National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for iron treatment cells

  1. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  2. Simulation of iron impurity gettering in crystalline silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

    2012-01-01

    This work discusses the Impurity-to-Efficiency (12E) simulation tool and applet. The 12E simulator models the physics of iron impurity gettering in silicon solar cells during high temperature processing. The tool also ...

  3. Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie Reagan (Knoxville, TN); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Sikka, Vinod Kumar (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

  4. Application of Iron Activated Persulfate for Disinfection in Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wordofa, Dawit Negash

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine/Chloramine Drinking Water Treatment. Environ. Scl.S. Disinefction products in water treatmnet. Environ. Scl.oxidation technologies for water treatment decontamination.

  5. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  6. Iron repletion relocalizes hephaestin to a proximal basolateral compartment in polarized MDCK and Caco2 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Min [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Columbia, NY (United States) [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Columbia, NY (United States); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Attieh, Zouhair K. [Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Ashrafieh (Lebanon) [Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Ashrafieh (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Son, Hee Sook [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Huijun [Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province (China) [Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province (China); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bacouri-Haidar, Mhenia [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (I), Lebanese University, Hadath (Lebanon) [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (I), Lebanese University, Hadath (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vulpe, Chris D., E-mail: vulpe@berkeley.edu [Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in non-polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in iron deficient and polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin with apical iron moves near to basolateral membrane of polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peri-basolateral location of hephaestin is accessible to the extracellular space. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization from the intestine to circulation. -- Abstract: While intestinal cellular iron entry in vertebrates employs multiple routes including heme and non-heme routes, iron egress from these cells is exclusively channeled through the only known transporter, ferroportin. Reduced intestinal iron export in sex-linked anemia mice implicates hephaestin, a ferroxidase, in this process. Polarized cells are exposed to two distinct environments. Enterocytes contact the gut lumen via the apical surface of the cell, and through the basolateral surface, to the body. Previous studies indicate both local and systemic control of iron uptake. We hypothesized that differences in iron availability at the apical and/or basolateral surface may modulate iron uptake via cellular localization of hephaestin. We therefore characterized the localization of hephaestin in two models of polarized epithelial cell lines, MDCK and Caco2, with varying iron availability at the apical and basolateral surfaces. Our results indicate that hephaestin is expressed in a supra-nuclear compartment in non-polarized cells regardless of the iron status of the cells and in iron deficient and polarized cells. In polarized cells, we found that both apical (as FeSO{sub 4}) and basolateral iron (as the ratio of apo-transferrin to holo-transferrin) affect mobilization of hephaestin from the supra-nuclear compartment. We find that the presence of apical iron is essential for relocalization of hephaestin to a cellular compartment in close proximity but not overlapping with the basolateral surface. Surface biotinylation studies indicate that hephaestin in the peri-basolateral location is accessible to the extra-cellular environment. These results support the hypothesis that hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization of iron from the intestine to circulation.

  7. Formation Damage Due to Iron Precipitation during Matrix Acidizing Treatments of Carbonate Reservoirs and Ways to Minimize it Using Chelating Agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assem, Ahmed I

    2013-07-11

    Iron precipitation during matrix acidizing treatments is a well-known problem. During matrix acidizing, successful iron control can be critical to the success of the treatment. Extensive literature review highlighted that ...

  8. Evolution of iron-containing defects during processing of Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mchedlidze, Teimuraz Weber, Jörg; Möller, Christian; Lauer, Kevin

    2014-12-28

    The formation of iron-containing defects was studied during the fabrication process of a Si solar cell. Three Cz-Si crystals with different iron content in the feedstock were grown for the study. Iron-containing defects in and near-to the n{sup +}p-junction volume (NJV) of the cells are formed directly after phosphorus diffusion due to an inflow of iron atoms from the dissolving iron-silicide precipitates. These NJV-defects strongly affect the dark saturation current of the junctions. Partial dissolution or gettering of the NJV-defects during formation of the antireflection coating is accompanied by an increase in defect concentrations in the bulk of the cell. Further deterioration of bulk carrier lifetime during the formation of electrical contacts is related to the partial dissolution of remaining iron-silicide precipitates during the firing process. A general description of the defect evolution in iron-contaminated wafers during solar cell processing is presented and possible strategies for reducing the influence of iron-containing defects are proposed.

  9. Earth-abundant Solar Cells: Can Iron Complexes Serve as Photosensitize...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth-abundant Solar Cells: Can Iron Complexes Serve as Photosensitizers in DSSCs November 10, 2015 11:00AM to 12:00PM Presenter Elena Jakubikova, North Carolina State University...

  10. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  11. Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water 2010 Keywords: AMD Energy Iron oxide Microbial fuel cell Particles a b s t r a c t Acid mine drainage rights reserved. 1. Introduction Acid-mine drainage (AMD) and acid rock drainage (ARD) are caused

  12. Hyperthermia is an increase of body temperature due to failed thermoregulation. Artificial inducement of this condition is used as a cancer treatment method since cancerous cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy cells; using heat dissipation proper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    inducement of this condition is used as a cancer treatment method since cancerous cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy cells; using heat dissipation properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles(SPIONs) under alternating magnetic field. This study focuses on measuring heat dissipation

  13. Iron-based perovskite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ralph, James M.; Rossignol, Cecile C.R.; Vaughey, John T.

    2007-01-02

    An A and/or A' site deficient perovskite of general formula of (A.sub.1-xA'.sub.x).sub.1-yFeO.sub.3-.delta. or of general formula A.sub.1-x-yA'.sub.xFeO.sub.3-67, wherein A is La alone or with one or more of the rare earth metals or a rare earth metal other than Ce alone or a combination of rare earth metals and X is in the range of from 0 to about 1; A' is Sr or Ca or mixtures thereof and Y is in the range of from about 0.01 to about 0.3; .delta. represents the amount of compensating oxygen loss. If either A or A' is zero the remaining A or A' is deficient. A fuel cell incorporating the inventive perovskite as a cathode is disclosed as well as an oxygen separation membrane. The inventive perovskite is preferably single phase.

  14. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LMPF-EA 4106, Rue Saint Dominique, BP 508, 51006, Chalons-en-Champagne, Cedex (France)

    2011-01-17

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  15. In situ treatment of mixed contaminants in groundwater: Application of zero-valence iron and palladized iron for treatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene and technetium-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.E.; Muck, M.T.; Zutman, J.L.; Schlosser, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Liang, L.; Gu, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Houk, T.C. [Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, OH (United States); Fernando, Q. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The overall goal of this portion of the project was to package one or more unit processes, as modular components in vertical and/or horizontal recirculation wells, for treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [e.g., trichloroethene (TCE)] and radionuclides [e.g., technetium (Tc){sup 99}] in groundwater. The project was conceived, in part, because the coexistence of chlorinated hydrocarbons and radionuclides has been identified as the predominant combination of groundwater contamination in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Thus, a major component of the project was the development of modules that provide simultaneous treatment of hydrocarbons and radionuclides. The project objectives included: (1) evaluation of horizontal wells for inducing groundwater recirculation, (2) development of below-ground treatment modules for simultaneous removal of VOCs and radionuclides, and (3) demonstration of a coupled system (treatment module with recirculation well) at a DOE field site where both VOCs and radionuclides are present in the groundwater. This report is limited to the innovative treatment aspects of the program. A report on pilot testing of the horizontal recirculation system was the first report of the series (Muck et al. 1996). A comprehensive report that focuses on the engineering, cost and hydrodynamic aspects of the project has also been prepared (Korte et al. 1997a).

  16. In situ treatment of arsenic contaminated groundwater by aquifer iron coating: Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Pi, Kunfu; Liu, Chongxuan; Li, Junxia; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Mengyu

    2015-09-15

    In situ arsenic removal from groundwater by an iron coating method has great potential to be a cost effective and simple groundwater remediation technique, especially in rural and remote areas where groundwater is used as the main source of drinking water. The in situ arsenic removal technique was first optimized by simulating arsenic removal in various quartz sand columns under anoxic conditions., Its effectiveness was then evaluated in an actual high-arsenic groundwater environment. The mechanism of arsenic removal by the iron coating was investigated under different conditions using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/X-ray absorption spectroscopy, an electron microprobe, and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. A 4-step alternative cycle aquifer iron coating method was developed. A continuous injection of 5 mmol/L FeSO4 and 2.5 mmol/L NaClO for 96 hours can create a uniform coating of crystalline goethite on the surface of quartz sand in the columns without causing clogging. At a flow rate of 0.45 cm/min of the injection reagents (vi), the time for arsenic (as Na2HAsO4) to pass through the iron-coated quartz sand column was approximately 35 hours, which was much longer than that for tracer fluorescein sodium (approximately 2 hours). The retardation factor of arsenic was 23, and its adsorption capacity was 0.11 mol As per mol Fe, leading to an excellent arsenic removal. In situ arsenic removal from groundwater in an aquifer was achieved by simultaneous injections of As (V) and Fe (II) reagents. When the arsenic content in the groundwater was 233 ?g/L, the aqueous phase arsenic was completely removed with an arsenic adsorption of 0.05 mol As per mol Fe. Arsenic fixation resulted from a process of adsorption/co-precipitation, in which arsenic and iron likely formed the arsenic-bearing iron mineral phases with poor crystallinity by way of bidentate binuclear complexes. Thus, the high arsenic removal efficiency of the technique likely resulted from the expanded specific iron oxide/hydroxide surface area with poor crystallinity and from coprecipitation.

  17. Biophysical Probes of Iron Metabolism in Yeast Cells, Mitochondria, and Mouse Brains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes-Hampton, Gregory

    2012-10-19

    Iron is essential in nearly all organisms. It is a cofactor in many proteins and enzymes. This transition metal can also be toxic because it participates in reactions which produce reactive oxygen species. To avoid these ...

  18. Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics

    2011-05-20

    ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

  19. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    testing the rapidly growing number of nanomaterials requires large scale use of in vitro systems under the presumption that these systems are sufficiently predictive or descriptive of responses in in vivo systems for effective use in hazard ranking. We hypothesized that improved relationships between in vitro and in vivo models of experimental toxicology for nanomaterials would result from placing response data in vitro and in vivo on the same dose scale, the amount of material associated with cells (target cell dose). Methods: Balb/c mice were exposed nose-only to an aerosol of 12.8 nm (68.6 nm CMD, 19.9 mg/m3, 4 hours) super paramagnetic iron oxide particles, target cell doses were calculated and biomarkers of response anchored with histological evidence were identified by global transcriptomics. Representative murine epithelial and macrophage cell types were exposed in vitro to the same material in liquid suspension for four hours and levels nanoparticle regulated cytokine transcripts identified in vivo were quantified as a function of measured nanoparticle cellular dose. Results. Target tissue doses of 0.009-0.4 ?g SPIO/cm2 lung led to an inflammatory response in the alveolar region characterized by interstitial inflammation and macrophage infiltration. In vitro, higher target tissue doses of ~1.2-4 ?g SPIO/ cm2 of cells were required to induce transcriptional regulation of markers of inflammation, CXCL2 CCL3, in C10 lung epithelial cells. Estimated in vivo macrophage SPIO nanoparticle doses ranged from 1-100 pg/cell, and induction of inflammatory markers was observed in vitro in macrophages at doses of 8-35 pg/cell. Conclusions: Application of target tissue dosimetry revealed good correspondence between target cell doses triggering inflammatory processes in vitro and in vivo in the alveolar macrophage population, but not in the epithelial cells of the alveolar region. These findings demonstrate the potential for target tissue dosimetry to enable the more quantitative comparison of in vitro and in vivo systems advance their use for hazard assessment and extrapolation to humans. The mildly inflammogentic cellular doses experienced by mice were similar those calculated for humans exposed to the same at the existing permissible exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 iron oxide (as Fe).

  20. Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy2EM's CleanupPower »

  1. Ammonia treatment of carbon cloth anodes to enhance power generation of microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ammonia treatment of carbon cloth anodes to enhance power generation of microbial fuel cells Shaoan to increase power generation by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). It is shown here that using a phosphate buffer

  2. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, William W. (Belleair, FL)

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  3. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  4. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  5. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sandia National Laboratories study examines the feasibility of a hydrogen-fueled PEM fuel cell barge to provide electrical power to vessels at anchorage or at berth. The study...

  6. Author's personal copy Effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment using microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Author's personal copy Effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment using microbial fuel cells 2009 Available online 5 September 2009 Keywords: Domestic wastewater treatment Energy recovery Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) Power generation Temperature effect a b s t r a c t Domestic wastewater

  7. Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    = mg/s #12;Microbial Fuel Cell technology Zielke 1 1 Introduction Renewable energy is an increasing need in our society. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology represents a new form of renewable energyApplication of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative Eric A

  8. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Harris, Aaron P

    2013-01-01

    A barge-mounted hydrogen-fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system has the potential to reduce emissions and fossil fuel use of maritime vessels in and around ports. This study determines the technical feasibility of this concept and examines specific options on the U.S. West Coast for deployment practicality and potential for commercialization.The conceptual design of the system is found to be straightforward and technically feasible in several configurations corresponding to various power levels and run times.The most technically viable and commercially attractive deployment options were found to be powering container ships at berth at the Port of Tacoma and/or Seattle, powering tugs at anchorage near the Port of Oakland, and powering refrigerated containers on-board Hawaiian inter-island transport barges. Other attractive demonstration options were found at the Port of Seattle, the Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, the California Maritime Academy, and an excursion vessel on the Ohio River.

  9. Synchrotron-based microanalysis of iron distribution after thermal processing and predictive modeling of resulting solar cell efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenning, David P.

    2013-04-10

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy is applied to study the evolution of iron silicide precipitates during phosphorus diffusion gettering and low-temperature annealing. Heavily Fe-contaminated ingot border ...

  10. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  11. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  12. Harnessing the Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranganath, Sudhir H.

    The broad repertoire of secreted trophic and immunomodulatory cytokines produced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), generally referred to as the MSC secretome, has considerable potential for the treatment of cardiovascular ...

  13. Genetic engineering of cardiac progenitor cells for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and heart failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Kimberlee Marie

    2010-01-01

    stem cells for the treatment of heart failure. Int J Hematolniches in the adult mouse heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S Acells reverses the failing heart senescent phenotype and

  14. Effects of 12 metal ions on iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP-1...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FERRITIN; GENES; HOMEOSTASIS; HYDROXYLASES; INHIBITION; IRON; LIGASES; LUCIFERASE; LUNGS; METALLOTHIONEIN; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE; RESPIRATORY TRACT CELLS; STABILIZATION;...

  15. Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    in A. Nazri, G.Pistoia (Eds. ), Lithium batteries, Science &structure materials in lithium cells, for a lower limitLithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates Sébastien

  16. Microbial response to single-cell protein production and brewery wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microbial response to single-cell protein production and brewery wastewater treatment Jackson Z fisheries decline, microbial single-cell protein (SCP) produced from brewery process water has been in wastewater bioreactors. In this study, we investigate microbial response across a full-scale brewery

  17. ANEMIA OF DISORDERED IRON METABOLISM AND HEME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    decreased Transferrin Receptor increased Bone Marrow decreased M:E ratio THERAPY Treatment of Cause Fatigue Arthralgia Infertility and Impotence Cardiac Disease Diabetes Cirrhosis Hyperpigmented Skin LABORATORY Increased Iron Saturation Increased Ferritin #12;9/16/2013 9 TREATMENT Phlebotomy Iron

  18. In situ investigation of tubular microbial fuel cells deployed in an aeration tank at a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wastewater treatment plant Fei Zhang a , Zheng Ge a , Julien Grimaud b , Jim Hurst b , Zhen He a: Microbial fuel cells Wastewater treatment Organic removal Aeration Activated sludge a b s t r a c fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for waste- water treatment with simultaneous bioenergy

  19. Cell density signal protein suitable for treatment of connective tissue injuries and defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, Richard I. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-08-13

    Identification, isolation and partial sequencing of a cell density protein produced by fibroblastic cells. The cell density signal protein comprising a 14 amino acid peptide or a fragment, variant, mutant or analog thereof, the deduced cDNA sequence from the 14 amino acid peptide, a recombinant protein, protein and peptide-specific antibodies, and the use of the peptide and peptide-specific antibodies as therapeutic agents for regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. A method for treatment and repair of connective tissue and tendon injuries, collagen deficiency, and connective tissue defects.

  20. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  1. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Development of an automated ultrasonic inspection cell for detecting subsurface discontinuities in cast gray iron. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burningham, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    This inspection cell consisted of an ultrasonic flaw detector, transducer, robot, immersion tank, computer, and software. Normal beam pulse-echo ultrasonic nondestructive testing, using the developed automated cell, was performed on 17 bosses on each rough casting. Ultrasonic transducer selection, initial inspection criteria, and ultrasonic flow detector (UFD) setup parameters were developed for the gray iron castings used in this study. The software were developed for control of the robot and UFD in real time. The software performed two main tasks: emulating the manual operation of the UFD, and evaluating the ultrasonic signatures for detecting subsurface discontinuities. A random lot of 105 castings were tested; the 100 castings that passed were returned to the manufacturer for machining into finished parts and then inspection. The other 5 castings had one boss each with ultrasonic signatures consistent with subsurface discontinuities. The cell was successful in quantifying the ultrasonic echo signatures for the existence of signature characteristics consistent with Go/NoGo criteria developed from simulated defects. Manual inspection showed that no defects in the areas inspected by the automated cell avoided detection in the 100 castings machined into finished parts. Of the 5 bosses found to have subsurface discontinuities, two were verified by manual inspection. The cell correctly classified 1782 of the 1785 bosses (99.832%) inspected.

  2. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  3. Public good dynamics drive evolution of iron acquisition strategies in natural bacterioplankton populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordero Sanchez, Otto Xavier

    A common strategy among microbes living in iron-limited environments is the secretion of siderophores, which can bind poorly soluble iron and make it available to cells via active transport mechanisms. Such siderophore–iron ...

  4. Evolutionary Modeling of Combination Treatment Strategies To Overcome Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Shannon M. Mumenthaler,, Jasmine Foo,,§ Kevin Leder, Nathan C. Choi in treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with combinations of EGFR-targeted therapeutics (e-small cell lung cancer, evolutionary modeling, erlotinib, paclitaxel, resistance, treatment strategies

  5. Binding and Direct Electrochemistry of OmcA, an Outer-Membrane Cytochrome from an Iron Reducing Bacterium, with Oxide Electrodes: A Candidate Biofuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggleston, Carrick M.; Voros, Janos; Shi, Liang; Lower, Brian H.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Colberg, Patricia J.

    2008-02-15

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria transfer electrons to solid ferric respiratory electron acceptors. Outer-membrane cytochromes expressed by these organisms are of interest in both microbial fuel cells and biofuel cells. We use optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) to show that OmcA, an 85 kDa decaheme outer-membrane c-type cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, adsorbs to isostructural Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in similar amounts. Adsorption is ionic-strength and pH dependent (peak adsorption at pH 6.5–7.0). The thickness of the OmcA layer on Al2O3 at pH 7.0 [5.8 ± 1.1 (2r) nm] from OWLS is similar, within error, to that observed using atomic force microscopy (4.8 ± 2 nm). The highest adsorption density observed was 334 ng cm 2 (2.4 · 1012 molecules cm 2), corresponding to a monolayer or 9.9 nm diameter spheres or submonolayer coverage by smaller molecules. Direct electrochemistry of OmcA on Fe2O3 electrodes was observed using cyclic voltammetry, with cathodic peak potentials of 380 to 320 mV versus Ag/AgCl. Variations in the cathodic peak positions are speculatively attributed to redox-linked conformation change or changes in molecular orientation. OmcA can exchange electrons with ITO electrodes at higher current densities than with Fe2O3. Overall, OmcA can bind to and exchange electrons with several oxides, and thus its utility in fuel cells is not restricted to Fe2O3.

  6. Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and desalination using a forward osmosis membrane in an air-cathode microbial osmotic fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and desalination using a forward osmosis membrane in an air-cathode microbial osmotic fuel cell Craig M. Werner a,n , Bruce E. Logan b , Pascal E. Saikaly a , Gary L. Amy Keywords: Forward osmosis Desalination Fouling Microbial osmotic fuel cell a b s t r a c t A microbial

  7. Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2010-12-22

    To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

  8. Investigating the Effect of Pyridine Vapor Treatment on Perovskite Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Alison

    2015-08-20

    Perovskite photovoltaics have recently come to prominence as a viable alternative to crystalline silicon based solar cells. In an effort to create consistent and high-quality films, we studied the effect of various annealing conditions as well as the effect of pyridine vapor treatment on mixed halide methylammonium lead perovskite films. Of six conditions tested, we found that annealing at 100°C for 90 minutes followed by 120°C for 15 minutes resulted in the purest perovskite. Perovskite films made using that condition were treated with pyridine for various amounts of time, and the effects on perovskite microstructure were studied using x-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence lifetime analysis (TRPL). A previous study found that pyridine vapor caused perovskite films to have higher photoluminescence intensity and become more homogenous. In this study we found that the effects of pyridine are more complex: while films appeared to become more homogenous, a decrease in bulk photoluminescence lifetime was observed. In addition, the perovskite bandgap appeared to decrease with increased pyridine treatment time. Finally, X-ray diffraction showed that pyridine vapor treatment increased the perovskite (110) peak intensity but also often gave rise to new unidentified peaks, suggesting the formation of a foreign species. It was observed that the intensity of this unknown species had an inverse correlation with the increase in perovskite peak intensity, and also seemed to be correlated with the decrease in TRPL lifetime.

  9. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  10. Rapid Disease Progression With Delay in Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry Llyn, E-mail: lkestin@beaumont.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Grills, Inga Siiner; Battu, Madhu; Fitch, Dwight Lamar [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Wong, Ching-yee Oliver [Department of Nuclear Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Margolis, Jeffrey Harold [Department of Medical Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Chmielewski, Gary William; Welsh, Robert James [Department of Thoracic Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To assess rate of disease progression from diagnosis to initiation of treatment for Stage I-IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Forty patients with NSCLC underwent at least two sets of computed tomography (CT) and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans at various time intervals before treatment. Progression was defined as development of any new lymph node involvement, site of disease, or stage change. Results: Median time interval between first and second CT scans was 13.4 weeks, and between first and second PET scans was 9.0 weeks. Median initial primary maximum tumor dimension (MTD) was 3.5 cm (0.6-8.5 cm) with a median standardized uptake value (SUV) of 13.0 (1.7-38.5). The median MTD increased by a median of 1.0 cm (mean, 1.6 cm) between scans for a median relative MTD increase of 35% (mean, 59%). Nineteen patients (48%) progressed between scans. Rate of any progression was 13%, 31%, and 46% at 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectively. Upstaging occurred in 3%, 13%, and 21% at these intervals. Distant metastasis became evident in 3%, 13%, and 13% after 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectively. T and N stage were associated with progression, whereas histology, grade, sex, age, and maximum SUV were not. At 3 years, overall survival for Stage III patients with vs. without progression was 18% vs. 67%, p = 0.05. Conclusions: With NSCLC, treatment delay can lead to disease progression. Diagnosis, staging, and treatment initiation should be expedited. After 4-8 weeks of delay, complete restaging should be strongly considered.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEME OXYGENASE AND FERREDOXIN NADPH REDUCTASE: TWO REDOX PARTNER PROTEINS INVOLVED IN THE HEME-IRON ACQUISITION PATHWAY OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Andy

    2008-08-04

    in mammals is very low (~10-9 M). Therefore, bacteria have developed sophisticated iron acquisition mechanisms, including the utilization of heme iron. Heme oxygenase is the only known protein used for heme degradation and iron release inside a cell...

  12. Apparatus and process for water treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phifer, Mark A. (North Augusta, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

  13. Characterization of temperature profile in furnace and solubility of iron in silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modi, Vrajesh Y

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of the behavior of impurities, such as iron, in silicon can lead to increases in solar cell efficiency. The purpose of this thesis was to study the behavior of iron in silicon via three sub-tasks: ...

  14. A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells Yvonne Krämer*[a] , Claudia Birkenmaier[b] , Julian Feinauer[a,c] , Andreas*[e] and Thomas Schleid[f] Abstract: A novel approach for the marking of deposited lithium on graphite anodes from

  15. Molecular Cell Hydroxyurea Induces Hydroxyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, James J.

    Molecular Cell Article Hydroxyurea Induces Hydroxyl Radical-Mediated Cell Death in Escherichia coli superoxide production, together with the increased iron uptake, fuels the formation of hydroxyl radicals

  16. Stage Presentation, Care Patterns, and Treatment Outcomes for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Penis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, Lindsay M.; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Tward, Jonathan D., E-mail: Jonathan.Tward@hci.utah.edu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare entity, with few published series on outcomes. We evaluated the stage distributions and outcomes for surgery and radiation therapy in a U.S. population database. Methods and Materials: Subjects with SCC of the penis were identified using the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program database between 1988 and 2006. Descriptive statistics were performed, and cause-specific survival (CSS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Comparisons of treatment modalities were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. Subjects were staged using American Joint Committee on Cancer, sixth edition, criteria. Results: There were 2458 subjects identified. The median age was 66.8 years (range, 17-102 years). Grade 2 disease was present in 94.5% of cases. T1, T2, T3, T4, and Tx disease was present in 64.8%, 17.1%, 9.5%, 2.1%, and 6.5% of cases, respectively. N0, N1, N2, N3, and Nx disease was noted in 61.6%, 6.9%, 4.0%, 3.7%, and 23.8% of cases, respectively. M1 disease was noted in 2.5% of subjects. Individuals of white ethnicity accounted for 85.1% of cases. Lymphadenectomy was performed in 16.7% of cases. The CSS for all patients at 5 and 10 years was 80.8% and 78.6%. By multivariable analysis grades 2 and 3 disease, T3 stage, and positive lymph nodes were adverse prognostic factors for CSS. Conclusion: SCC of the penis often presents as early-stage T1, N0, M0, grade 1, or grade 2 disease. The majority of patients identified were treated with surgery, and only a small fraction of patients received radiation therapy alone or as adjuvant therapy.

  17. Precipitation of interstitial iron in multicrystalline silicon AnYao Liu1, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precipitation of interstitial iron in multicrystalline silicon AnYao Liu1, a and Daniel Macdonald1, multicrystalline silicon, precipitation, supersaturation, spatial distribution Abstract The internal gettering of iron in silicon via iron precipitation at low processing temperatures is known to improve solar cell

  18. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G.; Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH ; Junnila, Riia K.; Kopchick, John J.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on this data, GH could be a new therapeutic target in melanoma.

  19. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  20. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  1. Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide by Iron-Containing Minerals and Catalysts in Circumneutral pH Solutions: Implications for ex situ and in situ Treatment of Contaminated Water and Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Anh

    2012-01-01

    by Fe(II) Associated with Goethite. Environmental Science &minerals (e.g. , hematite, goethite, iron-containing claysweight %) Hematite 70 (a) Goethite 35 (b) Amorphous FeOOH

  2. Biochem. J. (2015) 466, 401413 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20140878 401 Iron alters cell survival in a mitochondria-dependent pathway in ovarian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lajeunesse, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    cell survival in a mitochondria-dependent pathway in ovarian cancer cells Kyle Bauckman*, Edward Haller in ovarian cancer cells. Key words: aconitase, ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), glutamate, GSH, holo, Nicholas Taran, Stephanie Rockfield, Abigail Ruiz-Rivera and Meera Nanjundan*1 *Cancer Biology Ph.D Program

  3. Effects of low dose treatment of tributyltin on the regulation of estrogen receptor functions in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharan, Shruti; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha, E-mail: paroyfbs@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are the natural/synthetic compounds which mimic or inhibit the actions of endogenous hormones. Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical. The present study evaluates the estrogenic potential of this compound in vitro in ER (+) breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 cell line. Our data showed that tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) had agonistic activities for estrogen receptor-? (ER-?). Its estrogenic potential was checked using cell proliferation assay, aromatase assay, transactivation assay, and protein expression analysis. Low dose treatment of TBTCl had a proliferative effect on MCF-7 cells and resulted in up-regulation of aromatase enzyme activity and enhanced estradiol production in MCF-7 cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed translocation of ER-? from cytoplasm to nucleus and increased expression of ER-?, 3?-HSD and aromatase on treatment with increasing doses of TBTCl. Further, to decipher the probable signaling pathways involved in its action, the MCF-7 cells were transfected with different pathway dependent luciferase reporter plasmids (CRE, SRE, NF-?B and AP1). A significant increase in CRE and SRE and decrease in NF-?B regulated pathway were observed (p < 0.05). Our results thus showed that the activation of SRE by TBTCl may be due to ligand dependent ER-? activation of the MAPK pathway and increased phosphorylation of ERK. In summary, the present data suggests that low dose of tributyltin genomically and non-genomically augmented estrogen dependent signaling by targeting various pathways. - Highlights: • Tributyltin chloride is agonistic to ER-? in MCF-7 cell line at low doses. • Tributyltin chloride up regulated aromatase activity and estradiol production. • Tributyltin chloride also activates MAPK pathway inducing ERK activation.

  4. Genetic engineering of cardiac progenitor cells for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and heart failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Kimberlee Marie

    2010-01-01

    1 Influences Cell Proliferation Nuclear localized Pim-1 wasPim-1 enhances proliferation when nuclear and is inhibitsproliferation . 25   Nuclear

  5. Good Sources of Nutrients: Iron 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28

    Iron is a mineral that functions primarily to carry oxygen in the body. This publication explains how people can get enough iron in their diets and how to prepare foods to retain iron. It also lists foods that are good sources of iron. (2 pp., 2...

  6. Effect of sanitizer treatments on Salmonella enterica serotype Poona on the surface of cantaloupe and cell transfer to the internal tissue during cutting practices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadlamudi, Sasi

    2005-02-17

    indicate that the levels of Salmonella Poona recovered were higher when the sample was obtained from the scar portion than the surface. Surface treatment with tap water or chlorine did not reduce Salmonella Poona. However treatment with lactic acid...-1 EFFECT OF SANITIZER TREATMENTS ON SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE POONA ON THE SURFACE OF CANTALOUPE AND CELL TRANSFER TO THE INTERNAL TISSUE DURING CUTTING PRACTICES A Thesis by SASI VADLAMUDI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  7. Measuring the mechanical properties of plant cells by combining micro-indentation with osmotic treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Alain; Braybrook, Siobhan; Huflejt, Michal; Mosca, Gabriella; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Smith, Richard S.

    2015-04-07

    walls (or low turgor pressure) and soft cells walls (or high turgor pressure) and two indenter sizes as well as two indentation depths. The small indenter corresponds to our experimental set-up, whereas the large indenter is similar in size... of 13 | Weber et al. Beside the parameters in Eq. 1, we also studied the sensi- tivity of the contact force to the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall. We compared the relative change in force at the four reference states when using the constant...

  8. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    2006 Minerals Yearbook- Lime. http://minerals.usgs.gov/iron (DRI), pellets, lime, oxygen, and ingots, blooms,Export sinter pellet, etc Lime Kiln Slab Treatment Purchased

  9. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccha...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on...

  10. Treatment and Outcomes in Patients With Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma: The BC Cancer Agency Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Sarah N.; Wai, Elaine S.; Tan, King; Alexander, Cheryl; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To review the treatment and outcomes of patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL). Methods and Materials: Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed for all patients referred to our institution from 1981 through 2011 with primary CBCL without extracutaneous or distant nodal spread at diagnosis (n=136). Hematopathologists classified 99% of cases using the World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) guidelines. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Classification was 18% diffuse large B-cell leg-type (DLBCL-leg), 32% follicle center (FCCL), 45% marginal zone (MZL), and 6% nonclassifiable (OTHER). Of the 111 subjects with indolent lymphoma (FCCL, MZL, OTHER), 79% received radiation alone (RT), 11% surgery alone, 3% chemotherapy alone, 4% chemotherapy followed by RT, and 3% observation. Following treatment, 29% of subjects relapsed. In-field recurrence occurred in 2% treated with RT and in 33% treated with surgery alone. Of the 25 subjects with DLBCL-leg, 52% received chemotherapy followed by RT, 24% chemotherapy, 20% RT, and 4% surgery alone. Seventy-nine percent received CHOP-type chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin or epirubicin, vincristine, prednisone), 47% with rituximab added. Overall and disease-specific survival and time to progression at 5 years were 81%, 92%, and 69% for indolent and 26%, 61%, and 54% for DLBCL-leg, respectively. On Cox regression analysis of indolent subjects, RT was associated with better time to progression (P=.05). RT dose, chemo, age >60 y, and >1 lesion were not significantly associated with time to progression. For DLBCL-leg, disease-specific survival at 5 years was 100% for those receiving rituximab versus 67% for no rituximab (P=.13). Conclusions: This review demonstrates better outcomes for indolent histology compared with DLBCL-leg, validating the prognostic utility of the WHO-EORTC classification. In the indolent group, RT was associated with 98% local control. DLBCL-leg is a more aggressive disease; the excellent results in the rituximab group suggest it has an important role in management.

  11. Treatment of HER2-Expressing Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Cells With Alpha Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-Trastuzumab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyerdahl, Helen; Krogh, Cecilie; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Larsen, Asmund; Dahle, Jostein

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of low-dose-rate alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-DOTA-trastuzumab ({sup 227}Th-trastuzumab [where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]) internalized by breast and ovarian cancer cell lines in order to assess the potential of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab as a therapeutic agent against metastatic cancers that overexpress the HER2 oncogene. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival and cell growth rates of breast cancer cells treated with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab were compared with rates of cells treated with nonbinding {sup 227}Th-rituximab, cold trastuzumab, and X-radiation. Cell growth experiments were also performed with ovarian cancer cells. Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at several time points, and the mean radiation dose to cells was calculated. Results: SKBR-3 cells got 50% of the mean absorbed radiation dose from internalized activity and 50% from cell surface-bound activity, while BT-474 and SKOV-3 cells got 75% radiation dose from internalized activity and 25% from cell surface-bound activity. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 2.5 kBq/ml {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab for 1 h at 4{sup o}C, followed by washing, resulted in mean absorbed radiation doses of 2 to 2.5 Gy. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis were induced in all cell lines. Conclusions: Clinically relevant activity concentrations of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab induced a specific cytotoxic effect in three HER2-expressing cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab was higher than that of single-dose X-radiation (relative biological effectiveness = 1.2). These results warrant further studies of treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab.

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of 5 Treatment Strategies for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Elderly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirvani, Shervin M.; Jiang, Jing; Chang, Joe Y.; Welsh, James W.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Swisher, Stephen; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The incidence of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among older adults is expected to increase because of demographic trends and computed tomography-based screening; yet, optimal treatment in the elderly remains controversial. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare cohort spanning 2001-2007, we compared survival outcomes associated with 5 strategies used in contemporary practice: lobectomy, sublobar resection, conventional radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), and observation. Methods and Materials: Treatment strategy and covariates were determined in 10,923 patients aged {>=}66 years with stage IA-IB NSCLC. Cox regression, adjusted for patient and tumor factors, compared overall and disease-specific survival for the 5 strategies. In a second exploratory analysis, propensity-score matching was used for comparison of SABR with other options. Results: The median age was 75 years, and 29% had moderate to severe comorbidities. Treatment distribution was lobectomy (59%), sublobar resection (11.7%), conventional radiation (14.8%), observation (12.6%), and SABR (1.1%). In Cox regression analysis with a median follow-up time of 3.2 years, SABR was associated with the lowest risk of death within 6 months of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.63; referent is lobectomy). After 6 months, lobectomy was associated with the best overall and disease-specific survival. In the propensity-score matched analysis, survival after SABR was similar to that after lobectomy (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.45-1.12; referent is SABR). Conventional radiation and observation were associated with poor outcomes in all analyses. Conclusions: In this population-based experience, lobectomy was associated with the best long-term outcomes in fit elderly patients with early-stage NSCLC. Exploratory analysis of SABR early adopters suggests efficacy comparable with that of surgery in select populations. Evaluation of these therapies in randomized trials is urgently needed.

  13. Formation Damage due to Iron Precipitation in Acidizing Operations and Evaluating GLDA as a Chelating Agent 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Rohit

    2012-02-14

    Iron control during acidizing plays a key role in the success of matrix treatment. Ferric ion precipitates in the formation once the acid is spent and the pH exceeds 1-2. Precipitation of iron (III) within the formation ...

  14. MECS 2006- Iron and Steel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  15. DNAPL source control by reductive dechlorination with iron-based degradative solidification/stabilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do, Si Hyun

    2009-05-15

    Iron-based degradative solidification/stabilization (Fe(II)-DS/S) is a treatment method that could be economically applied to smaller DNAPL-contaminated sites and to those sites with impermeable soils. Reductive dechlorination ...

  16. Removal of Selenium from Wastewater using ZVI and Hybrid ZVI/Iron Oxide Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen

    2012-12-20

    CN- treatment. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) technology, with some successes in remediating toxic-metal contaminated groundwater remediation, emerges as a potential solution for addressing SeCN- problem. In this study, bench scale tests were conducted to investigate...

  17. Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Filippi, Arthur M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sprecace, Richard P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1987-01-01

    This invention identifies methods and articles designed to circumvent metallurgical problems associated with hermetically closing an all cast iron nuclear waste package by welding. It involves welding nickel-carbon alloy inserts which are bonded to the mating plug and main body components of the package. The welding inserts might be bonded in place during casting of the package components. When the waste package closure weld is made, the most severe thermal effects of the process are restricted to the nickel-carbon insert material which is far better able to accommodate them than is cast iron. Use of nickel-carbon weld inserts should eliminate any need for pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments which are a problem to apply to nuclear waste packages. Although the waste package closure weld approach described results in a dissimilar metal combination, the relative surface area of nickel-to-iron, their electrochemical relationship, and the presence of graphite in both materials will act to prevent any galvanic corrosion problem.

  18. Phytoestrogens in menopausal supplements induce ER-dependent cell proliferation and overcome breast cancer treatment in an in vitro breast cancer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duursen, Majorie B.M. van; Smeets, Evelien E.J.W.; Rijk, Jeroen C.W.; Nijmeijer, Sandra M.; Berg, Martin van den

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer treatment by the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole (LET) or Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen (TAM) can result in the onset of menopausal symptoms. Women often try to relieve these symptoms by taking menopausal supplements containing high levels of phytoestrogens. However, little is known about the potential interaction between these supplements and breast cancer treatment, especially aromatase inhibitors. In this study, interaction of phytoestrogens with the estrogen receptor alpha and TAM action was determined in an ER-reporter gene assay (BG1Luc4E2 cells) and human breast epithelial tumor cells (MCF-7). Potential interactions with aromatase activity and LET were determined in human adrenocorticocarcinoma H295R cells. We also used the previously described H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model to study interactions with steroidogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. In this model, genistein (GEN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) and four commercially available menopausal supplements all induced ER-dependent tumor cell proliferation, which could not be prevented by physiologically relevant LET and 4OH-TAM concentrations. Differences in relative effect potencies between the H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model and ER-activation in BG1Luc4E2 cells, were due to the effects of the phytoestrogens on steroidogenesis. All tested supplements and GEN induced aromatase activity, while 8PN was a strong aromatase inhibitor. Steroidogenic profiles upon GEN and 8PN exposure indicated a strong inhibitory effect on steroidogenesis in H295R cells and H295R/MCF-7 co-cultures. Based on our in vitro data we suggest that menopausal supplement intake during breast cancer treatment should better be avoided, at least until more certainty regarding the safety of supplemental use in breast cancer patients can be provided. - Highlights: • Supplements containing phytoestrogens are commonly used by women with breast cancer. • Phytoestrogens alter steroidogenesis in a co-culture breast cancer model. • Letrozole or tamoxifen treatment is used to inhibit ER-dependent breast tumor growth. • Phytoestrogens induce in vitro tumor cell growth, even in combination with LET or TAM. • Use of phytoestrogens during breast cancer treatment should better be avoided.

  19. Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tesanovic, Zlatko [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

    2010-09-01

    Superconductivity is a stunning quantum phenomenon and among the deepest paradigms in all of physics. From fundamental theories of the universe to strange goings-on in exotic materials to medical imaging and cell phones, its conceptual and practical dimensions span a reach as wide as anything in science. Twenty-odd years ago, the discovery of copper oxides ushered in a new era of high-temperature superconductivity, and the joyous exuberance that followed - with physicists throwing everything from fancy gauge theories to synchrotron radiation into its kitchen sink - only recently began to show any signs of waning. In the spring of 2008, as if on cue, a new family of iron pnictide high-temperature superconductors burst on the scene, hinting at an alternative route to room-temperature superconductivity and all of its momentous consequences. Fueled by genuine excitement - and a bit of hype - the iron-based superconductivity turned into a science blockbuster of 2009. I will present a pedagogical review of this new field, contrast the physics of iron- and copper-based systems, and speculate on the microscopic origins of the two types of high-temperature superconductivity.

  20. Reactivation of AKT signaling following treatment of cancer cells with PI3K inhibitors attenuates their antitumor effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dufour, Marc; Dormond-Meuwly, Anne; Pythoud, Catherine; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •PI3K inhibitors inhibit AKT only transiently. •Re-activation of AKT limits the anti-cancer effect of PI3K inhibitors. •The results suggest to combine PI3K and AKT inhibitors in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: Targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is a promising approach in cancer therapy. In particular, PI3K blockade leads to the inhibition of AKT, a major downstream effector responsible for the oncogenic activity of PI3K. However, we report here that small molecule inhibitors of PI3K only transiently block AKT signaling. Indeed, treatment of cancer cells with PI3K inhibitors results in a rapid inhibition of AKT phosphorylation and signaling which is followed by the reactivation of AKT signaling after 48 h as observed by Western blot. Reactivation of AKT signaling occurs despite effective inhibition of PI3K activity by PI3K inhibitors. In addition, wortmannin, a broad range PI3K inhibitor, did not block AKT reactivation suggesting that AKT signals independently of PI3K. In a therapeutical perspective, combining AKT and PI3K inhibitors exhibit stronger anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects compared to AKT or PI3K inhibitors alone. Similarly, in a tumor xenograft mouse model, concomitant PI3K and AKT blockade results in stronger anti-cancer activity compared with either blockade alone. This study shows that PI3K inhibitors only transiently inhibit AKT which limits their antitumor activities. It also provides the proof of concept to combine PI3K inhibitors with AKT inhibitors in cancer therapy.

  1. Visualization at Supercomputing Centers: The Tale of Little Big Iron and the Three Skinny Guys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Brugger, Eric [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Supercomputing centers are unique resources that aim to enable scientific knowledge discovery by employing large computational resources - the 'Big Iron.' Design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Big Iron are carefully planned and monitored. Because these Big Iron systems produce a tsunami of data, it's natural to colocate the visualization and analysis infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of hardware (Little Iron) and staff (Skinny Guys). Our collective experience suggests that design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Little Iron and Skinny Guys doesn't receive the same level of treatment as that of the Big Iron. This article explores the following questions about the Little Iron: How should we size the Little Iron to adequately support visualization and analysis of data coming off the Big Iron? What sort of capabilities must it have? Related questions concern the size of visualization support staff: How big should a visualization program be - that is, how many Skinny Guys should it have? What should the staff do? How much of the visualization should be provided as a support service, and how much should applications scientists be expected to do on their own?

  2. Predictive Treatment Management: Incorporating a Predictive Tumor Response Model Into Robust Prospective Treatment Planning for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Yorke, Ellen; Hu, Yu-Chi; Mageras, Gig; Rimner, Andreas; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that a treatment planning technique that incorporates predicted lung tumor regression into optimization, predictive treatment planning (PTP), could allow dose escalation to the residual tumor while maintaining coverage of the initial target without increasing dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: We created a model to estimate the geometric presence of residual tumors after radiation therapy using planning computed tomography (CT) and weekly cone beam CT scans of 5 lung cancer patients. For planning purposes, we modeled the dynamic process of tumor shrinkage by morphing the original planning target volume (PTV{sub orig}) in 3 equispaced steps to the predicted residue (PTV{sub pred}). Patients were treated with a uniform prescription dose to PTV{sub orig}. By contrast, PTP optimization started with the same prescription dose to PTV{sub orig} but linearly increased the dose at each step, until reaching the highest dose achievable to PTV{sub pred} consistent with OAR limits. This method is compared with midcourse adaptive replanning. Results: Initial parenchymal gross tumor volume (GTV) ranged from 3.6 to 186.5 cm{sup 3}. On average, the primary GTV and PTV decreased by 39% and 27%, respectively, at the end of treatment. The PTP approach gave PTV{sub orig} at least the prescription dose, and it increased the mean dose of the true residual tumor by an average of 6.0 Gy above the adaptive approach. Conclusions: PTP, incorporating a tumor regression model from the start, represents a new approach to increase tumor dose without increasing toxicities, and reduce clinical workload compared with the adaptive approach, although model verification using per-patient midcourse imaging would be prudent.

  3. Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarma, Balu (Airmont, NY); Downing, Kenneth B. (Greenville, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (i) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (ii) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (iii) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: e) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550.degree. C. and f) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 tonne per square meter.

  4. Fatal case of sorafenib-associated idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in the adjuvant treatment of a patient with renal cell carcinoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairfax, B. P.; Pratap, S.; Roberts, I. S. D.; Collier, J.; Kaplan, R.; Meade, A. M.; Ritchie, A. W.; Eisen, T.; Macaulay, V. M.; Protheroe, A.

    2012-12-11

    idiosyncratic vant treatment of a inoma Meade2, AW Ritchie2, T Eisen3, VM Macaulay1 r with activity at Raf, PDGF? and VEGF receptors that is (RCC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Current als with localized RCC consists of surveillance-based er treatment...

  5. Prolonged ?-amanitin treatment of cells for studying mutated polymerases causes degradation of DSIF 160 and other proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsao, David Ching-heng

    2012-01-01

    studying mutated polymerases causes degradation of DSIF 160studying mutated polymerases causes degradation of DSIF 160cells with ?-amanitin causes selective protein degradation

  6. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  7. Explorations of iron-iron hydrogenase active site models by experiment and theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tye, Jesse Wayne

    2009-05-15

    This dissertation describes computational and experimental studies of synthetic complexes that model the active site of the iron-iron hydrogenase [FeFe]H2ase enzyme. Simple dinuclear iron dithiolate complexes act as functional models of the ironiron...

  8. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as radiosensitizer via enhanced reactive oxygen species formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Stefanie; Sommer, Anja [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Distel, Luitpold V.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitaetsstrasse 27, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitaetsstrasse 27, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Neuhuber, Winfried [Department of Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy I, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Krankenhausstr. 9, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)] [Department of Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy I, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Krankenhausstr. 9, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Kryschi, Carola, E-mail: kryschi@chemie.uni-erlangen.de [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasmall citrate-coated SPIONs with {gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPIONs uptaken by MCF-7 cells increase the ROS production for about 240%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SPION induced ROS production is due to released iron ions and catalytically active surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Released iron ions and SPION surfaces initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray irradiation of internalized SPIONs leads to an increase of catalytically active surfaces. -- Abstract: Internalization of citrate-coated and uncoated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Cytotoxicity studies employing metabolic and trypan blue assays manifested their excellent biocompatibility. The production of reactive oxygen species in iron oxide nanoparticle loaded MCF-7 cells was explained to originate from both, the release of iron ions and their catalytically active surfaces. Both initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Additional oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells was attributed to the increase of catalytically active iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces.

  9. Visualization at Supercomputing Centers: The Tale of Little Big Iron and the Three Skinny Guys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; van Rosendale, John; Southard, Dale; Gaither, Kelly; Childs, Hank; Brugger, Eric; Ahern, Sean

    2010-12-01

    Supercomputing Centers (SC's) are unique resources that aim to enable scientific knowledge discovery through the use of large computational resources, the Big Iron. Design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Big Iron are activities that are carefully planned and monitored. Since these Big Iron systems produce a tsunami of data, it is natural to co-locate visualization and analysis infrastructure as part of the same facility. This infrastructure consists of hardware (Little Iron) and staff (Skinny Guys). Our collective experience suggests that design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Little Iron and Skinny Guys does not receive the same level of treatment as that of the Big Iron. The main focus of this article is to explore different aspects of planning, designing, fielding, and maintaining the visualization and analysis infrastructure at supercomputing centers. Some of the questions we explore in this article include:"How should the Little Iron be sized to adequately support visualization and analysis of data coming off the Big Iron?" What sort of capabilities does it need to have?" Related questions concern the size of visualization support staff:"How big should a visualization program be (number of persons) and what should the staff do?" and"How much of the visualization should be provided as a support service, and how much should applications scientists be expected to do on their own?"

  10. Bifunctional air electrodes containing elemental iron powder charging additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chia-tsun (Monroeville, PA); Demczyk, Brian G. (Rostrover Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Gongaware, Paul R. (Penn Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A bifunctional air electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer essentially comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon; (ii) elemental iron particles having a particle size of between about 25 microns and about 700 microns diameter; (iii) an oxygen evolution material; (iv) a nonwetting agent; and (v) a catalyst, where at least one current collector is formed into said composite.

  11. Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Print Friday, 26 September 2014 14:37 Jian ware (or Tenmoku) ceramic bowls, famous for their...

  12. Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Grain Sorghum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingston, Stephen; Coffman, Cloyce G.; Unruh, L. G.

    1996-02-20

    Until grain sorghum develops an extensive root system, young plants may be unable to obtain enough ferrous iron to maintain normal growth. This publication offers strategies for avoiding, identifying and correcting iron deficiencies....

  13. Laboratory variables for assessing iron deficiency in REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) blood donors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    value overall. Use of ancillary testing in this manner couldthan iron deficiency. Ancillary tests (especially ferritin

  14. Long-Term Performance of Liter-Scale Microbial Fuel Cells Treating Primary Effluent Installed in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , low sludge production, and energy recovery from wastes. INTRODUCTION Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have-70% chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11 h and reduced about 50% suspended fluctuation, such as emptying the anode for 1-3 days or different HRTs. The preliminary analysis of energy

  15. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 ?M) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ? Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ? Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ? Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

  16. Nitrided iron catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in the eighties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the preparation and structure of nitrided iron catalysts and their activity, selectivity, and stability for the reaction of synthesis gas in comparison with iron catalysts pretreated by various other methods, as measured in laboratory reactors; a comparison of product distributions obtained in fluidized-bed, slurry, and oil-circulation fixed bed pilot plants with nitrided catalysts and by the Kellogg entrained catalyst process SASOL, which uses a reduced iron catalyst; and possible methods for refining the Fischer-Tropsch products from nitrided iron catalysts for producing gasoline, including bauxite treatment, the Mobil process for converting oxygenates to high-octane gasoline and C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins, and an alkylation-polymerization process for converting the C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ fraction to high-octane blending stocks.

  17. Homologous recombination contributes to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by high-energy iron ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zafar, Faria; Seidler, Sara B.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2010-06-29

    To test the contribution of homologous recombinational repair (HRR) in repairing DNA damaged sites induced by high-energy iron ions, we used: (1) HRR-deficient rodent cells carrying a deletion in the RAD51D gene and (2) syngeneic human cells impaired for HRR by RAD51D or RAD51 knockdown using RNA interference. We show that in response to iron ions, HRR contributes to cell survival in rodent cells, and that HRR-deficiency abrogates RAD51 foci formation. Complementation of the HRR defect by human RAD51D rescues both enhanced cytotoxicity and RAD51 foci formation. For human cells irradiated with iron ions, cell survival is decreased, and, in p53 mutant cells, the levels of mutagenesis are increased when HRR is impaired. Human cells synchronized in S phase exhibit more pronounced resistance to iron ions as compared with cells in G1 phase, and this increase in radioresistance is diminished by RAD51 knockdown. These results implicate a role for RAD51-mediated DNA repair (i.e. HRR) in removing a fraction of clustered lesions induced by charged particle irradiation. Our results are the first to directly show the requirement for an intact HRR pathway in human cells in ensuring DNA repair and cell survival in response to high-energy high LET radiation.

  18. Iron production maintenance effectiveness system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augstman, J.J. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In 1989, an internal study in the Coke and Iron Maintenance Department identified the opportunities available to increase production, by decreasing unscheduled maintenance delays from 4.6%. A five year front loaded plan was developed, and presented to the company president. The plan required an initial investment of $1.4 million and a conservative break-even point was calculated to be 2.5 years. Due to budget restraints, it would have to be self-funded, i.e., generate additional production or savings, to pay for the program. The program began in 1991 at number 2 coke plant and the blast furnaces. This paper will describe the Iron Production Maintenance Effectiveness System (ME), which began with the mechanical and pipefitting trades.

  19. Technology and social process : oscillations in Iron Age copper production and power in Southern Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yosef, Erez

    2010-01-01

    Valley (Tell Hammeh) and iron mining at Mugharat al-Wardahpress. Patterns of Iron Age Mining and Iron Age Settlementresearch concerning Iron Age mining and metallurgy in the

  20. SU-E-T-275: Radiobiological Evaluation of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekha Reddy, B.; Ravikumar, M.; Tanvir Pasha, C.R; Anil Kumar, M.R; Varatharaj, C.; Pyakuryal, A; Narayanasamy, Ganesh

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiobiological outcome of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment (IMRT) for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using HART (Histogram Analysis in Radiation Therapy; J Appl Clin Med Phys 11(1): 137–157, 2010) program and compare with the clinical outcomes. Methods: We have treated 20 patients of stage III and IV HNSCC Oropharynx and hypopharynx with accelerated IMRT technique and concurrent chemotherapy. Delineation of tumor and normal tissues were done using Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) contouring guidelines and radiotherapy was delivered to a dose of 70Gy in 35 fractions to the primary and involved lymph nodes, 63Gy to intermediate risk areas and 56 Gy to lower risk areas, Monday to Saturday, 6 Days/week using 6 MV Photons with an expected overall treatment time of 6 weeks. The TCP and NTCP's were calculated from the dose-volume histogram (DVH) statistics using the Poisson Statistics (PS) and JT Lyman models respectively and the Resultwas correlated with clinical outcomes of the patients with mean follow up of 24 months. Results: Using HART program, the TCP (0.89± 0.01) of primary tumor and the NTCP for parotids (0.20±0.12), spinal cord (0.05±0.01), esophagus (0.30±0.2), mandible (0.35±0.21), Oral cavity (0.37±0.18), Larynx (0.30±0.15) were estimated and correlated with clinical outcome of the patients. Conclusion: Accelerated IMRT with Chemotherapy is a clinical feasible option in the treatment of locally advanced HNSCC with encouraging initial tumour response and acceptable acute toxicities. The correlation between the clinical outcomes and radiobiological model estimated parameters using HART programs are found to be satisfactory.

  1. A Mathematical model for the iron/chromium redox battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedkiw, P.S.; Watts, R.W.

    1984-04-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the isothermal operation of a single anode-separator-cathode unit cell in a redox-flow battery and has been applied to the NASA iron/chromium system. The model, based on porous electrode theory, incorporates redox kinetics, mass transfer, and ohmic effects as well as the parasitic hydrogen reaction which occurs in the chromium electrode. A numerical parameter study was carried out to predict cel performance to aid in the rational design, scale-up, and operation of the flow battery. The calculations demonstrate: an optimum electrode thickness and electrolyte flow rate exist; the amount of hydrogen evolved and, hence, cycle faradaic efficiency, can be affected by cell geometry, flow rate, and charging procedure; countercurrent flow results in enhanced cell performance over cocurrent flow; and elevated temperature operation enhances cell performance.

  2. Performance Optimization of Metallic Iron and Iron Oxide Nanomaterials for Treatment of Impaired Water Supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yang

    2011-01-01

    a 0.2 µm syringe filter (PTFE) and added to 40 µL 5 M HCl tosyringe, passed through a 0.2 µm PTFE filter and analyzed asthen crimp-sealed with a PTFE-lined butyl rubber septa. By

  3. Performance Optimization of Metallic Iron and Iron Oxide Nanomaterials for Treatment of Impaired Water Supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Allophane, Ferrihydrite and Goethite. J. Soil Sci. 1989, 40,Sulphate: Formation of Cr-Goethite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Actaby Fe(II) Associated with Goethite. Environ. Sci. Technol.

  4. Performance Optimization of Metallic Iron and Iron Oxide Nanomaterials for Treatment of Impaired Water Supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yang

    2011-01-01

    and Hydrogen Absorption Properties of Nanostructured Palladium-and Hydrogen Absorption Properties of Nanostructured Palladium-

  5. Evaluation and Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Gastroenterological Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Amy; Kaneshiro, Marc; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    A, et al. Ef?cacy of gluten-free diet alone on recovery fromdisease, institution of a gluten-free diet is curative over

  6. Lung Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Unresectable Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer After Surgical Intervention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodama, Hiroshi, E-mail: h-kodama@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Kashima, Masataka; Uraki, Junji; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takao, Motoshi [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Taguchi, Osamu [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine (Japan); Yamada, Tomomi [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Translational Medicine (Japan); Takeda, Kan [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: A retrospective evaluation was done of clinical utility of lung radiofrequency (RF) ablation in recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical intervention. Methods: During May 2003 to October 2010, 44 consecutive patients (26 male and 18 female) received curative lung RF ablation for 51 recurrent NSCLC (mean diameter 1.7 {+-} 0.9 cm, range 0.6 to 4.0) after surgical intervention. Safety, tumor progression rate, overall survival, and recurrence-free survival were evaluated. Prognostic factors were evaluated in multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 55 lung RF sessions were performed. Pneumothorax requiring pluerosclerosis (n = 2) and surgical suture (n = 1) were the only grade 3 or 4 adverse events (5.5%, 3 of 55). During mean follow-up of 28.6 {+-} 20.3 months (range 1 to 98), local tumor progression was found in 5 patients (11.4%, 5 of 44). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 97.7, 72.9, and 55.7%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 76.7 and 41.1%, respectively. Tumor size and sex were independent significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. The 5-year survival rates were 73.3% in 18 women and 60.5% in 38 patients who had small tumors measuring {<=}3 cm. Conclusion: Our results suggest that lung RF ablation is a safe and useful therapeutic option for obtaining long-term survival in treated patients.

  7. Synthesis of iron based hydrocracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farcasiu, M.; Eldredge, P.A.; Ladner, E.P.

    1993-05-25

    A method of preparing an iron based hydrocracking catalyst is described, comprising reacting iron (111) oxide powders and elemental sulfur with a liquid hydrogen donor having a hydroaromatic structure present in the range of from about 5 to about 50 times the weight of iron (111) oxide at a temperature in the range of from about 180 C to about 240 C for a time in the range of from about 0 to about 8 hours.

  8. Kinetics of dissolution and bio-availability of iron in amorphous siliceous iron oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seaman, John C.

    1990-01-01

    KINETICS OF DISSOLUTION AND BIO-AVAILABILITY OF IRON IN AMORPHOUS SILICEOUS IRON OXIDES A Thesis By John C. Seaman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Soil Science KINETICS OF DISSOLUTION AND BIO-AVAILABILITY OF IRON IN AMORPHOUS SILICEOUS IRON OXIDES A Thesis By John C. Seaman Approved as to style and content by: Richard H. Loeppert (Chair of Committee...

  9. Method for producing iron-based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Diehl, J. Rodney (Pittsburgh, PA); Kathrein, Hendrik (McMurray, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

  10. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccha...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the...

  11. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods Nanostructure, Chemistry and...

  12. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is...

  13. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  14. Severity of iron deficiency anemia and its relationship to growth and morbidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guarda, N.; Pollitt, E.; Viteri, F.

    1986-03-01

    The relationships between severity of iron deficiency anemia, response to iron treatment, respiratory and gastrointestinal illness and weight changes were assessed before (T1) and after (T2) iron therapy. Seventy-five pre-school children from rural Guatemala received daily oral iron (ferrous sulfate 5 mg/kg/day) for eleven weeks, and were classified into one of three groups: (1) severe iron deficient (Hgb < 9.25 g/dl at T1 and > 1g/dl Hgb response (T2-T1) to Fe Rx; (2) moderately iron deficient (Hgb 9.25 g/dl to 11.5 g/dl and T2-T1 > 1g/dl); (3) normal controls (Hgb > 11.5 g/dl and T2-T1 < 1g/dl). When both severely and moderately anemic children were pooled together, there was a statistical significant difference between the number of days ill with gastrointestinal symptoms of these children and those in the control group. Children with T1 Hgb > 11.5 had more days ill than those classified as severely or moderately anemic. There was no other statistically significant associations between initial Hgb levels and morbidity. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between delta (T2-T1) Hgb and number of days ill with gastrointestinal symptoms. All other covariates accounted for the percentage of days ill from gastrointestinal sorbidity, decreased approximately 1% for each 1% increase in delta Hgb.

  15. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L. [and others

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  16. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: Treatment Outcomes, Marginal Misses, and Perspective on Target Delineation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wan-Yu [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Sung-Hsin [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Szu-Huai; Tsai, Chiao-Ling [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ruey-Long [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ya-Fang [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Kai-Nan; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping [Department of Otolaryngology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chong, Fok-Ching [Graduate Institute of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chun-Wei, E-mail: cwwang@ntuh.gov.tw [Graduate Institute of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 11 consecutive patients with SCC of the EAC and middle ear who were treated with curative surgery and postoperative IMRT at one institution between January 2007 and February 2010. The prescribed IMRT dose was 60 to 66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Three patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient received concurrent oral tegafur/uracil. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 6-33 months). Results: Four patients had locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year locoregional control rate of 70.7%. Among them, 1 patient had persistent disease after treatment, and 3 had marginal recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 1 patient after extensive locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year distant control rate of 85.7%. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 67.5%. The three cases of marginal recurrence were near the preauricular space and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, adjacent to the apex of the ear canal and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, and in the postauricular subcutaneous area and ipsilateral parotid nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal misses should be recognized to improve target delineation. When treating SCC of the EAC and middle ear, care should be taken to cover the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint and periauricular soft tissue. Elective ipsilateral parotid irradiation should be considered. The treatment planning procedure should also be refined to balance subcutaneous soft-tissue dosimetry and toxicity.

  17. Iron Cycling and Redox Evolution in the Precambrian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Planavsky, Noah John

    2012-01-01

    J.C.G. , 1984. Suboxic Diagenesis in Banded Iron Formations.J.C.G. , 1984. Suboxic Diagenesis in Banded Iron Formations.J.C.G. , 1984. Suboxic diagenesis in banded iron formations.

  18. Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS...

  19. Microbial reduction of iron ore (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a...

  20. Maternal and Infant Iron Status and First Year Illness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Sarah E.

    2011-04-20

    Abstract The primary research aims were to understand the relationship between maternal postpartum body iron and birth and 4-month infant body iron and to determine if maternal or newborn iron status was a predictor of first year illness. Subjects...

  1. The production of iron carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.M.; Scheel, J. [Nucor Iron Carbide, Inc., Point Lisas (Trinidad and Tobago)

    1997-12-31

    From start-up in 1994 to present, Nucor`s Iron Carbide plant has overcome many obstacles in achieving design production. Many of these impediments were due to flaws in equipment design. With the integration existing within the plant, limitations in any one system reduced the operating capacity of others. For this reason, as modifications were made and system capacities were increased, the need for additional modifications became apparent. Subsequently, operating practices, maintenance scheduling, employee incentives, and production objectives were continually adapted. This paper discusses equipment and design corrections and the quality issues that contributed to achieving the plant`s production capacity.

  2. Sep 05:"Toward Computational Design of Iron-Based Chromophores for Solar Energy Conversion"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Sep 05:"Toward Computational Design of Iron-Based Chromophores for Solar Energy Conversion, Department of Biochemistry, East Carolina University (Dept) Nov 21: "Taking snapshots along the solar energy and Organic-Metal Halide Perovskites for Next Generation Solar Cells" Professor Prashant Kamat, Department

  3. A novel strategy for surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for lung cancer imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    A novel strategy for surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for lung-step procedure for the surface functionalization of SPIO nanoparticles with a lung cancer-targeting peptide and demonstrate high T2 relaxivity. The nanoprobes are specific in targeting avb6­expressing lung cancer cells

  4. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Muftikian, Rosy (Tucson, AZ); Korte, Nic (Grand Junction, CO)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products.

  5. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from...

  6. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) steelfootprint2012.pdf More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Cement...

  7. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  8. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking This factsheet...

  9. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA)

    1986-09-16

    An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  10. Iron Cycling and Redox Evolution in the Precambrian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Planavsky, Noah John

    2012-01-01

    aqueous ferrous iron and goethite. Earth and PlanetaryAdsorption of Phosphate on Goethite in Marine Electrolytes.aqueous ferrous iron and goethite and found an equilibrium

  11. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the iron associated with fossil tissues, which occurred primarily as the mineral goethite. They then employed experiments to show that iron, derived from hemoglobin lysate,...

  12. Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Low-energy spin excitations have been...

  13. In-situ method to remove iron and other metals from solution in groundwater down gradient from permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Clay E. (Grand Junction, CO); Morrison, Stanley J. (Grand Junction, CO)

    2001-07-03

    This invention is directed to a process for treating the flow of anaerobic groundwater through an aquifer with a primary treatment media, preferably iron, and then passing the treated groundwater through a second porous media though which an oxygenated gas is passed in order to oxygenate the dissolved primary treatment material and convert it into an insoluble material thereby removing the dissolved primary treatment material from the groundwater.

  14. Synthesis of iron based hydrocracking catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Eldredge, Patricia A. (Barboursville, VA); Ladner, Edward P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A method of preparing a fine particle iron based hydrocracking catalyst and the catalyst prepared thereby. An iron (III) oxide powder and elemental sulfur are reacted with a liquid hydrogen donor having a hydroaromatic structure present in the range of from about 5 to about 50 times the weight of iron (III) oxide at a temperature in the range of from about 180.degree. C. to about 240.degree. C. for a time in the range of from about 0 to about 8 hours. Various specific hydrogen donors are disclosed. The catalysts are active at low temperature (<350.degree. C.) and low pressure.

  15. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Muftikian, Rosy (Tucson, AZ); Korte, Nic (Grand Junction, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds.

  16. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Muftikian, Rosy (Tucson, AZ); Korte, Nic (Grand Junction, CO)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds.

  17. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-03-18

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

  18. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1998-06-02

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

  19. Complement receptor type 2conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    ). Cross-linked iron oxide (CLIO) and other iron oxide formulations affect T2 primarily and lead+), accelerate T1 relaxation and lead to brighter contrast images. The superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIOComplement receptor type 2­conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles [CR2-Fc-SPIO] Kam

  20. Production and Machining of Thin Wall Gray and Ductile Cast Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleischman, E.H.; Li, H.; Griffin, R.; Bates, C.E.; Eleftheriou, E.

    2000-11-03

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham, in cooperation with the American Foundry Society, companies across North America, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a project to develop an understanding of the factors that control the machinability of cast gray and ductile iron. Differences of as much as 500% have been found in machinability have been observed at the same strength. The most machinable irons were those with a high cell counts and few carbonitride inclusions. Additions of tin and copper can be added to both gray and ductile iron to stabilize the pearlite, but excessive additions (above those required to produce the desired pearlite content) degrade the machinability.

  1. Iron and the ecology of marine microbes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventouras, Laure-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a cofactor of a number biochemical reactions that are essential for life. In the marine environment, this micronutrient is a scarce resource that limits processes of global importance such as photosynthesis and ...

  2. Elastic moduli of nickel and iron aluminides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manjigani, Sreedhar

    1993-01-01

    A research program has been completed on the dynamic elastic modulus measurements for several nickel and iron aluminide based intermetallics. The PUCOT (piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique) was used for this purpose. Stress...

  3. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-07-29

    A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

  4. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-04-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. 10 figs.

  5. Predictive Parameters of CyberKnife Fiducial-less (XSight Lung) Applicability for Treatment of Early Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahig, Houda; Campeau, Marie-Pierre; Vu, Toni; Doucet, Robert; Béliveau Nadeau, Dominic [Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Bernard [Radiation Oncology Department, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Roberge, David; Lambert, Louise; Carrier, Jean-François [Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Filion, Edith, E-mail: edith.filion.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine which parameters allow for CyberKnife fiducial-less tumor tracking in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 133 lung SBRT patients were preselected for direct soft-tissue tracking based on manufacturer recommendations (peripherally located tumors ?1.5 cm with a dense appearance) and staff experience. Patients underwent a tumor visualization test to verify adequate detection by the tracking system (orthogonal radiographs). An analysis of potential predictors of successful tumor tracking was conducted looking at: tumor stage, size, histology, tumor projection on the vertebral column or mediastinum, distance to the diaphragm, lung-to-soft tissue ratio, and patient body mass index. Results: Tumor visualization was satisfactory for 88 patients (66%) and unsatisfactory for 45 patients (34%). Median time to treatment start was 6 days in the success group (range, 2-18 days) and 15 days (range, 3-63 days) in the failure group. A stage T2 (P=.04), larger tumor size (volume of 15.3 cm{sup 3} vs 6.5 cm{sup 3} in success and failure group, respectively) (P<.0001), and higher tumor density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3} vs 0.79 g/cm{sup 3}) were predictive of adequate detection. There was a 63% decrease in failure risk with every 1-cm increase in maximum tumor dimension (relative risk for failure = 0.37, CI=0.23-0.60, P=.001). A diameter of 3.6 cm predicted a success probability of 80%. Histology, lung-to-soft tissue ratio, distance to diaphragm, patient's body mass index, and tumor projection on vertebral column and mediastinum were not found to be predictive of success. Conclusions: Tumor size, volume, and density were the most predictive factors of a successful XSight Lung tumor tracking. Tumors >3.5 cm have ?80% chance of being adequately visualized and therefore should all be considered for direct tumor tracking.

  6. Iron availability limits the ocean nitrogen inventory stabilizing feedbacks between marine denitrification and nitrogen fixation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, J. Keith; Doney, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Falkowski (2001), Iron availability, cellular iron quotas,C. Doney (2007), Iron availability limits the ocean nitrogentemperature, P and Fe availability. Diazotrophs have higher

  7. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-31

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron–vanadium, and iron–chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantitiesmore »measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. As a result, proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.« less

  8. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-31

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron–vanadium, and iron–chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantities measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. As a result, proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.

  9. Understanding the Factors Affecting the Formation of Carbonyl Iron Electrodes in Rechargeable Alkaline Iron Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable iron-based alkaline batteries such as iron - air and nickel - iron batteries are attractive for large-scale electrical energy storage because iron is inexpensive, globally-abundant and environmentally-friendly. Further, the iron electrode is known for its robustness to repeated charge/discharge cycling. During manufacturing these batteries are charged and discharged 20 to 50 times during which the discharge capacity of the iron electrode increases gradually and attains a stable value. This process of achieving stable capacity is called formation. In this study we have focused our efforts on understanding the effect of electrode design on formation. We have investigated the role of wetting agent, pore-former additive, and sulfide additive on the formation of carbonyl iron electrodes. The wetting agent increased the rate of formation while the pore-former additive increased the final capacity. Sodium sulfide added to the electrolyte worked as a de-passivation agent and increased the final discharge capacity. We have proposed a phenomenological model for the formation process that predicts the rate of formation and final discharge capacity given the design parameters for the electrode. The understanding gained here will be useful in reducing the time lost in formation and in maximizing the utilization of the iron electrode. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.021301jes] All rights reserved.

  10. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY); Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  11. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Carroll, Kyler J [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

  12. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.; Finnemore, D.K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400 to 600 C; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature. 2 figs.

  13. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1992-11-17

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

  14. Optimization of low-cost phosphorus removal from wastewater using co-treatments with constructed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    water treatment residuals with vertical-flow constructed wetland mesocosms planted with Schoenoplectus treatment residual; iron; lime sludge; municipal wastewater Introduction The US-EPA has identifiedOptimization of low-cost phosphorus removal from wastewater using co-treatments with constructed

  15. The carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 is required for subnuclear assembly of RAD51 after treatment with cisplatin but not ionizing radiation in human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Chenyi; Huang Peng; Liu Jinsong . E-mail: jliu@mdanderson.org

    2005-10-28

    BRCA1 plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability through its involvement in DNA repair. Although it is known that BRCA1 and RAD51 form distinct DNA repair subnuclear complexes, or foci, following environmental insults to the DNA, the role of BRCA1 in this process remains to be characterized. The purpose of the study was therefore to determine the role of BRCA1 in the formation of RAD51 foci following treatment with cisplatin and ionizing radiation. We found that although a functional BRCA1 is required for the subnuclear assembly of BRCA1 foci following treatment with either ionizing radiation or cisplatin, a functional BRCA1 is required for RAD51 foci to form following treatment with cisplatin but not with ionizing radiation. Similar results were obtained in SKOV-3 cells when the level of BRCA1 expression was knocked down by stable expression of a retrovirus-mediated small-interfering RNA against BRCA1. We also found that the carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 contains uncharacterized phosphorylation sites that are responsive to cisplatin. The functional BRCA1 is also required for breast and ovarian cancer cells to mount resistance to cisplatin. These results suggest that the carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 is required for the cisplatin-induced recruitment of RAD51 to the DNA-damage site, which may contribute to cisplatin resistance.

  16. Fate of As, Se, and Hg in a Passive Integrated System for Treatment of Fossil Plant Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Yost; Paul Pier; Gregory Brodie

    2007-12-31

    TVA is collaborating with EPRI and DOE to demonstrate a passive treatment system for removing SCR-derived ammonia and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant wastewater stream. The components of the integrated system consist of trickling filters for ammonia oxidation, reaction cells containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for trace contaminant removal, a settling basin for storage of iron hydroxide floc, and anaerobic vertical-flow wetlands for biological denitrification. The passive integrated treatment system will treat up to 0.25 million gallons per day (gpd) of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pond effluent, with a configuration requiring only gravity flow to obviate the need for pumps. The design of the system will enable a comparative evaluation of two parallel treatment trains, with and without the ZVI extraction trench and settling/oxidation basin components. One of the main objectives is to gain a better understanding of the chemical transformations that species of trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in passive treatment system components with differing environmental conditions. This progress report details the design criteria for the passive integrated system for treating fossil power plant wastewater as well as performance results from the first several months of operation. Engineering work on the project has been completed, and construction took place during the summer of 2005. Monitoring of the passive treatment system was initiated in October 2005 and continued until May 18 2006. The results to date indicate that the treatment system is effective in reducing levels of nitrogen compounds and trace metals. Concentrations of both ammonia and trace metals were lower than expected in the influent FGD water, and additions to increase these concentrations will be done in the future to further test the removal efficiency of the treatment system. In May 2006, the wetland cells were drained of FGD water, refilled with less toxic ash pond water, and replanted due to low survival rates from the first planting the previous summer. The goals of the TVA-EPRI-DOE collaboration include building a better understanding of the chemical transformations that trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in a passive treatment system, and to evaluate the performance of a large-scale replicated passive treatment system to provide additional design criteria and economic factors.

  17. Broad iron lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Fabian; K. Iwasawa; C. S. Reynolds; A. J. Young

    2000-04-26

    An intrinsically narrow line emitted by an accretion disk around a black hole appears broadened and skewed as a result of the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift. The fluorescent iron line in the X-ray band at 6.4-6.9keV is the strongest such line and is seen in the X-ray spectrum of many active galactic nuclei and, in particular, Seyfert galaxies. It is an important diagnostic with which to study the geometry and other properties of the accretion flow very close to the central black hole. The broad iron line indicates the presence of a standard thin accretion disk in those objects, often seen at low inclination. The broad iron line has opened up strong gravitational effects around black holes to observational study with wide-reaching consequences for both astrophysics and physics.

  18. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  19. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  20. Heat treatment giving a stable high temperature micro-structure in cast austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anton, Donald L. (Toland, CT); Lemkey, Franklin D. (Windsor, CT)

    1988-01-01

    A novel micro-structure developed in a cast austenitic stainless steel alloy and a heat treatment thereof are disclosed. The alloy is based on a multicomponent Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-Nb-C system consisting of an austenitic iron solid solution (.gamma.) matrix reinforced by finely dispersed carbide phases and a heat treatment to produce the micro-structure. The heat treatment includes a prebraze heat treatment followed by a three stage braze cycle heat treatment.

  1. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the RichardBudgetIowaOctoberNovember 3,IronIron

  2. The marine biogeochemistry of dissolved and colloidal iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a redox active trace metal micronutrient essential for primary production and nitrogen acquisition in the open ocean. Dissolved iron (dFe) has extremely low concentrations in marine waters that can drive phytoplankton ...

  3. Degradation of organic and inorganic contaminants by zero valent iron 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malla, Deepak Babu

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of trichloroethylene (TCE), chromium (VI), and 2,4 dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by zero valent iron and palladized iron under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Reduction experiments of the contaminants were carried out individually...

  4. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.

    1985-10-28

    Disclosed is an improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  5. Candidate anode materials for iron production by molten oxide electrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paramore, James D

    2010-01-01

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) has been identified by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) as one of four possible breakthrough technologies to alleviate the environmental impact of iron and steel production. This ...

  6. Iron acquisition and utilization by Rhodococcus equi: potential virulence factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carnes, Misty Lee

    2002-01-01

    The course of any infection depends upon the pathogenicity of a particular organism and the status of the host's defense mechanisms. Because most bacterial pathogens need iron to multiply, they must develop mechanisms to acquire iron...

  7. Evaluation of Characterization Techniques for Iron Pipe Corrosion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by drinking water studies is that of properly characterizing the corrosion products (CP) in iron pipescor synthetic Fe (hydr)oxides used to simulate the iron pipe used in...

  8. Contribution of Iron-Reducing Bacteria to Mercury Methylation in Marine Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Emily J.; Nelson, D C

    2006-01-01

    iron, which is characteristic of acid weathering of exposed miningexposed mining areas, a suite of other metals (such as iron,

  9. Minnesota Jobs to Come with Efficient Iron Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New energy-efficient iron plant offers a ray of hope for workers after local mining company shuts down.

  10. Preliminary study of iron removal from hydrochloric pickling liquor by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranon, E.; Suarez, F.; Alonso, F.; Fernandez, Y.; Sastre, H. [Univ. of Oviedo, Asturias (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of Oviedo, Asturias (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Hydrochloric acid from exhausted pickling baths is a residue that has to be managed adequately because of its high pollutant potential. In this work, an ion exchange treatment for removing iron from the spent acid was studied in an attempt to make the re-utilization of said acid viable for industry while reducing the amount of waste generated. Several cationic, anionic, and chelating resins were tested. Cationic and chelating resins are able to remove Fe(II) that is present as a cation in the acid, whereas anionic resins are able to remove Fe(III) that forms anionic complexes with the chloride anion. The capacity of the cationic and chelating resins, although not high, does improve as the iron concentration in the hydrochloric acid increases and when the acid concentration decreases, because there is less competition between the ferrous cation and the protons. The anionic resins showed higher capacity for removing iron, especially the Lewatit MP-500, and this capacity also increased with iron concentration.

  11. A Review of Iron Phosphate Glasses and Recommendations for Vitrifying Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delbert E. Ray; Chandra S. Ray

    2013-11-01

    This report contains a comprehensive review of the research conducted, world-wide, on iron phosphate glass over the past ~30 years. Special attention is devoted to those iron phosphate glass compositions which have been formulated for the purpose of vitrifying numerous types of nuclear waste, with special emphasis on the wastes stored in the underground tanks at Hanford WA. Data for the structural, chemical, and physical properties of iron phosphate waste forms are reviewed for the purpose of understanding their (a) outstanding chemical durability which meets all current DOE requirements, (b) high waste loadings which can exceed 40 wt% (up to 75 wt%) for several Hanford wastes, (c) low melting temperatures, can be as low as 900°C for certain wastes, and (d) high tolerance for “problem” waste components such as sulfates, halides, and heavy metals (chromium, actinides, noble metals, etc.). Several recommendations are given for actions that are necessary to smoothly integrate iron phosphate glass technology into the present waste treatment plans and vitrification facilities at Hanford.

  12. Bronze metallurgy in Iron Age central Europe : a metallurgical study of Early Iron Age bronzes from Sti?na, Slovenia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooney, Elizabeth Myers

    2007-01-01

    The Early Iron Age (750-450 BCE) marks a time in the European Alpine Region in which cultural ideologies surrounding bronze objects and bronze production were changing. Iron was becoming the preferred material from which ...

  13. Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department of Mineral and Environmental Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico) reduction by metallic iron in aqueous systems were performed. The effects of various iron loadings, VC

  14. Processing Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals for Use in Solar Cells - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions | National NuclearProbingProbingxx byProcess

  15. Iron distribution and phytoplankton iron limitation in the southern California Current System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Andrew Luke

    2008-01-01

    layer density (sigma-theta) are shown for six CalCOFI surveysolution (Sigma-Aldrich) in 0.016 M ultrapure HCl every sixsigma-theta. Macronutrients, dissolved iron, and chl were elevated during all six

  16. Iron Air collision with high density QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Joachim Drescher

    2006-12-08

    The color glass condensate approach describes successfully heavy ion collisions at RHIC. We investigate Iron-air collisions within this approach and compare results to event generators commonly used in air shower simulations. We estimate uncertainties in the extrapolation to GZK energies and discuss implications for air shower simulations.

  17. Iron loss calculation for synchronous reluctance machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonardi, F.; Matsuo, T.; Lipo, T.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A numerical method for iron loss calculation is presented in this paper. The method is suitable for any synchronous and most dc machines, especially if the current waveforms are known a priori . This technique will be principally useful for high speed machines and in particular for the synchronous reluctance machines and in particular for the synchronous reluctance machine, where the iron losses are often an important issue. The calculation is based on Finite Element Analysis, which provides the flux density waveforms in the iron, and on the Fourier Analysis of these waveforms. Several Finite Element Simulations are necessary to obtain the induced voltage versus time waveforms. To reduce the post-processing time the majority of the elements of the model are grouped together to create super elements. Also the periodicity of the motor can be used to reduce the number of required simulations. The method is applied to the calculation of the iron losses of a synchronous reluctance generator, and a number of interesting results are discussed in the paper.

  18. Superconductivity in iron compounds G. R. Stewart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    of the superconductivity in this new class of compounds. These iron pnictide and chalcogenide (FePn/Ch) superconductors-phonon coupled ``conventional'' superconductors. Clearly, superconductivity and magnetism or magnetic of magnetism and superconductivity in FePn/Ch superconductors 1606 D. Tc and TS=TSDW versus pressure 1607 1

  19. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides Clara S. Chan a oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH miner- alogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals

  20. The magnetic properties of the iron-rich, iron-nickel-zinc alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupton, Paul Stephen

    1961-01-01

    THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE IRON-RICH, IRON-NICKEL-ZINC ALLOYS A Thesis By Paul Stephen Gupton Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...' work. Accordingly, the decision was reached that only explora- tory studies would be made. These would involve mechanical hardness and magnetic properties and a limited number of tests of corrosion re- sistance. 950 900 850 9IO II+ L 800 750...

  1. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The program has progressed to the stage of evaluating full-sized (220 Ah) cells, multicell modules, and 22 kWh batteries. Nickel electrodes that display stable capacities of up to 24 Ah/plate (at C/3 drain rate) at design thickness (2.5 mm) in tests at 200/sup +/ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are also delivering 24 Ah/plate (at C/3) at target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron plates are displaying capacity stability for 300/sup +/ test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Best finished cells are delivering 57 to 63 Wh/kg at C/3, based on cell weights of the finished cells, and in the actual designed cell volume. 6-cell module (6-1) performance has demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 53 WH/kg at the C/3 drain rate. This module is now being evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory. The 2 x 4 battery has been constructed, tested, and delivered for engineering test and evaluation. The battery delivered 22.5 kWh, as required (199 Ah discharge at 113 V-bar) at the C/3 drain rate. The battery has performed satisfactorily under dynamometer and constant current drain tests. Some cell problems, related to construction, necessitated changing 3 modules, but the battery is now ready for further testing. Reduction in nickel plate swelling (and concurrent stack electrolyte starvation), to improve cycling, is one area of major effort to reach the final battery objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes are showing promise in initial full-size cell tests and will continue to be evaluated in finished cells, along with other technology advancements. 30 figures, 14 tables.

  2. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radhika Devi, A.; Murty, B. S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Chelvane, J. A. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabhakar, P. K.; Padma Priya, P. V.; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-03-28

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells.

  3. Tissue transglutaminase treatment leads to concentration-dependent changes in dendritic cell phenotype - implications for the role of transglutaminase in coeliac disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalleywater, William J.; Chau, David Y. S.; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2012-04-16

    Leukoc Biol 2009, 86:567-572. 28. Zemskov EA, Janiak A, Hang J, Waghray A, Belkin AM: The role of tissue transglutaminase in cell-matrix interactions. Front Biosci 2006, 11:1057-1076. 29. Brown KA, Bedford P, Macey M, McCarthy DA, Leroy F, Vora AJ, Stagg...

  4. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  5. Reprocessed emission from warped accretion discs with application to X-ray iron line profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hartnoll; Eric G. Blackman

    1999-08-25

    Flourescent iron line profiles currently provide the best diagnostic for active galactic nuclei (AGN) engine geometries. Here we construct a method for calculating the relativistic iron line profile from an arbitrarily warped accretion disc, illuminated from above and below by hard X-ray sources. This substantially generalises previous calculations of reprocessing by accretion discs by including non-axisymmetric effects. We include a relativistic treatment of shadowing by ray-tracing photon paths along Schwarzchild geodesics. We apply this method to two classes of warped discs, and generate a selection of resulting line profiles. New profile features include the possibility of sharper red, and softer blue fall-offs, a time varying line profile if the warp precesses about the disc, and some differences between `twisted' and `twist-free' warps. We discuss some qualitative implications of the line profiles in the context of Type I and II Seyfert AGN.

  6. Water Clustering on Nanostructured Iron Oxide Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merte, L. R.; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Laegsgaard, E.; Wendt, Stefen; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2014-06-30

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing molecule–molecule and molecule–surface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire´-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the are film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moire´ structure.

  7. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  8. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  9. The iron abundance of the Magellanic Bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. L. Dufton; R. S. I. Ryans; H. M. A. Thompson; R. A. Street

    2008-02-01

    High-resolution HST ultra-violet spectra for five B-type stars in the Magellanic Bridge and in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds have been analysed to estimate their iron abundances. Those for the Clouds are lower than estimates obtained from late-type stars or the optical lines in B-type stars by approximately 0.5 dex. This may be due to systematic errors possibly arising from non-LTE effects or from errors in the atomic data as similar low Fe abundances having previously been reported from the analysis of the ultra-violet spectra of Galactic early-type stars. The iron abundance estimates for all three Bridge targets appear to be significantly lower than those found for the SMC and LMC by approximately -0.5 dex and -0.8 dex respectively and these differential results should not be affected by any systematic errors present in the absolute abundance estimates. These differential iron abundance estimates are consistent with the underabundances for C, N, O, Mg and Si of approximately -1.1 dex relative to our Galaxy previously found in our Bridge targets. The implications of these very low metal abundances for the Magellanic Bridge are discussed in terms of metal deficient material being stripped from the SMC.

  10. Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John

    2013-07-01

    DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

  11. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, D.E.

    1998-05-12

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

  12. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1998-01-01

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

  13. Reduction and carburization reactions in the iron bath smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uemura, Kenichiro

    1993-01-01

    Slag-metal-coal reactions in the iron-bath smelter were analyzed based on a reaction model. It was concluded that the productivity and carbon content of the hot metal produced in a smelter can be controlled by adjusting the slag volume and iron oxide content in slag. Furthermore, iron oxide content is determined by the slag volume and the stirring intensity of the slag.

  14. Hepcidin Is Involved in Iron Regulation in the Ischemic Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Hui; Yan, Cai-Zhen; Shi, Honglian; Zhao, Ya-Shuo; Chang, Shi-Yang; Yu, Peng; Wu, Wen_Shuang; Zhao, Chen-Yang; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Duan, Xiang-Lin

    2011-09-21

    : #2; 2011 Ding et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source... an important role in the management of iron metabolism. Accumulated evidence suggests that the transferrin– transferrin receptor (Tf–TfR) pathway might be the major route of iron transport across the luminal membrane of the capillary endothelium and iron uptake...

  15. Iron-titanium-mischmetal alloys for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary Dale (Ringwood, NJ)

    1978-01-01

    A method for the preparation of an iron-titanium-mischmetal alloy which is used for the storage of hydrogen. The alloy is prepared by air-melting an iron charge in a clay-graphite crucible, adding titanium and deoxidizing with mischmetal. The resultant alloy contains less than about 0.1% oxygen and exhibits a capability for hydrogen sorption in less than half the time required by vacuum-melted, iron-titanium alloys.

  16. Iron Corrosion Observations: Pu(VI)-Fe Reduction Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, Michael K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucchini, Jean-Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-11

    Iron and Pu Reduction: (1) Very different appearances in iron reaction products were noted depending on pH, brine and initial iron phase; (2) Plutonium was associated with the Fe phases; (3) Green rust was often noted at the higher pH; (4) XANES established the green rust to be an Fe2/3 phase with a bromide center; and (5) This green rust phase was linked to Pu as Pu(IV).

  17. Preclinical Evaluation of Genexol-PM, a Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel, as a Novel Radiosensitizer for the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, Michael E.; Cummings, Natalie D.; Sethi, Manish; Wang, Edina C.; Sukumar, Rohit [Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States) [Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Carolina Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Moore, Dominic T. [Division of Biostatistics and Data Management, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)] [Division of Biostatistics and Data Management, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Andrew Z., E-mail: zawang@med.unc.edu [Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Carolina Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: A key research objective in radiation oncology is to identify agents that can improve chemoradiation therapy. Nanoparticle (NP) chemotherapeutics possess several properties, such as preferential accumulation in tumors, that are uniquely suited for chemoradiation therapy. To facilitate the clinical translation of NP chemotherapeutics in chemoradiation therapy, we conducted preclinical evaluation of Genexol-PM, the only clinically approved NP chemotherapeutic with a controlled drug release profile, as a radiosensitizer using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a model disease. Methods and Materials: The physical characteristics and drug release profile of Genexol-PM were characterized. Genexol-PM's efficacy as a radiosensitizer was evaluated in vitro using NSCLC cell lines and in vivo using mouse xenograft models of NSCLC. Paclitaxel dose to normal lung and liver after Genexol-PM administration were quantified and compared with that after Taxol administration. Results: Genexol-PM has a size of 23.91 ± 0.41 nm and surface charge of ?8.1 ± 3.1 mV. It releases paclitaxel in a controlled release profile. In vitro evaluation of Genexol-PM as a radiosensitizer showed it is an effective radiosensitizer and is more effective than Taxol, its small molecule counterpart, at the half maximal inhibitory concentration. In vivo study of Genexol-PM as a radiosensitizer demonstrated that it is more effective as a radiosensitizer than Taxol. We also found that Genexol-PM leads to lower paclitaxel exposure to normal lung tissue than Taxol at 6 hours postadministration. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that Genexol-PM is more effective than Taxol as a radiosensitizer in the preclinical setting and holds high potential for clinical translation. Our data support the clinical evaluation of Genexol-PM in chemoradiation therapy for NSCLC.

  18. Vitamin A, Iron, and Anemia: from observation to hypotheses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Jed

    1998-01-01

    Beynen, A.C. "Supplemental vitamin A enhances the recoveryin rats with chronic vitamin A deficiency." British Journal1996). Thurnham, D.I. "Vitamin A, Iron, and haemopoiesis"

  19. Beyond iron: non-classical biological functions of bacterial siderophores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    Bacteria secrete small molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from their surroundings. For over 60 years, investigations into the bioinorganic chemistry of these molecules, including fundamental coordination ...

  20. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  1. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Littlejohn, David (Oakland, CA); Shi, Yao (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH.sub.3. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20.degree. and 90.degree. C. to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution.

  2. Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on iron (hydr)oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on iron (hydr)oxide reduction and microbial community development May 14, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Aquatic and terrestrial environments are...

  3. The Fate of Bioavailable Iron in Antarctic Coastal Seas | Advanced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of iron mirrors the distribution of silicon. Science is exploring many options for carbon dioxide sequestration in order to mitigate the climatological impact of CO2. One of...

  4. Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel...

  5. Effects of Iron Oxides on the Rheological Properties of Cementitious...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    properties of the cementitious slurry were studied using rheometry and ultrasonic wave reflection to understand the effects of various iron oxides (magnetite, hematite,...

  6. Microstructural Modification of a Cast Iron by Magnetic Field Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The current study deals with the microstructural modification of a nodular cast iron during solidification under the influence of high magnetic fields (up to 18 tesla).

  7. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and J. Newman, Proc. Syrup. Battery Design and Optimization,123, 1364 (1976). Symp, Battery Design and Optimization, S.~ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  8. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The FY 1980 program continued to involve full-size, prototype cell, module and battery fabrication and evaluation, aimed at advancing the technical capabilities of the nickel-iron battery, while simultaneously reducing its potential cost in materials and process areas. Improved Electroprecipitation Process (EPP) nickel electrodes of design thickness (2.5 mm) are now being prepared that display stable capacities of 23 to 25 Ah for the C/3 drain rate at 200+ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are delivering 24 Ah at the target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron electrodes are displaying capacity stability for > 1000 test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Finished cells have delivered 57 to 61 Wh/kg at C/3, and have demonstrated cyclic stability to 500+ cycles at 80% depth of discharge profiles at Westinghouse. A 6-cell module that demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 48 Wh/kg at the C/3 drain rate has also been evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory, ANL. It operated for 327 test cycles, to a level of 161 Ah at the C/3 rate, before being removed from test. Reduction in nickel electrode swelling (and concurrent stack starvation), to improve cycling, continues to be an area of major effort to reach the final battery cycle life objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes continue to show promise for meeting the life objectives while, simultaneously, providing a low manufacturing cost. Refinements have occurred in the areas of cell hardware, module manifolding and cell interconnections. These improvements have been incorporated into the construction and testing of the cells and modules for this program. Temperature tests at 0/sup 0/C were performed on a 6-cell module and showed a decrease in capacity of only 25% in Ah and .29% in Wh as compared to 25/sup 0/C performance. Additional tests are planned to demonstrate performance at -15/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C.

  9. EPR and magnetic susceptibility investigation of iron-zinc-phosphate glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popa, A.; Stefan, R.; Bosca, M.; Dan, V.; Pop, V.; Pascuta, P.

    2013-11-13

    (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}?(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 40}?(ZnO){sub 60?x} glass ceramics containing different concentrations of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ranging from 1 to 20 mol% were obtained by heat treatment of glass samples at 650 °C for 2 h. The structural and magnetic properties of these glass ceramics were investigated by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The EPR spectra of the studied samples revealed absorptions centered at g ? 2.0 and 4.3. The compositional variations of the intensity and line width of these absorption lines was interpreted in terms of the variation in Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions concentration in the glass ceramics as well as the interaction between the iron ions. The magnetic susceptibility data evidenced the presence of both Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions, with their relative content depending on the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. Dipolar and superexchange interactions involving iron ions were revealed depending on the iron content of the sample.

  10. THE ROLE OF FERRIC IRON UPTAKE REGULATOR (FUR) PROTEIN ON IRON REGULATION IN COXIELLA BURNETII 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mary J

    2006-08-16

    in the phagolysosome, an acidic vacuole meant to kill the bacterium, where it survives and replicates. C. burnetii must be able to acquire all the nutrients necessary for survival within this acidic environment. In all but one species of bacteria, iron has been shown...

  11. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Microcytosis and possible early iron deficiency in paediatric inpatients: a retrospective audit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Deepak N; Kitson, Sarah; Bhaniani, Amit

    2009-05-29

    low MCV results, seven patients (25%) had their low MCV results documented as abnormal in the notes and/or dis- charge summary; the remaining twenty-one (75%) had no documentation of their abnormal results and did not receive any subsequent treatment... of all patients with microcytosis where there is no immediate explanation, and to add a RDW and blood film analysis to any FBC samples that have been taken. Patients could then be stratified into low, moderate or high risk groups for iron deficiency...

  13. Engineering a single cell microarray platform for high throughput DNA damage and repair analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weingeist, David McGregor

    2012-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to cancer, aging, and heritable diseases. Ironically, DNA damaging agents are also commonly used in current cancer treatment. We therefore need robust, high throughput, and inexpensive tools for ...

  14. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

    2010-01-01

    using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

  15. Cooperation, the Craft Economy, and Metal Technology during the Bronze and Iron Ages in Central Anatolia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehner, Joseph William

    2015-01-01

    of Iron Age copper production (including extraction mining,and Mining in Eastern Anatolia in the Urartian Period: Silver, Copper and Iron.mining district of the central Taurus and immediately north of Cilicia includes mostly iron,

  16. Electrically insulating phosphate coatings for iron powder based electromagnetic core applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, William Rane

    2009-01-01

    Powdered metals, such as iron, are a common building block for electromagnetic cores. An iron powder was reacted with phosphoric acid to create a layer of iron phosphate on each particle. This electrically insulating ...

  17. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  18. Iron and Manganese in Potable Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Clifford Caudy

    1911-06-01

    and wash once or twice Toy decantation; dissolve the Iron in the same beaker in wViich original precipitation was made and re-precipitate with UH4 OH. Care should he taken to have plenty of ammonium salts present. The second precipitation is fil­ tered... nitrate solution containing two grams of the salt per liter. Lead Peroxide Method. The reaction employed in this method is that known a3 the Volhard Treadwell reaction. Sufficient quantity of the water to yield one-tenth to one milligram of Manganese...

  19. Kumba Iron Ore | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Kumba Iron Ore

  20. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the RichardBudgetIowaOctoberNovember 3,Iron

  1. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the RichardBudgetIowaOctoberNovemberIron

  2. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractivePGAS andUniversity Ion BeamsIraIron

  3. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear ProfileMultiferroicAward |Electron Correlation in Iron-Based

  4. Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton DeliveryRadioactiveRare Iron Oxide in Ancient

  5. In situ XANES Spectroscopic Investigation of the Pre-Reduction of Iron-Based Catalysts for Non-Oxidative Alkane Dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.; Shen, W; Cprek, N; Shah, N; Marinkovic, N; Huffman, G

    2008-01-01

    The reduction in a methane atmosphere of two as-prepared ferric oxide catalysts for the non-oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes has been investigated by in situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy using a novel X-ray transmission reaction cell. The two catalysts were prepared by different synthesis methods (incipient wetness and nanoparticle impregnation) and were supported on Al-substituted magnesium oxide obtained by decomposition of a synthetic hydrotalcite. The reduction of the ferric oxides by methane was followed by iron XANES spectroscopy at temperatures up to 650 C complemented by a residual gas analyzer (RGA) used to track changes in the product gas. Results showed that the ferric oxides in the two catalysts underwent a stepwise reduction to first ferrous oxide, releasing mainly H{sub 2}O in the case of the nanoparticle catalyst but H{sub 2} and CO in the case of the incipient wetness formulation at temperatures between 200 and 550 C, and then more slowly to metallic iron at higher temperatures. Reaction of the ferrous oxide with the support to form magnesiowstite also occurred in conjunction with the reduction. This in situ investigation confirms that metallic iron is the active catalytic phase for alkane dehydrogenation and that observations of ferric iron in samples investigated at room temperature after reduction and reaction are most likely due to re-oxidation of the iron in the catalyst upon exposure to air rather than incomplete reduction of the original ferric iron in the catalyst.

  6. Iron Phosphate Glass-Containing Hanford Waste Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Schweiger, M. J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Riley, Brian J.

    2012-01-18

    Resolution of the nation's high-level tank waste legacy requires the design, construction, and operation of large and technically complex one-of-a-kind processing waste treatment and vitrification facilities. While the ultimate limits for waste loading and melter efficiency have yet to be defined or realized, significant reductions in glass volumes for disposal and mission life may be possible with advancements in melter technologies and/or glass formulations. This test report describes the experimental results from a small-scale test using the research-scale melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to demonstrate the viability of iron-phosphate-based glass with a selected waste composition that is high in sulfate (4.37 wt% SO3). The primary objective of the test was to develop data to support a cost-benefit analysis related to the implementation of phosphate-based glasses for Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) and/or other high-level waste streams within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The testing was performed by PNNL and supported by Idaho National Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory, Missouri University of Science and Technology, and Mo-Sci Corporation.

  7. Iron Phosphate Glass-Containing Hanford Waste Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2011-08-01

    Resolution of the nation’s high level tank waste legacy requires the design, construction, and operation of large and technically complex one-of-a-kind processing waste treatment and vitrification facilities. While the ultimate limits for waste loading and melter efficiency have yet to be defined or realized, significant reductions in glass volumes for disposal and mission life may be possible with advancements in melter technologies and/or glass formulations. This test report describes the experimental results from a small-scale test using the research scale melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to demonstrate the viability of iron phosphate-based glass with a selected waste composition that is high in sulfates (4.37 wt% SO3). The primary objective of the test was to develop data to support a cost-benefit analysis as related to the implementation of phosphate-based glasses for Hanford low activity waste (LAW) and/or other high-level waste streams within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The testing was performed by PNNL and supported by Idaho National Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory, and Mo-Sci Corporation.

  8. Archaeometallurgical investigation of the iron anchor from the Tantura F shipwreck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aronson, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ashkenazi, D., E-mail: dana@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Barkai, O.; Kahanov, Y. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2013-04-15

    The Tantura F shipwreck was a coaster or a fishing vessel about 15.7 m long, discovered in the Dor/Tantura lagoon, Israel in 1995. It was dated to between the mid-7th and the end of the 8th centuries CE. Among the finds excavated were two T-shaped type iron anchors. Of the two anchors, one (anchor A) was thoroughly studied by archaeometallurgical methods in order to identify forge-welding lines, to determine the welding quality and to understand the manufacturing technology. The examinations included X-ray radiography, XRF analysis, optical microscopy, SEM/EDS observation and analysis, OES analysis and microhardness tests. The investigation included characterization of the composition, microstructure, thermal treatments, forge-welding junctions and slag analysis. The results revealed a heterogeneous microstructure, rich in glassy, fayalite and wüstite slag. Iron based phases included ferrite, pearlite, cementite and Widmanstätten plates, all typical to wrought iron. The forge-welds of Anchor A were located. Each arm was made of one piece, weighing about 2.5–3 kg and the shank was made of a few 1.5–2 kg pieces. The second anchor (anchor B) was only briefly examined visually and with a few radiographs, which support the results from anchor A. The research results revealed significant information about T-shaped anchors and their manufacturing process, including hot-working processes without any additional heat treatments, and folding techniques. The microstructure was similar to other ancient simple tools such as saws, sickles, axes and mortise chisels, and though the technology to make complicated structures and objects, such as swords, existed at that time, the anchors did not require this sophistication; thus simpler techniques were used, presumably because they were more cost-effective. - Highlights: ? Tantura F was a coaster dated to mid-7th–end-8th centuries. ? Two iron anchors were discovered at the Tantura F shipwreck-site. ? Anchor A was manufactured from heterogeneous wrought iron blooms. ? Forge-welding lines were detected using archaeometallurgical methods.

  9. Spin and valence states of iron in (Mg[subscript 0.8]Fe[subscript 0.2])SiO[subscript 3] perovskite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grocholski, Brent

    The spin and valence states of iron in (Mg0.8Fe0.2)SiO3 perovskite were measured between 0 and 65 GPa using synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy. Samples were synthesized in situ in the laser-heated diamond cell under reducing ...

  10. RAPID ASSESSMENT OF AS-GROWN INTERSTITIAL IRON CONCENTRATION AND IMPACT ON P-TYPE SILICON BLOCKS VIA SPECTRAL PHOTOLUMINESCENCE IMAGING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Canberra, Australia 3 Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg, Germany 4 BT Imaging Pty Ltd South Wales, Sydney, Australia 2 Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University to the further understanding of the crystallization and following cell processing. Interstitial iron has been

  11. Mechanisms of Selenate Adsorption on Iron Oxides and Hydroxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Mechanisms of Selenate Adsorption on Iron Oxides and Hydroxides D . P E A K * A N D D . L . S P A R are important sorbents for SeO4 2- in soils and sediments, but the mechanism of selenate adsorption on iron- bonding mechanisms on hematite, goethite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). It was learned that selenate

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF THE EFFECT OF ACID-IRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OBSERVATIONS OF THE EFFECT OF ACID-IRON WASTE DISPOSAL AT SEA ON ANIMAL POPULATIONS tj^iitinn p AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;OBSERVATIONS OF THE EFFECT OF ACID-IRON WASTE DISPOSAL AT SEA ON ANIMAL scope, intended to aid or direct management or utilization practices and as guides for administrative

  13. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metalized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metalized iron nodules at low cost.

  14. Octadecylphosphonate (ODP) for corrosion inhibition of iron using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Octadecylphosphonate (ODP) for corrosion inhibition of iron using the T-BAG technique Tiffany V of corrosion include pipelines, mining facilities, oil and gas production sites, marine ships, hazmat storage), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). #12;Corrosion of iron in contact with water Overall Reaction: 4Fe

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATIC DISCHARGE BEHAVIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01

    composition profiles in lithium/sulfur battery analogues hasTHE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATICthe Lithium-Aluminum, Iron Sulfide Battery I. Galvanostatic

  16. Mechanisms controlling dissolved iron distribution in the North Pacific: A model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    iron transport off the coast of California. 5. Conclusion [the coast of California. Detailed transport processes differcoast of California (Figure 11). Offshore iron transport by

  17. Electrochemical Deposition of Iron Nanoneedles on Titanium Oxide Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan Y. X.; Zhang L.; Gan B.J.

    2011-10-01

    Iron as a catalyst has wide applications for hydrogen generation from ammonia, photodecomposition of organics, and carbon nanotube growth. Tuning the size and shape of iron is meaningful for improving the catalysis efficiency. It is the objective of this work to prepare nanostructured iron with high surface area via electrochemical deposition. Iron nanoneedles were successfully electrodeposited on Ti supported TiO2 nanotube arrays in a chlorine-based electrolyte containing 0.15 M FeCl2 {center_dot} 4H2O and 2.0 M HCl. Transmission electron microscopic analysis reveals that the average length of the nanoneedles is about 200 nm and the thickness is about 10 nm. It has been found that a high overpotential at the cathode made of Ti/TiO2 nanotube arrays is necessary for the formation of the nanoneedles. Cyclic voltammetry test indicates that the electrodeposition of iron nanoneedles is a concentration-limited process.

  18. System and method for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L. (Grand Rapids, MN); Englund, David J. (Bovey, MN); Iwasaki, Iwao (Grand Rapids, MN); Lindgren, Andrew J. (Grand Rapids, MN); Kiesel, Richard F. (Hibbing, MN)

    2011-09-20

    A method for producing metallic iron nodules by assembling a shielding entry system to introduce coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh in to the furnace atmosphere at location(s) where the temperature of the furnace atmosphere adjacent at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material is between about 2200 and 2650.degree. F. (1200 and 1450.degree. C.), the shielding entry system adapted to inhibit emission of infrared radiation from the furnace atmosphere and seal the furnace atmosphere from exterior atmosphere while introducing coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh into the furnace to be distributed over the at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material, and heating the covered at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material in a fusion atmosphere to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material during fusion to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material in forming metallic iron nodules.

  19. Direct In Vivo Electrochemical Detection of Haemoglobin in Red Blood Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toh, Rou Jun

    The electrochemical behavior of iron ion in haemoglobin provides insight to the chemical activity in the red blood cell which is important in the field of hematology. Herein, the detection of haemoglobin in human red blood ...

  20. FeCycle: Attempting an iron biogeochemical budget from a mesoscale SF6 tracer experiment in unperturbed low iron waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, Steven W.

    FeCycle: Attempting an iron biogeochemical budget from a mesoscale SF6 tracer experiment to ocean physics. In summer 2003 we conducted FeCycle, a 10-day mesoscale tracer release in HNLC waters SE biogeochemical budget from a mesoscale SF6 tracer experiment in unperturbed low iron waters, Global Biogeochem

  1. Selective dissolution of magnetic iron oxides in the acidammonium oxalate/ferrous iron extraction method--I. Synthetic samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    (AAO) method, in which Fe2+ is added to the extraction solution prior to the experiment [the AAO-Fe(II) method]. The procedure was divided into several 30 min extraction steps to check the dissolution progressSelective dissolution of magnetic iron oxides in the acid­ammonium oxalate/ferrous iron extraction

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Brewery wastewater treatment using air-cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Brewery wastewater treatment using air-cathode microbial fuel cells using actual wastewaters. The efficiency of wastewater treatment of a beer brewery wastewater to solution conductivity. These results show that brewery wastewater can be effectively treated using MFCs

  3. Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen Adsorption and Dissociation on Iron and Iron Carbide Surfaces Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Iron Plasma Opacity Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Nash, T. J.; Nielsen, D. S.; Lake, P. W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 87185-1196 (United States); Iglesias, C. A. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Mancini, R. C. [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I.; Wang, P. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, WI (United States); Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Abdallah, J. Jr. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Pradhan, A. K.; Nahar, S. N. [Dept. of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210 (United States)

    2009-09-10

    Recent experiments extended iron opacity model tests to temperatures above 150 eV for the first time. The experiments use the Z Facility to volumetrically heat a CH-tamped Fe/Mg plasma using x-rays. The frequency dependent sample transmission is measured by viewing a backlight through the sample. The plasma conditions are inferred from the Mg K-shell absorption. The strategy for this research is to examine the underlying physics within Fe opacity models by comparisons with the measured transmission. Physics topics of interest include charge state distribution, energy level structure, and line broadening. In this talk we discuss methods to exploit the data and advance understanding for these topics. In addition, we review new experiments under way to further improve the data and to achieve higher energy density conditions.

  5. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2013-09-17

    A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  6. Predict carbonation rate on iron catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1980-02-01

    On solely thermodynamic grounds, the main hydrocarbon product of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction should be methane; in practice, however, carbon is frequently produced as well and deposited on the iron catalyst, fouling the active surface sites. South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd.'s experiments with a fluidized Fischer-Tropsch catalyst bed demonstrate that the rate of carbon deposition is strongly dependent on the hydrogen partial pressure in the reactor, much less dependent on the CO pressure, and not affected at all by the pressure of CO/sub 2/. A suggested reaction scheme for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis explains these observations and provides a basis for a correlation useful in predicting carbon-deposition rates.

  7. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  8. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L. (Grand Rapids, MN); Englund, David J. (Bovey, MN); Iwasaki, Iwao (Grand Rapids, MN); Fosnacht, Donald R. (Hermantown, MN); Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-01-17

    A hearth furnace 10 for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing 11 having a drying/preheat zone 12, a conversion zone 13, a fusion zone 14, and optionally a cooling zone 15, the conversion zone 13 is between the drying/preheat zone 12 and the fusion zone 14. A moving hearth 20 is positioned within the furnace housing 11. A hood or separation barrier 30 within at least a portion of the conversion zone 13, fusion zone 14 or both separates the fusion zone 14 into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth 20 and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth 20. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth 20. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  9. RUSTY OLD STARS: A SOURCE OF THE MISSING INTERSTELLAR IRON?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Markwick, A. J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sloan, G. C.; Bernard-Salas, J. [Cornell University, Astronomy Department, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Matsunaga, N. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Matsuura, M. [UCL-Institute of Origins, Astrophysics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kraemer, K. E., E-mail: iain.mcdonald-2@jb.man.ac.u, E-mail: albert.zijlstra@manchester.ac.u, E-mail: andrew.markwick@manchester.ac.u, E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.ed, E-mail: matsunaga@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.j, E-mail: mikako@star.ucl.ac.u [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States)

    2010-07-10

    Iron, the universe's most abundant refractory element, is highly depleted in both circumstellar and interstellar environments, meaning it exists in solid form. The nature of this solid is unknown. In this Letter, we provide evidence that metallic iron grains are present around oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, where it is observationally manifest as a featureless mid-infrared excess. This identification is made using Spitzer Space Telescope observations of evolved globular cluster stars, where iron dust production appears ubiquitous and in some cases can be modeled as the only observed dust product. In this context, FeO is examined as the likely carrier for the 20 {mu}m feature observed in some of these stars. Metallic iron appears to be an important part of the dust condensation sequence at low metallicity, and subsequently plays an influential role in the interstellar medium. We explore the stellar metallicities and luminosities at which iron formation is observed, and how the presence of iron affects the outflow and its chemistry. The conditions under which iron can provide sufficient opacity to drive a wind remain unclear.

  10. Maintenance and Operations study for K basins sludge treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1998-11-30

    This study evaluates maintenance and operating concepts for the chemical treatment of sludge from the 100 K Basins at Hanford. The sludge treatment equipment that will require remote operation or maintenance was identified. Then various maintenance and operating concepts used in the nuclear industry were evaluated for applicability to sludge treatment. A hot cell or cells is recommended as the best maintenance and operating concept for a sludge treatment facility.

  11. Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment and Detection Richard Acosta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment and Detection Richard Acosta #12;Motivation ·Ineffectiveness or roughly 100 times smaller than most human cells Cancer Nanotechnology research is interdisciplinary

  12. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst, E-mail: rousseau@uri.edu [Mechanical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 92 Upper College Rd., Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370?MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490?MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2?GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  13. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the RichardBudgetIowaOctoberNovemberIronIronIron

  14. Wintertime pytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supported by continental margin iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2008-01-01

    of iron hydroxide (60% goethite) and amorphous irona linear combination of goethite (60%) and ferrihydrite (

  15. Modernization of the iron making plant at SOLLAC FOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crayelynghe, M. van; Dufour, A.; Soland, J.; Feret, J.; Lebonvallet, J.

    1995-12-01

    When the blast furnaces at SOLLAC/FOS were relined, the objective being to ensure a worklife of 15 years, it was decided that the iron making plant would be modernized at the same time: the coking plant has been overhauled and renovated and its coking time increased to ensure a worklife of at least 34 years. The surface area of the sinter strand was increased from 400 to 520 m{sup 2}, the burden preparation circuit were simplified, and pig iron production capacity increased from 4.2 to 4.5 million metric tons per year. Coal injection was developed so as to obtain 170 kg/t of pig iron, an expert system was added to ensure more efficient blast furnace operation, and new measures have been carried out for environmental protection. Since these heavy investments have been completed, SOLLAC/FOS is a high-performance iron making plant, allowing it to face new challenges in the future.

  16. Iron-oxide catalyzed silicon photoanode for water splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Kimin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents an integrated study of high efficiency photoanodes for water splitting using silicon and iron-oxide. The fundamental limitations of silicon to water splitting applications were overcome by an ultrathin ...

  17. Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

  18. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction measurements performed at high pressure and utilizing, in part, ALS Beamline 12.2.2. When...

  19. Surface modifications of iron oxide nanoparticles for biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Insin, Numpon

    2011-01-01

    Iron oxides magnetic nanoparticles (MPs) of high crystallinity, high magnetization, and size-monodispersity were synthesized with oleic acid as their native ligands. These hydrophobic and non-functionalized MPs have magnetic ...

  20. Polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for medical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Suelin, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    One of the most versatile and safe materials used in medicine are polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. This dissertation describes several formulations for in vivo imaging applications. The paramagnetic polymer-coated ...

  1. Iron Cycling and Redox Evolution in the Precambrian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Planavsky, Noah John

    2012-01-01

    Black bar indicates PAAS shale composite values. Positive Cesystematics of black shales from the Middle ProterozoicIron speciation data for shales from the 1.64 Ga Mt. Isa

  2. Virtual Iron Network Head node (currently not being used)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Russ

    . Installation of UB's version of Fedora Linux on the nodes. This is accomplished by inserting an operating this information from UBIT office. 8. You are finished installing UB's version of Fedora Linux. Virtual Iron 1

  3. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory...

  4. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons....

  5. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  6. The relationship between iron and nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium spp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, Phoebe Dreux

    2009-01-01

    Trichodesmium spp. are considered the dominant nitrogen (N) fixing cyanobacteria in tropical and subtropical oceans, regimes frequently characterized by low iron (Fe). Limited information exists about what levels of Fe ...

  7. Iron limitation and the role of Siderophores in marine Synechococcus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivers, Adam R. (Adam Reid)

    2009-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus are widely distributed and contribute significantly to global primary productivity. In many parts of the ocean their growth is limited by a lack of iron, an essential nutrient ...

  8. Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interstitial Iron in Superconducting Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38 Using polarized and unpolarized neutron scattering we show that interstitial Fe in superconducting Fe1+yTe1-xSex...

  9. The industrial ecology of the iron casting industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alissa J. (Alissa Jean)

    2007-01-01

    Metal casting is an energy and materials intensive manufacturing process, which is an important U.S. industry. This study analyzes iron casting, in particular, for possible improvements that will result in greater efficiencies ...

  10. Electrochemical deposition of green rust on zero-valent iron 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Dhananjay Vijay

    2006-08-16

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a toxic contaminant that has been introduced into the environment over many years through industrial and agricultural wastes. Research has been done in the past to investigate PCE degradation by zero-valent iron (ZVI...

  11. Geologic evolution of Iron Mountain, central Mojave Desert, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Stefan S.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1993-04-01

    Geologic mapping, structural analysis, petrologic study, and U-Pb geochronology at Iron Mountain, 20 km southwest of Barstow, California, place important constraints on the paleogeographic affinities of metasedimentary rocks in the area and provide...

  12. Potential Antiferromagnetic Fluctuations in Hole-Doped Iron-Pnictide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fluctuations in Hole-Doped Iron-Pnictide Superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2 Studied by 75As Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurement0.1143JPSJ.81.054704 Citation Details In-Document...

  13. Probing high-energy spin fluctuations in iron pnictide superconductors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing high-energy spin fluctuations in iron pnictide superconductors and the metal-insulator transition in rare-earth nickelates by soft X-ray RIXS Wednesday, November 18, 2015 -...

  14. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing...

  15. In Situ Iron Oxide Emplacement for Groundwater Arsenic Remediation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abia, Thomas Sunday

    2012-02-14

    Iron oxide-bearing minerals have long been recognized as an effective reactive media for arsenic-contaminated groundwater remediation. This research aimed to develop a technique that could facilitate in situ oxidative precipitation of Fe3+ in a soil...

  16. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial...

  17. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Wednesday, 30 April 2014 00:00 Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole...

  18. Shewanella loihica sp. nov., isolated from iron-rich microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    loihica sp. nov., isolated from iron-rich microbial mats in the Pacific Ocean A novel marine bacterial strain, PV-4T, isolated from a microbial mat located at a hydrothermal vent...

  19. FGF23 is correlated with iron status but not with inflammation and decreases after iron supplementation: a supplementation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braithwaite, Vickie; Prentice, Andrew M.; Doherty, Conor; Prentice, Ann

    2012-10-26

    ) and the subset study (n=79) was obtained. Written informed consent from the parents of the children involved were obtained for both the original iron supplementation trial and for any further analyses performed on stored samples. Anthropometry Weight was measured...

  20. High-temperature defect engineering for silicon solar cells : predictive process simulation and synchrotron-based microcharacterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenning, David P

    2013-01-01

    Efficiency is a major lever for cost reduction in crystalline silicon solar cells, which dominate the photovoltaics market but cannot yet compete subsidy-free in most areas. Iron impurities are a key performance-limiting ...

  1. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-05-09

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  2. Interplay between interband coupling and ferromagnetism in iron pnictide superconductor/ferromagnet/iron pnictide superconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, S. Y.; Tao, Y. C.; Hu, J. G.

    2014-08-28

    An extended eight-component Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation is applied to study the Josephson effect between iron-based superconductors (SCs) with s{sub ±}-wave pairing symmetry, separated by an ferromagnet (FM). The feature of damped oscillations of critical Josephson current as a function of FM thickness, the split of the peaks induced by the interband coupling is much different from that for the junction with the s{sub ±}-wave SCs replaced by s{sub ++}-wave ones. In particular, a 0?? transition as a function of interband coupling strength ? is found to always exhibit with the corresponding dip shifting toward the larger ? due to enhancing the spin polarization in the FM, while there exits no 0?? transition for the SC with s{sub ++}-wave pairing symmetry. The two features can be used to identify the pairing symmetry in the iron pnictide SC different from the s{sub ++}-wave one in MgB{sub 2}. Experimentally, by adjusting the doping level in the s{sub ±}-wave SCs, one can vary ?.

  3. Combined Microbial-Fe(0) Treatment Systems 1 1058-8337/00/$.50

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    produces cathodic H2 when corroded by water. The preferential colonization of Fe(0) suggests- valent iron (Fe(0)) is submerged in anoxic water, hydro- gen gas is produced via cathodic depolarizationCombined Microbial-Fe(0) Treatment Systems 1 1058-8337/00/$.50 © 2000 by Battelle Memorial

  4. Microstructural Characterization of Nodular Ductile Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, H K

    2012-01-03

    The objective of this study is to quantify the graphite particle phase in nodular ductile iron (NDI). This study provides the basis for initializing microstructure in direct numerical simulations, as part of developing microstructure-fracture response models. The work presented here is a subset of a PhD dissertation on spall fracture in NDI. NDI is an ideal material for studying the influence of microstructure on ductile fracture because it contains a readily identifiable second-phase particle population, embedded in a ductile metallic matrix, which serves as primary void nucleation sites. Nucleated voids grow and coalesce under continued tensile loading, as part of the micromechanisms of ductile fracture, and lead to macroscopic failure. For this study, we used 2D optical microscopy and quantitative metallography relationships to characterize the volume fraction, size distribution, nearest-neighbor distance, and other higher-order metrics of the graphite particle phase. We found that the volume fraction was {Phi} = 0.115, the average particle diameter was d{sub avg} = 25.9 {mu}m, the Weibull shape and scaling parameters were {beta} = 1.8 and {eta} = 29.1 {mu}m, respectively, the (first) nearest neighbor distance was L{sub nn} = 32.4 {mu}m, the exponential coefficients for volume fraction fluctuations was A{sub {Phi}} = 1.89 and B{sub {Phi}} = -0.59, respectively. Based on reaching a coefficient-of-variation (COV) of 0.01, the representative volume element (RVE) size was determined to be 8.9L{sub nn} (288 {mu}m).

  5. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium-ion exchange columns, evaporator boilers and recirculation pumps, and various mechanical process pumps for transferring process fluids. During the first phase of pretreatment, the waste will be concentrated using an evaporation process. Solids will be filtered out, and the remaining soluble, highly radioactive isotopes will be removed using an ion-exchange process. The high-level solids will be sent to the High-Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility, and the low activity liquids will be sent to the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vitrification Facility for further processing. The high-level waste will be transferred via underground pipes to the HLW Facility from the Pretreatment Facility. The waste first arrives at the wet cell, which rests inside a black-cell area. The pretreated waste is transferred through shielded pipes into a series of melter preparation and feed vessels before reaching the melters. Liquids from various facility processes also return to the wet cell for interim storage before recycling back to the Pretreatment Facility. (authors)

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickols, Richard C. (East Hartford, CT)

    1986-09-02

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  8. Insights into the Structure and Metabolic Function of Microbes That Shape Pelagic Iron-Rich Aggregates ( Iron Snow )

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, S; Chourey, Karuna; REICHE, M; Nietzsche, S; Shah, Manesh B; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Kusel, K

    2013-01-01

    Metaproteomics combined with total nucleic acid-based methods aided in deciphering the roles of microorganisms in the formation and transformation of iron-rich macroscopic aggregates (iron snow) formed in the redoxcline of an acidic lignite mine lake. Iron snow had high total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies, with 2 x 109 copies g (dry wt)-1 in the acidic (pH 3.5) central lake basin and 4 x 1010 copies g (dry wt)-1 in the less acidic (pH 5.5) northern lake basin. Active microbial communities in the central basin were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (36.6%) and Actinobacteria (21.4%), and by Betaproteobacteria (36.2%) in the northern basin. Microbial Fe-cycling appeared to be the dominant metabolism in the schwertmannite-rich iron snow, because cloning and qPCR assigned up to 61% of active bacteria as Fe-cycling bacteria (FeB). Metaproteomics revealed 70 unique proteins from central basin iron snow and 283 unique proteins from 43 genera from northern basin. Protein identification provided a glimpse into in situ processes, such as primary production, motility, metabolism of acidophilic FeB, and survival strategies of neutrophilic FeB. Expression of carboxysome shell proteins and RubisCO indicated active CO2 fixation by Fe(II) oxidizers. Flagellar proteins from heterotrophs indicated their activity to reach and attach surfaces. Gas vesicle proteins related to CO2-fixing Chlorobium suggested that microbes could influence iron snow sinking. We suggest that iron snow formed by autotrophs in the redoxcline acts as a microbial parachute, since it is colonized by motile heterotrophs during sinking which start to dissolve schwertmannite.

  9. Large enhanced dielectric permittivity in polyaniline passivated core-shell nano magnetic iron oxide by plasma polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joy, Lija K.; Sooraj, V.; Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-682022, Kerala (India); Sajeev, U. S. [Department of Physics, Government College, Kottayam-686613, Kerala (India); Nair, Swapna S. [Department of Physics, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Central University of Kerala, Kasargode-671123, Kerala (India); Narayanan, T. N. [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikkudi-630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Ajayan, P. M. [Department of Material Science and Nano Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 7700 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    Commercial samples of Magnetite with size ranging from 25–30?nm were coated with polyaniline by using radio frequency plasma polymerization to achieve a core shell structure of magnetic nanoparticle (core)–Polyaniline (shell). High resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the core shell architecture of polyaniline coated iron oxide. The dielectric properties of the material were studied before and after plasma treatment. The polymer coated magnetite particles exhibited a large dielectric permittivity with respect to uncoated samples. The dielectric behavior was modeled using a Maxwell–Wagner capacitor model. A plausible mechanism for the enhancement of dielectric permittivity is proposed.

  10. Production of Electricity during Wastewater Treatment Using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    treatment (2). However, effective methods for generating products other than methane from wastewater haveProduction of Electricity during Wastewater Treatment Using a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell H provide potential for reducing treatment costs, but these technologies are generally only suitable

  11. A Long, Contingent Path to Comparative Advantage: Industrial Policy and the Japanese Iron and Steel Industry, 1900-1973

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ELBAUM, BERNARD

    2006-01-01

    mining, shipping, shipbuilding, engineering, cement, and chemicals, as well as iron andmining and processing of taconite ores, which contain ironTanaka Mining), by the late 1920s, the cost of pig iron

  12. Investigation into phosphorus removal by iron ochre for the potential treatment of aquatic phosphorus pollution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, Stephen Thomas David

    2012-11-29

    Phosphorus (P) pollution of waterbodies is a global issue with detrimental environmental, social and economic impacts. Low-cost and sustainable P removal technologies are therefore required to tackle P pollution, whilst ...

  13. MECHANICAL ALLOYING AND THERMAL TREATMENT FOR PRODUCTION OF ZIRCONIUM IRON HYDROGEN ISOTOPE GETTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2008-02-20

    The objective of this task was to demonstrate that metal hydrides could be produced by mechanical alloying in the quantities needed to support production-scale hydrogen isotope separations. Three starting compositions (ratios of elemental Zr and Fe powders) were selected and attritor milled under argon for times of 8 to 60 hours. In general, milling times of at least 24 hours were required to form the desired Zr{sub 2}Fe and Zr{sub 3}Fe phases, although a considerable amount of unalloyed Zr and Fe remained. Milling in liquid nitrogen does not appear to provide any advantages over milling in hexane, particularly due to the formation of ZrN after longer milling times. Carbides of Zr formed during some of the milling experiments in hexane. Elemental Zr was present in the as-milled material but not detected after annealing for milling times of 48 and 60 hours. It may be that after intimate mixing of the powders in the attritor mill the annealing temperature was sufficient to allow for the formation of a Zr-Fe alloy. Further investigation of this conversion is necessary, and could provide an opportunity for reducing the amount of unreacted metal powder after milling.

  14. Zinc sorption by iron oxides and soil samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yli-Halla, Markku Juhani

    1989-01-01

    'r Subject: Soil Science ZINC SORPTION BY IRON OXIDES AND SOIL SAMPLES A Thesis by MARKKU JUHANI YLI-HALLA Approved as to style and content by: Richard H. Loeppert (Chair of Committee) A. Clearfield (Membe ) Joe B. Dixon (Member) E. C. A. Runge... (Head of Department) May 1989 ABSTRACT Zinc Sorption by Iron Oxides and Soil Samples. (May 1989) Markku Juhani Yli-Halla, M. S. University of Helsinki, Finland Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Richard H. Loeppert Zn sorption by synthetic Fe oxide...

  15. Magnetic properties of iron yoke laminations for SSC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahn, S.A.; Morgan, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    We examine the magnetic properties for the iron used in the SSC yoke laminations so that the accelerator tolerances can be met. The accelerator requirements for field quality specify a tolerance on the variation in the central field. At machine injection the variation in field is attributed to coercivity, H{sub c}. Requirements on the magnitude and the variation of H{sub c} are presented. At the 6.65 tesla operating field the variation in the saturation magnetization dominates the magnetic tolerance for the iron. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Struzhkin, V.; Mao, H.-k.; Shu, J.; Hemley, R.; Fei, Y.; Mysen, B.; Dera, P.; Parapenka, V.; Shen, G.

    2010-11-16

    The electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite is one of the fundamental parameters that governs the physics and chemistry of the most voluminous and massive shell in the Earth. We present experimental evidence for spin-pairing transition in aluminum-bearing silicate perovskite (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O{sub 3} under the lower mantle pressures. Our results demonstrate that as pressure increases, iron in perovskite transforms gradually from the initial high-spin state toward the final low-spin state. At 100 GPa, both aluminum-free and aluminum-bearing samples exhibit a mixed spin state. The residual magnetic moment in the aluminum-bearing perovskite is significantly higher than that in its aluminum-free counterpart. The observed spin evolution with pressure can be explained by the presence of multiple iron species and the occurrence of partial spin-paring transitions in the perovskite. Pressure-induced spin-pairing transitions in the perovskite would have important bearing on the magnetic, thermoelastic, and transport properties of the lower mantle, and on the distribution of iron in the Earth's interior. The lower mantle constitutes more than half of the Earth's interior by volume (1), and it is believed to consist predominantly (80-100%) of (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O{sub 3} perovskite (hereafter called perovskite), with up to 20% (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase (2). The electronic spin state of iron has direct influence on the physical properties and chemical behavior of its host phase. Hence, knowledge on the spin state of iron is important for the interpretation of seismic observations, geochemical modeling, and geodynamic simulation of the Earth's deep interior (3, 4). Crystal field theory (4, 5) and band theory (6) predicted that a high-spin to low-spin transition would occur as a result of compression. To date, no experimental data exist on the spin sate of iron in Al-bearing perovskite. To detect possible spinpairing transition of iron in perovskite under the lower mantle conditions, we measured the x-ray emission spectra of an Al-bearing perovskite sample to 100 GPa. For comparison, a parallel measurement was also carried out on an Al-free perovskite sample.

  17. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  18. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week Day Year(activeInforum LIFT ModelThe Iron SpinThe Iron

  19. Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the RichardBudgetIowaOctoberNovemberIron FindIron

  20. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the RichardBudgetIowaOctoberNovemberIronIron is

  1. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing the RichardBudgetIowaOctoberNovemberIronIron

  2. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractivePGAS andUniversity Ion BeamsIraIronIron is

  3. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractivePGAS andUniversity Ion BeamsIraIronIron

  4. Separating the Kinetic and Sorption Parameters of Mixed Chlorinated Solvents in Contact with Granular Iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Bei

    2011-08-31

    , validating the methodology. Finally, the activation energy of the 4-chloronitrobenzene reacting with two types of granular iron, Connelly iron and QMP, in batch reactors was obtained to assess the role of mass transfer in controlling the kinetics. Previous...

  5. Structural insight into the assembly of iron-sulfur clusters and their function in radical generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vey, Jessica L. (Jessica Lynn)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses two emerging areas in the study of iron-sulfur cluster biochemistry: bioassembly of iron-sulfur clusters, and their involvement in initiation of radical chemistry. The structure of a cysteine desulfurase ...

  6. Interactions of Fe(II) with the iron oxidizing bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bird, Lina J. (Lina Joana)

    2013-01-01

    Microbial anaerobic iron oxidation has long been of interest to biologists and geologists, both as a possible mechanism for the creation of banded iron formations before the rise of oxygen, and as a model system for organisms ...

  7. Fe isotope and trace element geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic syn-glacial Rapitan iron formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    pattern likely records a steep isotopic gradient across the iron chemocline in Rapitan seawater. © 2011 metabolism, and function as a micronu- trient (Anbar, 2004; Beard et al., 2003a; Johnson et al., 2008a). Iron

  8. Evaluation of residual stress gradients in ductile cast iron using critical refracted longitudinal (Lcr) wave technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfluger, Ron Atlan

    1995-01-01

    Critically refracted longitudinal (LCR) waves have been investigated as a possible technique for the evaluation of the residual stress gradients present in ductile iron castings. Residual stresses are likely to develop in ductile cast iron during...

  9. ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    U.S. Iron and Steel Industry steelprofile.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry Bandwidth Study U.S....

  10. Encapsulation of Iron Hydroxide Floc in Composite Cement Nick C Collier* and Neil B Milestone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Plant (EARP) at Sellafield treats liquid effluent generated during reprocessing by co-precipitating uranium, plutonium and other actinides, as well as some other radioactive species, with iron as iron

  11. NORTHWEST AFRICA 176: A UNIQUE IRON METEORITE WITH SILICATE INCLUSIONS RELATED TO BOCAIUVA. Menghua Liu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floss, Christine

    NORTHWEST AFRICA 176: A UNIQUE IRON METEORITE WITH SILICATE INCLUSIONS RELATED TO BOCAIUVA. Menghua Africa 176 iron me- teorite with silicate inclusions was found at the border of Morocco and Algeria

  12. ITmk3: High-Quality Iron Nuggets Using a Rotary Hearth Furnace...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to reopen a nearby iron-ore mine to reduce material costs; Mesabi currently must purchase iron-ore from other mining operations. Material cost reduction is a key component to...

  13. IRON STATUS AND DIETARY AND ANTHROPOMETRIC RISK FACTORS IN US TODDLERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerling, Elizabeth Helen

    2008-05-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is a common problem among US children but diagnosis requires four tests. An equation using only the logarithmic ratio of circulating transferrin receptor to ferritin has been proposed to quantify body iron in adults, however...

  14. Sedimentary and mineral dust sources of dissolved iron to the world ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, J. K; Braucher, O.

    2008-01-01

    of the tropi- cal Pacific Ocean II. Iron biogeochemistry,in the Northeast Pacific Ocean Gyre: Aerosols, iron, and theF. M. M. : The equatorial Pacific Ocean: Grazer-controlled

  15. How Godzilla Ate Pittsburgh: The Long Rise of the Japanese Iron and Steel Industry, 1900–1973

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard Elbaum

    2007-01-01

    poorly endowed as Japan in coking coal and iron ore (WarrenYawata of iron ore for coking coal and the progressive in-

  16. Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otto, N.C.; Warner, B.T.; Smaga, J.A.; Battles, J.E.

    1982-07-07

    The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

  17. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint- Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input

  18. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  19. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    contracted Bechtel National, Inc., to design and build the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant. The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), also known as the...

  20. Development of a Breast Cancer Stem Cell Model and the Inhibitory Regulation of Small Molecule Phytochemicals on Various Stages of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tin, Antony Shen

    2013-01-01

    stem   cells   in   breast   cancer   and   metastasis.  Breast  cancer  research  and  treatment  118(2):241-­?Birnbaum  D  (2009)  Breast  cancer  stem  cells:  tools  

  1. 2-54 GEOLOGICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Mechanisms of Selenate Adsorption on Iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    mechanisms on hematite (-Fe2 O3 ), goethite (-FeOOH), and amorphous iron hydroxide (Fe(OH)3 ). Selenate (SeO4 to hema- tite (-Fe2 O3 ), goethite (-FeOOH), and amorphous iron hydroxide (Fe(OH)3 ). The objectives adsorption mechanisms. Hematite, goethite, and amorphous iron hydroxide were chosen due to their important

  2. Persistence of iron limitation in the western subarctic Pacific SEEDS II mesoscale fertilization experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochlan, William P.

    Persistence of iron limitation in the western subarctic Pacific SEEDS II mesoscale fertilization t The cumulative evidence from more than a dozen mesoscale iron-enrichment studies in high nitrate low chlorophyll diatoms, vary greatly among these mesoscale experiments even though similar amounts of iron were added

  3. Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating that such a film exists and is caused by the deposition of iron and sodium atoms on the ice grain from iron

  4. The Continental Margin is a Key Source of Iron to the HNLC North Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Continental Margin is a Key Source of Iron to the HNLC North Pacific Ocean Phoebe J. Lam1 concentrations in the upper 500m of the Western Subarctic Pacific, an iron-limited High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll a key source of bioavailable Fe to the HNLC North Pacific. Keywords: iron, continental margin, HNLC 1

  5. Precipitation of iron in multicrystalline silicon during annealing A. Y. Liu and Daniel Macdonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precipitation of iron in multicrystalline silicon during annealing A. Y. Liu and Daniel Macdonald.203.43.22 On: Tue, 18 Mar 2014 02:19:30 #12;Precipitation of iron in multicrystalline silicon during annealing 2014) In this paper, the precipitation kinetics of iron in multicrystalline silicon during moderate

  6. Cancer Prevention Strategies That Address the Evolutionary Dynamics of Neoplastic Cells: Simulating Benign Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    for chemosensitive cells, and then apply the toxin. Effective therapeutic and prevention strategies will have in the population of neo- plastic cells. This is true both during progression and during treatment. Any therapy

  7. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C H

    1991-02-14

    Progress is reported for a four-year fundamental investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for FT synthesis, the objectives of which were to (1) determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation and (2) model the global rates of deactivation at the surface of the catalyst for the same catalysts. A computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was designed, constructed and tested. Kinetic data for CO hydrogenation on unsupported, unpromoted iron, 99% Fe/1% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and K-promoted 99% Fe/1% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were obtained as functions of temperature, reactant particle pressures and time. The activity/selectivity and kinetic data are consistent with those previously reported for supported, unpromoted and promoted iron. Two kinds of deactivation were observed during FT synthesis on these samples: (1) loss of surface area after reduction of unsupported, unpromoted iron at 400{degree}C and (2) loss of activity with time due to carbon deposition, especially in the case of K-promoted 99% Fe/1% A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Deactivation rate data were obtained for CO hydrogenation on promoted Fe as a function of time, temperature, and H{sub 2}/CO ratio. 50 refs., 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. RESEARCH PAPER Fabrication and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    stirring for the micron-sized iron oxide particles filled PPy composite fabrication. Keywords Polymer Nanomanufacturing Introduction Polypyrrole (PPy), a conducting conjugated polymer, has attracted much interest due). The conductivity of a conductive polymer is strongly dependent on the doping agents (dopant) with electron donor

  9. Molten thermite teeming into an iron oxide particle bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Blose, R.E.; Arellano, F.E.

    1984-03-01

    The two particle bed tests employed 10-kg thermite melts (2700/sup 0/K) teemed into a bed of iron oxide particles. Objective was to investigate bed penetration, particle flotation and fracture, and heat flux partitioning. The results show that the hydraulic forces exerted by the melt did not immediately displace the bed. Bed penetration was by melting and absorbing of the particles with the major portion of the displaced iron oxide terminating in the alumina phase of the melt. The movement of the penetration front suggests the movement to be a series of melt/freeze/remelt processes. The large grain structure of the iron phase indicates that the cooling was slow and continuous. A coherent 1-cm-thick layer of iron oxide in contact with the melt was created by sintering of the particles. The particle size of the unaffected portions of the bed showed very little fracturing due to thermal stress and slightly over 7% particle growth due to sintering. The calculated heat flux values to the surrounding crucible structure suggest that the bed is effective in delaying and reducing the magnitude of the peak heat flux values.

  10. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  11. Iron dysregulation in movement disorders Petr Dusek a,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA b Parkinson's Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Baylor Dystonia Parkinson's disease Chelating agents Iron is an essential element necessary for energy production

  12. Aerosol Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rapidly over the past decades, such as mechanical milling, spray drying, sol-gel, sonochemistry, etcAerosol Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles D. Kim1,a , E.S. Vasilieva2,b, evaporated and transported by carrier gas flow to the preliminary heated tubular furnace for decomposition

  13. Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G , , § T I M O T H Y J . C-labeled hydrocarbons are produced. In the absence of chlorinated ethenes, however, lower con- centrations of many of the same hydrocarbons (methane and C2-C6 alkanes and alkenes) are also produced. Hardy and Gillham (1996

  14. Iron Aerogel and Xerogel Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bali, S.; Huggins, F; Huffman, G; Ernst, R; Pugmire, R; Eyring, E

    2009-01-01

    Iron aerogels, potassium-doped iron aerogels, and potassium-doped iron xerogels have been synthesized and characterized and their catalytic activity in the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction has been studied. Iron aerogels and xerogels were synthesized by polycondensation of an ethanolic solution of iron(III) chloride hexahydrate with propylene oxide which acts as a proton scavenger for the initiation of hydrolysis and polycondensation. Potassium was incorporated in the iron aerogel and iron xerogel by adding aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to the ethanolic solutions of the Fe(III) precursor prior to addition of propylene oxide. Fischer-Tropsch activities of the catalysts were tested in a fixed bed reactor at a pressure of 100 psi with a H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 2:1. Iron aerogels were found to be active for F-T synthesis, and their F-T activities increased on addition of a K containing promoter. Moessbauer spectroscopic data are consistent with an open, nonrigid iron(III) aerogel structure progressing to an iron carbide/metallic iron catalyst via agglomeration as the F-T synthesis proceeds in the course of a 35 h fixed bed reaction test.

  15. Use of bimodal carbon distribution in compacts for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao

    2012-10-16

    A method for use in production of metallic iron nodules comprising providing a reducible mixture into a hearth furnace for the production of metallic iron nodules, where the reducible mixture comprises a quantity of reducible iron bearing material, a quantity of first carbonaceous reducing material of a size less than about 28 mesh of an amount between about 65 percent and about 95 percent of a stoichiometric amount necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material, and a quantity of second carbonaceous reducing material with an average particle size greater than average particle size of the first carbonaceous reducing material and a size between about 3 mesh and about 48 mesh of an amount between about 20 percent and about 60 percent of a stoichiometric amount of necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material.

  16. Use of bimodal carbon distribution in compacts for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao

    2014-04-08

    A method for use in production of metallic iron nodules comprising providing a reducible mixture into a hearth furnace for the production of metallic iron nodules, where the reducible mixture comprises a quantity of reducible iron bearing material, a quantity of first carbonaceous reducing material of a size less than about 28 mesh of an amount between about 65 percent and about 95 percent of a stoichiometric amount necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material, and a quantity of second carbonaceous reducing material with an average particle size greater than average particle size of the first carbonaceous reducing material and a size between about 3 mesh and about 48 mesh of an amount between about 20 percent and about 60 percent of a stoichiometric amount of necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material.

  17. IEA Energy conservation in the iron and steel industry. [US and Western Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunnah, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society research program, under the auspices of the IEA, had the objectives of collecting data on material requirements and energy-consumption patterns in selected energy-intensive industries in the US and Western Europe, of identifying technologies and operating practices with the potential for energy conservation in those industries, and of recommending research projects that could lead to improved energy efficiency. The steel industry was selected for analysis and ideas for an international cooperative program were developed. Representatives from various countries conducted meetings and the form of an implementing agreement for a research and development program was finalized in December, 1980. The program includes three technical areas: hot-surface inspection, heat recovery, and coal gasification. Hot-surface inspection methods to be demonstrated are: optical, induction, electromagnetic ultrasonic, electromagnetic ultrasonic surface testing methods, and eddy current method for hot surface inspection and an infrared system (possibly). Three heat-recovery projects are: ceramic heat wheel development; demonstration of granular bed/heat pipe system for heat recovery; and demonstration of tubular ceramic recuperators. Processes in coal gasification are: converter process, gas treatment, and iron treatment. Each project is described in detail. (MCW)

  18. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2014-06-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Electrochemical reduction of oxygen with iron phthalocyanine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conditions of neutral pH and relatively low temperatures (compared to hydrogen fuel cells) cause poor in the presence of methanol and CO in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) and hydrogen fuel cells [18

  20. High-temperature low cycle fatigue behavior of a gray cast iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, K.L. He, G.Q.; She, M.; Liu, X.S.; Lu, Q.; Yang, Y.; Tian, D.D.; Shen, Y.

    2014-12-15

    The strain controlled low cycle fatigue properties of the studied gray cast iron for engine cylinder blocks were investigated. At the same total strain amplitude, the low cycle fatigue life of the studied material at 523 K was higher than that at 423 K. The fatigue behavior of the studied material was characterized as cyclic softening at any given total strain amplitude (0.12%–0.24%), which was attributed to fatigue crack initiation and propagation. Moreover, this material exhibited asymmetric hysteresis loops due to the presence of the graphite lamellas. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggested that cyclic softening was also caused by the interactions of dislocations at 423 K, such as cell structure in ferrite, whereas cyclic softening was related to subgrain boundaries and dislocation climbing at 523 K. Micro-analysis of specimen fracture appearance was conducted in order to obtain the fracture characteristics and crack paths for different strain amplitudes. It showed that the higher the temperature, the rougher the crack face of the examined gray cast iron at the same total strain amplitude. Additionally, the microcracks were readily blunted during growth inside the pearlite matrix at 423 K, whereas the microcracks could easily pass through pearlite matrix along with deflection at 523 K. The results of fatigue experiments consistently showed that fatigue damage for the studied material at 423 K was lower than that at 523 K under any given total strain amplitude. - Highlights: • The low cycle fatigue behavior of the HT250 for engine cylinder blocks was investigated. • TEM investigations were conducted to explain the cyclic deformation response. • The low cycle fatigue cracks of HT250 GCI were studied by SEM. • The fatigue life of the examined material at 523 K is higher than that at 423 K.

  1. The world`s first commercial iron carbide plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prichard, L.C.; Schad, D.

    1995-12-01

    The paper traces the development of Nucor`s investigation of clean iron unit processes, namely, direct reduction, and the decision to build and operate the world`s first commercial iron carbide plant. They first investigated coal based processes since the US has abundant coal reserves, but found a variety of reasons for dropping the coal-based processes from further consideration. A natural gas based process was selected, but the failure to find economically priced gas supplies stopped the development of a US based venture. It was later found that Trinidad had economically priced and abundant supplies of natural gas, and the system of government, the use of English language, and geographic location were also ideal. The cost estimates required modification of the design, but the plant was begun in April, 1993. Start-up problems with the plant are also discussed. Production should commence shortly.

  2. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

    1997-04-15

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {<=}1% Cr and either {>=}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {>=}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, {<=}2% Ti, {<=}2% Mo, {<=}1% Zr, {<=}1% C, {<=}0.1% B, {<=}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {<=}1% rare earth metal, {<=}1% oxygen, {<=}3% Cu, balance Fe. 64 figs.

  3. Synthesis of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles by detonation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Guilei, E-mail: sunguilei@126.com [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China)] [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China); Li, Xiaojie, E-mail: dalian03@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Qiquan [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China)] [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China); Yan, Honghao [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were synthesized by detonating a mixture of ferrocene, naphthalene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in an explosion vessel under low vacuum conditions (8.1 kPa). The RDX functioned as an energy source for the decomposition of ferrocene and naphthalene. The carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were formed as soot-like deposits on the inner surface of the reactor, which were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. And a portion of the detonation soot was treated with hydrochloric acid. The product was carbon-coated nanoparticles in perfect core-shell structures with graphitic shells and bcc-Fe cores. The detonation technique offers an energy-saving route to the synthesis of carbon-coated nanomaterials.

  4. Oxidation, carburization and/or sulfidation resistant iron aluminide alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2003-08-19

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or Zro.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B. .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  5. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  6. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  7. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKamey, Claudette G. (Knoxville, TN); Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO.sub.3 type that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy corrosion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26-30 at. % aluminum, 0.5-10 at. % chromium, 0.02-0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron.

  8. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKamey, C.G.; Liu, C.T.

    1990-10-09

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO[sub 3] type is described that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy conversion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26--30 at. % aluminum, 0.5--10 at. % chromium, 0.02--0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron. 3 figs.

  9. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1998-07-22

    The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  10. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-04-03

    A method is described for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25 to 45% nickel, 10 to 16% chromium, 1.5 to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025 to 1075/sup 0/C for 2 to 5 minutes, cold-worked about 20 to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775/sup 0/C for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650 to 700/sup 0/C for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  11. Iron beam acceleration using direct plasma injection scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura, M.; Kanesue, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Fuwa, Y.; RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198

    2014-02-15

    A new set of vanes of radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator was commissioned using highly charged iron beam. To supply high intensity heavy ion beams to the RFQ, direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) with a confinement solenoid was adopted. One of the difficulties to utilize the combination of DPIS and a solenoid field is a complexity of electro magnetic field at the beam extraction region, since biasing high static electric field for ion extraction, RFQ focusing field, and the solenoid magnetic field fill the same space simultaneously. To mitigate the complexity, a newly designed magnetic field clamps were used. The intense iron beam was observed with bunched structure and the total accelerated current reached 2.5 nC.

  12. Boron-Nitride Nanotubes Show Potential in Cancer Treatment |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boron-Nitride Nanotubes Show Potential in Cancer Treatment NEWPORT NEWS, VA, April 26 - A new study has shown that adding boron-nitride nanotubes to the surface of cancer cells can...

  13. A modeling assessment of the interplay between aeolian iron fluxes and iron-binding ligands in controlling carbon dioxide fluctuations during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    in controlling carbon dioxide fluctuations during Antarctic warm events Payal Parekh,1 Fortunat Joos,1 between aeolian iron fluxes and iron-binding ligands in controlling carbon dioxide fluctuations during decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). This is consistent with evidence of an increase in the aeolian

  14. Modeling non-heme iron proteins and Yukiko Mishina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Chuan

    with the use of terphenyl-based carboxylate ligands and the development of several iron-based reagents@uchicago.edu Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 2004, 8:201­208 This review comes from a themed issue on Bioinorganic,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane MMO methane monooxygenase OTf CF3SO3 PaPy3H N-[N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)aminoethyl]-2

  15. Low resistivity contact to iron-pnictide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanatar, Makariy; Prozorov, Ruslan; Ni, Ni; Bud'ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

    2013-05-28

    Method of making a low resistivity electrical connection between an electrical conductor and an iron pnictide superconductor involves connecting the electrical conductor and superconductor using a tin or tin-based material therebetween, such as using a tin or tin-based solder. The superconductor can be based on doped AFe.sub.2As.sub.2, where A can be Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu or combinations thereof for purposes of illustration only.

  16. Technology development for iron F-T catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this work were twofold. The first objective was to design and construct a pilot plant for preparing precipitated iron oxide F-T precursors and demonstrate that the rate of production from this plant is equivalent to 100 lbs/day of dried metal oxide. Secondly, these precipitates were to be used to prepare catalysts capable of achieving 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion with {le} 5 mole percent selectivity to methane + ethane.

  17. Pressure Effects on Two Superconducting Iron-based Families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Insight into the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity can be gained by pressure-dependent studies of structural, thermodynamics and transport data. The role of pressure may be complicated by the level of hydrostaticity. High-pressure studies on two iron-based families of RFeAsO (R = rare-earth metals) and AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (A = alkaline-earth metals) are reviewed here.

  18. Mountain Iron, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: EnergyInformationOliver, Pennsylvania: Energy ResourcesOhio:City,Iron,

  19. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2012-01-18

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made to compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report an investigation of the iron dissolution of three fly ash samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust, a reference material of mineral dust. The effects of pH, cloud processing, and solar irradiation on Fe solubility were explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provide predominant dissolved iron compared with iron in oxides. Iron solubility of fly ash is higher than Arizona test dust, especially at the higher pH conditions investigated. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology aluminosilicate glass, a dominantly material in fly ash particle. Iron continuously releases into the aqueous solution as fly ash particles break up into smaller fragments. The assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes, and their effect on the biogeochemistry at ocean surface should be constrained by taking into account the source, environment pH, Fe speciation, and solar radiation.

  20. Increasing the rate of hydrogen oxidation without increasing the overpotential: A bio-inspired iron molecular electrocatalyst with an outer coordination sphere proton relay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Kumar, Neeraj; Hulley, Elliott B.; Weiss, Charles J.; Raugei, Simone; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2015-03-05

    Oxidation of hydrogen (H?) to protons and electrons for energy production in fuel cells is catalyzed by platinum, but its low abundance and high cost present drawbacks to widespread adoption. Precisely controlled proton delivery and removal is critical in hydrogenase enzymes in nature that catalyze H? oxidation using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel). Here we report a synthetic iron complex, (CpC5F4N)Fe(PEtN(CH2)3NMe2PEt)(Cl), that serves as a precatalyst for the oxidation of H?, with turnover frequencies of 290 s?ą in fluorobenzene, under 1 atm of H? using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as the exogenous base. The cooperative effect of the primary, secondary and outermore »coordination spheres for moving protons in this remarkably fast catalyst emphasizes the key role of pendant amines in mimicking the functionality of the proton pathway in the hydrogenase enzymes.« less

  1. Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan)] [Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 (Pakistan); Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)] [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Blann, Andrew [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Nessar, E-mail: N.Ahmed@mmu.ac.uk [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)] [School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

  2. Photoionization Modeling and the K Lines of Iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. R. Kallman; P. Palmeri; M. A. Bautista; C. Mendoza; J. H. Krolik

    2004-05-11

    We calculate the efficiency of iron K line emission and iron K absorption in photoionized models using a new set of atomic data. These data are more comprehensive than those previously applied to the modeling of iron K lines from photoionized gases, and allow us to systematically examine the behavior of the properties of line emission and absorption as a function of the ionization parameter, density and column density of model constant density clouds. We show that, for example, the net fluorescence yield for the highly charged ions is sensitive to the level population distribution produced by photoionization, and these yields are generally smaller than those predicted assuming the population is according to statistical weight. We demonstrate that the effects of the many strongly damped resonances below the K ionization thresholds conspire to smear the edge, thereby potentially affecting the astrophysical interpretation of absorption features in the 7-9 keV energy band. We show that the centroid of the ensemble of K$\\alpha$ lines, the K$\\beta$ energy, and the ratio of the K$\\alpha_1$ to K$\\alpha_2$ components are all diagnostics of the ionization parameter of our model slabs

  3. Iron line reverberation mapping with Constellation-X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Young; C. S. Reynolds

    1999-10-08

    The broad X-ray iron line seen in the spectra of many AGN is thought to originate from the inner regions of the putative black hole accretion disk, and hence provides a rare probe of that central region. In principle, future high throughput X-ray spectrometers should be able to examine the temporal response of this fluorescent line to flares in the X-ray continuum source (which energizes this emission line) - i.e. iron line reverberation mapping will be possible. It has been previously found that there are robust reverberation signatures of the black hole spin, mass and the X-ray flare location above the accretion disk. Here, we simulate observations of a bright Seyfert nucleus with the proposed NASA mission Constellation-X and demonstrate the feasibility of detecting these reverberation signatures with this mission. Hence, starting with XMM in 1999, and maturing with Constellation-X in c2010, iron line reverberation will open a new window on the innermost regions of AGN.

  4. Mineral ecophysiological evidence for microbial activity in banded iron formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dr. Yi-Liang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Konhauser, Dr, Kurt [University of Alberta; Cole, David R [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The phosphorus composition of banded-iron formations (BIFs) has been used as a proxy for Precambrian seawater composition and the paleoeredox state of Earth's surface environment. However, it is unclear whether the phosphorus in BIFs originally entered the sediment as a sorbed component of the iron oxyhydroxide particles, or whether it was incorporated into the biomass of marine phytoplankton. We conducted high-resolution mineral analyses and report here the first detection of an Fe(III) acetate salt, as well as nanocrystals of apatite in association with magnetite, in the 2.48 Ga Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation (a BIF), Hamersley, Western Australia. The clusters of apatite are similar in size and morphology to biogenic apatite crystals resulting from biomass decay in Phanerozoic marine sediments, while the formation of an Fe(III) acetate salt and magnetite not only implies the original presence of biomass in the BIF sediments, but also that organic carbon likely served as an electron donor during bacterial Fe(III) reduction. This study is important because it suggests that phytoplankton may have played a key role in the transfer of phosphorus (and other trace elements) from the photic zone to the seafloor.

  5. An Atomistic study of Helium Resolution in bcc Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Stewart, David M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of gas-stabilized bubbles in irradiated materials can be a significant factor in the microstructural processes that lead to mechanical property and dimensional changes in structural materials exposed to high-energy neutrons. Helium generation and accumulation is particularly important under DT fusion irradiation conditions. Although the process of ballistic resolutioning of gas from bubbles has been long-discussed in the literature, there have been few computational studies of this mechanism. Resolutioning could limit bubble growth by ejecting gas atoms back into the metal matrix. A detailed atomistic study of ballistic He resolutioning from bubbles in bcc iron has been carried out using molecular dynamics. A newly-developed Fe-He interatomic potential was employed, with the iron matrix described by the potential of Ackland and co-workers from 1997. The primary variables examined were: irradiation temperature (100 and 600K), iron knock-on atom energy (5 and 20 keV), bubble radius (~0.5 and 1.0 nm), and He-to-vacancy ratio in the bubble (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0) in order to obtain an assessment of this dynamic resolutioning mechanism. The results presented here focus on the 5 keV cascades which indicate a modest, but potentially significant level of He removal by this process.

  6. The development of precipitated iron catalysts with improved stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this program is to identify the chemical principles governing the deactivation of precipitated iron catalysts during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and to use these chemical principles in the design of catalysts suitable for slurry reactors. This report covers testing an iron catalyst. During the last quarter, a new precipitated iron catalyst was prepared and tested in the slurry autoclave reactor at various conditions. This catalyst did not noticeably deactivate during 1250 hours of testing. This quarter, the test was extended to include performance evaluations at different conversion levels ranging from 35 to 88% at 265 and 275{degree}C. The conversion levels were varied by changing the feed rate. The catalytic performance at different conversion intervals was then integrated to approximately predict performance in a bubble column reactor. The run was shut down at the end of 1996 hours because of a 24-hour-power outage. When the power was back on, the run was restarted from room temperature. Catalytic performance during the first 300 hours after the restart-up was monitored. Overall product distributions are being tabulated as analytical laboratory data are obtained. 34 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Iron (III) Matrix Effects on Mineralization and Immobilization of Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cynthia-May S. Gong; Tyler A. Sullens; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - A number of models for the Yucca Mountain Project nuclear waste repository use studies of actinide sorption onto well-defined iron hydroxide materials. In the case of a waste containment leak, however, a complex interaction between dissolved waste forms and failed containment vessel components can lead to immediate precipitation of migratory iron and uranyl in the silicate rich near-field environment. Use of the Fe(III) and UO22+ complexing agent acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a colorimetric agent for visible spectrophotometry is well-known. Using the second derivative of these spectra a distinct shift in iron complexation in the presence of silicate is seen that is not seen with uranyl or alone. Silica also decreases the ability of uranyl and ferric solutions to absorb hydroxide, hastening precipitation. These ferric silicate precipitates are highly amorphous and soluble. Precipitates formed in the presence of uranyl below ~1 mol% exhibit lower solubility than precipitates from up to 50 mol % and of uranyl silicates alone.

  8. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1991-01-10

    Although promoted cobalt and iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis of gasoline feedstock were first developed more than three decades ago, a major technical problem still limiting the commercial use of these catalysts today is carbon deactivation. This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for FT synthesis, the objectives of which are to: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; and model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. To accomplish the above objectives, the project is divided into the following tasks: (1) determine the kinetics of reaction and of carbon deactivation during CO hydrogenation on Fe and Fe/K catalysts coated on monolith bodies. (2) Determine the reactivities and types of carbon deposited during reaction on the same catalysts from temperature-programmed-surface-reaction spectroscopy (TPSR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Determine the types of iron carbides formed at various temperatures and H{sub 2}/CO ratios using x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (3) Develop mathematical deactivation models which include heat and mass transport contributions for FT synthesis is packed-bed reactors. Progress to date is described. 48 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-31

    Aerobic units treat wastewater using the same process, only scaled down, as municipal wastewater treatment systems. This publication explains how aerobic units work, what their design requirements are, and how to maintain them....

  10. Emergency Medical Treatment Required

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Emergency Medical Treatment Required Non-Emergency Medical Treatment Required If possible, get help from colleague or supervisor Call 911 or go to hospital emergency room (for chemical exposure, bring Investigation Report" to Environmental Health & Safety within 48 hours Emergency Medical Treatment Required

  11. Model atmospheres and X-ray spectra of iron-rich bursting neutron stars. II. Iron rich Comptonized Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Majczyna; J. Madej; P. C. Joss; A. Rozanska

    2004-12-28

    This paper presents the set of plane-parallel model atmosphere equations for a very hot neutron star (X-ray burst source). The model equations assume both hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium, and the equation of state of an ideal gas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The equation of radiative transfer includes terms describing Compton scattering of photons on free electrons in fully relativistic thermal motion, for photon energies approaching m_e *c^2. Model equations take into account many bound-free and free-free energy-dependent opacities of hydrogen, helium, and the iron ions, and also a dozen bound-bound opacities for the highest ions of iron. We solve model equations by partial linearisation and the technique of variable Eddington factors. Large grid of H-He-Fe model atmospheres of X-ray burst sources has been computed for 10^7 neutron stars from observational data.

  12. Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Alumimum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW Streams - 13000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-01-16

    The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract terms. The WTP?s overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulphur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings and higher throughput efficiencies. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. In view of the importance of aluminum limited waste streams at Hanford (and also Savannah River), the ability to achieve high waste loadings without adversely impacting melt rates has the potential for enormous cost savings from reductions in canister count and the potential for schedule acceleration. Consequently, the potential return on the investment made in the development of these enhancements is extremely favorable. Glass composition development for one of the latest Hanford HLW projected compositions with sulphate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading have been successfully tested and show tolerance for previously unreported tolerance for sulphate. Though a significant increase in waste loading for high-iron wastes has been achieved, the magnitude of the increase is not as substantial as those achieved for high-aluminum, high-chromium, high-bismuth or sulphur. Waste processing rate increases for high-iron streams as a combined effect of higher waste loadings and higher melt rates resulting from new formulations have been achieved.

  13. Mössbauer study of metallic iron and iron oxide nanoparticles having environmental purifying ability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubuki, Shiro Watanabe, Yuka Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Risti?, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ern?; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    2014-10-27

    A relationship between local structure and methylene blue (MB) decomposing ability of nanoparticles (NPs) of metallic iron (Fe{sup 0}) and maghemite (??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy. ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were successfully prepared by mixing (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}?6H{sub 2}O (Mohr's salt) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}?3H{sub 2}O aqueous solution at 30 °C for 1 h, while those of Fe{sup 0} were obtained by the reduction of Mohr's salt with NaBH{sub 4}. From the Scherrer's equation, the smallest crystallite sizes of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs and Fe{sup 0} NPs were determined to be 9.7 and 1.5 nm, respectively. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs consists of a relaxed sextet with isomer shift (?) of 0.33{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, internal magnetic field (H{sub int}) of 25.8{sub ±0.5} T, and linewidth (?) of 0.62{sub ±0.04} mm s{sup ?1}. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of Fe{sup 0} NP is mainly composed of a sextet having ?, ?, and H{sub int} of 0.00{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1} 0.45{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, and 22.8{sub ±0.1} T, respectively. A bleaching test of the mixture of Fe{sup 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (3:7 ratio, 100 mg) in MB aqueous solution (20 mL) for 6 h showed a remarkable decrease of MB concentration with the first-order rate constant (k{sub MB}) of 6.7 × 10{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. This value is larger than that obtained for the bleaching test using bulk Fe{sup 0}+??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3:7) mixture (k{sub MB}?=?6.5×10{sup ?3}h{sup ?1}). These results prove that MB decomposing ability is enhanced by the NPs mixture of Fe{sub 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  14. Iron-Phosphate/Platinum/Carbon Nanocomposites for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    ) Immobilized Liquid Phosphoric Acid Electrolyte DMFC (Direct Methanol Fuel Cell) PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) #12;Fuel Cells Components (MEA of PEMFC/DMFC) CH3OH.23 V (Oxygen Reduction) PEMFC (1.23 V) DMFC (1.18 V) Hydrogen (PEMFC) CatalystsCatalysts #12;Laptop

  15. Studies on the reduction kinetics of hematite iron ore pellets with noncoking coals for sponge iron plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, M.; Mohapatra, P.; Patel, S.K. [National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In the present investigation, fired pellets were made by mixing hematite iron ore fines of -100, -16+18, and -8+10 mesh size in different ratios and studies on their reduction kinetics in Lakhanpur, Orient OC-2 and Belpahar coals were carried out at temperatures ranging from 850{sup o}C to 1000{sup o}C with a view toward promoting the massive utilization of fines in ironmaking. The rate of reduction in all the fired iron ore pellets increased markedly with an increase in temperature up to 1000{sup o}C, and it was more intense in the first 30min. The values of activation energy, calculated from integral and differential approaches, for the reduction of fired pellets (prepared from iron ore fines of -100 mesh size) in coals were found to be in the range 131-148 and 130-181 kJ mol{sup -1} (for =0.2 to 0.8), indicating the process is controlled by a carbon gasification reaction. The addition of selected larger size particles in the matrix of -100 mesh size fines up to the extent studied decreased the activation energy and slightly increased the reduction rates of resultant fired pellets. In comparison to coal, the reduction of fired pellets in char was characterized by significantly lower reduction rates and higher activation energy.

  16. Laboratory study related to the production and properties of pig iron nuggets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anameric, B.; Kawatra, S.K. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Pig iron nuggets were produced in a laboratory-scale furnace at Michigan Technological University. The process was intended to replicate Kobe Steel's ITmk3 direct ironmaking process. These nuggets were produced from pellets that were made from a mixture of iron oxide, coal, flux and a binder and heated in a furnace with a chamber temperature of 1450{sup o}C. The pellets then self-reduced to produce a solid, high-density, highly metallized (96.5% Fe) pig iron. During the nugget production process, a separate liquid slag phase formed that cleanly separated from the molten metal. The physical and chemical properties of the pig iron nuggets were similar to pig iron produced by blast furnaces, which is distinct from direct reduced iron (DRI).

  17. Nitrided iron catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in the eighties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrided iron catalysts are active and durable and have an unusal selectivity. They do not produce significant amounts of wax, which should be advantageous in situations where gasoline is the desired product. The low yield of wax permits operation of nitrided iron in fluidized fixed-bed or entrained reactors at 230 to 255/sup 0/C. Conventional reduced iron catalysts in these reactors must be operated at about 325/sup 0/C to prevent formation of higher hydrocarbon that leads to agglomeration of the fluidized particles. At 325/sup 0/C carbon deposition and other processes leading to catalyst deterioration proceed rapidly. The yields of methane and ethane from nitrided iron are larger than desired for most purposes. Possibly promoters may be found to improve the selectivity of nitrided iron catalysts. The Bureau of Mines did not conduct a systematic catalyst development program on iron nitrides. (DP) 5 fgures, 6 tables.

  18. 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treatment Biogas from waste water treatment plants is ideally located near urban centers toBiogas from waste water treatment plants is ideally located near urban centers to supp metric tons of H2 produced annually > 1200 il f p commercialization, beginning in 2015. 3 | Fuel Cell

  19. Treatment-resistant pyoderma gangrenosum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosari, Payman; Feldman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    of compliance with psoriasis treatment. J Cutan Med Surg .in the treatment of psoriasis: a systematic review.acid gel for plaque psoriasis treatment. Arch Dermatol 141(

  20. Considering biomedical/CAM treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, JX; Widjaja, F; Choi, JE; Hendren, RL

    2013-01-01

    and possible use of biomedical CAM treatments, including24 April 2013 ? 6:40 pm Biomedical Complementary Treatment24 April 2013 ? 6:40 pm Biomedical Complementary Treatment

  1. Compact zwitterion-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, He

    We have recently developed compact and water-soluble zwitterionic dopamine sulfonate (ZDS) ligand coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for use in various biomedical applications. The defining ...

  2. Contribution of Iron-Reducing Bacteria to Mercury Methylation in Marine Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Emily J.; Nelson, D C

    2006-01-01

    in continental margin sediments off central Chile. Limnologyof microbial iron reduction in sediments of the Baltic-Northreducing bacteria from sediments of an acid stressed lake.

  3. Choosing solidification or vitrification for low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimpel, R.F.

    1992-02-14

    Solidification (making concrete) and vitrification (making glass) are frequently the treatment methods recommended for treating inorganic or radioactive wastes. Solidification is generally perceived as the most economical treatment method. Whereas, vitrification is considered (by many) as the most effective of all treatment methods. Unfortunately, vitrification has acquired the stigma that it is too expensive to receive further consideration as an alternative to solidification in high volume treatment applications. Ironically, economic studies, as presented in this paper, show that vitrification may be more competitive in some high volume applications. Ex-situ solidification and vitrification are the competing methods for treating in excess of 450 000m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP or simply, Fernald) located near Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper summarizes how Fernald is choosing between solidification and vitrification as the primary waste treatment method.

  4. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Carsten

    Cell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin Pera,2 Carsten Peterson,3,4 and Peter W. Andrews5,* 1The Molecular Haematology Unit, The Weatherall and their relationship to commitment to differ- entiate and lineage selection can be elucidated in terms of a landscape

  5. The effect of doxorubicin on the U2OS cell cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Katherine D

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of U20S cells with the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin results in either apoptosis or cellular senescence. The pathway the cell takes is dependent upon the dosage of Doxorubicin administered to the cells. When ...

  6. Advances in Psoriasis Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Steven R

    2000-01-01

    population of patients with psoriasis. Cutis 58 (3):216-220,The economic impact of psoriasis increases with psoriasisterm cyclosporin treatment of psoriasis [see comments]. Br J

  7. Electrolytic removal of rust from iron and steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynn, George; Means, Dwight R.

    1921-01-01

    , are the exception rather than the rule. This may be due to there being originally many more stone implements than metal ones, or, which seems more probable, to the corrosion of all but the exceptionally well pro­ tected metal articles. In the field of corrosion... * This and the preceding table were taken from A. Sang, Corrosion of Iron and Steel5 page 4. 9 tenacity depending upon the relative importance of the various factors affecting its formation. Its electrical conductivity varies widely also, from a practical non...

  8. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.; Franco, S.C.S.

    1994-03-29

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications. 6 figures.

  9. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Knoxville, TN); Franco, Sofia C. S. (Santafe de Bogota, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications.

  10. Activation studies with promoted precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manne, Rama Krishna

    1991-01-01

    . 11&/258iOs) in fixed-bed reactors to complete the study initiated in this laboratory. Different reduction procedures ivere folloived in each test, namely Hs reduction at 2SO'C with a linear velocity of 150 cm/s and syngas (Hs/CO = 2:1) reduction... for Hs reduction compared to syngas reduction. Four tests ivere done in fixed-bed reactors ivith a promoted precipitated iron catalvst (100Fe/0. 3Cu/O. SII), prepared in our laboratory. Three different activation procedures were employed. Unlike ivith...

  11. New iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  12. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a cabon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  13. An Octahedral Coordination Complex of Iron(VI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TAPropaneand LosAmesAmpedIntroductionDecade of Iron

  14. Evaluation of Characterization Techniques for Iron Pipe Corrosion Products

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal(Patent)pressure in Ba ( Fe 1 -and Iron Oxide Thin

  15. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week Day Year(activeInforum LIFT ModelThe Iron Spin

  16. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week Day Year(activeInforum LIFT ModelThe Iron SpinThe

  17. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week Day Year(activeInforum LIFT ModelThe Iron SpinTheThe

  18. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week Day Year(activeInforum LIFT ModelThe Iron SpinTheTheThe

  19. Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  20. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  1. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractivePGAS andUniversity IonIron is the Key to

  2. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  3. Iron-rich perovskite in the Earth;s lower mantle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Z.; Lin, J.F.; Scott, H.P.; Watson, H.C.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Xiao, Y.; Chow, P.; McCammon, C. NIU

    2013-10-22

    The equations of state of perovskite with (Mg{sub 0.75},Fe{sub 0.25})SiO{sub 3} and MgSiO{sub 3} compositions have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 130 GPa at 300 K in diamond anvil cells. Here we show that the addition of 25% Fe in MgSiO{sub 3} perovskite increases its density and bulk sound velocity (V{phi}) by 4-6% and 6-7%, respectively, at lower-mantle pressures. Based on concurrent synchrotron X-ray emission and Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of the samples, the increase in V{phi} and density can be explained by the occurrence of the low-spin Fe3+ and the extremely high-quadrupole component of Fe{sup 2+}. Combining these experimental results with thermodynamic modeling, our results indicate that iron-rich perovskite can produce an increase in density and a value of V{phi} that is compatible with seismic observations of reduced shear-wave velocity in regions interpreted as dense, stiff piles in the lower mantle. Therefore, the existence of the Fe-rich perovskite in the lower mantle may help elucidate the cause of the lower-mantle large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs) where enhanced density and V{phi} are seismically observed to anti-correlate with the reduced shear wave velocity.

  4. Electron uptake by iron-oxidizing phototrophic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, A; Gardel, EJ; Vidoudez, C; Parra, EA; Girguis, PR

    2014-02-26

    Oxidation-reduction reactions underlie energy generation in nearly all life forms. Although most organisms use soluble oxidants and reductants, some microbes can access solid-phase materials as electron-acceptors or -donors via extracellular electron transfer. Many studies have focused on the reduction of solid-phase oxidants. Far less is known about electron uptake via microbial extracellular electron transfer, and almost nothing is known about the associated mechanisms. Here we show that the iron-oxidizing photoautotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 accepts electrons from a poised electrode, with carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source/electron acceptor. Both electron uptake and ruBisCo form I expression are stimulated by light. Electron uptake also occurs in the dark, uncoupled from photosynthesis. Notably, the pioABC operon, which encodes a protein system essential for photoautotrophic growth by ferrous iron oxidation, influences electron uptake. These data reveal a previously unknown metabolic versatility of photoferrotrophs to use extracellular electron transfer for electron uptake.

  5. New nanophase iron-based catalysts for hydrocracking applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matson, D.W.; Linehan, J.C.; Darab, J.G.; Camaioni, D.M.; Autrey, S.T.; Lui, E.

    1994-11-01

    Development of highly efficient iron-based materials for processes involving carbon-carbon bond cleavage, including petroleum hydrocracking and coal liquefaction, offers the potential for decreasing catalyst costs as well as reducing the need for expensive catalyst recovery and recycling steps. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage catalysts produced in situ at reaction conditions from nanocrystalline hydrated iron oxides, show high activity and selectivity in model compound studies. Two highly active catalyst precursors, ferric oxyhydroxysulfate (OHS) and 6-line ferrihydrite, can be produced by a flow-through hydrothermal powder synthesis method, the Rapid Thermal Decomposition of precursors in Solution (RTDS) process. Model compound studies indicate that both catalyst precursors are active at a 400 C reaction temperature, but that there are significant differences in their catalytic characteristics. The activity of 6-line ferrihydrite is highly dependent on the particle (aggregate) size whereas the activity of the OHS is essentially independent of particle size. These differences are attributed to variations in the crystallite aggregation and particle surface characteristics of the two catalyst precursor materials. Catalytic activity is retained to lower reaction temperatures in tests using OHS than in similar tests using 6-line ferrihydrite.

  6. Technology Development for Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1997-12-16

    The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the `standard-catalyst` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  7. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-10-11

    This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, the objectives of which are: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. During the thirteenth quarter design of software for a computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was continued. Further progress was made toward the completion of the control language, control routines, and software for operating this system. Progress was also made on the testing of the system hardware and software. H{sub 2} chemisorption capacities and activity selectivity data were also measured for three iron catalysts promoted with 1% alumina. 47 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Technology development for iron fisher-tropsch catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1997-07-15

    The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. the catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the standard-catalyst developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis, The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. the oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studies at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity, and aging characteristics.

  9. Thermo-Mechanical Processing and Properties of a Ductile Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, R.R.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-07-14

    Thermo-mechanical processing of ductile irons is a potential method for enhancing their mechanical properties. A ductile cast iron containing 3.6% C, 2.6% Si and 0.045% Mg was continuously hot-and-warm rolled or one-step press-forged from a temperature in the austenite range (900{degrees}C-1100{degrees}C) to a temperature below the A, temperature. Various amounts of reduction were used (from 60% to more than 90%) followed by a short heat ent at 600`C. The heat ent lead to a structure of fine graphite in a matrix of ferrite and carbides. The hot-and- warm worked materials developed a pearlitic microstructure while the press-forged material developed a spheroidite-like carbide microstructure in the matrix. Cementite-denuded ferrite zones were developed around graphite stringers in the hot-and-warm worked materials, but such zones were absent in the press-forged material. Tensile properties including tensile strength and total elongation were measured along the direction parallel and transverse to the rolling direction and along the direction transverse to the press-forging direction. The tensile ductility and strength both increased with a decrease in the amount of hot-and-warm working. The press- forged materials showed higher strength (645 MPa) than the hot-and-warrn worked materials (575 MPa) when compared at the same ductility level (22% elongation).

  10. A soil bacterium regulates plant acquisition of iron via deficiency-inducible mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    A soil bacterium regulates plant acquisition of iron via deficiency-inducible mechanisms Huiming in most soils. While certain soil microbes produce chelating agents that enhance the solubility of iron understanding that select soil microbes play a signaling role in activating growth and stress responses

  11. Characterization of Urinary Iron Loss in the fsn (flaky skin) Anemia Mouse Mutant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kress, Robert Lee

    2014-08-31

    target to treat iron overload. The flaky–skin anemia (fsn) mouse possesses a mutation in the Ttc7 gene (tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7) and had been observed to excrete elevated iron levels in its urine. We hypothesized that the mutation in fsn...

  12. The superconducting properties of two classes of iron-based materials have been studied in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    The superconducting properties of two classes of iron-based materials have been studied in high Jc define the applications limit of any superconductor. We found that Tc and Hc2 of Ba1-xKxFe2As2 can. 98, 042509 (2011) High field performances in iron-based superconductors Gregory S. Boebinger

  13. GLASSES CONTAINING IRON (II III) OXIDES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE TECHNETIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HEO J; XU K; CHOI JK; HRMA PR; UM W

    2011-11-07

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) has posed serious environmental threats as US Department of Energy's high-level waste. This work reports the vitrification of Re, as surrogate for Tc-99, by iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses, respectively. Iron-phosphate glasses can dissolve Re as high as {approx} 1.2 wt. %, which can become candidate waste forms for Tc-99 disposal, while borosilicate glasses can retain less than 0.1 wt. % of Re due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Vitrification of Re as Tc-99's mimic was investigated using iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses. The retention of Re in borosilicate glasses was less than 0.1 wt. % and more than 99 wt. % of Re were volatilized due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Because the retention of Re in iron-phosphate glasses is as high as 1.2 wt. % and the volatilization is reduced down to {approx}50 wt. %, iron-phosphate glasses can be one of the glass waste form candidates for Tc (or Re) disposal. The investigations of chemical durability and leaching test of iron-phosphate glasses containing Re are now underway to test the performance of the waste form.

  14. Degradation of ultrathin oxides by iron contamination B. D. Choi and D. K. Schrodera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    Degradation of ultrathin oxides by iron contamination B. D. Choi and D. K. Schrodera) Department, Arizona 85287-5706 Received 8 June 2001; accepted for publication 21 August 2001 Iron-contaminated oxides done on the effect of metallic im- purities on GOI, because possible metal contamination is an ever

  15. Surface chemistry of bulk nanocrystalline pure iron and electrochemistry study in gas-flow physiological saline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Surface chemistry of bulk nanocrystalline pure iron and electrochemistry study in gas greatly than that of MC-Fe. A further comparative study of corrosion and electrochemistry per- formance of bulk nanocrystalline pure iron and electrochemistry study in gas-flow physiological saline. J Biomed

  16. Faraday Discuss., 1997, 106, 205217 First principles calculations on crystalline and liquid iron at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vocadlo, Lidunka

    Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 V ienna, Austria Ab initio electronic structure calculations, based upon density on liquid iron and we present the Đrst ab initio quantum molecular dynamics calculations on the structure and transport properties of liquid iron under core conditions. Our calculations show that the structure

  17. Coupled molybdenum, iron and uranium stable isotopes as oceanic paleoredox proxies during the Paleoproterozoic Shunga Event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupled molybdenum, iron and uranium stable isotopes as oceanic paleoredox proxies during isotopes Uranium isotopes Iron isotopes Paleoproterozoic Euxinic The Paleoproterozoic Era was a time that the studied section was deposited under dominantly euxinic conditions (anoxic and sulfidic) and that the lower

  18. Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhaohui

    Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets Chromate transport through columns packed with zeolite/zero valent iron (Z/ZVI) pellets, either untreated originated from chromate sorption onto the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI pellets. Due to dual porosity, the presence

  19. Electrical conductivity as an indicator of iron reduction rates in abiotic and biotic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singha, Kamini

    Electrical conductivity as an indicator of iron reduction rates in abiotic and biotic systems Aaron; published 16 April 2011. [1] Although changes in bulk electrical conductivity (b) in aquifers have been. To explore the use of electrical conductivity to measure reaction rates, we conducted iron oxide reduction

  20. Nanoparticle iron-phosphate anode material for Li-ion battery Dongyeon Son

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    density.1 The graphite generally used in lithium rechargeable batteries has a capacity of 372 mNanoparticle iron-phosphate anode material for Li-ion battery Dongyeon Son School of Materials rechargeable batteries. The electrochemical properties of the nanoparticle iron phosphates were characterized

  1. The shielding effect of wild type iron reducing bacterial flora on the corrosion of linepipe steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , pipeline networks are subjected to different corrosion deterioration mechanisms that result fromThe shielding effect of wild type iron reducing bacterial flora on the corrosion of linepipe steel 28 May 2013 Available online 7 June 2013 Keywords: Corrosion Impedance Iron reducing bacteria IRB

  2. Insertion of a Two-Dimensional Iron-Chloride Network between Perovskite Blocks. Synthesis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spinu, Leonard

    Insertion of a Two-Dimensional Iron-Chloride Network between Perovskite Blocks. Synthesis between the perovskite blocks of a double-layered Dion-Jacobson compound. The product, (FeCl)- LaNb2O7, contains iron coordinated by two apical oxygens from the perovskite layer and four in-plane chlorines

  3. Mechanism for export of sediment-derived iron in an upwelling regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahadevan, Amala

    Mechanism for export of sediment-derived iron in an upwelling regime S. A. Siedlecki,1 A. Mahadevan is exported offshore through this previously unidentified subsurface pathway. If this mechanism operates on all coastal upwelling regimes, the global export of sediment-derived iron to the open ocean would

  4. Attrition resistant bulk iron catalysts and processes for preparing and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy (Ponca City, OK); Goodwin, Jr., James G. (Clemson, SC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Cary, NC)

    2007-08-21

    An attrition resistant precipitated bulk iron catalyst is prepared from iron oxide precursor and a binder by spray drying. The catalysts are preferably used in carbon monoxide hydrogenation processes such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These catalysts are suitable for use in fluidized-bed reactors, transport reactors and, especially, slurry bubble column reactors.

  5. Uranium in iron formations and the rise of atmospheric oxygen C.A. Partin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konhauser, Kurt

    Uranium in iron formations and the rise of atmospheric oxygen C.A. Partin a, , S.V. Lalonde b , N Paleoproterozoic Geochemical uranium cycle The concept of the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), during which atmospheric oxygenation through the record of uranium (U) concentrations in iron formations (IF). Just as IF are important

  6. Effect of Iron on the Defensive Mutualism of Drosophila Flies and Spiroplasma Bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Caitlyn

    2013-02-04

    and the wasp for a limiting resource. In this study, we investigated the role of iron in the Spiroplasma-mediated defense against the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi. Iron levels in the fly host were manipulated by rearing flies on diets that differed...

  7. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics of trivalent oxides of iron and manganese

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Jeong, Seung-Young (Westmont, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A new method for combining elemental iron and other metals to form an inexpensive ceramic to stabilize arsenic, alkaline red mud wastes, swarfs, and other iron or metal-based additives, to create products and waste forms which can be poured or dye cast.

  8. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    effective use of non-coking coal and iron-bearing dust andfrom iron ore and non-coking coal. The process was developedBF production in using non-coking coal as reducing agent and

  9. How Godzilla Ate Pittsburgh: The Long Rise of the Japanese Iron and Steel Industry, 1900–1973

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard Elbaum

    2007-01-01

    the 1890s, when iron ore and coal mining in Asia was still amining and processing of taconite ores, which contain ironmining, shipping, ship- building, engineering, cement and chemicals, as well as iron and

  10. Technology and form : iron construction and transformation of architectural ideals in nineteenth century France, 1830-1889.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sanghun

    1996-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the transformation of architectural ideals brought about by the development of iron construction during the nineteenth century in France. The emergence of iron construction paralleled the ...

  11. An Experimental Study of Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer-Enhanced Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2005-12-22

    At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. In these zones, groundwater moves relatively fast and is able to oxidize iron more rapidly. There is also a possibility that the high-permeability flow paths are deficient in reducing equivalents (e.g. reactive iron), required for barrier performance. One way enhancement of the current barrier reductive capacity can be achieved is by the addition of micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments (Ringold Unit E gravels) using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Polymers were used to create a suspension viscous enough to keep the Fe0 in solution for extended time periods to improve colloid movement into the porous media without causing a permanent detrimental decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone in between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments.

  12. A study of kinetics and mechanisms of iron ore reduction in ore/coal composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, S.; Lu, W.K. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Blast furnace ironmaking technology, by far the most important ironmaking process, is based on coke and iron ore pellets (or sinter) to produce liquid iron. However, there has been a worldwide effort searching for a more economical and environmental friendly alternative process for the production of liquid iron. The essential requirement is that it should be minimized in the usage of metallurgical coke and agglomerate of iron ore concentrates. With iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, there are two approaches: (a) Smelting reduction; melting the ore before reduction; (b) Reduction of the ore in solid state followed by melting. The present work is on the fundamentals of the latter. It consists of a better designed experimental study including pressure gradient measurement, and a more rigorous non-isothermal and non-isobaric mathematical model. Results of this work may be applied to carbothermic processes, such as FASTMET and LB processes, as well as recycling of fines in steel plants.

  13. Iron (II) and Silicate Effects on Mineralization and Immobilzation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler A. Sullens; Cynthia-May S. Gong; Kenneth R. Szerwinski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - The unique composition of the Yucca Mountain repository site, which contains large concentrations of silicate in an oxidative environment, has required extensive research into compound formation involving uranium and iron(II) under such conditions. The possibility of uranium leakage from within the containment vessels into the near-field ground water, as well as iron leaching from the vessel itself, necessitates study of the individual contributions of these elements for compound formation. By mimicking the known silicate concentration found in surrounding ground water and varying concentrations of both uranyl and iron(II), subsequent precipitation of uranyl silicate phases has shown evidence of iron(II) sorption to the available sites on the mineral surface. The mineralization seems to be driven by the formation of uranyl silicate, in contrast to iron(III)-control of precipitation in the oxidated system. Characterization of this system presented includes ICP-AES analysis as well as preliminary EDAX, XRD, and FT-IR

  14. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2004-10-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  15. Studies on the catalytic activity of zirconia promoted with sulfate, iron, and manganese

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, K.T.; Khouw, C.B.; Davis, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic properties of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia (SFMZ) for the isomerization of n-butane to isobutane are investigated using various catalyst pretreatments and reaction conditions. The n-butane isomerization reactivity at 30{degrees}C is effected by calcination of the catalyst at 650{degrees}C in helium and vacuum treatment at room temperature indicating that superacidity is not likely to be responsible for activity. In addition, SFMZ samples exposed to dry air at over 450{degrees}C are more active than those calcined in helium at a reaction temperature of 30{degrees}C (n-butane conversions of 18.7% vs 0.4%) suggesting the presence of an active site involving a metal {open_quotes}oxy{close_quotes} species. The oxy species is capable of reacting CO to CO{sub 2} at room temperature and is present at a number density of 10-15 {mu}mol/g. At a reaction temperature of 100{degrees}C, SFMZ catalysts calcined in air then activated in helium show similar reactivities to those activated in air up to a preheating temperature of 450{degrees}C; above 450{degrees}C the metal oxy species is formed and provides additional activity (n-butane conversions of 37.1% in air vs 15.4% in He for calcinations at 650{degrees}C). The nature of the active sites on SFMZ are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption of substituted benzenes. The liberation of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in the benzene TPD profile of SFMZ is attributed to the oxidation of benzene at the redox-active metal sites, resulting in the subsequent decomposition of the reduced iron (II) sulfate. Data from the TPD studies do not suggest the presence of superacidity on SFMZ that could contribute to the low-temperature n-butane isomerization activity. Instead, a bifunctional mechanism that involves a combination of a redox-active metal site and an acid site in close proximity is proposed. 62 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Interplay of superconductivity, magnetism, and density waves in rare-earth tritellurides and iron-based superconducting materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zocco, Diego Andrés

    2011-01-01

    B. Superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IV Superconductivity and Magnetism in Iron-PnictideSearch for Pressure Induced Superconductivity in Undoped Ce-

  17. A Long, Contingent Path to Comparative Advantage: Industrial Policy and the Japanese Iron and Steel Industry, 1900-1973

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ELBAUM, BERNARD

    2006-01-01

    Overseas Procurement of Coking Coal By the Japanese Steelendowed as Japan in coking coal and iron ore (Yonekura,

  18. Whole-cell response of the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to iron starvation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % of blooms stimulated by mesoscale in situ Fe fertilization of Fe-limited HNLC waters were dominated

  19. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs Search USAJobsAdvanced EngineFebruaryVehicleReportFleetsBatteriesand

  20. Iron-based soft magnetic composites with MnZn ferrite nanoparticles coating obtained by solgel method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Iron-based soft magnetic composites with Mn­Zn ferrite nanoparticles coating obtained by sol nanoparticles to coat iron powder. The nanocrystalline iron powders, with an average particle diameter of 20 nm­Zn ferrites. Mn­Zn ferrite uniformly coated the surface of the powder particles, resulting in a reduced

  1. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  2. Medical Actinium Therapeutic Treatment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are increasing world supplies of Bismuth 213 to help with cancer treatments. For more information about INL research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  4. Sustainable Power Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Sustainable Power Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Bicarbonate Buffer and Proton Transfer applications, especially for wastewater treatment. Introduction Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has drawn of electrodes (6­9), (iii) selection and treatment of membranes (10­12), and (iv) optimization of the MFC design

  5. Organic binders for iron ore pelletization and steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karkoska, D.; Sankey, E. [Allied Colloids, Suffolk, VA (United States); Anderson, R. [Eveleth Mines, MN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Historically, bentonite has been used in the agglomeration process in North American iron ore plants. In 1986, Eveleth Mines replaced bentonite with Peridur, a carboxy methyl cellulose organic binder used in conjunction with 1% limestone. Since May of 1993, Allied Colloids` Alcotac FE8 has been used by Eveleth as the replacement for bentonite. This paper discusses the performance benefits obtained when bentonite was replaced with an organic binder. These totally synthetic binders are used in conjunction with limestone. The benefits of organic binders are: improved metallurgical parameters of the fired pellet, especially the reducibility, which results in more efficient use of gases in the blast furnace; reduced silica in the pellet, in the case of Eveleth Mines this was a reduction of 0.5%, a lower silica pellet reduces slag in the blast furnace; increased production in both the agglomeration/induration and steelmaking processes; and a decrease in coke consumption.

  6. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  7. Exploring the structure of high temperature, iron-bearing liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilding, Martin [Aberystwyth Univ., Aberystwyth (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics.; Benmore, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, Rick [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, John [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Geosciences.; Lazareva, Lena [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Geosciences.; Skinner, Lawrie [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Alderman, Oliver [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Tamalonis, Antony [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the direct measurements of the structure of iron-bearing liquids using a combination of containerless techniques and in–situ high energy x-ray diffraction. These capabilities provide data that is important to help model and optimize processes such as smelting, steel making, and controlling slag chemistry. A successful programme of liquid studies has been undertaken and the Advanced Photon Source using these combined techniques which include the provision of gas mixing and the control of pO? and the changing influence of mixed valance elements. It is possible to combine rapid image acquisition with quenching of liquids to obtain the full diffraction patterns of deeply supercooled liquids and the metastable supercooled liquid regime, where the liquid structures and viscosity change most dramatically, can also be explored.

  8. Exploring the structure of high temperature, iron-bearing liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wilding, Martin; Benmore, Chris; Weber, Rick; Parise, John; Lazareva, Lena; Skinner, Lawrie; Alderman, Oliver; Tamalonis, Antony

    2015-06-25

    This paper describes the direct measurements of the structure of iron-bearing liquids using a combination of containerless techniques and in–situ high energy x-ray diffraction. These capabilities provide data that is important to help model and optimize processes such as smelting, steel making, and controlling slag chemistry. A successful programme of liquid studies has been undertaken and the Advanced Photon Source using these combined techniques which include the provision of gas mixing and the control of pO? and the changing influence of mixed valance elements. It is possible to combine rapid image acquisition with quenching of liquids to obtain the fullmore »diffraction patterns of deeply supercooled liquids and the metastable supercooled liquid regime, where the liquid structures and viscosity change most dramatically, can also be explored.« less

  9. Strong nonlinear current–voltage behaviour in iron oxyborate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Yuanjun [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xu, Yingying; Song, Yujun [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianqi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Rongming, E-mail: rmwang@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Strong nonlinear resistance has been found in the charge ordered ferroelectric iron oxyborate (Fe{sub 2}OBO{sub 3}) with a high dielectric constant and giant converse magnetoelectric effect. In low temperature range the I-V nonlinearity increases quickly with decreasing temperature. Transport measurements on polycrystalline and single crystal Fe{sub 2}OBO{sub 3} indicate that the nonlinearity is not induced by grain boundaries. The nonlinear I-V behavior is intrinsically correlated with the charge order phase melting in Fe{sub 2}OBO{sub 3} by detailed in-situ TEM investigations. These results provide an insight into structure-activity relationship of resistance switching effects at atomic and electric scales, which is essential for its potential application as varistors and storage media.

  10. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  11. Development of Improved Iron-Aluminide Filter Tubes and Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkins, R.R.; Sutton, T.G.; Miller, C.J.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    2008-01-14

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to explore and develop advanced manufacturing techniques to fabricate sintered iron-aluminide intermetallic porous bodies used for gas filtration so as to reduce production costs while maintaining or improving performance in advanced coal gasification and combustion systems. The use of a power turbine fired with coal-derived synthesis gas requires some form of gas cleaning in order to protect turbine and downstream components from degradation by erosion, corrosion, and/or deposition. Hot-gas filtration is one form of cleaning that offers the ability to remove particles from the gases produced by gasification processes without having to substantially cool and, possibly, reheat them before their introduction into the turbine. This technology depends critically on materials durability and reliability, which have been the subject of study for a number of years.

  12. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-10-29

    This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for synthesis, the objectives of which are: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. During the fourteenth quarter design of software for a computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was continued. Further progress was made toward the completion of the control language, control routines, and software for operating this system. Progress was also made towards testing of the system hardware and software. 47 refs.

  13. All Metal Iron Core For A Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A. Gates, C. Jun, I. Zatz, A. Zolfaghari

    2010-06-02

    A novel concept for incorporating a iron core transformer within a axisymmetric toroidal plasma containment device with a high neutron flux is described. This design enables conceptual design of low aspect ratio devices which employ standard transformer-driven plasma startup by using all-metal high resistance separators between the toroidal field windings. This design avoids the inherent problems of a multiturn air core transformer which will inevitably suffer from strong neutron bombardment and hence lose the integrity of its insulation, both through long term material degradation and short term neutron- induced conductivity.. A full 3-dimensional model of the concept has been developed within the MAXWELL program and the resultant loop voltage calculated. The utility of the result is found to be dependent on the resistivity of the high resistance separators. Useful loop voltage time histories have been obtained using achievable resistivities.

  14. Cloudy with a Chance of Iron: Weather on Brown Dwarfs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgasser, Adam (UCLA) [UCLA

    2003-08-06

    Brown dwarfs are a recently discovered, yet long-contemplated, class of 'star' which bridges the gap between classical stars like the Sun and giant planets like Jupiter. The atmospheres of these objects, with observed temperatures as low as 700 K and pressures of 1-10 bar, are such that the condensation of refractory elements - iron rain and mineral snow - can occur. This has raised the possibility of meteorological phenomena occurring on these objects in the form of clouds and possibly even 'storms'. I present observed evidence for these meteorological effects and the first simple models to use 'cloud coverage' as an explanation for the observed and unexpected brightening of brown dwarfs as they cool over a narrow temperature range. I will show how the tools of planetary atmospheric science (e.g., studies of the Earth's meteorology) can provide a context for studying the atmospheres of these more distant astrophysical objects.

  15. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

    2010-06-01

    We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to be less expensive than filtration of micron-scale particles, further contributing to the affordability of a community-scale water treatment center.

  16. Vitrification and solidification remedial treatment and disposal costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimpel, R.F.

    1992-03-12

    Solidification (making concrete) and vitrification (making glass) are frequently the treatment methods recommended for treating inorganic or radioactive wastes. Solidification is generally perceived as the most economical treatment method. Whereas, vitrification is considered (by many) as the most effective of all treatment methods. Unfortunately, vitrification has acquired the stigma that it is too expensive to receive further consideration as an alternative to solidification in high volume treatment applications. Ironically, economic studies, as presented in this paper, show that vitrification may be more competitive in some high volume applications. Ex-situ solidification and vitrification are the competing methods for treating in excess of 450,000 m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP or simply, Fernald) located near Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper summarizes a detailed study done to: compare the economics of the solidification and vitrification processes, determine if the stigma assigned to vitrification is warranted and, determine if investing millions of dollars into vitrification development, along with solidification development, at the Fernald is warranted.

  17. A Mathematical Model of Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsygvintsev, Alexey V.

    A Mathematical Model of Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Cancer Alexei Tsygvintsev1, Simeone Introduction Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide, resulting from the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cells are the body's building blocks, and cancer starts from normal cells. Normal

  18. Parallelization of Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning(RTTP) : A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Vipin

    the therapy planning process by using parallel computing techniques. Skin Normal Tissues Tumor Cells Beams sensitivity of the cells irradiated * Chemical environment of cells Figure 1: Radiation therapy treatment dose dis- tribution within the patient body. A plan is a total dose dis- tribution obtained by summing

  19. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. ���¢�������¢ Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  20. Engineering design and test plan for demonstrating DETOX treatment of mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldblatt, S.; Dhooge, P.

    1995-03-01

    DETOX is a cocatalyzed wet oxidation process in which the catalysts are a relatively great concentration of iron ions (typically as iron(III) chloride) in the presence of small amounts of platinum and ruthenium ions. Organic compounds are oxidized completely to carbon dioxide, water, and (if chlorinated) hydrogen chloride. The process has shown promise as a non-thermal alternative to incineration for treatment and/or volume reduction of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes. Design and fabrication of a demonstration unit capable of destroying 25. Kg/hr of organic material is now in progress. This paper describes the Title 2 design of the demonstration unit, and the planned demonstration effort at Savannah River Site (SRS) and Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP).

  1. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Antony, Jiji; Nutting, Joseph; Baer, Donald R.; Meyer, Daniel; Sharma, Amit; Qiang, You

    2006-01-01

    Nanoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7 ? C . Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.more »« less

  2. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

  3. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rashid Khan, M.

    1988-05-05

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-06-26

    Chromium (Cr) forms a solid solution with iron (Fe) lattice when doped in core-shell iron -iron oxide nanocluster (NC) and shows a mixed phase of sigma (?) FeCr and bcc Fe. The Cr dopant affects heavily the magnetization and magnetic reversal process, and causes the hysteresis loop to shrink near the zero field axis. Dramatic transformation happens from dipolar interaction (0 at. % Cr) to strong exchange interaction (8 at. % of Cr) is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M plot, and is explained by a water-melon model of core-shell NC system.

  5. Non-LTE iron abundances in cool stars: The role of hydrogen collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ezzeddine, Rana; Plez, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In the aim of determining accurate iron abundances in stars, this work is meant to empirically calibrate H-collision cross-sections with iron, where no quantum mechanical calculations have been published yet. Thus, a new iron model atom has been developed, which includes hydrogen collisions for excitation, ionization and charge transfer processes. We show that collisions with hydrogen leading to charge transfer are important for an accurate non-LTE modeling. We apply our calculations on several benchmark stars including the Sun, the metal-rich star {\\alpha} Cen A and the metal-poor star HD140283.

  6. High-pressure X-ray diffraction and X-ray emission studies on iron-bearing silicate perovskite under high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Speciale, Sergio; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Dera, Przemek; Lavina, Babara; Watson, Heather C.

    2010-06-22

    Iron-bearing silicate perovskite is believed to be the most abundant mineral of the Earth's lower mantle. Recent studies have shown that Fe{sup 2+} exists predominantly in the intermediate-spin state with a total spin number of 1 in silicate perovskite in the lower part of the lower mantle. Here we have measured the spin states of iron and the pressure-volume relation in silicate perovskite [(Mg{sub 0.6},Fe{sub 0.4})SiO{sub 3}] at pressure conditions relevant to the lowermost mantle using in situ X-ray emission and X-ray diffraction in a diamond cell. Our results showed that the intermediate-spin Fe{sup 2+} is stable in the silicate perovskite up to {approx} 125 GPa but starts to transition to the low-spin state at approximately 135 GPa. Concurrent X-ray diffraction measurements showed a decrease of approximately 1% in the unit cell volume in the silicate perovskite [(Mg{sub 0.6},Fe{sub 0.4})SiO{sub 3}], which is attributed to the intermediate-spin to the low-spin transition. The transition pressure coincides with the pressure conditions of the lowermost mantle, raising the possibility of the existence of the silicate perovskite phase with the low-spin Fe{sup 2+} across the transition from the post-perovskite to the perovskite phases in the bottom of the D{double_prime} layer.

  7. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Lower Serum Ferritin Levels in 171 HFE C282Y Homozygotes in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole decreases non-heme iron absorption from test meals and decreases maintenance

  8. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rynearson, Michael Ardel; Plum, Martin Michael

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE -owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that the treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem.

  9. Germinal center B cells and mixed leukocyte reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monfalcone, A.P.; Kosco, M.H.; Szakal, A.K.; Tew, J.G. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine if germinal center (GC) B cells are sufficiently activated to stimulate mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR). Percoll density fractionation and a panning technique with peanut agglutinin (PNA) were used to isolate GC B cells from the lymph nodes of immune mice. The GC B cells were treated with mitomycin C or irradiation and used to stimulate allogeneic or syngeneic splenic T cells in the MLR. Controls included high-density (HD) B cells prepared from spleens of the same mice and HD B cells activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dextran sulfate. GC B cells bound high amount sof PNA (i.e., PNAhi). Similarly, the LPS-dextran sulfate-activated B cells were PNAhi. Treatment with neuraminidase rendered the PNAlo HD B cells PNAhi. GC B cells and the LPS-dextran sulfate-activated HD B cells stimulated a potent MLR, while the untreated HD B cells did not. However, following neuraminidase treatment, the resulting PNAhi HD B cell population was able to induce an MLR. The PNA marker appeared to be an indicator of stimulatory activity, but incubating the cells with PNA to bind the cell surface ligand did not interfere with the MLR. GC B cells were also capable of stimulating a syngeneic MLR in most experiments although this was not consistently obtained. It appears that germinal centers represent a unique in vivo microenvironment that provides the necessary signals for B cells to become highly effective antigen-presenting cells.

  10. The Dose-Response of Vitamin D on Cell Proliferation, Differentiation and Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Lindsey M.

    2009-01-28

    ,25D in Osteosarcoma Cells ....................... 9 Mechanisms Involved in 1,25D Effects on Proliferation .......................... 11 Differentiation of Osteosarcoma Cells by 1,25D ..................................... 12 Apoptosis in Osteosarcoma... treatment with 1,25D or 25D in SaOS-2 and 143B cells ................................................................................ 38 FIGURE 12. Cell cycle distribution of SaOS-2 versus 143B control cells ................. 40 FIGURE 13. Working model...

  11. A New Direct-Pour In-Mold (DPI) Technology for Producing Ductile and Compacted Graphite Iron Castings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Hitchings; Jay R. Hitchings

    2007-07-20

    A new "Direct Pour In-Mold" (DPI) Magnesium treatment technology has been developed that can produce both Nodular and Compacted Graphite iron. The DPI technology converts the standard horizontal runner system into a vertical one, by placing a Magnesium Ferrosilicon treatment alloy and molten metal filter into a specially designed container. The DPI container is easily placed into either vertically or horizontally parted molds, and then a base metal can be poured directly into it. The metal is treated and filtered as it passes through, and then proceeds directly into a runner or casting cavity. Various sizes of containers provide all of the necessary components required to deliver a range of weights of treated and filtered metal at accurate and consistent flow rates. The DPI containers provide energy savings over competing techniques, increased mold yields, very high Magnesium recovery, zero Magnesium fume, and no post inoculation is required. By treating the metal just prior to it entering a casting cavity many other benefits and advantages are also realized.

  12. 11/17/11 Treatment Wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    wastewater treatment faciliOes, combined sewer overflows, municipal stormwater, industry ­ Wastewater treatment ­ Stormwater treatment ­ Flood control ConvenOonal Wastewater Treatment · Primary Treatment ­ grit and solids removal · Secondary Treatment

  13. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    examined under oil immersion at 800 and 1200 power. Cells were measured at 800 power. Cell classificationCELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF A PORTUGUESE SHARK describe the cell types, differential cell counts, and measurements of both the erythrocytes and leukocytes

  14. A metallurgical study of West African iron monies from Cameroon and Liberia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papakirillou, Ismini

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to make a contribution to the study of West African iron monies through examination and analysis of a group of these objects in the collection of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology ...

  15. Technology Development for Iron and Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Quarterly Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentucky, University of

    Technology Development for Iron and Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Quarterly Report July 1, 2001 cluster growth with time on-stream by a sintering process as a major component to the deactivation

  16. Preservation of early wrought iron trusses : the 1848 roof of the Cochituate gatehouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferriss, Lori (Lori E.)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the historic significance, structural condition, and preservation challenges of the wrought iron roof trusses of the Cochituate aqueduct's inlet gatehouse as the possible earliest surviving example ...

  17. Frataxin (FXN) Based Regulation of the Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Complex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabb, Jennifer

    2012-07-16

    Iron-sulfur clusters are protein cofactors that are critical for all life forms. Elaborate multi-component systems have evolved for the biosynthesis of these cofactors to protect organisms from the toxic effects of free ...

  18. Thermal plasma processed ferro-magnetically ordered face-centered cubic iron at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2014-10-28

    Here, we report tailor made phase of iron nanoparticles using homogeneous gas phase condensation process via thermal plasma route. It was observed that crystal lattice of nano-crystalline iron changes as a function of operating parameters of the plasma reactor. In the present investigation iron nanoparticles have been synthesized in presence of argon at operating pressures of 125–1000?Torr and fixed plasma input DC power of 6?kW. It was possible to obtain pure fcc, pure bcc as well as the mixed phases for iron nanoparticles in powder form as a function of operating pressure. The as synthesized product was characterized for understanding the structural and magnetic properties by using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The data reveal that fcc phase is ferromagnetically ordered with high spin state, which is unusual whereas bcc phase is found to be ferromagnetic as usual. Finally, the structural and magnetic properties are co-related.

  19. Spectroscopic and analytical characterization of the distribution of iron in intact mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudder, Brandon Neal

    2006-10-30

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and M�¶ssbauer spectroscopy were used to examine the distribution of iron in mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These organelles were packed into EPR and M�¶ssbauer cuvettes, affording spectra...

  20. Iron(IV)hydroxide pKa and the Role of Thiolate Ligation in C...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron(IV)hydroxide pKa and the Role of Thiolate Ligation in C-H Bond Activation by Cytochrome P450 Saturday, May 31, 2014 Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are a family of monooxygenase...

  1. Lipidoid-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Efficient DNA and siRNA delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Shan

    The safe, targeted and effective delivery of gene therapeutics remains a significant barrier to their broad clinical application. Here we develop a magnetic nucleic acid delivery system composed of iron oxide nanoparticles ...

  2. Synthesis and development of hydrophilic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, He, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Uniformly sized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with inorganic diameters of 3-35 nm were synthesized. New surface ligand coatings were designed and synthesized, and the resulting hydrophilic SPIONs in ...

  3. Surface binding vs. sequestration; the uptake of benzohydroxamic acid at iron(III) oxide surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tasker, Peter; Harris, S.G.; Brechin, E.K.; White, Fraser J; Rio-Echevarria I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Benzohydroxamic acid is shown to be an unexpectedly good ligand for iron(III) oxides, favouring surface attachment to the formation of trisbenzohydroxamato complexes, which are known to have very high thermodynamic stability ...

  4. Magnetic microstructures of chains and clusters of iron oxide and sulfide nanocrystals in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Magnetic microstructures of chains and clusters of iron oxide and sulfide nanocrystals in bacteria of intracellular ferrimagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) and greigite (Fe3S4) nanocrystals inside magnetotactic bacteria

  5. Technology and social process : oscillations in Iron Age copper production and power in Southern Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yosef, Erez

    2010-01-01

    local political powers independent of Egypt (Kitchen, 1986)still included Egypt, but since the balance of power changedEgypt played in the Iron Age metal trade even as a weak power

  6. Iron fertilization in the ocean and consequences for the global carbon cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinov, Irina

    fertilization? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.4 Some iron fertilization experiments nineteenth century, human activities such as fossil fuel burning, cement production and tropical the reflected radiation from the earth and thus making the earth warmer. A direct consequence is the observed

  7. Influences on the oceanic biogeochemical cycling of the hybrid-type metals, cobalt, iron, and manganese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, Abigail Emery

    2012-01-01

    Trace metal cycling is one of many processes that influence ocean ecosystem dynamics. Cobalt, iron, and manganese are redox active trace metal micro-nutrients with oceanic distributions that are influenced by both biological ...

  8. Iron conservation by reduction of metalloenzyme inventories in the marine diazotroph Crocosphaera watsonii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saito, Mak A.

    The marine nitrogen fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs) are a major source of nitrogen to open ocean ecosystems and are predicted to be limited by iron in most marine environments. Here we use global and targeted proteomic ...

  9. Encapsulation of Iron Hydroxide Flocs in Composite Cement Nick Collier*, J Hill, N B Milestone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Actinide Removal Plant (EARP) at Sellafield treats liquid effluent generated during reprocessing by co-precipitating uranium, plutonium and other actinides, as well as some other radioactive species, with iron to form

  10. Iron (III) Chloride doping of large-area chemical vapor deposition graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Chemical doping is an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. This thesis aims to develop an effective method of doping large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene using Iron (III) Chloride ...

  11. Efficient laser-induced 6 - 8 keV x-ray production from iron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Efficient laser-induced 6 - 8 keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficient...

  12. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Doctoral Defense "Investigating the Role of Iron Sulfide on the Long-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    and improper disposal of radioactive waste from extensive extraction and processing activities have caused. The results contribute to the understanding of uranium fate and transport in the presence of iron sulfide

  14. Iron ore and coal: pricing and volume up for these key export commodities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    Australia's huge coal and iron ore industries are booming. Up until now, the majors have benefited handsomely, but smaller players are beginning to muscle in. The article discusses development in both industries. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  15. Spray drying and attrition behavior of iron catalysts for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreto Vazquez, Victor Hugo

    2004-11-15

    This thesis describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating attrition resistant iron catalysts prepared by spray drying technique. These catalysts are intended for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor...

  16. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

    2010-01-01

    using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationfrom aqueous solutions by fly ash. Water Res. 1993, 27(12),of Cations in Class F Fly Ash. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003,

  17. Effects of High Dietary Iron and Gamma Radiation on Oxidative Stress and Bone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Evelyn P

    2013-04-19

    Astronauts in space flight missions are exposed to increased iron (Fe) stores and galactic cosmic radiation, both of which independently induce oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. Recent evidence has...

  18. Iron-rich Silicates in the Earth's D" Layer Wendy L. Mao1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Andrew

    velocity and ultra low velocity zones. Formation of this phase from reaction between the silicate mantle of the iron-rich silicate greatly reduces the seismic velocity, and provides a new explanation to the low

  19. Supernova progenitors and iron density evolution from SN rate evolution measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Blanc; Laura Greggio

    2008-03-28

    Using an extensive compilation of literature supernova rate data we study to which extent its evolution constrains the star formation history, the distribution of the type Ia supernova (SNIa) progenitor's lifetime, the mass range of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) progenitors, and the evolution of the iron density in the field. We find that the diagnostic power of the cosmic SNIa rate on their progenitor model is relatively weak. More promising is the use of the evolution of the SNIa rate in galaxy clusters. We find that the CCSN rate is compatible with a Salpeter IMF, with a minimum mass for their progenitors > 10 Msun. We estimate the evolution in the field of the iron density released by SNe and find that in the local universe the iron abundance should be ~ 0.1 solar. We discuss the difference between this value and the iron abundance in clusters.

  20. Selective killing of ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis by nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iseki, Sachiko; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru; Nakamura, Kae; Hayashi, Moemi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Kano, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-12

    Two independent ovarian cancer cell lines and fibroblast controls were treated with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). Most ovarian cancer cells were detached from the culture dish by continuous plasma treatment to a single spot on the dish. Next, the plasma source was applied over the whole dish using a robot arm. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that plasma treatments significantly decreased proliferation rates of ovarian cancer cells compared to fibroblast cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that plasma treatment of ovarian cancer cells induced apoptosis. NEAPP could be a promising tool for therapy for ovarian cancers.