally, an increase in environmental costs has fundamentally changed management`s view toward the environmental impact of iron and steelmaking, particularly in the integrated steel industry. This paper discusses the Romelt Process, an emerging ironmaking technology developed by the Moscow Institute for Steels and Alloys, in the context of these industry trends. ICF Kaiser, a worldwide licensee to the Romelt technology, believes that the current North American climate is probably the most conducive of all steelmaking regions to the commercialization of new technologies. Liquid or cast pig iron, the product of the Romelt Process, is the highest value feed for both the EAF and BOF steelmaking processes. In terms of environmental benefits, Romelt uses non-coking coals for its fuel and reductant, and has a proven large scale pilot plant track record in smelting both low grade fine ores and iron bearing wastes from the integrated works.

  4. Water Clustering on Nanostructured Iron Oxide Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merte, L. R.; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Laegsgaard, E.; Wendt, Stefen; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2014-06-30

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing molecule–molecule and molecule–surface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire´-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the are film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moire´ structure.

  5. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  6. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  7. Spectroscopic absorption measurements of an iron plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, P.T.; Fields, D.J.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.; Goldstein, W.H.; Iglesias, C.A.; Rogers, F.J.; Swenson, J.K.; Chen, M.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Stewart, R.E. Nuclear Research Center Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 )

    1992-12-28

    The first quantitative measurement of photoabsorption in the region determining the Rosseland and Planck mean opacities is obtained for a well-characterized, radiatively heated iron plasma using new techniques and instrumentation. The plasma density and temperature are simultaneously constrained with high accuracy, allowing unambiguous comparisons with opacity models used in modeling radiative transfer in equilibrium astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. The experimental Rosseland and Planck group means are constrained to an accuracy of 15%.

  8. Crystal Structure of Iron-dependent Halogenase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron-dependent Halogenase Over 4000 natural products contain halide atoms such as chlorine, bromine, or iodine.1 Halogenated natural products are medically valuable and include antibiotics (chlorotetracycline and vancomycin), antitumor agents (rebeccamycin and calichemycin), and human thyroid hormone (thyroxine).2 Halogenation is essential to the biological activity and chemical reactivity of such compounds, and often generates versatile molecular building blocks for synthetic organic chemists.

  9. Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tesanovic, Zlatko [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

    2010-09-01

    Superconductivity is a stunning quantum phenomenon and among the deepest paradigms in all of physics. From fundamental theories of the universe to strange goings-on in exotic materials to medical imaging and cell phones, its conceptual and practical dimensions span a reach as wide as anything in science. Twenty-odd years ago, the discovery of copper oxides ushered in a new era of high-temperature superconductivity, and the joyous exuberance that followed - with physicists throwing everything from fancy gauge theories to synchrotron radiation into its kitchen sink - only recently began to show any signs of waning. In the spring of 2008, as if on cue, a new family of iron pnictide high-temperature superconductors burst on the scene, hinting at an alternative route to room-temperature superconductivity and all of its momentous consequences. Fueled by genuine excitement - and a bit of hype - the iron-based superconductivity turned into a science blockbuster of 2009. I will present a pedagogical review of this new field, contrast the physics of iron- and copper-based systems, and speculate on the microscopic origins of the two types of high-temperature superconductivity.

  10. Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Filippi, Arthur M.; Sprecace, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    This invention identifies methods and articles designed to circumvent metallurgical problems associated with hermetically closing an all cast iron nuclear waste package by welding. It involves welding nickel-carbon alloy inserts which are bonded to the mating plug and main body components of the package. The welding inserts might be bonded in place during casting of the package components. When the waste package closure weld is made, the most severe thermal effects of the process are restricted to the nickel-carbon insert material which is far better able to accommodate them than is cast iron. Use of nickel-carbon weld inserts should eliminate any need for pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments which are a problem to apply to nuclear waste packages. Although the waste package closure weld approach described results in a dissimilar metal combination, the relative surface area of nickel-to-iron, their electrochemical relationship, and the presence of graphite in both materials will act to prevent any galvanic corrosion problem.

  11. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2005-10-14

    The commercialization path of the Calderon technology for making a feedstock for steelmaking with assistance from DOE initially focused on making coke and work was done which proved that the Calderon technology is capable of making good coke for hard driving blast furnaces. U.S. Steel which participated in such demonstration felt that the Calderon technology would be more meaningful in lowering the costs of making steel by adapting it to the making of iron--thus obviating the need for coke. U.S. Steel and Calderon teamed up to jointly work together to demonstrate that the Calderon technology will produce in a closed system iron units from iron concentrate (ore) and coal competitively by eliminating pelletizing, sintering, coking and blast furnace operation. If such process steps could be eliminated, a huge reduction in polluting emissions and greenhouse gases (including CO{sub 2}) relating to steelmaking would ensue. Such reduction will restructure the steel industry away from the very energy-intensive steelmaking steps currently practiced and drastically reduce costs of making steel. The development of a technology to lower U.S. steelmaking costs and become globally competitive is a priority of major importance. Therefore, the development work which Calderon is conducting presently under this Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy becomes more crucial than ever. During the 3rd quarter of 2005 which the present report covers, virtually all the effort to advance the Calderon technology to make iron units was concentrated towards forming a team with a steelmaker who needs both iron units in the form of hot metal and a substitute for natural gas (SNG), both being major contributors to higher costs in steelmaking. Calderon felt that a very good candidate would be Steel Dynamics (SDI) by virtue that it operates a rotary hearth facility in Butler, Indiana that uses large amounts of natural gas to reduce briquettes made from ore and coal that they subsequently melt in a submerged arc furnace that is a large consumer of electric power. This facility is operated as a division of SDI under the name of Iron Dynamics (IDI). It is no secret that IDI has had and still has a great number of operational problems, including high cost for natural gas.

  12. TeamWorks.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Team Team Works Works TeamWorks TRU TeamWorks is a biweekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team D E P A R T M E N T O F E N E R G Y U N I T E D S T A T E S O F A M E R I C A Tools Feedback By the Numbers O Our Team: People make it happen The latest on WIPP team news ... Working Smart: Survey says: TeamWorks' new look is not the only change you'll notice ... Safety & Security: Get a load of this ... Picking up the paper takes on a whole new meaning ... Operations: The view

  13. ORISE: Working with ORISE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Working with ORISE If you are interested in learning about how your agency can utilize the capabilities of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) through a Work for Others agreement or a procurement contract, or if you are looking for career opportunities, the following information provides an explanation of how to work with ORISE. If you do not see an option that applies to your needs, please contact ORISE General Information.

  14. Work/Life Balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workplace » Work/Life Balance /careers/_assets/images/careers-icon.jpg Work/Life Balance Explore the multiple dimensions of a career at Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Complete suite of benefits to balance your career Enlarge poster enlarge Enlarge poster enlarge Enlarge poster enlarge Enlarge poster enlarge Enlarge poster enlarge Enlarge poster enlarge Enlarge poster enlarge

  15. Work with Biological Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for proper development and review time. Training All resident LBNL users (those whose work authorization includes a JHA) must take the standard LBNL training courses for...

  16. Work with Biological Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work with Biological Materials Print Planning A complete Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS) is required before work can be done at the ALS. This ESS is either a part of the proposal process or may be completed as an independent document. In the ESS, identify each material (including all biological materials) with which you will be working. The regulatory oversight for biological work is very complicated and we need to understand the risk levels involved with the material you plan to use at the ALS,

  17. Work with Biological Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work with Biological Materials Print Planning A complete Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS) is required before work can be done at the ALS. This ESS is either a part of the proposal process or may be completed as an independent document. In the ESS, identify each material (including all biological materials) with which you will be working. The regulatory oversight for biological work is very complicated and we need to understand the risk levels involved with the material you plan to use at the ALS,

  18. INL @ work: Archaeologist

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Dino

    2013-05-28

    INL @ work features jobs performed at the lab. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  19. Work with Biological Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cells, viruses), plant or soil samples (USDA quarantines), recombinant DNA, or blood-borne pathogen. Biological Use Authorization The great majority of biological work at...

  20. DOE Physicists at Work - Dr. Peter Beiersdorfer | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information Physicists at Work - Dr. Peter Beiersdorfer DOE Physicists at Work Archive DOE Office of Science celebrates 2005 World Year of Physics DOE Physicists at Work Profiles of representative DOE-sponsored physicists doing research at universities and national laboratories Compiled by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information Dr. Peter Beiersdorfer It was just a simple iron wire, strung across the ceiling, that when heated by a current

  1. DOE Physicists at Work - Dr. Peter Beiersdorfer | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information DOE Physicists at Work - Dr. Peter Beiersdorfer DOE Physicists at Work Archive DOE Office of Science celebrates 2005 World Year of Physics DOE Physicists at Work Profiles of representative DOE-sponsored physicists doing research at universities and national laboratories Compiled by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information Dr. Peter Beiersdorfer It was just a simple iron wire, strung across the ceiling, that when heated by a current

  2. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, D.E.

    1998-05-12

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

  3. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Delbert E.

    1998-01-01

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

  4. Work Authorization System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-04-21

    To establish a work authorization and control process for work performed by designated site and facility management contractors, and other contractors as determined by the procurement executive, consistent with the budget execution and program evaluation requirements of the Department of Energy's Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Evaluation process. Admin Chg 1, dated 5-21-2014, cancels DOE O 412.1A.

  5. Work Authorization System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-04-21

    To establish a work authorization and control process for work performed by designated site and facility management contractors, and other contractors as determined by the procurement executive, consistent with the budget execution and program evaluation requirements of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Evaluation process. Cancels DOE O 412.1.

  6. Work Authorization System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-04-20

    It establishes a work authorization and control process for work performed by designated management and operating (M&O), management and integrating (M&I), environmental restoration management contracts (ERMC) and other contracts determined by the Procurement Executive (hereafter referred to as M&O contractors). Cancels DOE O 5700.7C. Canceled by DOE O 412.1A.

  7. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  8. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  9. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  10. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Thursday, 21 August 2014 10:43 Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were

  11. Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Aerosol Solubility: Potential Effects of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Source on Ocean Photosynthesis Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Aerosol Solubility: Potential Effects of Aerosol Source on Ocean Photosynthesis figure 1 Figure 1. Dust storm blowing glacial dusts from the Copper River Basin of southeast Alaska into the North Pacific Ocean, which depends on this and other external iron sources to support its biological communities. (Image: NASA MODIS satellite image, Nov. 1, 2006. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7094) Iron is one of

  12. Iron-titanium-mischmetal alloys for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary Dale

    1978-01-01

    A method for the preparation of an iron-titanium-mischmetal alloy which is used for the storage of hydrogen. The alloy is prepared by air-melting an iron charge in a clay-graphite crucible, adding titanium and deoxidizing with mischmetal. The resultant alloy contains less than about 0.1% oxygen and exhibits a capability for hydrogen sorption in less than half the time required by vacuum-melted, iron-titanium alloys.

  13. Reduction and carburization reactions in the iron bath smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uemura, Kenichiro

    1993-01-01

    Slag-metal-coal reactions in the iron-bath smelter were analyzed based on a reaction model. It was concluded that the productivity and carbon content of the hot metal produced in a smelter can be controlled by adjusting the slag volume and iron oxide content in slag. Furthermore, iron oxide content is determined by the slag volume and the stirring intensity of the slag.

  14. Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels Accurate and precise determination of the redox state of iron (Fe) in spinels presents a significant challenge due to their refractory nature. The resultant extreme conditions needed to obtain complete dissolution generally oxidize some of the Fe(II) initially present and thus prevent the use of

  15. COLLOQUIUM: How Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab April 9, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: How Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America Mr. Clifford Zink Independent Historian Iron and steel innovations in Trenton helped transform modern life with new methods of transportation, construction, and communications. Peter Cooper established his Trenton Iron Company on the Delaware River in 1847, and rolled America's first I-beams in the early 1850s. Cooper then established the

  16. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  17. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  18. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  19. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  20. Melter Throughput Enhancements for High-Iron HLW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A. A.; Gan, Hoa; Joseph, Innocent; Pegg, Ian L.; Matlack, Keith S.; Chaudhuri, Malabika; Kot, Wing

    2012-12-26

    This report describes work performed to develop and test new glass and feed formulations in order to increase glass melting rates in high waste loading glass formulations for HLW with high concentrations of iron. Testing was designed to identify glass and melter feed formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts to assess melt rate using a vertical gradient furnace system and to develop new formulations with enhanced melt rate. Testing evaluated the effects of waste loading on glass properties and the maximum waste loading that can be achieved. The results from crucible-scale testing supported subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass and feed formulations on waste processing rate and product quality. The DM100 was selected as the platform for these tests due to its extensive previous use in processing rate determination for various HLW streams and glass compositions.

  1. Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate ...

  2. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Wednesday, 30 April 2014 00:00 Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron

  3. Big Iron for Big Data: An Unnatural Alliance?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Big Iron for Big Data: An Unnatural Alliance? Steve Plimpton Sandia National Labs Salishan Conference on High-Speed Computing April 2012 Big data analytics (BD) versus scientific...

  4. Low Resistivity Contact to Iron-Pnicitide Superconductors - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Low Resistivity Contact to Iron-Pnicitide Superconductors Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology...

  5. Low Resistivity Contact to Iron-Pnicitide Superconductors - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Resistivity Contact to Iron-Pnicitide Superconductors Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Superconductors are materials which carry...

  6. Iron active electrode and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackovitz, John F. (Monroeville, PA); Seidel, Joseph (Pittsburgh, PA); Pantier, Earl A. (Verona, PA)

    1982-10-26

    An iron active electrode and method of preparing same in which iron sulfate is calcined in an oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature in the range of from about 600.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce an iron oxide with a trace amount of sulfate. The calcined material is loaded into an electrically conductive support and then heated in a reducing atmosphere at an elevated temperature to produce activated iron having a trace amount of sulfide which is formed into an electrode plate.

  7. Iron County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone Number 7 Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Iron County, Wisconsin Anderson, Wisconsin Carey, Wisconsin Gurney, Wisconsin Hurley, Wisconsin Kimball, Wisconsin...

  8. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  9. Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide ... Publication Date: 2014-07-21 OSTI Identifier: 1123936 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  10. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Littlejohn, David; Shi, Yao

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH.sub.3. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20.degree. and 90.degree. C. to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution.

  11. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    occurring mechanism for stabilization of soft tissues has implications beyond paleontology. If iron-mediated reactions are part of a continuum from those that facilitate life...

  12. Recoil-free fractions of iron in aluminous bridgmanite fromtemperatur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from temperature-dependent Mssbauer spectra Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recoil-free fractions of iron in aluminous bridgmanite from temperature-dependent ...

  13. Microstructural Modification of a Cast Iron by Magnetic Field Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The current study deals with the microstructural modification of a nodular cast iron during solidification under the influence of high magnetic fields (up to 18 tesla).

  14. Correlation effects in the iron pnictides (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    One of the central questions about the iron pnictides concerns the extent to which their electrons are strongly correlated. Here we address this issue through the phenomenology of ...

  15. Melting of clinopyroxene + magnesite in iron-bearing planetary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Melting of clinopyroxene + magnesite in iron-bearing planetary mantles and implications for the Earth and Mars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Melting of clinopyroxene + ...

  16. Mountain Iron, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Iron, Minnesota: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 47.5324267, -92.623515 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  17. Trails Working Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working Group Trails Working Group Our mission is to inventory, map, and prepare historical reports on the many trails used at LANL. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email The LANL Trails Working Group inventories, maps, and prepares historical reports on the many trails used at LANL. Some of these trails are ancient pueblo footpaths that continue to be used for recreational hiking today. Some serve as quiet

  18. How It Works

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How It Works Engineering Services The Network OSCARS How It Works Who's Using OSCARS? OSCARS and Future Tech OSCARS Standard and Open Grid Forum OSCARS Developers Community Read More... Fasterdata IPv6 Network Network Performance Tools The ESnet Engineering Team Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net How It Works

  19. ID@Work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ID@Work ID@Work ID@Work is a video feature that introduces DOE-ID employees and the jobs they perform. These videos are created in Windows Media Video (wmv) format and have no scripts are available. 2013, January Morris Hall is the Radiological Controls Manager for the Idaho Operations Office 2 minutes, (18 MB) 2012, December Mark Arenaz, Director of ID's Office of Project Management Support 2 minutes, (14 MB) 2012, January Carol Henning, Safety Team Lead for Quality and Safety Division 2

  20. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Arc Steelmaking - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Iwao Iwasaki; Richard F. Kiesel; David J. Englund; David W. Hendrickson; Rodney L. Bleifuss

    2010-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces, and an increasing number of alternative processes using metallic scrap iron, pig iron and metallized iron ore products. Currently, iron ores from Minnesota and Michigan are pelletized and shipped to the lower Great Lakes ports as blast furnace feed. The existing transportation system and infrastructure is geared to handling these bulk materials. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the needs of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling. A recent commercial installation employing Kobe Steel’s ITmk3 process, was installed in Northeastern Minnesota. The basic process uses a moving hearth furnace to directly reduce iron oxides to metallic iron from a mixture of iron ore, coals and additives. The resulting products can be shipped using the existing infrastructure for use in various steelmaking processes. The technology reportedly saves energy by 30% over the current integrated steelmaking process and reduces emissions by more than 40%. A similar large-scale pilot plant campaign is also currently in progress using JFE Steel’s Hi-QIP process in Japan. The objective of this proposal is to build upon and improve the technology demonstrated by Kobe Steel and JFE, by further reducing cost, improving quality and creating added incentive for commercial development. This project expands previous research conducted at the University of Minnesota Duluth’s Natural Resources Research Institute and that reported by Kobe and JFE Steel. Three major issues have been identified and are addressed in this project for producing high-quality nodular reduced iron (NRI) at low cost: (1) reduce the processing temperature, (2) control the furnace gas atmosphere over the NRI, and (3) effectively use sub-bituminous coal as a reductant. From over 4000 laboratory tube and box furnace tests, it was established that the correct combination of additives, fluxes, and reductant while controlling the concentration of CO and CO2 in the furnace atmosphere (a) lowers the operating temperature, (b) decreases the use of reductant coal (c) generates less micro nodules of iron, and (d) promotes desulphurization. The laboratory scale work was subsequently verified on 12.2 m (40 ft) long pilot scale furnace. High quality NRI could be produced on a routine basis using the pilot furnace facility with energy provided from oxy-gas or oxy-coal burner technologies. Specific strategies were developed to allow the use of sub-bituminous coals both as a hearth material and as part of the reaction mixture. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to study the overall carbothermic reduction and smelting process. The movement of the furnace gas on a pilot hearth furnace and larger simulated furnaces and various means of controlling the gas atmosphere were evaluated. Various atmosphere control methods were identified and tested during the course of the investigation. Based on the results, the appropriate modifications to the furnace were made and tested at the pilot scale. A series of reduction and smelting tests were conducted to verify the utility of the processing conditions. During this phase, the overall energy use characteristics, raw materials, alternative fuels, and the overall economics predicted for full scale implementation were analyzed. The results indicate that it should be possible to lower reaction temperatures while simultaneously producing low sulfur, high carbon NRI if the right mix chemistry and atmosphere are employed. Recommendations for moving the technology to the next stage of commercialization are presented.

  1. How Lasers Work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Lasers Work "Laser" is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. A laser is created when the electrons in atoms in special glasses, crystals, or ...

  2. Clean Energy Works

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through Clean Energy Works, homeowners can finance up to $30,000 at a fixed interest rate for home energy efficiency retrofits for a variety of measures. Customers have varying lender and loan op...

  3. Strategic Initiatives Work Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Work Group, comprised of members representing DOE, contractor and worker representatives, provides a forum for information sharing; data collection and analysis; as well as, identifying best practices and initiatives to enhance safety performance and safety culture across the Complex.

  4. How Fusion Energy Works

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. As part of How Energy Works, we'll cover everything from fuel sources to plasma physics and beyond.

  5. Quality Work Plan Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the value of an experienced crews * No way to place value on high-quality training * Inconsistent methods of inspection across the network * No national standards for work quality ...

  6. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  7. Working Together | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Address Natural Gas Storage Safety Working Together to Address Natural Gas Storage Safety April 1, 2016 - 11:15am Addthis Working Together to Address Natural Gas Storage Safety Franklin (Lynn) Orr Franklin (Lynn) Orr Under Secretary for Science and Energy Marie Therese Dominguez Marie Therese Dominguez Administrator, U.S. Department of Transportation's Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration As a part of the Administration's ongoing commitment to support state and

  8. Fermilab: Science at Work

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brendan Casey; Herman White; Craig Hogan; Denton Morris; Mary Convery; Bonnie Fleming; Deborah Harris; Dave Schmitz; Brenna Flaugher; Aron Soha

    2013-02-14

    Six days. Three frontiers. One amazing lab. From 2010 to 2012, a film crew followed a group of scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermilab and filmed them at work and at home. This 40-minute documentary shows the diversity of the people, research and work at Fermilab. Viewers catch a true behind-the-scenes look of the United States' premier particle physics laboratory while scientists explain why their research is important to them and the world.

  9. Partnerships & Sponsored Work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partnerships & Sponsored Work Partnerships & Sponsored Work Los Alamos scientists and engineers conduct basic research across a wide range of scientific areas to support our national security mission. Many of the technologies, processes, and special technical expertise we have developed has been applied to solving problems in the private sector through mutually beneficial, technology partnerships. Contact Cooperative Research & Development Agreements (CRADA) CRADA Team Email

  10. Working With Us | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working With Us Join us in building a clean energy future. NREL offers many opportunities to industry, organizations, government, researchers, businesses, students, educators, and vendors. At NREL, we work with organizations large and small through research partnerships, licensing of NREL technologies, support for cleantech stakeholders, and fostering the clean energy economy. Join us to accelerate the movement of renewable energy and energy-efficient solutions into practical applications.

  11. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Final Report: The Impact of Carbonate on Surface Protonation, Electron Transfer and Crystallization Reactions in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Colloids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, David Adams

    2013-07-02

    This project addresses key issues of importance in the geochemical behavior of iron oxides and in the geochemical cycling of carbon and iron. For Fe, we are specifically studying the influence of carbonate on electron transfer reactions, solid phase transformations, and the binding of carbonate to reactive sites on the edges of particles. The emphasis on carbonate arises because it is widely present in the natural environment, is known to bind strongly to oxide surfaces, is reactive on the time scales of interest, and has a speciation driven by acid-base reactions. The geochemical behavior of carbonate strongly influences global climate change and CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies. Our goal is to answer key questions with regards to specific site binding, electron transfer reactions, and crystallization reactions of iron oxides that impact both the geochemical cycling of iron and CO{sub 2} species. Our work is focused on the molecular level description of carbonate chemistry in solution including the prediction of isotope fractionation factors. We have also done work on critical atmospheric species.

  13. Work Force Retention Work Group Charter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Force Retention Work Group Charter Work Force Retention Work Group Charter The Work force Retention Work Group is established to support the Department's critical focus on maintaining a high-performing work force at a time when a significant number of the workers needed to support DOE's national security mission are reaching retirement age. PDF icon Work Force Retention Work Group Charter More Documents & Publications Workforce Retention Work Group Status Overview - September 2012 Training

  14. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-08-02

    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  15. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metallized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metallized iron nodules at low cost.

  16. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metalized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metalized iron nodules at low cost.

  17. Exhibit G / working draft

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Off-site (Rev 5, 2/28/2014) P.R. No. * Date * Page 1 of 2 Subcontract No. or PO No. * EXHIBIT G OFF-SITE SECURITY REQUIREMENTS G1.0 Definitions and Acronyms (Feb 2014) Definitions and acronyms may be accessed electronically at http://www.lanl.gov/resources/_assets/docs/Exhibit-G/exhibit-g-definitions-acronyms-green.pdf G2.0 Statements Applicable To Scope of Work (July 2013) CONTRACTOR believes that all of the statements listed below are factually correct and applicable to the scope of work (SOW)

  18. System and method for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L.; Englund, David J.; Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

    2011-09-20

    A method for producing metallic iron nodules by assembling a shielding entry system to introduce coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh in to the furnace atmosphere at location(s) where the temperature of the furnace atmosphere adjacent at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material is between about 2200 and 2650.degree. F. (1200 and 1450.degree. C.), the shielding entry system adapted to inhibit emission of infrared radiation from the furnace atmosphere and seal the furnace atmosphere from exterior atmosphere while introducing coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh into the furnace to be distributed over the at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material, and heating the covered at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material in a fusion atmosphere to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material during fusion to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material in forming metallic iron nodules.

  19. Work Force Discipline

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1983-03-23

    The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

  20. work_guidance_final

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    least an appropriate JLab Task List is required (halist, hblist, hclist, hdlist, pslist), and one should consider a formal work control document. See points 2-5 below. * Any setup or task that has a total duration of more than two weeks requires at the very least an appropriate JLab Task List (halist, hblist, hclist, hdlist, pslist). A paper copy

  1. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Adam Crawford; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-09-30

    In the previous reporting period, modifications were completed for integrating a continuous wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor. During the current reporting period, a shakedown of the system was completed. Several problems were encountered with the progressive cavity pump used to circulate the wax/catalyst slurry though the cross-flow filter element and reactor. During the activation of the catalyst with elevated temperature (> 270 C) the elastomer pump stator released sulfur thereby totally deactivating the iron-based catalyst. Difficulties in maintaining an acceptable leak rate from the pump seal and stator housing were also encountered. Consequently, the system leak rate exceeded the expected production rate of wax; therefore, no online filtration could be accomplished. Work continued regarding the characterization of ultra-fine catalyst structures. The effect of carbidation on the morphology of iron hydroxide oxide particles was the focus of the study during this reporting period. Oxidation of Fe (II) sulfate results in predominantly {gamma}-FeOOH particles which have a rod-shaped (nano-needles) crystalline structure. Carbidation of the prepared {gamma}-FeOOH with CO at atmospheric pressure produced iron carbides with spherical layered structure. HRTEM and EDS analysis revealed that carbidation of {gamma}-FeOOH particles changes the initial nano-needles morphology and generates ultrafine carbide particles with irregular spherical shape.

  2. Development of attrition resistant iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-09-20

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. The use of iron-based catalysts is attractive not only due to their low cost and ready availability, but also due to their high water-gas shift activity which makes it possible to use these catalysts with low H{sub 2}/CO ratios. However, a serious problem with use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, makes the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objective of this research is to develop robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry bubble column reactor. Specifically we aim to develop to: (1) improve the performance and preparation procedure of the high activity, high attrition resistant, high alpha iron-based catalysts synthesized at Hampton University (2) seek improvements in the catalyst performance through variations in process conditions, pretreatment procedures and/or modifications in catalyst preparation steps and (3) investigate the performance in a slurry reactor. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to effects of pretreating procedures, using H{sub 2}, CO and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO = 0.67) as reductants, on the performance (activity, selectivity and stability with time) of a precipitated iron catalyst (100Fe/5Cu/4.2K/10SiO{sub 2} on a mass basis ) during F-T synthesis were studied in a fixed-bed reactor.

  3. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L.; Englund, David J.; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R.; Brandon, Mark M.; True, Bradford G.

    2012-01-17

    A hearth furnace 10 for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing 11 having a drying/preheat zone 12, a conversion zone 13, a fusion zone 14, and optionally a cooling zone 15, the conversion zone 13 is between the drying/preheat zone 12 and the fusion zone 14. A moving hearth 20 is positioned within the furnace housing 11. A hood or separation barrier 30 within at least a portion of the conversion zone 13, fusion zone 14 or both separates the fusion zone 14 into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth 20 and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth 20. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth 20. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  4. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2013-09-17

    A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  5. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  6. Predict carbonation rate on iron catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1980-02-01

    On solely thermodynamic grounds, the main hydrocarbon product of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction should be methane; in practice, however, carbon is frequently produced as well and deposited on the iron catalyst, fouling the active surface sites. South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd.'s experiments with a fluidized Fischer-Tropsch catalyst bed demonstrate that the rate of carbon deposition is strongly dependent on the hydrogen partial pressure in the reactor, much less dependent on the CO pressure, and not affected at all by the pressure of CO/sub 2/. A suggested reaction scheme for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis explains these observations and provides a basis for a correlation useful in predicting carbon-deposition rates.

  7. TRU TeamWorks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    , 2004 By the Numbers WIPP marks five-year anniversary Shipments scheduled to arrive at WIPP for the week of 4/4/04 - 4/10/04: 18 Total shipments received at WIPP: 2,456 Total volume disposed at WIPP: 19,042 m 3 FY04 Performance Metrics D E P A R T M E N T O F E N E R G Y U N I T E D S T A T ES O F A M E R I C A TeamWorks TeamWorks TRU A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team For those who endured the early morning cold of March 26, 1999, to witness WIPP's first shipment,

  8. Rhombohedral magnetostriction in dilute iron (Co) alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Nicholas J. Wun-Fogle, Marilyn; Restorff, J. B.; Petculescu, Gabriela; Clark, Arthur E.; Hathaway, Kristl B.; Schlagel, Deborah; Lograsso, Thomas A.

    2015-05-07

    Iron is a well-utilized material in structural and magnetic applications. This does not mean, however, that it is well understood, especially in the field of magnetostriction. In particular, the rhombohedral magnetostriction of iron, λ{sub 111}, is anomalous in two respects: it is negative in sign, in disagreement with the prediction of first principles theory, and its magnitude decreases with increasing temperature much too rapidly to be explained by a power law dependence on magnetization. These behaviors could arise from the location of the Fermi level, which leaves a small region of the majority 3d t{sub 2g} states unfilled, possibly favoring small internal displacements that split these states. If this view is correct, adding small amounts of Co to Fe fills some of these states, and the value of λ{sub 111} should increase toward a positive value, as predicted for perfect bcc Fe. We have measured the magnetostriction coefficients (λ{sub 111} and λ{sub 100}) of pure Fe, Fe{sub 97}Co{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 94}Co{sub 6} single crystals from 77 K to 450 K. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy has been used to check for anomalies in the associated elastic constants, c{sub 44} and c′. The additional electrons provided by the cobalt atoms indeed produced positive contributions to both magnetostriction constants, λ{sub 111} and λ{sub 100}, exhibiting an increase of 2.8 × 10{sup −6} per at. % Co for λ{sub 111} and 3.8 × 10{sup −6} per at. % Co for λ{sub 100}.

  9. UFD Working Group 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working Group 2015 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  10. Buildings Sector Working Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    July 22, 2013 AEO2014 Model Development For discussion purposes only Not for citation Overview Builldings Working Group Forrestal 2E-069 / July 22, 2013 2 * Residential projects - RECS update - Lighting model - Equipment, shell subsidies - ENERGY STAR benchmarking - Housing stock formation and decay * Commercial projects - Major end-use capacity factors - Hurdle rates - ENERGY STAR buildings * Both sectors - Consumer behavior workshop - Comparisons to STEO - AER  MER - Usual annual updates -

  11. SCM Working Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Working Group Translator Update Shaocheng Xie Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Outline 1. Data development in support of CMWG * Climate modeling best estimate data * Extended and updated TWP-ICE forcing and evaluation data * Radiative heating and cloud microphysics data for TWP-ICE * BBHRP for SGP * Other relevant data 2. Survey results for data used by CMWG and future forcing data development Initial data list * Cloud fraction from ARSCL and TSI * Liquid water path and

  12. Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen Adsorption and Dissociation on Iron and Iron Carbide Surfaces Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.

  13. Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Julie K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600.degree. C. to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

  14. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtron H. Davis

    1999-04-30

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94% {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C.

  15. Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, R.N.; Wright, J.K.; Moore, G.A.

    1994-09-27

    Disclosed is a method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: (a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; (b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; (c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600 C to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; (d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and (e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

  16. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst, E-mail: rousseau@uri.edu [Mechanical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 92 Upper College Rd., Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370?MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490?MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2?GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  17. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  18. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  19. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  20. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  1. How Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America Clifford Zink

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America Clifford Zink Independent Historian Wednesday, April 9, 2014 - 4:15PM MBG AUDITORIUM Refreshments at 4:00PM The PrinceTon Plasma Physics laboraTory is a U.s. DeParTmenT of energy faciliTy Iron and steel innovations in Trenton helped transform modern life with new methods of transportation, construction, and communications. Peter Cooper established his Trenton Iron Company on the Delaware River in 1847, and rolled America's first I-beams in the

  2. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print Wednesday, 30 April 2008 00:00 It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the

  3. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  4. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  5. Probing iron at Super-Earth core conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amadou, N.; Brambrink, E.; Vinci, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Huser, G.; Brygoo, S.; Morard, G.; Guyot, F.; Resseguier, T. de; Mazevet, S.; Miyanishi, K.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Henry, O.; Raffestin, D.; Boehly, T.; and others

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we report on the quasi-isentropic compression of an iron sample using ramp shaped laser irradiation. This technique allows us to quasi-isentropically compress iron up to 700 GPa and 8500 K. To our knowledge, these data are the highest pressures reached on iron in off-Hugoniot conditions and the closest to the thermodynamic states thought to exist in Earth-like planetary cores. The experiment was performed on the Ligne d'Intégration laser facility at CESTA, Bordeaux, France.

  6. Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures The infrared reflectance of iron was studied using high-pressure synchrotron radiation methods up to 50 GPa at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell of 1000-8000 cm{sup -1} (1.25-10 {mu}m). The magnitude of the reflectivity shows a weak pressure

  7. Iron-carbon compacts and process for making them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes iron-carbon compacts and a process for making them. The process includes preparing a slurry comprising iron powder, furfuryl alcohol, and a polymerization catalyst for initiating the polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol into a resin, and heating the slurry to convert the alcohol into the resin. The resulting mixture is pressed into a green body and heated to form the iron-carbon compact. The compact can be used as, or machined into, a magnetic flux concentrator for an induction heating apparatus.

  8. Exhibit G / working draft

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Rev 13, 5/22/2014) Security Requirements P.R. No. * Date * Page 1 of 35 Solicitation/Subcontract No. or PO No. Preparer Note (PN): This document contains instructions in blue hidden text. To view hidden text, click on the ¶ (Show/Hide) icon on your tool bar. If that doesn't work, see the document "How to View Hidden Text" on the Exhibit G website at http://int.lanl.gov/security/ExG.shtml. There is no need to delete the blue hidden text instructions since hidden text will not affect

  9. How NIF Works

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Much Do You Spend on Energy? How Much Do You Spend on Energy? U.S.A. Energy Expenditure per person Click on a state Energy Expenditure $3724 per person in 2012 Transportation ▀▀▀▀▀ Residential ▀▀▀▀▀ Data: EIA State Energy Data System View All Maps Addthis

    How NIF Works A weak laser pulse-about 1 billionth of a joule-is created, split, and carried on optical fibers to 48 preamplifiers that increase the pulse's energy by a factor of 10 billion, to a few joules. The 48

  10. HANFORD ENGINEER WORKS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    HANFORD ENGINEER WORKS IJd *P-t - - ~~~ssiticatiC+n cwcetted rat G.E. NUCLEONICS PROJECT xi I ~@L.%&~--G-ENERAI,@ ELECTRIC z ,m ._.__.-. _ I--..-. By Authority of. COMPANY ._ Atmic Energy Commission Office of Hanford Dire&xl Operations Riohland, Washington Attention; Mr. Carleton Shugg, Manager ./ ALPKA-ROLLED EL'GIL%I jw -879 ' . *_ a. f' Richland, Washington February 6, 1948 , Thla Dclc.Jv-<en! :-; . ' - -*...-- f_ ~~~.s No .__. ._. .s / ~. - J-LccIp%. Fr:*? fi This will con&rm

  11. Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (122 Clark La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Paris, Alan M. (P.O. Box 64, Tarrs, PA 15688); Vought, Joseph D. (124 Cove Point Rd., Rockwood, TN 37854)

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

  12. Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008

  13. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that...

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Armco-Rustless Iron and...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    from Further Consideration Under FUSRAP; November 17, 1987 MD.03-2 - AEC Memorandum; Harris to Wolf; Subject: Rolling of Billets at Armco-Rustless Iron & Steel, Baltimore, MD;...

  15. Modernization of the iron making plant at SOLLAC FOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crayelynghe, M. van; Dufour, A.; Soland, J.; Feret, J.; Lebonvallet, J.

    1995-12-01

    When the blast furnaces at SOLLAC/FOS were relined, the objective being to ensure a worklife of 15 years, it was decided that the iron making plant would be modernized at the same time: the coking plant has been overhauled and renovated and its coking time increased to ensure a worklife of at least 34 years. The surface area of the sinter strand was increased from 400 to 520 m{sup 2}, the burden preparation circuit were simplified, and pig iron production capacity increased from 4.2 to 4.5 million metric tons per year. Coal injection was developed so as to obtain 170 kg/t of pig iron, an expert system was added to ensure more efficient blast furnace operation, and new measures have been carried out for environmental protection. Since these heavy investments have been completed, SOLLAC/FOS is a high-performance iron making plant, allowing it to face new challenges in the future.

  16. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and can be utilized for acid mine drainage treatment. Economic analysis from this research demonstrates that the results are favorable. The strong demand and the increase of price of the DRI and pig iron in recent years are particularly beneficial to the economics. The favorable economics has brought commercial interests. ICAN Global has obtained license agreement on the technology from Michigan Tech. This right was later transferred to the Westwood Land, Inc. A demonstration pilot plant is under construction to evaluate the technology. Steel industry will benefit from the new supply of the iron units once the commercial plants are constructed. Environmental benefits to the public and the steel industry will be tremendous. Not only the old piles of the slag will be removed, but also the federal responsible abandoned mines from the old mining activities can be remediated with the favorable product generated from the process. Cost can be reduced and there will be no lime required, which can avoid the release of carbon dioxide from lime production process.

  17. Iron speciation in minerals and glasses probed by M [subscript...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iron speciation in minerals and glasses probed by M subscript 23 -edge X-ray Raman scattering ...

  18. Shewanella loihica sp. nov., isolated from iron-rich microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    loihica sp. nov., isolated from iron-rich microbial mats in the Pacific Ocean A novel marine bacterial strain, PV-4T, isolated from a microbial mat located at a hydrothermal vent...

  19. Origin of banded iron formations : oceanic crust leaching & self...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 58 GEOSCIENCES; IRON; LEACHING; OCEANIC CRUST; ORIGIN Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles Find in Google Scholar Find in Google Scholar Search WorldCat ...

  20. Percolation Explains How Earth's Iron Core Formed | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... at high pressure (64 GPa) and temperature (3,300 K). a,b, The channel in a has been confirmed to be iron-rich material by element-sensitive nanoscale tomographic imaging; the ...

  1. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial...

  2. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory...

  3. Dopant Site Determination in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Utilizing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dopant Site Determination in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Utilizing X-ray Absorption Techniques Monday, September 9, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Dr....

  4. Probing high-energy spin fluctuations in iron pnictide superconductors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spin fluctuations in iron pnictide superconductors and the metal-insulator transition in rare-earth nickelates by soft X-ray RIXS Wednesday, November 18, 2015 - 3:00pm...

  5. Sorption of Ferric Iron from Siderophore Complexes by Layer Type...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon sequestration as the global carbon dioxide concentration rises. In the marine environment, iron is typically found in subnanomolar total concentrations (0.02-1 nM), which...

  6. Korea Iron Steel Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steel Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Korea Iron & Steel Co Ltd Place: Changwon, South Gyeongsang, Korea (Republic) Zip: 641 370 Product: Korea-based manufacturer of steel...

  7. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  8. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Kiesel, Richard F.; Englund, David J; Hendrickson, Dave

    2012-12-18

    A method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets may include providing multiple layers of agglomerates, such as briquettes, balls and extrusions, of a reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and of a reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) on a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material) and providing a coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material over at least some of the agglomerates. Heating the agglomerates of reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  9. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (IN-11...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (IN-11-024) Low-Cost Phosphate ... that are highly functional when used in high-power and high-energy lithium batteries. ...

  10. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, James M. (Kingston, TN); Trowbridge, Lee D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.

  11. How NIF Works

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is the world's largest laser system... 192 huge laser beams in a massive building, all focused down at the last moment at a 2 millimeter ball containing frozen hydrogen gas. The goal is to achieve fusion... getting more energy out than was used to create it. It's never been done before under controlled conditions, just in nuclear weapons and in stars. We expect to do it within the next 2-3 years. The purpose is threefold: to create an almost limitless supply of safe, carbon-free, proliferation-free electricity; examine new regimes of astrophysics as well as basic science; and study the inner-workings of the U.S. stockpile of nuclear weapons to ensure they remain safe, secure and reliable without the need for underground testing. More information about NIF can be found at:

  12. Working Group Report: Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  13. Panasonic Electric Works Ltd formerly Matsushita Electric Works...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Works Ltd (formerly Matsushita Electric Works) Place: Kadoma-shi, Osaka, Japan Zip: 571-8686 Product: Japanese manufacturer of mainly electric appliances including...

  14. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) | Department of Energy - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) PDF icon steel_footprint_2012.pdf More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Cement

    Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 49

  15. Nitrogen Atom Transfer From High Valent Iron Nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Smith, Jeremy M.

    2015-10-14

    This report describes the synthesis and reactions of high valent iron nitrides. Organonitrogen compounds such as aziridines are useful species for organic synthesis, but there are few efficient methods for their synthesis. Using iron nitrides to catalytically access these species may allow for their synthesis in an energy-and atom-efficient manner. We have developed a new ligand framework to achieve these goals as well as providing a method for inducing previously unknown reactivity.

  16. Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Ozone is used commercially for treatment of potable and non-potable water, and as an industrial oxidant. ISU and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a method for using iron in ozone oxidation that significantly improves the speed of oxidation reactions. Description Ozone is recognized as potent and effective oxidizing agent, and has a

  17. Iron-based composition for magnetocaloric effect (MCE) applications and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    method of making a single crystal (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Iron-based composition for magnetocaloric effect (MCE) applications and method of making a single crystal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iron-based composition for magnetocaloric effect (MCE) applications and method of making a single crystal A method of making a single crystal comprises heating a material comprising magnetic anisotropy to a temperature T sufficient to form a melt of the material. A magnetic

  18. Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Authors: Eriksen, Kristoffer A. [1] ; Hughes, Jack [2] ; Fontes, Christopher J. [1] ; Colgan, James P. [1] ; Hungerford, Aimee L. [1] ; Fryer, Christopher L. [1] ; Zhang, Honglin [1] ; Badenes, Carles [3] ; Slane, Patrick [4] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National

  19. Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide Authors: Xu, Weiming ; Greenberg, Eran ; Rozenberg, Gregory Kh. ; Pasternak, Moshe P. ; Bykova, Elena ; Boffa-Ballaran, Tiziana ; Dubrovinsky, Leonid ; Prakapenka, Vitali ; Hanfland, Michael ; Vekilova, Olga Yu. ; Simak, Sergei I. ; Abrikosov, Igor A. [1] ; Link) [2] ;

  20. Controlled Phase and Tunable Magnetism in Ordered Iron Oxide Nanotube

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arrays Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition | Argonne National Laboratory Controlled Phase and Tunable Magnetism in Ordered Iron Oxide Nanotube Arrays Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition Title Controlled Phase and Tunable Magnetism in Ordered Iron Oxide Nanotube Arrays Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Zhang, Y, Liu, M, Peng, B, Zhou, Z, Chen, X, Yang, S-M, Jiang, Z-D, Zhang, J, Ren, W, Ye, Z-G Journal Scientific Reports

  1. High-temperature fabricable nickel-iron aluminides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-02-02

    Nickel-iron aluminides are described that are based on Ni.sub.3 Al, and have significant iron content, to which additions of hafnium, boron, carbon and cerium are made resulting in Ni.sub.3 Al base alloys that can be fabricated at higher temperatures than similar alloys previously developed. Further addition of molybdenum improves oxidation and cracking resistance. These alloys possess the advantages of ductility, hot fabricability, strength, and oxidation resistance.

  2. Archaeometallurgical investigation of the iron anchor from the Tantura F shipwreck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aronson, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ashkenazi, D., E-mail: dana@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Barkai, O.; Kahanov, Y. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2013-04-15

    The Tantura F shipwreck was a coaster or a fishing vessel about 15.7 m long, discovered in the Dor/Tantura lagoon, Israel in 1995. It was dated to between the mid-7th and the end of the 8th centuries CE. Among the finds excavated were two T-shaped type iron anchors. Of the two anchors, one (anchor A) was thoroughly studied by archaeometallurgical methods in order to identify forge-welding lines, to determine the welding quality and to understand the manufacturing technology. The examinations included X-ray radiography, XRF analysis, optical microscopy, SEM/EDS observation and analysis, OES analysis and microhardness tests. The investigation included characterization of the composition, microstructure, thermal treatments, forge-welding junctions and slag analysis. The results revealed a heterogeneous microstructure, rich in glassy, fayalite and wüstite slag. Iron based phases included ferrite, pearlite, cementite and Widmanstätten plates, all typical to wrought iron. The forge-welds of Anchor A were located. Each arm was made of one piece, weighing about 2.5–3 kg and the shank was made of a few 1.5–2 kg pieces. The second anchor (anchor B) was only briefly examined visually and with a few radiographs, which support the results from anchor A. The research results revealed significant information about T-shaped anchors and their manufacturing process, including hot-working processes without any additional heat treatments, and folding techniques. The microstructure was similar to other ancient simple tools such as saws, sickles, axes and mortise chisels, and though the technology to make complicated structures and objects, such as swords, existed at that time, the anchors did not require this sophistication; thus simpler techniques were used, presumably because they were more cost-effective. - Highlights: ? Tantura F was a coaster dated to mid-7th–end-8th centuries. ? Two iron anchors were discovered at the Tantura F shipwreck-site. ? Anchor A was manufactured from heterogeneous wrought iron blooms. ? Forge-welding lines were detected using archaeometallurgical methods.

  3. CRAD, Work Controls Assessment Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Management should have an established work control process in place with authorized, controlled and documented methods that provide an accurate status of the work to be performed.

  4. Attrition Resistant Iron-Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Goodwin, J.S.; Spivey, J.J.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-09-22

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H{sub 2} ratio synthesis gases derived from modern coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the F-T catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity.

  5. Interplay between interband coupling and ferromagnetism in iron pnictide superconductor/ferromagnet/iron pnictide superconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, S. Y.; Tao, Y. C.; Hu, J. G.

    2014-08-28

    An extended eight-component Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation is applied to study the Josephson effect between iron-based superconductors (SCs) with s{sub ±}-wave pairing symmetry, separated by an ferromagnet (FM). The feature of damped oscillations of critical Josephson current as a function of FM thickness, the split of the peaks induced by the interband coupling is much different from that for the junction with the s{sub ±}-wave SCs replaced by s{sub ++}-wave ones. In particular, a 0?? transition as a function of interband coupling strength ? is found to always exhibit with the corresponding dip shifting toward the larger ? due to enhancing the spin polarization in the FM, while there exits no 0?? transition for the SC with s{sub ++}-wave pairing symmetry. The two features can be used to identify the pairing symmetry in the iron pnictide SC different from the s{sub ++}-wave one in MgB{sub 2}. Experimentally, by adjusting the doping level in the s{sub ±}-wave SCs, one can vary ?.

  6. Video Shoot Scope of Work

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video Shoot Scope of Work, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  7. Reservoir Modeling Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reservoir Modeling working group meeting presentation on May 10, 2012 at the 2012 Peer Review Meeting.

  8. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  9. Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents Clean Energy Works Oregon's program background and the four easy steps to lender selection.

  10. The effect of iron dilution on strength of nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fout, S.L.; Wamsley, S.D.

    1983-03-28

    The weld strength, as a function of iron content, for nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds was determined. Samples were prepared using a Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) automatic process to weld steel plate together with nickel or Monel to produce a range of iron contents typical of weld compositions. Tensile specimens of each iron content were tested to obtain strength and ductility measurements for that weld composition. Data indicate that at iron contents of less than 20% iron in a nickel/steel weld, the weld fails at the weld interface, due to a lack of fusion. Between 20% and 35% iron, the highest iron dilution that could be achieved in a nickel weld, the welds were stronger than the steel base metal. This indicates that a minimum amount of iron dilution (20%) is necessary for good fusion and optimum strength. On the other hand for Monel/steel welds, test results showed that the welds had good strength and integrity between 10% and 27% iron in the weld. Above 35% iron, the welds have less strength and are more brittle. The 35% iron content also corresponds to the iron dilution in Monel welds that has been shown to produce an increase in corrosion rate. This indicates that the iron dilution in Monel welds should be kept below 35% iron to maximize both the strength and corrosion resistance. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form #: Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers mitigate the radiological hazards introduced by the proposed work? Yes No (b) Can the closed state of the beam line injection stoppers be assured during the proposed work (ie., work does NOT involve injection stoppers or associated HPS)? Yes No If the answers to both questions are yes, the work can be performed safely

  12. Insights into the Structure and Metabolic Function of Microbes That Shape Pelagic Iron-Rich Aggregates ( Iron Snow )

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, S; Chourey, Karuna; REICHE, M; Nietzsche, S; Shah, Manesh B; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Kusel, K

    2013-01-01

    Metaproteomics combined with total nucleic acid-based methods aided in deciphering the roles of microorganisms in the formation and transformation of iron-rich macroscopic aggregates (iron snow) formed in the redoxcline of an acidic lignite mine lake. Iron snow had high total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies, with 2 x 109 copies g (dry wt)-1 in the acidic (pH 3.5) central lake basin and 4 x 1010 copies g (dry wt)-1 in the less acidic (pH 5.5) northern lake basin. Active microbial communities in the central basin were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (36.6%) and Actinobacteria (21.4%), and by Betaproteobacteria (36.2%) in the northern basin. Microbial Fe-cycling appeared to be the dominant metabolism in the schwertmannite-rich iron snow, because cloning and qPCR assigned up to 61% of active bacteria as Fe-cycling bacteria (FeB). Metaproteomics revealed 70 unique proteins from central basin iron snow and 283 unique proteins from 43 genera from northern basin. Protein identification provided a glimpse into in situ processes, such as primary production, motility, metabolism of acidophilic FeB, and survival strategies of neutrophilic FeB. Expression of carboxysome shell proteins and RubisCO indicated active CO2 fixation by Fe(II) oxidizers. Flagellar proteins from heterotrophs indicated their activity to reach and attach surfaces. Gas vesicle proteins related to CO2-fixing Chlorobium suggested that microbes could influence iron snow sinking. We suggest that iron snow formed by autotrophs in the redoxcline acts as a microbial parachute, since it is colonized by motile heterotrophs during sinking which start to dissolve schwertmannite.

  13. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Burtron H. Davis

    2005-09-30

    In this reporting period, a study of ultra-fine iron catalyst filtration was initiated to study the behavior of ultra-fine particles during the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids filtration. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. The change of particle size during the slurry-phase FTS has monitored by withdrawing catalyst sample at different TOS. The measurement of dimension of the HRTEM images of samples showed a tremendous growth of the particles. Carbon rims of thickness 3-6 nm around the particles were observed. This growth in particle size was not due to carbon deposition on the catalyst. A conceptual design and operating philosophy was developed for an integrated wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor to be used in Phase II of this research program. The system will utilize a primary inertial hydroclone followed by a Pall Accusep cross-flow membrane. Provisions for cleaned permeate back-pulsing will be included to as a flux maintenance measure.

  14. ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James G. Goodwin, Jr.; James J. Spivey; K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    1999-03-29

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H2 ratio synthesis gases derived from modern coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the F-T catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity. The effect of silica addition via coprecipitation and as a binder to a doubly promoted Fischer-Tropsch synthesis iron catalyst (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K) was studied. The catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation, followed by binder addition and drying in a 1 m diameter, 2 m tall spray dryer. The binder silica content was varied from 0 to 20 wt %. A catalyst with 12 wt % binder silica was found to have the highest attrition resistance. F-T reaction studies over 100 hours in a fixed-bed reactor showed that this catalyst maintained around 95 % CO conversion with a methane selectivity of less than 7 wt % and a C5 + selectivity of greater than 73 wt %. The effect of adding precipitated silica from 0 to 20 parts by weight to this catalyst (containing 12 wt % binder silica) was also studied. Addition of precipitated silica was found to be detrimental to attrition resistance and resulted in increased methane and reduced wax formation. An HPR series of proprietary catalysts was prepared to further improve the attrition resistance. Based on the experience gained, a proprietary HPR-43 catalyst has been successfully spray dried in 500 g quantity. This catalyst showed 95 % CO conversion over 125 h and had less than 4 % methane selectivity. Its attrition resistance was one of the highest among the catalyst tested.

  15. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

    2013-06-25

    Method and system for producing metallic nuggets includes providing reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) that may be arranged in discrete portions, such as mounds or briquettes, on at least a portion of a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material). A coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material may be provided over at least some of the discrete portions. Heating the reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  16. Overview of DOE Production Work

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... FCTO. * The DOE Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Working Group published the Springer Brief in Energy: "Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Standards, Experimental ...

  17. Work with Us | Buildings | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work with Us At NREL, industry, universities, and government agencies have many opportunities to take advantage of our residential and commercial buildings expertise. Here's how you can work with us to improve the energy efficiency of your buildings. NREL's award-winning work with the commercial and public sectors to improve building energy performance is central to its mission. Learn about our awards. Partner with Us You can work with our experts and use NREL's outstanding facilities and

  18. Welding studies of nickel aluminide and nickel-iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M.L.; David, S.A.; Horton, J.A.; White, C.L.; Liu, C.T.

    1985-08-01

    Because welding is often used during the fabrication of structural components, one of the key issues in the development of nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for engineering applications is their weldability. The goals of this study were to characterize weldment microstructures and to identify some of the factors controlling weldability of ductile Ni/sub 3/Al alloys. The alloys used in this initial study were Ni/sub 3/Al containing 500 wppm boron and Ni/sub 3/Al containing 10 at. % iron and either 500 wppm or 20 wppm boron. Full-penetration autogenous welds were made in sheet shock by the electron beam (EB) and gas tungsten arc (GTA) processes. The main process variables were travel speed and preheat. The as-welded coupons were examined visually and in detail by the usual optical and electron metallographic methods. Weldments of boron-doped Ni/sub 3/Al were composed of nearly 100% ordered ..gamma..' phase. Weldments of the nickel-iron aluminides were ..gamma..' + ..beta..' phase mixtures, with martensitic ..beta..' distributed interdendritically in the fusion zone and decorating grain boundaries in the heat-affected zone. All welds made in this particular boron-doped Ni/sub 3/Al alloy contained cracks. Weldability improved with the addition of iron, and defect-free welds were made in the nickel-iron aluminides by both EB and GTA welding. Nevertheless, the iron-containing alloys were susceptible to cracking, and their weldability was affected by boron concentration, welding speed, and (for GTA) gas shielding. Defect-free welds were found to have good tensile properties relative to those of the base metal. 34 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38 Using polarized and unpolarized neutron scattering we show that interstitial Fe in superconducting Fe$$_{1+y}$$Te$$_{1-x}$$Se$_x$ induces a magnetic Friedel-like oscillation that diffracts at $${\bf

  20. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  1. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  2. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  3. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  4. Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide photochemical diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Leygraf, Christofer H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor photochemical diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The photochemical diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

  5. Electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Struzhkin, V.; Mao, H.-k.; Shu, J.; Hemley, R.; Fei, Y.; Mysen, B.; Dera, P.; Parapenka, V.; Shen, G.

    2010-11-16

    The electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite is one of the fundamental parameters that governs the physics and chemistry of the most voluminous and massive shell in the Earth. We present experimental evidence for spin-pairing transition in aluminum-bearing silicate perovskite (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O{sub 3} under the lower mantle pressures. Our results demonstrate that as pressure increases, iron in perovskite transforms gradually from the initial high-spin state toward the final low-spin state. At 100 GPa, both aluminum-free and aluminum-bearing samples exhibit a mixed spin state. The residual magnetic moment in the aluminum-bearing perovskite is significantly higher than that in its aluminum-free counterpart. The observed spin evolution with pressure can be explained by the presence of multiple iron species and the occurrence of partial spin-paring transitions in the perovskite. Pressure-induced spin-pairing transitions in the perovskite would have important bearing on the magnetic, thermoelastic, and transport properties of the lower mantle, and on the distribution of iron in the Earth's interior. The lower mantle constitutes more than half of the Earth's interior by volume (1), and it is believed to consist predominantly (80-100%) of (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O{sub 3} perovskite (hereafter called perovskite), with up to 20% (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase (2). The electronic spin state of iron has direct influence on the physical properties and chemical behavior of its host phase. Hence, knowledge on the spin state of iron is important for the interpretation of seismic observations, geochemical modeling, and geodynamic simulation of the Earth's deep interior (3, 4). Crystal field theory (4, 5) and band theory (6) predicted that a high-spin to low-spin transition would occur as a result of compression. To date, no experimental data exist on the spin sate of iron in Al-bearing perovskite. To detect possible spinpairing transition of iron in perovskite under the lower mantle conditions, we measured the x-ray emission spectra of an Al-bearing perovskite sample to 100 GPa. For comparison, a parallel measurement was also carried out on an Al-free perovskite sample.

  6. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  7. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  8. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, Michael S.; Murtha, Marlyn J.

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  9. Magnetic states of the two-leg-ladder alkali metal iron selenides...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    states of the two-leg-ladder alkali metal iron selenides AFe2Se3 Prev Next Title: Magnetic states of the two-leg-ladder alkali metal iron selenides AFe2Se3 Authors: Luo, ...

  10. ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry PDF icon steelprofile.pdf More ...

  11. Observation of magnon-mediated current drag in Pt/yttrium iron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observation of magnon-mediated current drag in Ptyttrium iron garnetPt(Ta) trilayers Title: Observation of magnon-mediated current drag in Ptyttrium iron garnetPt(Ta) trilayers ...

  12. Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)[subscript...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)subscript 3 Ink Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)subscript 3 Ink...

  13. Solvent Tuning of Properties of Iron-Sulfur Clusters in Proteins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Proteins Figure 1. Schematic repre-sentation of the common active-site iron-sulfur cluster structural motif. Proteins containing Fe4S4 iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous in...

  14. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility ...

  15. Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iron and Steel Manufacturing Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in

  16. Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah | Department of Energy Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah PDF icon Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah More

  17. Chromium modified nickel-iron aluminide useful in sulfur bearing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cathcart, John V.; Liu, Chain T.

    1989-06-13

    An improved nickel-iron aluminide containing chromium and molybdenum additions to improve resistance to sulfur attack.

  18. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint- Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input

  19. Studies of anisotropy of iron based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Jason

    2013-05-15

    To study the electronic anisotropy in iron based superconductors, the temperature dependent London penetration depth, {Delta}{lambda}#1;#21;(T), have been measured in several compounds, along with the angular dependent upper critical field, H{sub c2}(T). Study was undertaken on single crystals of Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} with x=0.108 and x=0.127, in the overdoped range of the doping phase diagram, characterized by notable modulation of the superconducting gap. Heavy ion irradiation with matching field doses of 6 T and 6.5 T respectively, were used to create columnar defects and to study their effect on the temperature {Delta}{lambda}#1;#21;(T). The variation of the low-temperature penetration depth in both pristine and irradiated samples was #12;tted with a power-law function {Delta}{lambda}#1;#21;(T) = AT{sup n}. Irradiation increases the magnitude of the pre-factor A and decreases the exponent n, similar to the effect on the optimally doped samples. This finding supports the universal s{sub {+-}}#6; scenario for the whole doping range. Knowing that the s{sub {+-}}#6; gap symmetry exists across the superconducting dome for the electron doped systems, we next looked at {lambda}#21;(T), in optimally - doped, SrFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2}, x =0.35. Both, as-grown (T{sub c} ~ #25;25 K) and annealed (T{sub c} ~ #25;35 K) single crystals of SrFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} were measured. Annealing decreases the absolute value of the London penetration depth from #21;{lambda}(0) = 300 {+-}#6; 10 nm in as-grown samples to {lambda}#21;(0) = 275{+-}#6;10 nm. At low temperatures, {lambda}#21;(T) #24;~ T indicates a superconducting gap with line nodes. Analysis of the full-temperature range superfluid density is consistent with the line nodes, but differs from the simple single-gap d-wave. The observed behavior is very similar to that of BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2}, showing that isovalently substituted pnictides are inherently different from the charge-doped materials. In-plane resistivity measurements as a function of temperature, magnetic field, and its orientation with respect to the crystallographic ab-plane were used to study the upper critical field, H{sub c2}, of two overdoped compositions of Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2}, x=0.054 and x=0.072. Measurements were performed using precise alignment (with accuracy less than 0.1{degree}) of the magnetic field with respect to the Fe-As plane. The dependence of the H{sub c2} on angle {theta}#18; between the field and the ab- plane was measured in isothermal conditions in a broad temperature range. We found that the shape of the H{sub c2} vs. {theta}#18; curve clearly deviates from the Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  20. July 2012, Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview Accomplishments: 1. Progress on the completion of the 10 CFR 1046 modifications to address barriers to workforce retention. Written response to public comment is being drafted by HS-51. 2. Pro-Force (PF) union representative, Randy Lawson, identified this accomplishment as the single most significant step toward PF workforce retention in over 20 years. 3. Draft re-charter of PF Career Options Committee (PFCOC) to establish a PF Working Group

  1. Interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in iron-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chubukov, Andrey V

    2015-06-10

    This proposal is for theoretical work on strongly correlated electron systems, which are at the center of experimental and theoretical activities in condensed-matter physics. The interest to this field is driven fascinating variety of observed effects, universality of underlying theoretical ideas, and practical applications. I propose to do research on Iron-based superconductors (FeSCs), which currently attract high attention in the physics community. My goal is to understand superconductivity and magnetism in these materials at various dopings, the interplay between the two, and the physics in the phase in which magnetism and superconductivity co-exist. A related goal is to understand the origin of the observed pseudogap-like behavior in the normal state. My research explores the idea that superconductivity is of electronic origin and is caused by the exchange of spin-fluctuations, enhanced due to close proximity to antiferromagnetism. The multi-orbital/multi-band nature of FeSCs opens routes for qualitatively new superconducting states, particularly the ones which break time-reversal symmetry. By all accounts, the coupling in pnictdes is below the threshold for Mott physics and I intend to analyze these systems within the itinerant approach. My plan is to do research in two stages. I first plan to address several problems within weak-coupling approach. Among them: (i) what sets stripe magnetic order at small doping, (ii) is there a preemptive instability into a spin-nematic state, and how stripe order affects fermions; (iii) is there a co-existence between magnetism and superconductivity and what are the system properties in the co-existence state; (iv) how superconductivity emerges despite strong Coulomb repulsion and can the gap be s-wave but with nodes along electron FSs, (v) are there complex superconducting states, like s+id, which break time reversal symmetry. My second goal is to go beyond weak coupling and derive spin-mediated, dynamic interaction between fermions, understand what sets the upper scale for attractive interaction, compute T_c, and then obtain and solve matrix non-linear gap equation for spin-mediated pairing and study various feedbacks from the pairing on fermions on ARPES spectra, optical and thermal conductivity, and other observables, The problems I have chosen are quite generic, and the understanding of magnetically-mediated superconductivity in the strong-coupling regime will not only advance the theory of superconductivity in FeSCs, but will contribute to a generic understanding of the pairing of fermions near quantum-critical points -- the problems ranging from s-wave pairing by soft optical phonons to to color superconductivity of quarks mediated by a gluon exchange.

  2. Atomic-Scale Design of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts; A Combined Computational Chemistry, Experimental, and Microkinetic Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos Mavrikakis; James Dumesic; Rahul Nabar; Calvin Bartholonew; Hu Zou; Uchenna Paul

    2008-09-29

    This work focuses on (1) searching/summarizing published Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) mechanistic and kinetic studies of FTS reactions on iron catalysts; (2) preparation and characterization of unsupported iron catalysts with/without potassium/platinum promoters; (3) measurement of H{sub 2} and CO adsorption/dissociation kinetics on iron catalysts using transient methods; (3) analysis of the transient rate data to calculate kinetic parameters of early elementary steps in FTS; (4) construction of a microkinetic model of FTS on iron, and (5) validation of the model from collection of steady-state rate data for FTS on iron catalysts. Three unsupported iron catalysts and three alumina-supported iron catalysts were prepared by non-aqueous-evaporative deposition (NED) or aqueous impregnation (AI) and characterized by chemisorption, BET, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), extent-of-reduction, XRD, and TEM methods. These catalysts, covering a wide range of dispersions and metal loadings, are well-reduced and relatively thermally stable up to 500-600 C in H{sub 2} and thus ideal for kinetic and mechanistic studies. Kinetic parameters for CO adsorption, CO dissociation, and surface carbon hydrogenation on these catalysts were determined from temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO and temperature programmed surface hydrogenation (TPSR), temperature-programmed hydrogenation (TPH), and isothermal, transient hydrogenation (ITH). A microkinetic model was constructed for the early steps in FTS on polycrystalline iron from the kinetic parameters of elementary steps determined experimentally in this work and from literature values. Steady-state rate data were collected in a Berty reactor and used for validation of the microkinetic model. These rate data were fitted to 'smart' Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate expressions derived from a sequence of elementary steps and using a combination of fitted steady-state parameters and parameters specified from the transient measurements. The results provide a platform for further development of microkinetic models of FTS on Fe and a basis for more precise modeling of FTS activity of Fe catalysts. Calculations using periodic, self-consistent Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods were performed on various realistic models of industrial, Fe-based FTS catalysts. Close-packed, most stable Fe(110) facet was analyzed and subsequently carbide formation was found to be facile leading to the choice of the FeC(110) model representing a Fe facet with a sub-surface C atom. The Pt adatom (Fe{sup Pt}(110)) was found to be the most stable model for our studies into Pt promotion and finally the role of steps was elucidated by recourse to the defected Fe(211) facet. Binding Energies(BEs), preferred adsorption sites and geometries for all FTS relevant stable species and intermediates were evaluated on each model catalyst facet. A mechanistic model (comprising of 32 elementary steps involving 19 species) was constructed and each elementary step therein was fully characterized with respect to its thermochemistry and kinetics. Kinetic calculations involved evaluation of the Minimum Energy Pathways (MEPs) and activation energies (barriers) for each step. Vibrational frequencies were evaluated for the preferred adsorption configuration of each species with the aim of evaluating entropy-changes, pre exponential factors and serving as a useful connection with experimental surface science techniques. Comparative analysis among these four facets revealed important trends in their relative behavior and roles in FTS catalysis. Overall the First Principles Calculations afforded us a new insight into FTS catalysis on Fe and modified-Fe catalysts.

  3. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  4. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C H

    1991-02-14

    Progress is reported for a four-year fundamental investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for FT synthesis, the objectives of which were to (1) determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation and (2) model the global rates of deactivation at the surface of the catalyst for the same catalysts. A computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was designed, constructed and tested. Kinetic data for CO hydrogenation on unsupported, unpromoted iron, 99% Fe/1% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and K-promoted 99% Fe/1% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were obtained as functions of temperature, reactant particle pressures and time. The activity/selectivity and kinetic data are consistent with those previously reported for supported, unpromoted and promoted iron. Two kinds of deactivation were observed during FT synthesis on these samples: (1) loss of surface area after reduction of unsupported, unpromoted iron at 400{degree}C and (2) loss of activity with time due to carbon deposition, especially in the case of K-promoted 99% Fe/1% A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Deactivation rate data were obtained for CO hydrogenation on promoted Fe as a function of time, temperature, and H{sub 2}/CO ratio. 50 refs., 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Work For Others (Non-Department of Energy Funded Work)

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-09-28

    Work for Others (WFO) is the performance of work for non-Department of Energy (DOE) entities by DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and/or their respective contractor personnel or the use of DOE/NNSA facilities that is not directly funded by DOE appropriations. Cancels DOE O 481.1A.

  6. Work For Others (Non-Department of Energy Funded Work)

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-01-03

    Work for Others (WFO) is the performance of work for non-Department of Energy (DOE) entities by DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and/or their respective contractor personnel or the use of DOE/NNSA facilities that is not directly funded by DOE appropriations. WFO has the following objectives. Cancels DOE O 481.1.

  7. HEADQUARTERS MEDIATION PROGRAM MEDIATION WORKS!

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MEDIATION WORKS Mediation helps to build relationships. People solve their own problems ... It Preserves Relationships You resolve your dispute while building a better relationship ...

  8. Module 2- Work Breakdown Structure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module defines and illustrates the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), WBS dictionary, Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) and Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM).

  9. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells.

  10. Working with SRNL - Technology Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SRNL GO Tech Briefs Contacts Ombudsman Tech Home SRNL Home Working with SRNL Technology Transfer 2015 SRNL Research and Technology Recognition Reception Click to view the 2015...

  11. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form : Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers...

  12. INL @ work: Nuclear Reactor Operator

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Russell, Patty

    2013-05-28

    INL @ work features jobs at the Idaho National Laboratory. Learn more about careers and energy research at INL's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  13. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1996-01-19

    The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low- or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the ``standard-catalyst`` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst this is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics. The research is divided into four major topical areas: (a) catalyst preparation and characterization, (b) product characterization, (c) reactor operations, and (d) data assessment. Accomplishments to date are described.

  14. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low- or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the ``standard-catalyst`` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics. The research is divided into four major topical areas: (a) catalyst preparation and characterization, (b) product characterization, (c) reactor operations, and (d) data assessment. Accomplishments for this period are discussed.

  15. WageWorks Screen Shot(s)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WageWorks Screen Shot(s)

  16. Work Authorization System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Work Authorization System Work Authorization System PDF icon Work Authorization System More Documents & Publications Policy Flash 2014-30 DOE Order 412.1a, Work Authorization ...

  17. Iron Aerogel and Xerogel Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bali, S.; Huggins, F; Huffman, G; Ernst, R; Pugmire, R; Eyring, E

    2009-01-01

    Iron aerogels, potassium-doped iron aerogels, and potassium-doped iron xerogels have been synthesized and characterized and their catalytic activity in the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction has been studied. Iron aerogels and xerogels were synthesized by polycondensation of an ethanolic solution of iron(III) chloride hexahydrate with propylene oxide which acts as a proton scavenger for the initiation of hydrolysis and polycondensation. Potassium was incorporated in the iron aerogel and iron xerogel by adding aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to the ethanolic solutions of the Fe(III) precursor prior to addition of propylene oxide. Fischer-Tropsch activities of the catalysts were tested in a fixed bed reactor at a pressure of 100 psi with a H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 2:1. Iron aerogels were found to be active for F-T synthesis, and their F-T activities increased on addition of a K containing promoter. Moessbauer spectroscopic data are consistent with an open, nonrigid iron(III) aerogel structure progressing to an iron carbide/metallic iron catalyst via agglomeration as the F-T synthesis proceeds in the course of a 35 h fixed bed reaction test.

  18. Use of bimodal carbon distribution in compacts for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao

    2014-04-08

    A method for use in production of metallic iron nodules comprising providing a reducible mixture into a hearth furnace for the production of metallic iron nodules, where the reducible mixture comprises a quantity of reducible iron bearing material, a quantity of first carbonaceous reducing material of a size less than about 28 mesh of an amount between about 65 percent and about 95 percent of a stoichiometric amount necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material, and a quantity of second carbonaceous reducing material with an average particle size greater than average particle size of the first carbonaceous reducing material and a size between about 3 mesh and about 48 mesh of an amount between about 20 percent and about 60 percent of a stoichiometric amount of necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material.

  19. Use of bimodal carbon distribution in compacts for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao

    2012-10-16

    A method for use in production of metallic iron nodules comprising providing a reducible mixture into a hearth furnace for the production of metallic iron nodules, where the reducible mixture comprises a quantity of reducible iron bearing material, a quantity of first carbonaceous reducing material of a size less than about 28 mesh of an amount between about 65 percent and about 95 percent of a stoichiometric amount necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material, and a quantity of second carbonaceous reducing material with an average particle size greater than average particle size of the first carbonaceous reducing material and a size between about 3 mesh and about 48 mesh of an amount between about 20 percent and about 60 percent of a stoichiometric amount of necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material.

  20. September 2012, Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview 2 Subgroups: Pro-Force and Non-Pro-Force Pro-Force Subgroup: Accomplishments: 1. Completion of 10 CFR 1046 [Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards] as a final rule that includes modification efforts to address barriers to workforce retention. 2. Pro-Force (PF) union representative, Randy Lawson, identified this accomplishment as the single most significant step toward PF workforce

  1. Work for Others (Non-Department of Energy Funded Work)

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-01-24

    Work for Others is the performance of work for non-Department of Energy (DOE) entities by DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and/or their respective contractor personnel or the use of DOE/NNSA facilities that is not directly funded by DOE appropriations. Cancels DOE O 481.1B. Certified 1-13-11. Admin Chg 1, dated 3-14-11.

  2. Arsenic Sequestration By Sorption Processes in High-Iron Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Root, R.A.; Dixit, S.; Campbell, K.M.; Jew, A.D.; Hering, J.G.; O'Day, P.A.

    2009-06-04

    High-iron sediments in North Haiwee Reservoir (Olancha, CA), resulting from water treatment for removal of elevated dissolved arsenic in the Los Angeles Aqueduct system, were studied to examine arsenic partitioning between solid phases and porewaters undergoing shallow burial. To reduce arsenic in drinking water supplies, ferric chloride and a cationic polymer coagulant are added to the aqueduct upstream of Haiwee Reservoir, forming an iron-rich floc that scavenges arsenic from the water. Analysis by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the aqueduct precipitate is an amorphous hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) similar to ferrihydrite, and that arsenic is associated with the floc as adsorbed and/or coprecipitated As(V). Arsenic-rich floc and sediments are deposited along the inlet channel as aqueduct waters enter the reservoir. Sediment core samples were collected in two consecutive years from the edge of the reservoir along the inlet channel using 30- or 90-cm push cores. Cores were analyzed for total and extractable arsenic and iron concentrations. Arsenic and iron speciation and mineralogy in sediments were examined at selected depths by synchrotron XAS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Sediment-porewater measurements were made adjacent to the core sample sites using polyacrylamide gel probe samplers. Results showed that sediment As(V) is reduced to As(III) in all cores at or near the sediment-water interface (0--4 cm), and only As(III) was observed in deeper sediments. Analyses of EXAFS spectra indicated that arsenic is present in the sediments mostly as a bidentate-binuclear, inner-sphere sorption complex with local atomic geometries similar to those found in laboratory studies. Below about 10 cm depth, XAS indicated that the HFO floc had been reduced to a mixed Fe(II, III) solid with a local structure similar to that of synthetic green rust (GR) but with a slightly contracted average interatomic Fe-Fe distance in the hydroxide layer. There was no evidence from XRD for the formation of a crystalline GR phase. The release of dissolved iron (presumably Fe{sup 2+}) and arsenic to solution, as monitored by in situ gel probes, was variable but, in general, occurred at greater depths than arsenic reduction in the sediments by spectroscopic observations and appears to be near or below the depth at which sediment GR was identified. These data point to reductive dissolution of the sorbent iron phase as the primary mechanism of release of sorbed arsenic to solution.

  3. RCRA corrective action: Work plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This Information Brief describes the work plans that owners/operators may have to prepare in conjunction with the performance of corrective action for compliance with RCRA guidelines. In general, the more complicated the performance of corrective action appears from the remedial investigation and other analyses, the more likely it is that the regulator will impose work plan requirements. In any case, most owner/operators will prepare work plans in conjunction with the performance of corrective action processes as a matter of best engineering management practices.

  4. Get Access to Work Onsite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Get Access to Work Onsite Print The following process MUST be completed online by new and returning users at least TWO WEEKS prior to arrival at the ALS. Not a U.S. citizen? Please...

  5. Utility Security & Resiliency: Working Together

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—discusses Edison Electric Institute (EEI), including its key security objectives, key activities, cybersecurity activities, and spare transformer equipment program (STEP).

  6. Attachment 1 - Performance Work Statement

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    including TTR. Waste acceptance services will be performed at the NNSS and at waste generator sites. DE-SOL-0005982 Attachment 1 Page 1 2. Scope of Work 2.1 Requirement: The EPS...

  7. FY 1994 Annual Work Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    In accordance with the Inspector General`s Strategic Planning Policy directive, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) annually updates its Strategic Plan with budgetary and program guidance for the next fiscal year. The program guidance identifies and establishes priorities for OIG coverage of important DOE issues and operations, provides the basis for assigning OIG resources, and is the source for issues covered in Assistant Inspectors General annual work plans. The Office of the Assistant Inspector General for Audits (AIGA) publishes an Annual Work Plan in September of each year. The plan includes the OIG program guidance and shows the commitment of resources necessary to accomplish the assigned work and meet our goals. The program guidance provides the framework within which the AIGA work will be planned and accomplished. Audits included in this plan are designed to help insure that the requirements of our stakeholders have been considered and blended into a well balanced audit program.

  8. Recovery Act Funds at Work

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) are being put to work to improve safety, reliability, and service in systems across the country. Here are case studies from a variety of Recovery Act programs.

  9. BEDES Strategic Working Group Recommendations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The BEDES Strategic Working Group Recommendations document is a guide to how the BEDES Dictionary can be brought to market and provide the services for which it was designed.

  10. BEDES Strategic Working Group Recommendations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Energy Data Exchange Specification: Strategic Working Group Recommendations Rick Diamond, Robin Mitchell, Andrea Mercado, Shankar Earni, and Lindsay Holiday Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Jonathan Raab, Raab Associates October 27, 2014 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of

  11. HEADQUARTERS MEDIATION PROGRAM MEDIATION WORKS!

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HEADQUARTERS MEDIATION PROGRAM MEDIATION WORKS! Mediation helps to strengthen relationships. People solve their own problems by looking to the future, rather than finding fault with the past. YOU (the participant involved) make the decisions. * Mediation often works in conjunction with other dispute resolution processes, such as grievances or equal employment opportunity (EEO) complaints. However, mediation does NOT forestall established timeframes within those processes, nor does it constitute

  12. Work with Us | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work with Us NREL provides partnerships and collaboration in the research and development of bioenergy including bio-based energy, fuels, and products. Woman in front of monitor displaying line graph in industrial facility; other workers in background. Leverage the expertise of our research staff and the efficiency of working in our world-class facilities. Contact Us Robert Baldwin Partnership and Business Development Email | 303-384-6858 Richard Bolin Partnership and Business Development Email

  13. AEO2016 Electricity Working Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis December 8, 2015 | Washington, DC AEO2016 Electricity Working Group WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE What to look for: Electricity sector in AEO2016 * Inclusion of EPA final Clean Power Plan in Reference Case * Updated cost estimates for new generating technologies * Major data update on existing coal plant status: MATS- compliant technology or retirement

  14. Submitting Work | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Submitting Work Customers may directly contact the supervisor of the required service area to discuss the technical details of proposed projects. Iowa State University requestors need to bring an Intramural Purchase Order (IPO) with them from their departmental office to request services. After the technical details of the project are known, a cost estimate is prepared. Ames Laboratory operations work less than $1,000 is submitted directly to the shop using the Engineering Services Shop -

  15. The world`s first commercial iron carbide plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prichard, L.C.; Schad, D.

    1995-12-01

    The paper traces the development of Nucor`s investigation of clean iron unit processes, namely, direct reduction, and the decision to build and operate the world`s first commercial iron carbide plant. They first investigated coal based processes since the US has abundant coal reserves, but found a variety of reasons for dropping the coal-based processes from further consideration. A natural gas based process was selected, but the failure to find economically priced gas supplies stopped the development of a US based venture. It was later found that Trinidad had economically priced and abundant supplies of natural gas, and the system of government, the use of English language, and geographic location were also ideal. The cost estimates required modification of the design, but the plant was begun in April, 1993. Start-up problems with the plant are also discussed. Production should commence shortly.

  16. Synthesis of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles by detonation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Guilei, E-mail: sunguilei@126.com [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China)] [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China); Li, Xiaojie, E-mail: dalian03@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Qiquan [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China)] [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China); Yan, Honghao [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were synthesized by detonating a mixture of ferrocene, naphthalene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in an explosion vessel under low vacuum conditions (8.1 kPa). The RDX functioned as an energy source for the decomposition of ferrocene and naphthalene. The carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were formed as soot-like deposits on the inner surface of the reactor, which were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. And a portion of the detonation soot was treated with hydrochloric acid. The product was carbon-coated nanoparticles in perfect core-shell structures with graphitic shells and bcc-Fe cores. The detonation technique offers an energy-saving route to the synthesis of carbon-coated nanomaterials.

  17. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  18. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

    1997-04-15

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {<=}1% Cr and either {>=}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {>=}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, {<=}2% Ti, {<=}2% Mo, {<=}1% Zr, {<=}1% C, {<=}0.1% B, {<=}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {<=}1% rare earth metal, {<=}1% oxygen, {<=}3% Cu, balance Fe. 64 figs.

  19. Oxidation, carburization and/or sulfidation resistant iron aluminide alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2003-08-19

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or Zro.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B. .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  20. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  1. Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie Reagan; Singh, Prabhakar; Sikka, Vinod Kumar

    2000-01-01

    A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

  2. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKamey, Claudette G. (Knoxville, TN); Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO.sub.3 type that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy corrosion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26-30 at. % aluminum, 0.5-10 at. % chromium, 0.02-0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron.

  3. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  4. Iron beam acceleration using direct plasma injection scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura, M.; Kanesue, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Fuwa, Y.; RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198

    2014-02-15

    A new set of vanes of radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator was commissioned using highly charged iron beam. To supply high intensity heavy ion beams to the RFQ, direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) with a confinement solenoid was adopted. One of the difficulties to utilize the combination of DPIS and a solenoid field is a complexity of electro magnetic field at the beam extraction region, since biasing high static electric field for ion extraction, RFQ focusing field, and the solenoid magnetic field fill the same space simultaneously. To mitigate the complexity, a newly designed magnetic field clamps were used. The intense iron beam was observed with bunched structure and the total accelerated current reached 2.5 nC.

  5. Cation-exchange fiber reduces iron oxide leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacClure, S.L.

    1993-10-01

    This article describes how addition of new fiber in powdered-resin precoat improves demineralizer crud-retention capability and reduces disposal cost for radioactive spent resin. Various attempts have been made to reduce the concentrations of iron oxide at the outlet of filter/demineralizer (FTD) vessels. Each vessel is fitted with an array of tubular septa that are precoated with powdered ion-exchange resin. The coatings perform filtering and ion-exchange actions on incoming feedwater, removing both suspended and dissolved solids. Experience at Duane Arnold Energy Center (CAED) indicates that use of a powdered-resin precoat containing cation-exchange fibers rather than cellulose fibers can reduce iron oxide levels in FTD effluent significantly.

  6. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKamey, C.G.; Liu, C.T.

    1990-10-09

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO[sub 3] type is described that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy conversion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26--30 at. % aluminum, 0.5--10 at. % chromium, 0.02--0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron. 3 figs.

  7. Low resistivity contact to iron-pnictide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanatar, Makariy; Prozorov, Ruslan; Ni, Ni; Bud'ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

    2013-05-28

    Method of making a low resistivity electrical connection between an electrical conductor and an iron pnictide superconductor involves connecting the electrical conductor and superconductor using a tin or tin-based material therebetween, such as using a tin or tin-based solder. The superconductor can be based on doped AFe.sub.2As.sub.2, where A can be Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu or combinations thereof for purposes of illustration only.

  8. Bifunctional air electrodes containing elemental iron powder charging additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chia-tsun; Demczyk, Brian G.; Gongaware, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A bifunctional air electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer essentially comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon; (ii) elemental iron particles having a particle size of between about 25 microns and about 700 microns diameter; (iii) an oxygen evolution material; (iv) a nonwetting agent; and (v) a catalyst, where at least one current collector is formed into said composite.

  9. Magnetism and Superconductivity Compete in Iron-based Superconductors |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Magnetism and Superconductivity Compete in Iron-based Superconductors Wednesday, April 30, 2014 HTSC Figure 1 Fig. 1. Measured electronic structure of underdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 in the orthorhombic spin-density-wave (SDW) ordered state. The antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic directions are indicated by arrows. High-temperature superconductivity (HTSC), one of the long-standing unsolved mysteries of condensed matter physics, is a beautiful example of

  10. Methods for making a supported iron-copper catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst is described for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO+H.sub.2 utilizing a porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support impregnated with iron and copper and optionally promoted with an alkali metal. The use of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support results in the suppression of heavy waxes (C.sub.26 + hydrocarbons), particularly in slurry phase operation, when compared to unsupported or co-precipitated catalysts.

  11. file://\\Bellview\TeamWorks\TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8/03 TRU TeamWorks will resume printing on January 8, 2004 | Shipments expected this we December 18, 2003 The Big Story: It's a wrap - 2003 Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e- mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 12/18/03 at 8:14 a.m.) Shipments scheduled to arrive at

  12. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | NRC Officials Visit WIPP Tod A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team September 25, 2003 The Big Story Recertification - a work in progress Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 9-25-03 at 7:16 a.m.) 21 Shipments

  13. Work for Others (Non-Department of Energy Funded Work)

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-01-24

    Work for Others is the performance of work for non-Department of Energy (DOE) entities by DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and/or their respective contractor personnel or the use of DOE/NNSA facilities that is not directly funded by DOE appropriations. Cancels DOE O 481.1B. Certified 1-13-11. Admin Chg 1, dated 3-14-11, cancels DOE O 481.1C. Admin Chg 2, dated 3-9-15, cancels DOE O 481.1C Admin Chg 1

  14. The development of precipitated iron catalysts with improved stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this program is to identify the chemical principles governing the deactivation of precipitated iron catalysts during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and to use these chemical principles in the design of catalysts suitable for slurry reactors. This report covers testing an iron catalyst. During the last quarter, a new precipitated iron catalyst was prepared and tested in the slurry autoclave reactor at various conditions. This catalyst did not noticeably deactivate during 1250 hours of testing. This quarter, the test was extended to include performance evaluations at different conversion levels ranging from 35 to 88% at 265 and 275{degree}C. The conversion levels were varied by changing the feed rate. The catalytic performance at different conversion intervals was then integrated to approximately predict performance in a bubble column reactor. The run was shut down at the end of 1996 hours because of a 24-hour-power outage. When the power was back on, the run was restarted from room temperature. Catalytic performance during the first 300 hours after the restart-up was monitored. Overall product distributions are being tabulated as analytical laboratory data are obtained. 34 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1991-01-10

    Although promoted cobalt and iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis of gasoline feedstock were first developed more than three decades ago, a major technical problem still limiting the commercial use of these catalysts today is carbon deactivation. This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for FT synthesis, the objectives of which are to: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; and model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. To accomplish the above objectives, the project is divided into the following tasks: (1) determine the kinetics of reaction and of carbon deactivation during CO hydrogenation on Fe and Fe/K catalysts coated on monolith bodies. (2) Determine the reactivities and types of carbon deposited during reaction on the same catalysts from temperature-programmed-surface-reaction spectroscopy (TPSR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Determine the types of iron carbides formed at various temperatures and H{sub 2}/CO ratios using x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (3) Develop mathematical deactivation models which include heat and mass transport contributions for FT synthesis is packed-bed reactors. Progress to date is described. 48 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel wherein double wall cast iron body segments each have an arcuate inner wall and a spaced apart substantially parallel outer wall with a plurality of radially extending webs interconnecting the inner wall and the outer wall, the bottom surface and the two exposed radial side surfaces of each body segment are machined and eight body segments are formed into a ring. The top surfaces and outer surfaces of the outer walls are machined and keyways are provided across the juncture of adjacent end walls of the body segments. A liner segment complementary in shape to a selected inner wall of one of the body segments is mounted to each of the body segments and again formed into a ring. The liner segments of each ring are welded to form unitary liner rings and thereafter the cast iron body segments are prestressed to complete the ring assembly. Ring assemblies are stacked to form the vessel and adjacent unitary liner rings are welded. A top head covers the top ring assembly to close the vessel and axially extending tendons retain the top and bottom heads in place under pressure.

  17. Interface driven magnetic interactions in nanostructured thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desautels, R. D. Lierop, J. van; Shueh, C.; Lin, K.-W.; Freeland, J. W.

    2015-05-07

    We have fabricated thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix using a dual ion beam assisted deposition technique. A secondary End-Hall ion beam bombarded the iron atoms during deposition altering significantly the morphology of the films and allowing for control of the intermixing between iron and copper components. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray reflectometry experiments indicated that the morphology of the films was that of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction pattern identified fcc-copper and amorphous iron. An increased amount of disorder was observed with a reduction in the amount of deposited iron from a 1:1 Fe:Cu ratio to 0.25:0.75 Fe:Cu ratio. Interfacial copper-iron alloys were identified by DC susceptibility experiments through their reduced T{sub C,Alloy} (370, 310, and 280 K) compared with that of bulk iron (∼1000 K). Element specific x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments were performed to identify the contributions to the magnetism from the iron and the copper-iron alloy.

  18. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2012-01-18

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made to compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report an investigation of the iron dissolution of three fly ash samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust, a reference material of mineral dust. The effects of pH, cloud processing, and solar irradiation on Fe solubility were explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provide predominant dissolved iron compared with iron in oxides. Iron solubility of fly ash is higher than Arizona test dust, especially at the higher pH conditions investigated. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology aluminosilicate glass, a dominantly material in fly ash particle. Iron continuously releases into the aqueous solution as fly ash particles break up into smaller fragments. The assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes, and their effect on the biogeochemistry at ocean surface should be constrained by taking into account the source, environment pH, Fe speciation, and solar radiation.

  19. Interdiffusion and Reaction between Uranium and Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Huang; Y. Park; A. Ewh; B. H. Sencer; J. R. Kennedy; K. R. Coffey; Y. H. Sohn

    2012-05-01

    Metallic uranium alloy fuels cladded in stainless steel are being examined for fast reactors that operate at high temperature. In this work, solid-to-solid diffusion couples were assembled between pure U and Fe, and annealed at 853K, 888K and 923K where U exists as orthorhombic {alpha}, and at 953K and 973K where U exists as tetragonal {beta}. The microstructures and concentration profiles developed during annealing were examined by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. U{sub 6}Fe and UFe{sub 2} intermetallics developed in all diffusion couples, and U{sub 6}Fe was observed to grow faster than UFe{sub 2}. The interdiffusion fluxes of U and Fe were calculated to determine the integrated interdiffusion coefficients in U{sub 6}Fe and UFe{sub 2}. The extrinsic (K{sub I}) and intrinsic growth constants (K{sub II}) of U{sub 6}Fe and UFe{sub 2} were also calculated according to Wagner's formalism. The difference between K{sub I} and K{sub II} of UFe{sub 2} indicate that its growth was impeded by the fast-growing U{sub 6}Fe phase. However, the thin UFe{sub 2} played only a small role on the growth of U{sub 6}Fe as its K{sub I} and K{sub II} values were determined to be similar. The allotropic transformation of uranium (orthorhombic {alpha} to tetragonal {beta} phase) was observed to influence the growth of U{sub 6}Fe directly, because the growth rate of U{sub 6}Fe changed based on variation of activation energy. The change in chemical potential and crystal structure of U due to the allotropic transformation affected the interdiffusion between U and U{sub 6}Fe. Faster growth of U{sub 6}Fe is also examined with respect to various factors including crystal structure, phase diagram, and diffusion.

  20. Mössbauer study of metallic iron and iron oxide nanoparticles having environmental purifying ability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubuki, Shiro Watanabe, Yuka Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Risti?, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ern?; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    2014-10-27

    A relationship between local structure and methylene blue (MB) decomposing ability of nanoparticles (NPs) of metallic iron (Fe{sup 0}) and maghemite (??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy. ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were successfully prepared by mixing (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}?6H{sub 2}O (Mohr's salt) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}?3H{sub 2}O aqueous solution at 30 °C for 1 h, while those of Fe{sup 0} were obtained by the reduction of Mohr's salt with NaBH{sub 4}. From the Scherrer's equation, the smallest crystallite sizes of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs and Fe{sup 0} NPs were determined to be 9.7 and 1.5 nm, respectively. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs consists of a relaxed sextet with isomer shift (?) of 0.33{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, internal magnetic field (H{sub int}) of 25.8{sub ±0.5} T, and linewidth (?) of 0.62{sub ±0.04} mm s{sup ?1}. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of Fe{sup 0} NP is mainly composed of a sextet having ?, ?, and H{sub int} of 0.00{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1} 0.45{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, and 22.8{sub ±0.1} T, respectively. A bleaching test of the mixture of Fe{sup 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (3:7 ratio, 100 mg) in MB aqueous solution (20 mL) for 6 h showed a remarkable decrease of MB concentration with the first-order rate constant (k{sub MB}) of 6.7 × 10{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. This value is larger than that obtained for the bleaching test using bulk Fe{sup 0}+??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3:7) mixture (k{sub MB}?=?6.5×10{sup ?3}h{sup ?1}). These results prove that MB decomposing ability is enhanced by the NPs mixture of Fe{sub 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  1. CFCC working group meeting: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This report is a compilation of the vugraphs presented at this meeting. Presentations covered are: CFCC Working Group; Overview of study on applications for advanced ceramics in industries for the future; Design codes and data bases: The CFCC program and its involvement in ASTM, ISO, ASME, and military handbook 17 activities; CFCC Working Group meeting (McDermott Technology); CFCC Working Group meeting (Textron); CFCC program for DMO materials; Developments in PIP-derived CFCCs; Toughened Silcomp (SiC-Si) composites for gas turbine engine applications; CFCC program for CVI materials; Self-lubricating CFCCs for diesel engine applications; Overview of the CFCC program`s supporting technologies task; Life prediction methodologies for CFCC components; Environmental testing of CFCCs in combustion gas environments; High-temperature particle filtration ORNL/DCC CRADA; HSCT CMC combustor; and Case study -- CFCC shroud for industrial gas turbines.

  2. Coiled tubing working life prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.

    1995-12-31

    Failure of coiled tubing, due to the repeated bending and plastic deformation of coiled tubing on and off the reel and gooseneck, is of great concern in coiled tubing operations. This paper discusses the coiled tubing working life based on one of the coiled tubing life models published in the literature, and compares the results with other models. Certain agreements are found among these models. A group of curves is presented to illustrate the coiled tubing working life affected by coiled tubing size and wall thickness, internal pressure, yield strength, reel diameter, gooseneck radius, operation condition (corrosion) and butt-welded connection (stress concentration). The results show that coiled tubing life can be greatly increased by increasing CT wall thickness and CT strength, while the coiled tubing working life decreases under high internal pressure, corrosion, and butt-weld conditions. These curves can be easily used in estimating coiled tubing life for the field use.

  3. Studies on the reduction kinetics of hematite iron ore pellets with noncoking coals for sponge iron plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, M.; Mohapatra, P.; Patel, S.K.

    2009-07-01

    In the present investigation, fired pellets were made by mixing hematite iron ore fines of -100, -16+18, and -8+10 mesh size in different ratios and studies on their reduction kinetics in Lakhanpur, Orient OC-2 and Belpahar coals were carried out at temperatures ranging from 850{sup o}C to 1000{sup o}C with a view toward promoting the massive utilization of fines in ironmaking. The rate of reduction in all the fired iron ore pellets increased markedly with an increase in temperature up to 1000{sup o}C, and it was more intense in the first 30min. The values of activation energy, calculated from integral and differential approaches, for the reduction of fired pellets (prepared from iron ore fines of -100 mesh size) in coals were found to be in the range 131-148 and 130-181 kJ mol{sup -1} (for =0.2 to 0.8), indicating the process is controlled by a carbon gasification reaction. The addition of selected larger size particles in the matrix of -100 mesh size fines up to the extent studied decreased the activation energy and slightly increased the reduction rates of resultant fired pellets. In comparison to coal, the reduction of fired pellets in char was characterized by significantly lower reduction rates and higher activation energy.

  4. Long working distance interference microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

    2004-04-13

    Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

  5. Get Access to Work Onsite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Get Access to Work Onsite Print The following process MUST be completed online by new and returning users at least TWO WEEKS prior to arrival at the ALS. Not a U.S. citizen? Please look at Documents for Foreign Nationals well ahead of your visit. Bring all relevant documents to the ALS in order to complete your registration. NOTE: Users who are citizens of, or were born in, T4 countries (Cuba, Iran, Sudan, and Syria) need DOE permission to work at the ALS, a process which can take 4-6 months to

  6. Laboratory study related to the production and properties of pig iron nuggets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anameric, B.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2006-02-15

    Pig iron nuggets were produced in a laboratory-scale furnace at Michigan Technological University. The process was intended to replicate Kobe Steel's ITmk3 direct ironmaking process. These nuggets were produced from pellets that were made from a mixture of iron oxide, coal, flux and a binder and heated in a furnace with a chamber temperature of 1450{sup o}C. The pellets then self-reduced to produce a solid, high-density, highly metallized (96.5% Fe) pig iron. During the nugget production process, a separate liquid slag phase formed that cleanly separated from the molten metal. The physical and chemical properties of the pig iron nuggets were similar to pig iron produced by blast furnaces, which is distinct from direct reduced iron (DRI).

  7. Nitrided iron catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in the eighties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrided iron catalysts are active and durable and have an unusal selectivity. They do not produce significant amounts of wax, which should be advantageous in situations where gasoline is the desired product. The low yield of wax permits operation of nitrided iron in fluidized fixed-bed or entrained reactors at 230 to 255/sup 0/C. Conventional reduced iron catalysts in these reactors must be operated at about 325/sup 0/C to prevent formation of higher hydrocarbon that leads to agglomeration of the fluidized particles. At 325/sup 0/C carbon deposition and other processes leading to catalyst deterioration proceed rapidly. The yields of methane and ethane from nitrided iron are larger than desired for most purposes. Possibly promoters may be found to improve the selectivity of nitrided iron catalysts. The Bureau of Mines did not conduct a systematic catalyst development program on iron nitrides. (DP) 5 fgures, 6 tables.

  8. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pipeline Working Group Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group The Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group of research and industry experts focuses on issues related to the cost, safety, and ...

  9. Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure Working Gas in Underground Storage Compared with 5-Year Range Graph....

  10. Policy Memo: Working Effectively with Contractors | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy Memo: Working Effectively with Contractors Policy Memo: Working Effectively with Contractors Guidance on working effectively with contractors. PDF icon MAPolicyMemoWorkingw...

  11. LotusWorks | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LotusWorks Jump to: navigation, search Name: LotusWorks Place: Ireland Product: Engineering, technical and construction management service provider. References: LotusWorks1 This...

  12. ACME solar works | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ACME solar works Jump to: navigation, search Logo: ACME solar works Name: ACME solar works Address: 20738 Brown Lane Place: Summerdale, Alabama Zip: 36580 Sector: Solar Product:...

  13. Effects of Iron Oxides on the Rheological Properties of Cementitious Slurry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effects of Iron Oxides on the Rheological Properties of Cementitious Slurry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Iron Oxides on the Rheological Properties of Cementitious Slurry Iron oxide has been considered a promising host for immobilizing and encapsulating radioactive 99Tc (t1/2=2.1x105 year), which significantly enhances the stability of 99Tc within a cementitious waste form. However, the flow behavior of cementitious slurry

  14. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron increased the levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in lung tissues at high altitudes. • Trolox alleviated the iron-induced histological and biochemical changes to the lungs.

  15. ITmk3: High-Quality Iron Nuggets Using a Rotary Hearth Furnace | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy ITmk3: High-Quality Iron Nuggets Using a Rotary Hearth Furnace ITmk3: High-Quality Iron Nuggets Using a Rotary Hearth Furnace Steelmaking Process with a One-step Furnace Operation Uses Less Energy The industrial sector consumes 30% of all U.S. energy consumption, of which about half (1.5 quad) is consumed by iron and steel production. Despite steadily increasing demand the iron and steel industry has reduced CO2 emissions and lowered energy consumption by 30% since the early

  16. Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311 and 3312) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    99 2.6 IRON AND STEEL SECTOR (NAICS 3311, 3312) 2.6.1. Overview of the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Sector The iron and steel sector is an essential part of the U.S. manufacturing sector, providing the necessary raw material for the extensive industrial supply chain. U.S. infrastructure is heavily reliant on the U.S. iron and steel sector, as it provides the foundation for construction (bridges, buildings), transportation systems (railroads, cars, trucks), utility systems (municipal water

  17. NERSC User Group 2013 Big Bang, Big Data, Big Iron Planck Satellite...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013 Big Bang, Big Data, Big Iron Planck Satellite Data Analysis At NERSC Julian Borrill Computational Cosmology Center, Berkeley Lab & Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley NERSC ...

  18. Visualization at Supercomputing Centers: The Tale of Little Big Iron and the Three Skinny Guys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E Wes; Brugger, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Supercomputing centers are unique resources that aim to enable scientific knowledge discovery by employing large computational resources - the 'Big Iron.' Design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Big Iron are carefully planned and monitored. Because these Big Iron systems produce a tsunami of data, it's natural to colocate the visualization and analysis infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of hardware (Little Iron) and staff (Skinny Guys). Our collective experience suggests that design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Little Iron and Skinny Guys doesn't receive the same level of treatment as that of the Big Iron. This article explores the following questions about the Little Iron: How should we size the Little Iron to adequately support visualization and analysis of data coming off the Big Iron? What sort of capabilities must it have? Related questions concern the size of visualization support staff: How big should a visualization program be - that is, how many Skinny Guys should it have? What should the staff do? How much of the visualization should be provided as a support service, and how much should applications scientists be expected to do on their own?

  19. Synthesis of phase-pure and monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hufschmid, Ryan D.; Arami, Hamed; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Gonzales, Marcela; Teeman, Eric M.; Brush, Lucien N.; Browning, Nigel D.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-06-03

    We present a comprehensive template for the design and synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with control over size, size distribution, phase, and resulting properties. Monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of three different iron containing precursors (iron oleate, iron pentacarbonyl, and iron oxyhydroxide) in organic solvents under a variety of synthetic conditions. We compare the suitability of these three kinetically controlled synthesis protocols, which have in common the use of iron oleate as a starting precursor or reaction intermediate, for producing nanoparticles with specific size and magnetic properties. Monodisperse particles were produced over a tunable range of sizes from approximately 2-30 nm. Reaction parameters such as precursor concentration, addition of surfactant, temperature, ramp rate, and time were adjusted to kinetically control size and size-distribution. In particular, large quantities of excess surfactant (up to 25:1 molar ratio) alter reaction kinetics and result in larger particles with uniform size; however, there is often a trade-off between large particles and a narrow size distribution. Iron oxide phase is also critical for establishing magnetic properties. As an example, we show the importance of obtaining the required iron oxide phase for application to Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), and describe how phase purity can be controlled.

  20. Erosion-Corrosion of Iron and Nickel Alloys at Elevated Temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at Elevated Temperature in a Combustion Gas Environment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Erosion-Corrosion of Iron and Nickel Alloys at Elevated Temperature in a ...

  1. Iron repletion relocalizes hephaestin to a proximal basolateral compartment in polarized MDCK and Caco2 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Min [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Columbia, NY (United States) [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Columbia, NY (United States); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Attieh, Zouhair K. [Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Ashrafieh (Lebanon) [Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Ashrafieh (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Son, Hee Sook [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Huijun [Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province (China) [Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province (China); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bacouri-Haidar, Mhenia [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (I), Lebanese University, Hadath (Lebanon) [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (I), Lebanese University, Hadath (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vulpe, Chris D., E-mail: vulpe@berkeley.edu [Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in non-polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in iron deficient and polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin with apical iron moves near to basolateral membrane of polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peri-basolateral location of hephaestin is accessible to the extracellular space. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization from the intestine to circulation. -- Abstract: While intestinal cellular iron entry in vertebrates employs multiple routes including heme and non-heme routes, iron egress from these cells is exclusively channeled through the only known transporter, ferroportin. Reduced intestinal iron export in sex-linked anemia mice implicates hephaestin, a ferroxidase, in this process. Polarized cells are exposed to two distinct environments. Enterocytes contact the gut lumen via the apical surface of the cell, and through the basolateral surface, to the body. Previous studies indicate both local and systemic control of iron uptake. We hypothesized that differences in iron availability at the apical and/or basolateral surface may modulate iron uptake via cellular localization of hephaestin. We therefore characterized the localization of hephaestin in two models of polarized epithelial cell lines, MDCK and Caco2, with varying iron availability at the apical and basolateral surfaces. Our results indicate that hephaestin is expressed in a supra-nuclear compartment in non-polarized cells regardless of the iron status of the cells and in iron deficient and polarized cells. In polarized cells, we found that both apical (as FeSO{sub 4}) and basolateral iron (as the ratio of apo-transferrin to holo-transferrin) affect mobilization of hephaestin from the supra-nuclear compartment. We find that the presence of apical iron is essential for relocalization of hephaestin to a cellular compartment in close proximity but not overlapping with the basolateral surface. Surface biotinylation studies indicate that hephaestin in the peri-basolateral location is accessible to the extra-cellular environment. These results support the hypothesis that hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization of iron from the intestine to circulation.

  2. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research at ASU, focused on the biogenesis aspects, examined the biogeochemical bases for iron-sulfide production by Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a Gram-negative bacterium that is one ...

  3. Renewable Electricity Working Group Presentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Renewable Electricity Working Group Chris Namovicz, Renewable Electricity Analysis Team July 9, 2013 Agenda * Review status of AEO 2013 * Discuss new model updates and development efforts for AEO 2014 and future AEOs - Model updates - Policy updates - Planned additions updates - Performance updates * Obtain feedback from stakeholders on any key items that EIA should look at Chris Namovicz, July 9 2 Status of AEO 2013 Chris Namovicz, July 9 * AEO 2013 was released in stages this year - Reference

  4. Working with SRNL - AMC - Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry The dynamic, long-term relationships that would emerge from this laboratory, industry, and academic collaborative would generate new concepts and approaches that not only "spin in" modern manufacturing methods that support DOE mission success but also "spin out" new innovations to support overall chemical and manufacturing competitiveness within the United States. Technology and innovation are being driven by the need to work smarter to reduce risk. The Advanced

  5. Working with SRNL - AMC - Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Advanced Manufacturing Collaborative Academia Government Industry AMC Leadership Contact AMC Home SRNL Home Working with SRNL Advanced Manufacturing Collaborative AMC Leadership Charles Meyers Thad Adams Steven Tibrea Charles Meyers 803-725-3020 Chuck.Meyers@srnl.doe.gov Click to view bio Thad Adams 803-725-5510 Thad.Adams@srnl.doe.gov Click to view bio Steven Tibrea 803-725-3978 Steven.Tibrea@srnl.doe.gov Click to view bio

  6. Working with SRNL - Technology Partnerships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SRNL Home SRNL Contacts Media Contacts For information about the Savannah River National Laboratory, contact: Lana Patterson, Communications Coordinator SRNL Executive Communications lana.patterson@srnl.doe.gov 803.725.4396 Technology Transfer For information on working with SRNL in the development and use of new technology, contact: Matthew Biasiny Partnerships and Commercialization matthew.biasiny@srs.gov 803.725.0406 Protocol Office For information pertaining to SRNL business related visits

  7. file://\\Bellview\TeamWorks\TRUTeamWorks.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Total shipments received at WIPP as of 8-25-03: 1,956 | Shipments expected this week: Hanford A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team August 25, 2003 The Big Story INEEL drum fire and Senate Bill S. 1424: questions and answers Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here

  8. file://\\Bellview\TeamWorks\TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9/04 Shipments expected this week: RFETS (14), SRS (6) February 5, 2004 The Big Story Southeastern NM Legislative delegation WIPP update Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 2/9/04 at 8:21 a.m.) Shipments scheduled to arrive at WIPP this

  9. file://\\Bellview\TeamWorks\TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4/04 Shipments expected for the week of 02/29/04 through 3/6/04: RFETS (14), SRS (6) A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team March 4, 2004 The Big Story Raising crane Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 03/4/04 at 7:51

  10. file://\\Bellview\TeamWorks\TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    30/03 Shipments expected this week: RFETS (11), SRS (4), Hanford (2) A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team October 30, 2003 ARROW-PAK Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e- mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 10/30/03 at 6:59 a.m.) Shipments

  11. file://\\Bellview\TeamWorks\TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6/03 | Shipments expected this week: RFETS (13), SRS (6) | A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team November 6, 2003 The Big Story FY03 cleanup and disposal accomplishments Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of

  12. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thursday, 9/4/03 | Total shipments received at WIPP: 1,978 | Shipments expected this week: Hanford (2), LA A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team September 4, 2003 The Big Story Get ready, set, go for 100 Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e

  13. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15/04 Shipments expected this week: Hanford (2), NTS (2), RFETS (11), SRS (6) January 15, 2004 The Big Story Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 1/15/04 at 7:09 a.m. Shipments scheduled to arrive at WIPP this week 21 Total shipments

  14. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2/04 Shipments expected this week: Hanford (3), NTS (2), RFETS (11), SRS (6) January 22, 2004 The Big Story Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 1/22/04 at 7:22 a.m. Shipments scheduled to arrive at WIPP this week 22 Total shipments

  15. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9/04 Shipments expected this week: NTS (2), RFETS (13), SRS (6) January 29, 2004 The Big Story WTS restructures workforce Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 1/29/04 at 7:14 a.m.) Shipments scheduled to arrive at WIPP this week 21 Total

  16. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team September 18, 2003 The Big Story Characterization Operations completed at ANL-E Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 9-18-03 at 7:17 a.m.) 21 Shipments scheduled to arrive

  17. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    /03 | Shipments expected this week: Hanford (1), RFETS (11), SRS (6) | A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team October 2, 2003 The Big Story Laboratory setup at CEMRC is teamwork in action Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP

  18. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9/03 | Shipments expected this week: Hanford (1), RFETS (11), SRS (6) | A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team October 9, 2003 The Big Story It's a whole new "WIPP Experience" Topics Characterization News Transportation News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e- mail. WIPP Shipments (as of

  19. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16/03 | Shipments expected this week: ANL-E (2) , RFETS (11), SRS (6) | A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team October 16, 2003 The Big Story EM-6 to review WIPP baseline Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of

  20. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3/03 | Shipments expected this week: RFETS (11), SRS (4), Hanford (2) | A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team October 23, 2003 Sealed sources: questions and answers Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 10/23/03

  1. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13/03 | Shipments expected this week: RFETS (11), SRS (6) | WIPP welcomes new CBFO Deputy Ma A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team November 13, 2003 The Big Story Farewell to a leader Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP

  2. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20/03 | Shipments expected this week: Hanford (2), RFETS (14), SRS (6) | A weekly e-newsletter for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant team November 20, 2003 The Big Story WIPP welcomes Lloyd Piper Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of

  3. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    04/03 | Shipments expected this week: Hanford (2), RFETS (11), SRS (3) | December 4, 2003 The Big Story H.R.2754 to usher in change Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e-mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 12/4/03 at 8:05 a.m.) Shipments scheduled to arrive at WIPP this

  4. http://bellview/TeamWorks/TRUTeamWorks.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1/03 | Shipments expected this week: Hanford (2), RFETS (11), SRS (3) | December 11, 2003 The Big Story Standardization - a cost saving innovation Topics Characterization News Transportation News Disposal News Safety News Working Smart Announcements Our Team Tools Acronym List Archives Back to Main Page WIPP Home Page Links Feedback Contact us with feedback or submit your e-mail address for updates. Click here to e- mail. WIPP Shipments (as of 12/11/03 at 7:47 a.m.) Shipments scheduled to arrive

  5. Environmental Justice Interagency Working Group releases "Promising...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Justice Interagency Working Group releases "Promising Practices for EJ Methodologies in NEPA Reviews" Environmental Justice Interagency Working Group releases ...

  6. Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Alumimum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW Streams - 13000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-01-16

    The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract terms. The WTP?s overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulphur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings and higher throughput efficiencies. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. In view of the importance of aluminum limited waste streams at Hanford (and also Savannah River), the ability to achieve high waste loadings without adversely impacting melt rates has the potential for enormous cost savings from reductions in canister count and the potential for schedule acceleration. Consequently, the potential return on the investment made in the development of these enhancements is extremely favorable. Glass composition development for one of the latest Hanford HLW projected compositions with sulphate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading have been successfully tested and show tolerance for previously unreported tolerance for sulphate. Though a significant increase in waste loading for high-iron wastes has been achieved, the magnitude of the increase is not as substantial as those achieved for high-aluminum, high-chromium, high-bismuth or sulphur. Waste processing rate increases for high-iron streams as a combined effect of higher waste loadings and higher melt rates resulting from new formulations have been achieved.

  7. Uniform 2 nm gold nanoparticles supported on iron oxides as active catalysts for CO oxidation reaction: Structure-activity relationship

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Yu; Senanayake, Sanjaya; Gu, Dong; Jin, Zhao; Du, Pei -Pei; Si, Rui; Xu, Wen -Qian; Huang, Yu -Ying; Tao, Jing; Song, Qi -Sheng; et al

    2015-01-12

    Uniform Au nanoparticles (~2 nm) with narrow size-distribution (standard deviation: 0.5–0.6 nm) supported on both hydroxylated (Fe_OH) and dehydrated iron oxide (Fe_O) have been prepared by either deposition-precipitation (DP) or colloidal-deposition (CD) methods. Different structural and textural characterizations were applied to the dried, calcined and used gold-iron oxide samples. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) described the high homogeneity in the supported Au nanoparticles. The ex-situ and in-situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) characterization monitored the electronic and short-range local structure of active gold species. The synchrotron-based in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), together with the corresponding temperature-programmed reductionmore » by hydrogen (H₂-TPR), indicated a structural evolution of the iron-oxide supports, correlating to their reducibility. An inverse order of catalytic activity between DP (Au/Fe_OH < Au/Fe_O) and CD (Au/Fe_OH > Au/Fe_O) was observed. Effective gold-support interaction results in a high activity for gold nanoparticles, locally generated by the sintering of dispersed Au atoms on the oxide support in the DP synthesis, while a hydroxylated surface favors the reactivity of externally introduced Au nanoparticles on Fe_OH support for the CD approach. This work reveals why differences in the synthetic protocol translate to differences in the catalytic performance of Au/FeOx catalysts with very similar structural characteristics in CO oxidation.« less

  8. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.; Franco, S.C.S.

    1994-03-29

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications. 6 figures.

  9. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.; Franco, Sofia C. S.

    1994-01-01

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications.

  10. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a cabon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  11. New iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  12. An Octahedral Coordination Complex of Iron(VI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the most abundant transition element on earth, and is typically found in formal oxidation states of either II or III. However, high valent Fe(IV) and Fe(V) complexes are invoked in the mechanisms of both heme and non-heme enzymes; and Fe(VI) is known to exist in the mineral ferrate.[1] Ferrate is a powerful oxidant, which has been used in soil and wastewater treatment, batteries, and disinfectants; however, it is unstable and often indiscriminately reactive. This has driven chemists to

  13. Work Plan - U.S.-India Coal Working Group | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Work Plan - U.S.-India Coal Working Group Work Plan - U.S.-India Coal Working Group PDF icon Work Plan - U.S.-India Coal Working Group More Documents & Publications Work Group Telecom (Draft Charters) U.S.-India Coal Working Group Terms of Reference Work Group Leadership Meetings: Transition Elements

  14. Discharge model for the lithium iron-phosphate electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Venkat; Newman, John

    2004-02-28

    This paper develops a mathematical model for lithium intercalation and phase change in an iron phosphate-based lithium-ion cell in order to understand the cause for the low power capability of the material. The juxtaposition of the two phases is assumed to be in the form of a shrinking core, where a shell of one phase covers a core of the second phase. Diffusion of lithium through the shell and the movement of the phase interface are described and incorporated into a porous electrode model consisting of two different particle sizes. Open-circuit measurements are used to estimate the composition ranges of the single-phase region. Model-experimental comparisons under constant current show that ohmic drops in the matrix phase, contact resistances between the current collector and the porous matrix, and transport limitations in the iron phosphate particle limit the power capability of the cells. Various design options, consisting of decreasing the ohmic drops, using smaller particles, and substituting the liquid electrolyte by a gel are explored, and their relative importance discussed. The model developed in this paper can be used as a means of optimizing the cell design to suit a particular application.

  15. Electron uptake by iron-oxidizing phototrophic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, A; Gardel, EJ; Vidoudez, C; Parra, EA; Girguis, PR

    2014-02-26

    Oxidation-reduction reactions underlie energy generation in nearly all life forms. Although most organisms use soluble oxidants and reductants, some microbes can access solid-phase materials as electron-acceptors or -donors via extracellular electron transfer. Many studies have focused on the reduction of solid-phase oxidants. Far less is known about electron uptake via microbial extracellular electron transfer, and almost nothing is known about the associated mechanisms. Here we show that the iron-oxidizing photoautotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 accepts electrons from a poised electrode, with carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source/electron acceptor. Both electron uptake and ruBisCo form I expression are stimulated by light. Electron uptake also occurs in the dark, uncoupled from photosynthesis. Notably, the pioABC operon, which encodes a protein system essential for photoautotrophic growth by ferrous iron oxidation, influences electron uptake. These data reveal a previously unknown metabolic versatility of photoferrotrophs to use extracellular electron transfer for electron uptake.

  16. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-10-11

    This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, the objectives of which are: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. During the thirteenth quarter design of software for a computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was continued. Further progress was made toward the completion of the control language, control routines, and software for operating this system. Progress was also made on the testing of the system hardware and software. H{sub 2} chemisorption capacities and activity selectivity data were also measured for three iron catalysts promoted with 1% alumina. 47 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Sublattice Magnetic Relaxation in Rare Earth Iron Garnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Walsh, Brian

    2013-07-08

    The magnetic properties of rare earth garnets make them attractive materials for applications ranging from optical communications to magnetic refrigeration. The purpose of this research was to determine the AC magnetic properties of several rare earth garnets, in order to ascertain the contributions of various sublattices. Gd3Fe5O¬12, Gd3Ga5O12, Tb3Fe5O12, Tb3Ga5O12, and Y3Fe5O12 were synthesized by a solid state reaction of their oxides and verified by x-ray diffraction. Frequency-dependent AC susceptibility and DC magnetization were measured versus temperature (10 – 340 K). Field cooling had little effect on AC susceptibility, but large effect on DC magnetization, increasing magnetization at the lowest temperature and shifting the compensation point to lower temperatures. Data suggest that interaction of the two iron lattices results in the two frequency dependent magnetic relaxations in the iron garnets, which were fit using the Vogel-Fulcher and Arrhenius laws.

  18. Atomic-Scale Design of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts: A Combined Computational Chemistry, Experimental, and Microkinetic Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos Mavrikakis; James A. Dumesic; Rahul P. Nabar

    2006-09-29

    Work continued on the development of a microkinetic model of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on supported and unsupported Fe catalysts. The following aspects of the FT mechanism on unsupported iron catalysts were investigated on during this third year: (1) the collection of rate data in a Berty CSTR reactor based on sequential design of experiments; (2) CO adsorption and CO-TPD for obtaining the heat of adsorption of CO on polycrystalline iron; and (3) isothermal hydrogenation (IH) after Fischer Tropsch reaction to identify and quantify surface carbonaceous species. Rates of C{sub 2+} formation on unsupported iron catalysts at 220 C and 20 atm correlated well to a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type expression, derived assuming carbon hydrogenation to CH and OH recombination to water to be rate-determining steps. From desorption of molecularly adsorbed CO at different temperatures the heat of adsorption of CO on polycrystalline iron was determined to be 100 kJ/mol. Amounts and types of carbonaceous species formed after FT reaction for 5-10 minutes at 150, 175, 200 and 285 C vary significantly with temperature. Mr. Brian Critchfield completed his M.S. thesis work on a statistically designed study of the kinetics of FTS on 20% Fe/alumina. Preparation of a paper describing this work is in progress. Results of these studies were reported at the Annual Meeting of the Western States Catalysis and at the San Francisco AIChE meeting. In the coming period, studies will focus on quantitative determination of the rates of kinetically-relevant elementary steps on unsupported Fe catalysts with/without K and Pt promoters by SSITKA method. This study will help us to (1) understand effects of promoter and support on elementary kinetic parameters and (2) build a microkinetics model for FTS on iron. Calculations using periodic, self-consistent Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods were performed on models of defected Fe surfaces, most significantly the stepped Fe(211) surface. Binding Energies (BE's), preferred adsorption sites and geometries of all the FTS relevant stable species and intermediates were evaluated. Each elementary step of our reaction model was fully characterized with respect to its thermochemistry and comparisons between the stepped Fe(211) facet and the most-stable Fe(110) facet were established. In most cases the BE's on Fe(211) reflected the trends observed earlier on Fe(110), yet there were significant variations imposed on the underlying trends. Vibrational frequencies were evaluated for the preferred adsorption configurations of each species with the aim of evaluating the entropy-changes and preexponential factors for each elementary step. Kinetic studies were performed for the early steps of FTS (up to CH{sub 4} formation) and CO dissociation. This involved evaluation of the Minimum Energy Pathway (MEP) and activation energy barrier for the steps involved. We concluded that Fe(211) would allow for far more facile CO dissociation in comparison to other Fe catalysts studied so far, but the other FTS steps studied remained mostly unchanged.

  19. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  20. Workforce Retention Work Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workforce Retention Work Group Workforce Retention Work Group The Workforce Retention Work Group was established to collaboratively address the needs of the Department to maintain a skilled work force in the face of anticipated retirements and to address the specific health and safety concerns of that work force that could impede retention. Due to the broad nature of the issues reflected within this working group, the chartered objectives and outcomes have been moved forward to be worked by the

  1. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  2. Visualization at Supercomputing Centers: The Tale of Little Big Iron and the Three Skinny Guys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; van Rosendale, John; Southard, Dale; Gaither, Kelly; Childs, Hank; Brugger, Eric; Ahern, Sean

    2010-12-01

    Supercomputing Centers (SC's) are unique resources that aim to enable scientific knowledge discovery through the use of large computational resources, the Big Iron. Design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Big Iron are activities that are carefully planned and monitored. Since these Big Iron systems produce a tsunami of data, it is natural to co-locate visualization and analysis infrastructure as part of the same facility. This infrastructure consists of hardware (Little Iron) and staff (Skinny Guys). Our collective experience suggests that design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Little Iron and Skinny Guys does not receive the same level of treatment as that of the Big Iron. The main focus of this article is to explore different aspects of planning, designing, fielding, and maintaining the visualization and analysis infrastructure at supercomputing centers. Some of the questions we explore in this article include:"How should the Little Iron be sized to adequately support visualization and analysis of data coming off the Big Iron?" What sort of capabilities does it need to have?" Related questions concern the size of visualization support staff:"How big should a visualization program be (number of persons) and what should the staff do?" and"How much of the visualization should be provided as a support service, and how much should applications scientists be expected to do on their own?"

  3. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics of trivalent oxides of iron and manganese

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2002-01-01

    A new method for combining elemental iron and other metals to form an inexpensive ceramic to stabilize arsenic, alkaline red mud wastes, swarfs, and other iron or metal-based additives, to create products and waste forms which can be poured or dye cast.

  4. Evolution of iron-containing defects during processing of Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mchedlidze, Teimuraz Weber, Jörg; Möller, Christian; Lauer, Kevin

    2014-12-28

    The formation of iron-containing defects was studied during the fabrication process of a Si solar cell. Three Cz-Si crystals with different iron content in the feedstock were grown for the study. Iron-containing defects in and near-to the n{sup +}p-junction volume (NJV) of the cells are formed directly after phosphorus diffusion due to an inflow of iron atoms from the dissolving iron-silicide precipitates. These NJV-defects strongly affect the dark saturation current of the junctions. Partial dissolution or gettering of the NJV-defects during formation of the antireflection coating is accompanied by an increase in defect concentrations in the bulk of the cell. Further deterioration of bulk carrier lifetime during the formation of electrical contacts is related to the partial dissolution of remaining iron-silicide precipitates during the firing process. A general description of the defect evolution in iron-contaminated wafers during solar cell processing is presented and possible strategies for reducing the influence of iron-containing defects are proposed.

  5. Attrition resistant bulk iron catalysts and processes for preparing and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy; Goodwin, Jr., James G.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    2007-08-21

    An attrition resistant precipitated bulk iron catalyst is prepared from iron oxide precursor and a binder by spray drying. The catalysts are preferably used in carbon monoxide hydrogenation processes such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These catalysts are suitable for use in fluidized-bed reactors, transport reactors and, especially, slurry bubble column reactors.

  6. Exascale Hardware Architectures Working Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmert, S; Ang, J; Chiang, P; Carnes, B; Doerfler, D; Leininger, M; Dosanjh, S; Fields, P; Koch, K; Laros, J; Noe, J; Quinn, T; Torrellas, J; Vetter, J; Wampler, C; White, A

    2011-03-15

    The ASC Exascale Hardware Architecture working group is challenged to provide input on the following areas impacting the future use and usability of potential exascale computer systems: processor, memory, and interconnect architectures, as well as the power and resilience of these systems. Going forward, there are many challenging issues that will need to be addressed. First, power constraints in processor technologies will lead to steady increases in parallelism within a socket. Additionally, all cores may not be fully independent nor fully general purpose. Second, there is a clear trend toward less balanced machines, in terms of compute capability compared to memory and interconnect performance. In order to mitigate the memory issues, memory technologies will introduce 3D stacking, eventually moving on-socket and likely on-die, providing greatly increased bandwidth but unfortunately also likely providing smaller memory capacity per core. Off-socket memory, possibly in the form of non-volatile memory, will create a complex memory hierarchy. Third, communication energy will dominate the energy required to compute, such that interconnect power and bandwidth will have a significant impact. All of the above changes are driven by the need for greatly increased energy efficiency, as current technology will prove unsuitable for exascale, due to unsustainable power requirements of such a system. These changes will have the most significant impact on programming models and algorithms, but they will be felt across all layers of the machine. There is clear need to engage all ASC working groups in planning for how to deal with technological changes of this magnitude. The primary function of the Hardware Architecture Working Group is to facilitate codesign with hardware vendors to ensure future exascale platforms are capable of efficiently supporting the ASC applications, which in turn need to meet the mission needs of the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Program. This issue is relatively immediate, as there is only a small window of opportunity to influence hardware design for 2018 machines. Given the short timeline a firm co-design methodology with vendors is of prime importance.

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westre, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Fe-K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the electronic and geometric structure of the iron active site in non-heme iron enzymes. A new theoretical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis approach, called GNXAS, has been tested on data for iron model complexes to evaluate the utility and reliability of this new technique, especially with respect to the effects of multiple-scattering. In addition, a detailed analysis of the 1s{yields}3d pre-edge feature has been developed as a tool for investigating the oxidation state, spin state, and geometry of iron sites. Edge and EXAFS analyses have then been applied to the study of non-heme iron enzyme active sites.

  8. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2004-04-27

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  9. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2004-07-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  10. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon; Reina Calderon

    2004-01-27

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  11. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2005-01-25

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  12. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2005-01-26

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  13. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2006-01-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  14. Phase II Calderon Process to Produce Direct Reduced Iron Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2007-03-31

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase 1 was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  15. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2005-07-29

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  16. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2006-04-19

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  17. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2004-10-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  18. TWRS Systems Engineering Working Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1994-09-16

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering (SE) Working Plan (SEWP) is to describe how the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) will implement the SE polity and guidance provided in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP). Sections 2.0 through 4.0 cover how the SE process and management will be performed to develop a technical baseline within TWRS. Section 5.0 covers the plans and schedules to implement the SE process and management within TWRS. Detailed information contained in the TWRS Program SEMP is not repeated in this document. This SEWP and the SE discipline defined within apply to the TWRS Program and new and ongoing TWRS projects or activities, including new facilities and safety. The SE process will be applied to the existing Tank Farm operations where the Richland TWRS Program Office management determines the process appropriate and where value will be added to existing Tank Farm system and operations.

  19. FY 1996 annual work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-30

    In April 1994, the Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan was issued. This Plan presents the Department`s strategic outlook in response to a changing world. It discusses the Department`s unique capabilities; its mission, vision, and core values; and key customer and stakeholder considerations. The DOE Strategic Plan lists business strategies and critical success factors which are intended to aid the Department in accomplishing its mission and reaching its vision of itself in the future. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) has an important role in carrying out the goals and objectives of the Secretary`s Strategic Plan. The ultimate goal of the OIG is to facilitate positive change by assisting its customers, responsible Government officials, in taking actions to improve programs and operations. The Inspector General annually issues his own Strategic Plan that contains program guidance for the next fiscal year. As part of its responsibility in carrying out the OIG mission, the Office of the Deputy Inspector General for Audit Services (Office of Audit Services) publishes an Annual Work Plan that sets forth audits that are planned for the next fiscal year. Selection of these audits is based on the overall budget of the Department, analyses of trends in Departmental operations, guidance contained in the agency`s strategic plans, statutory requirements, and the expressed needs and audit suggestions of Departmental program managers and OIG managers and staff. This work plan includes audits that are carried over from FY 1995 and audits scheduled to start during FY 1996. Audits included in the plan will be performed by OIG staff.

  20. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  1. The nature of iron deposits differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.

    2015-11-25

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophages with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.

  2. The nature of iron deposits differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.

    2015-11-25

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophagesmore » with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.« less

  3. Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive...

  4. Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive...

  5. SpringWorks | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SpringWorks Jump to: navigation, search Name: SpringWorks Place: Minnetonka, Minnesota Zip: 55343-8684 Product: SpringWorks was created to discover and nurture incubation companies...

  6. Working with Modules within Perl and Python

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working with Modules within Perl and Python Working with Modules within Perl and Python It can often be convenient to work with the modules system from within perl or python...

  7. Optical spectroscopy of sputtered nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakubisova-Liskova, Eva Visnovsky, Stefan; Chang, Houchen; Wu, Mingzhong

    2015-05-07

    Nanometer (nm)-thick yttrium iron garnet (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, YIG) films present interest for spintronics. This work employs spectral ellipsometry and magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) spectra to characterize nm-thick YIG films grown on single-crystal Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} substrates by magnetron sputtering. The thickness (t) of the films ranges between 10 nm and 40 nm. Independent on t, the polar MOKE hysteresis loops saturate in the field of about 1.8 kOe, consistent with the saturation magnetization in bulk YIG (4πM{sub s} ≈ 1.75 kG). The MOKE spectrum measured at photon energies between 1.3 eV and 4.5 eV on the 38-nm-thick film agrees with that measured on single-crystal YIG bulk materials. The MOKE spectrum of the 12-nm-thick film still preserves the structure of the bulk YIG but its amplitude at lower photon energies is modified due to the fact that the radiation penetration depth exceeds 20 nm. The t dependence of the MOKE amplitude is consistent with MOKE calculations. The results indicate that the films are stoichiometric, strain free, without Fe{sup 2+}, and preserve bulk YIG properties down to t ≈ 10 nm.

  8. Development of improved iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Final technical report: Project 6464

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukur, D.B.; Ledakowicz, S.; Koranne, M.

    1994-02-28

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the United States will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer Tropsch (FT) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Texas A&M University (TAMU) with sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, Center for Energy and Mineral Resources at TAMU, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., has been working on development of improved iron FT catalysts and characterization of hydrodynamic parameters in two- and three-phase bubble columns with FT derived waxes. Our previous studies have provided an improved understanding of the role of promoters (Cu and K), binders (silica) and pretreatment procedures on catalyst activity, selectivity and longevity (deactivation). The objective of the present contract was to develop improved catalysts with enhanced slurry phase activity and higher selectivity to liquid fuels and wax. This was accomplished through systematic studies of the effects of pretreatment procedures and variations in catalyst composition (promoters and binders). The major accomplishments and results in each of these two main areas of research are summarized here.

  9. Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim

    2008-08-15

    Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

  10. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium (T) permeation leakage to surroundings is a great safety concern in fission and fusion reactor systems. T permeation potentially occurs from T contaminated water through cooling tubes or storage tank made of metals which dissolve some T evolved by water corrosion. In order to understand behaviors of hydrogen uptake and permeation in pure ?-iron (?Fe) during water corrosion around room temperature, hydrogen permeation experiments for an ?Fe membrane have been conducted by means of tritium tracer techniques. The present study suggests that hydrogen produced by water corrosion of ?Fe is trapped in product oxide layers to delay hydrogen uptake in ?Fe for a moment. However, the oxide layers do not work as a sufficient barrier for hydrogen uptake. Some of hydrogen dissolved in ?Fe normally diffuses and permeates through the bulk in the early stage of permeation. In a later stage, hydrogen permeation could be apparently stopped by the disappearance of concentration difference of tritium. Hydrogen partial pressure at the water/?Fe interface could be ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 kPa around room temperature.

  11. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting: Washington...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation-given at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) ... More Documents & Publications Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting: ...

  12. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Seminar: Chairman's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seminar: Chairman's Corner Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Seminar: Chairman's Corner Presentation covers the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Seminar: Chairman's ...

  13. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting: Chairman's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting: Chairman's Corner Presentation-given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting-lists key ...

  14. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting: Washington...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting: Washington Update PDF icon fupwgspring12unruh.pdf More Documents & Publications Federal Utility Partnership Working Group ...

  15. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting Chairman's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting Chairman's Corner Presentation-given at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting-lists key utility ...

  16. Working with Schools | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Schools Working with Schools Better Buildings Residential Network Marketing & Outreach Peer Exchange Call Series: Working with Schools, Call Slides and Summary, April 24, 2014. PDF ...

  17. Working with Condominium Owners and Associations | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working with Condominium Owners and Associations Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multifamily and Low-Income Peer Exchange Call: Working with Condominium Owners and ...

  18. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most ...

  19. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of capacity that may understate the amount that can actually be stored. Working Gas Design Capacity: This measure estimates a natural gas facility's working gas capacity, as...

  20. PIA - Radiological Work Permit | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PIA - Radiological Work Permit PDF icon PIA - Radiological Work Permit More Documents & Publications PIA - Bonneville Power Adminstration Ethics Helpline Occupational Medical ...

  1. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Utility Partners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) utility partners are eager to work closely with Federal agencies to help achieve energy management goals.

  2. Washington Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun...

  3. Mississippi Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun...

  4. Pennsylvania Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May...

  5. Brad Foote Gear Works | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brad Foote Gear Works Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brad Foote Gear Works Place: Cicero, Illinois Zip: 60804-1404 Sector: Wind energy Product: Gearing systems manufacturer...

  6. DOE Contractor Work Force Restructuring Approval Thresholds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Work Force Restructuring Approval Thresholds Up to 100 employees Contractor can ... to provide approval for NNSA work force restructurings in consultation with LM 501 ...

  7. REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation PDF icon RCC Workplan NGV.PDF More Documents & Publications REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING ...

  8. California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun...

  9. Nano Design Works | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano Design Works Nano Design Works (NDW) capitalizes on the power of nanotechnology and provides services to strengthen its impact. With expertise in nanomaterials, computing,...

  10. Hadron Colliders Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Peggs and M.J. Syphers

    2001-11-08

    The ''point design'' studied this year shows that a staged VLHC (40, {approx} 200 TeV) is feasible, with no insurmountable challenges. Further work can provide a more optimized design, by studying various alternative field strengths (e.g., superferric magnets for Stage 1) for improvements to vacuum, wall impedance, and other major performance parameters. It may be that a ''single-stage'' scenario for accessing higher energies sooner is the correct approach. A next-step design study should be considered to look at the two cases near to and complementary to the 2001 VLHC Design Study. The effectiveness of photon stops and their engineering design need to be addressed in the near future to truly determine if these devices can lead this effort to even higher luminosities and energies. The superbunch approach should continue to be studied, as well as IR designs, new instrumentation and diagnostics, and beam dynamics issues. Finally, a well organized VLHC-motivated beam studies effort should become part of the national program.

  11. Current work in energy analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work performed at Berkeley Lab most recently. One of the Labs accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of US Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US. This analysis is described and played a key role in shaping the US position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. The Labs participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. Described also is a study of leaking electricity, which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of US residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the report summarize results of research activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national Energy Star{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China.

  12. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  13. Exploring the structure of high temperature, iron-bearing liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wilding, Martin; Benmore, Chris; Weber, Rick; Parise, John; Lazareva, Lena; Skinner, Lawrie; Alderman, Oliver; Tamalonis, Antony

    2015-06-25

    This paper describes the direct measurements of the structure of iron-bearing liquids using a combination of containerless techniques and in–situ high energy x-ray diffraction. These capabilities provide data that is important to help model and optimize processes such as smelting, steel making, and controlling slag chemistry. A successful programme of liquid studies has been undertaken and the Advanced Photon Source using these combined techniques which include the provision of gas mixing and the control of pO₂ and the changing influence of mixed valance elements. It is possible to combine rapid image acquisition with quenching of liquids to obtain the fullmore » diffraction patterns of deeply supercooled liquids and the metastable supercooled liquid regime, where the liquid structures and viscosity change most dramatically, can also be explored.« less

  14. Organic binders for iron ore pelletization and steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karkoska, D.; Sankey, E.; Anderson, R.

    1995-12-01

    Historically, bentonite has been used in the agglomeration process in North American iron ore plants. In 1986, Eveleth Mines replaced bentonite with Peridur, a carboxy methyl cellulose organic binder used in conjunction with 1% limestone. Since May of 1993, Allied Colloids` Alcotac FE8 has been used by Eveleth as the replacement for bentonite. This paper discusses the performance benefits obtained when bentonite was replaced with an organic binder. These totally synthetic binders are used in conjunction with limestone. The benefits of organic binders are: improved metallurgical parameters of the fired pellet, especially the reducibility, which results in more efficient use of gases in the blast furnace; reduced silica in the pellet, in the case of Eveleth Mines this was a reduction of 0.5%, a lower silica pellet reduces slag in the blast furnace; increased production in both the agglomeration/induration and steelmaking processes; and a decrease in coke consumption.

  15. Innovative environmental investigation techniques for iron and steel facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hullinger, J.P.; Skubak, J.; Hawthorne, D.S.; Swales, A.C.

    1997-02-01

    Closed or curtailed iron and steelmaking facilities represent a substantial resource to US industry as the US steel industry rationalizes and retools to meet the demands of the world marketplace. Recently, many states have begun to enact legislation aimed at encouraging reuse of such facilities. Therefore, interest in evaluating them as to environmental status is increasing. A number of relatively new investigative techniques are available that can allow an environmental site assessment or other environmental investigation to proceed more quickly and/or at less cost. This article discussed the following methods: Direct-use technology for sampling groundwater, subsurface soil and soil gas; immunoassay field screening for organic contaminants; and close-support (field mobilized) analytical laboratory. Different approaches for sequencing investigative and remediation efforts are also discussed, building upon the observational method for site investigation and clean up.

  16. Development of Improved Iron-Aluminide Filter Tubes and Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkins, R.R.; Sutton, T.G.; Miller, C.J.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    2008-01-14

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to explore and develop advanced manufacturing techniques to fabricate sintered iron-aluminide intermetallic porous bodies used for gas filtration so as to reduce production costs while maintaining or improving performance in advanced coal gasification and combustion systems. The use of a power turbine fired with coal-derived synthesis gas requires some form of gas cleaning in order to protect turbine and downstream components from degradation by erosion, corrosion, and/or deposition. Hot-gas filtration is one form of cleaning that offers the ability to remove particles from the gases produced by gasification processes without having to substantially cool and, possibly, reheat them before their introduction into the turbine. This technology depends critically on materials durability and reliability, which have been the subject of study for a number of years.

  17. Exploring the structure of high temperature, iron-bearing liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilding, Martin; Benmore, Chris; Weber, Rick; Parise, John; Lazareva, Lena; Skinner, Lawrie; Alderman, Oliver; Tamalonis, Antony

    2015-06-25

    This paper describes the direct measurements of the structure of iron-bearing liquids using a combination of containerless techniques and in–situ high energy x-ray diffraction. These capabilities provide data that is important to help model and optimize processes such as smelting, steel making, and controlling slag chemistry. A successful programme of liquid studies has been undertaken and the Advanced Photon Source using these combined techniques which include the provision of gas mixing and the control of pO? and the changing influence of mixed valance elements. It is possible to combine rapid image acquisition with quenching of liquids to obtain the full diffraction patterns of deeply supercooled liquids and the metastable supercooled liquid regime, where the liquid structures and viscosity change most dramatically, can also be explored.

  18. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-10-29

    This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for synthesis, the objectives of which are: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. During the fourteenth quarter design of software for a computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was continued. Further progress was made toward the completion of the control language, control routines, and software for operating this system. Progress was also made towards testing of the system hardware and software. 47 refs.

  19. High strength nickel-chromium-iron austenitic alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert C.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A solid solution strengthened Ni-Cr-Fe alloy capable of retaining its strength at high temperatures and consisting essentially of 42 to 48% nickel, 11 to 13% chromium, 2.6 to 3.4% niobium, 0.2 to 1.2% silicon, 0.5 to 1.5% vanadium, 2.6 to 3.4% molybdenum, 0.1 to 0.3% aluminum, 0.1 to 0.3% titanium, 0.02 to 0.05% carbon, 0.002 to 0.015% boron, up to 0.06 zirconium, and the balance iron. After solution annealing at 1038.degree. C. for one hour, the alloy, when heated to a temperature of 650.degree. C., has a 2% yield strength of 307 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 513 MPa and a rupture strength of as high as 400 MPa after 100 hours.

  20. New Surface Radiolabeling Schemes of Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) for Biodistribution Studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Palko, Heather A.; Malfatti, Mike; Smith, Catherine; Sonnett, Jim; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Gu, Baohua; Roeder, Ryan; Wang, Wei; et al

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterial based drug delivery systems allow for the independent tuning of the surface chemical and physical properties that affect their biodistribution in vivo and the therapeutic payloads that they are intended to deliver. Additionally, the added therapeutic and diagnostic value of their inherent material properties often provides extra functionality. Iron based nanomaterials with their magnetic properties and 10 easily tailorable surface chemistry are of particular interest as model systems. In this study the core radius of the iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) was 14.08 3.92 nm while the hydrodynamic radius of the NPs, as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), wasmore » between 90 110 nm. In this study, different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable in solution. The NPs were functionalized with polycarboxylate or polyamine surface functional groups. Polycarboxylate 15 functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of -35 mV and polyamine functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of +40 mV. The polycarboxylate functionalized NPs were chosen for in vivo biodistribution studies and hence were radiolabeled with 14C, with a final activity of 0.097 nCi/mg-1 of NPs. In chronic studies, the biodistribution profile is tracked using low level radiolabeled proxies of the nanoparticles of interest. Conventionally, these radiolabeled proxies are chemically similar but not chemically identical to the non-20 radiolabeled NPs of interest. This study is novel as different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable, possess a hydrodynamic radius of <100 nm and most importantly they exhibit an identical surface chemical functionality as their non-radiolabeled counterparts. Identical chemical functionality of the radiolabeled probes to the non-radiolabeled probes was an important consideration to generate statistically similar biodistribution data sets using multiple imaging and 25 detection techniques. The radiolabeling approach described here is applicable to the synthesis of a large class of nanomaterials with multiple core and surface functionalities. This work combined with the biodistribution data suggests that the radiolabeling schemes carried out in this study have broad implications for use in pharmacokinetic studies for a variety of nanomaterials.« less