National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for iron treatment cells

  1. Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008

  2. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P. [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J. [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  3. Processing Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals for Use in Solar Cells - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Processing Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals for Use in Solar Cells Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryFor solar energy to become an economically viable energy source, alternative semiconductor materials to be used in solar cells must be found. Silicon, the longtime standard for solar cells, is expensive to process and in ever-growing demand.

  4. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility ...

  5. Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie Reagan; Singh, Prabhakar; Sikka, Vinod Kumar

    2000-01-01

    A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

  6. Iron repletion relocalizes hephaestin to a proximal basolateral compartment in polarized MDCK and Caco2 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Min [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Columbia, NY (United States) [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Columbia, NY (United States); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Attieh, Zouhair K. [Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Ashrafieh (Lebanon) [Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Ashrafieh (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Son, Hee Sook [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Huijun [Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province (China) [Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province (China); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bacouri-Haidar, Mhenia [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (I), Lebanese University, Hadath (Lebanon) [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (I), Lebanese University, Hadath (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vulpe, Chris D., E-mail: vulpe@berkeley.edu [Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in non-polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in iron deficient and polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin with apical iron moves near to basolateral membrane of polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peri-basolateral location of hephaestin is accessible to the extracellular space. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization from the intestine to circulation. -- Abstract: While intestinal cellular iron entry in vertebrates employs multiple routes including heme and non-heme routes, iron egress from these cells is exclusively channeled through the only known transporter, ferroportin. Reduced intestinal iron export in sex-linked anemia mice implicates hephaestin, a ferroxidase, in this process. Polarized cells are exposed to two distinct environments. Enterocytes contact the gut lumen via the apical surface of the cell, and through the basolateral surface, to the body. Previous studies indicate both local and systemic control of iron uptake. We hypothesized that differences in iron availability at the apical and/or basolateral surface may modulate iron uptake via cellular localization of hephaestin. We therefore characterized the localization of hephaestin in two models of polarized epithelial cell lines, MDCK and Caco2, with varying iron availability at the apical and basolateral surfaces. Our results indicate that hephaestin is expressed in a supra-nuclear compartment in non-polarized cells regardless of the iron status of the cells and in iron deficient and polarized cells. In polarized cells, we found that both apical (as FeSO{sub 4}) and basolateral iron (as the ratio of apo-transferrin to holo-transferrin) affect mobilization of hephaestin from the supra-nuclear compartment. We find that the presence of apical iron is essential for relocalization of hephaestin to a

  7. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their Magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C. for 20 minutes to six hours.

  8. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  9. Evolution of iron-containing defects during processing of Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mchedlidze, Teimuraz Weber, Jrg; Mller, Christian; Lauer, Kevin

    2014-12-28

    The formation of iron-containing defects was studied during the fabrication process of a Si solar cell. Three Cz-Si crystals with different iron content in the feedstock were grown for the study. Iron-containing defects in and near-to the n{sup +}p-junction volume (NJV) of the cells are formed directly after phosphorus diffusion due to an inflow of iron atoms from the dissolving iron-silicide precipitates. These NJV-defects strongly affect the dark saturation current of the junctions. Partial dissolution or gettering of the NJV-defects during formation of the antireflection coating is accompanied by an increase in defect concentrations in the bulk of the cell. Further deterioration of bulk carrier lifetime during the formation of electrical contacts is related to the partial dissolution of remaining iron-silicide precipitates during the firing process. A general description of the defect evolution in iron-contaminated wafers during solar cell processing is presented and possible strategies for reducing the influence of iron-containing defects are proposed.

  10. Earth-abundant Solar Cells: Can Iron Complexes Serve as Photosensitize...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth-abundant Solar Cells: Can Iron Complexes Serve as Photosensitizers in DSSCs November 10, 2015 11:00AM to 12:00PM Presenter Elena Jakubikova, North Carolina State University...

  11. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  12. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water Title: Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water The present invention relates to a ...

  13. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater Title: Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing ...

  14. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater Title: Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  15. Integrated analysis of the {open_quotes}sponge iron reactor and fuel cell system{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehrhofer, J.; Ghaemi, M.; Wernigg, H.

    1996-12-31

    The system Sponge Iron Reactor/Fuel Cell (SIR/FC) is investigated from the ecological and technical aspects and also the pre-conversion energy chain as a part of the natural gas fuel cycle is analyzed. What are the decisive characteristics of a sponge iron reactor or the basic process cycle sponge iron/hydrogen/iron oxide? This process cycle offers a simple possibility to store the energy of synthesis gases in the form of sponge iron and at the same time to reform and condition these synthesis gases. As {open_quote}product{close_quote} of this energy storage one receives pure hydrogen which is intended for the running of fuel cells.

  16. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3-0501 Unlimited Release Printed February 2013 Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Joseph W. Pratt and Aaron P. Harris Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  17. Discovery and Characterization of Iron Sulfide and Polyphosphate Bodies Coexisting in Archaeoglobus fulgidus Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Toso, Daniel B.; Javed, Muhammad Mohsin; Czornyj, Elizabeth; Gunsalus, Robert P.; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic storage granules have long been recognized in bacterial and eukaryotic cells but were only recently identified in archaeal cells. Here, we report the cellular organization and chemical compositions of storage granules in the Euryarchaeon , Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain VC16, a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and sulfate-reducing microorganism. Dense granules were apparent in A. fulgidus cells imaged by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) but not so by negative stain electron microscopy. Cryo electron tomography (cryoET) revealed that each cell contains one to several dense granules located near the cell membrane. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) showmore » that, surprisingly, each cell contains not just one but often two types of granules with different elemental compositions. One type, named iron sulfide body (ISB), is composed mainly of the elements iron and sulfur plus copper; and the other one, called polyphosphate body (PPB), is composed of phosphorus and oxygen plus magnesium, calcium, and aluminum. PPBs are likely used for energy storage and/or metal sequestration/detoxification. ISBs could result from the reduction of sulfate to sulfide via anaerobic energy harvesting pathways and may be associated with energy and/or metal storage or detoxification. The exceptional ability of these archaeal cells to sequester different elements may have novel bioengineering applications.« less

  18. Iron-based perovskite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ralph, James M.; Rossignol, Cecile C.R.; Vaughey, John T.

    2007-01-02

    An A and/or A' site deficient perovskite of general formula of (A.sub.1-xA'.sub.x).sub.1-yFeO.sub.3-.delta. or of general formula A.sub.1-x-yA'.sub.xFeO.sub.3-67, wherein A is La alone or with one or more of the rare earth metals or a rare earth metal other than Ce alone or a combination of rare earth metals and X is in the range of from 0 to about 1; A' is Sr or Ca or mixtures thereof and Y is in the range of from about 0.01 to about 0.3; .delta. represents the amount of compensating oxygen loss. If either A or A' is zero the remaining A or A' is deficient. A fuel cell incorporating the inventive perovskite as a cathode is disclosed as well as an oxygen separation membrane. The inventive perovskite is preferably single phase.

  19. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-17

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  20. In situ treatment of arsenic contaminated groundwater by aquifer iron coating: Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Pi, Kunfu; Liu, Chongxuan; Li, Junxia; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Mengyu

    2015-09-15

    In situ arsenic removal from groundwater by an iron coating method has great potential to be a cost effective and simple groundwater remediation technique, especially in rural and remote areas where groundwater is used as the main source of drinking water. The in situ arsenic removal technique was first optimized by simulating arsenic removal in various quartz sand columns under anoxic conditions., Its effectiveness was then evaluated in an actual high-arsenic groundwater environment. The mechanism of arsenic removal by the iron coating was investigated under different conditions using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/X-ray absorption spectroscopy, an electron microprobe, and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. A 4-step alternative cycle aquifer iron coating method was developed. A continuous injection of 5 mmol/L FeSO4 and 2.5 mmol/L NaClO for 96 hours can create a uniform coating of crystalline goethite on the surface of quartz sand in the columns without causing clogging. At a flow rate of 0.45 cm/min of the injection reagents (vi), the time for arsenic (as Na2HAsO4) to pass through the iron-coated quartz sand column was approximately 35 hours, which was much longer than that for tracer fluorescein sodium (approximately 2 hours). The retardation factor of arsenic was 23, and its adsorption capacity was 0.11 mol As per mol Fe, leading to an excellent arsenic removal. In situ arsenic removal from groundwater in an aquifer was achieved by simultaneous injections of As (V) and Fe (II) reagents. When the arsenic content in the groundwater was 233 ?g/L, the aqueous phase arsenic was completely removed with an arsenic adsorption of 0.05 mol As per mol Fe. Arsenic fixation resulted from a process of adsorption/co-precipitation, in which arsenic and iron likely formed the arsenic-bearing iron mineral phases with poor crystallinity by way of bidentate binuclear complexes. Thus, the high arsenic removal efficiency of the technique likely resulted from the

  1. Treatment of Fuel Process Wastewater Using Fuel Cells - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Treatment of Fuel Process Wastewater Using Fuel Cells Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL ...

  2. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    testing the rapidly growing number of nanomaterials requires large scale use of in vitro systems under the presumption that these systems are sufficiently predictive or descriptive of responses in in vivo systems for effective use in hazard ranking. We hypothesized that improved relationships between in vitro and in vivo models of experimental toxicology for nanomaterials would result from placing response data in vitro and in vivo on the same dose scale, the amount of material associated with cells (target cell dose). Methods: Balb/c mice were exposed nose-only to an aerosol of 12.8 nm (68.6 nm CMD, 19.9 mg/m3, 4 hours) super paramagnetic iron oxide particles, target cell doses were calculated and biomarkers of response anchored with histological evidence were identified by global transcriptomics. Representative murine epithelial and macrophage cell types were exposed in vitro to the same material in liquid suspension for four hours and levels nanoparticle regulated cytokine transcripts identified in vivo were quantified as a function of measured nanoparticle cellular dose. Results. Target tissue doses of 0.009-0.4 μg SPIO/cm2 lung led to an inflammatory response in the alveolar region characterized by interstitial inflammation and macrophage infiltration. In vitro, higher target tissue doses of ~1.2-4 μg SPIO/ cm2 of cells were required to induce transcriptional regulation of markers of inflammation, CXCL2 CCL3, in C10 lung epithelial cells. Estimated in vivo macrophage SPIO nanoparticle doses ranged from 1-100 pg/cell, and induction of inflammatory markers was observed in vitro in macrophages at doses of 8-35 pg/cell. Conclusions: Application of target tissue dosimetry revealed good correspondence between target cell doses triggering inflammatory processes in vitro and in vivo in the alveolar macrophage population, but not in the epithelial cells of the alveolar region. These findings demonstrate the potential for target tissue dosimetry to enable the more

  3. High pressure low temperature studies on 1-2-2 iron-based superconductors using designer diamond cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uhoya, Walter O.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Mitchell, Jonathan, E.; Safa-Sefat, Athena; Weir, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    In this study, high pressure low temperature electrical resistance measurements were carried out on a series of 122 iron-based superconductors using a designer diamond anvil cell. These studies were complemented by image plate x-ray diffraction measurements under high pressures and low temperatures at beamline 16-BM-D, HPCAT, Advanced Photon Source. A common feature of the 1-2-2 iron-based materials is the observation of anomalous compressibility effects under pressure and a Tetragonal (T) to Collapsed Tetragonal (CT) phase transition under high pressures. Specific studies on antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe2As2 and Ba(Fe0.9Ru0.1)2As2 samples are presented to 10 K and 41 GPa. The collapsed tetragonal phasemore » was observed at a pressure of 14 GPa in Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe2As2 at ambient temperature. The highest superconducting transition temperature in Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe2As2 was observed to be at 32 K at a pressure of 4.7 GPa. The superconductivity was observed to be suppressed on transformation to the CT phase in 122 materials.« less

  4. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs' blood and muscle cells during decay, and were able to identify iron-facilitated reactions that...

  5. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This Sandia National Laboratories study examines the feasibility of a hydrogen-fueled PEM fuel cell barge to provide electrical power to vessels at anchorage or at berth.

  6. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  7. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, William W.

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  8. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  9. Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R.

    2011-05-20

    ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

  10. New innovative electrocoagulation (EC) treatment technology for BWR colloidal iron utilizing the seeding and filtration electronically (SAFET{sup TM}) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-07-01

    The presence of iron (iron oxide from carbon steel piping) buildup in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) circuits and wastewaters is decades old. In, perhaps the last decade, the advent of precoatless filters for condensate blow down has compounded this problem due to the lack of a solid substrate (e.g., Powdex resin pre-coat) to help drop the iron out of solution. The presence and buildup of this iron in condensate phase separators (CPS) further confounds the problem when the tank is decanted back to the plant. Iron carryover here is unavoidable without further treatment steps. The form of iron in these tanks, which partially settles and is pumped to a de-waterable high integrity container (HIC), is particularly difficult and time consuming to de-water (low shear strength, high water content). The addition upstream from the condensate phase separator (CPS) of chemicals, such as polymers, to carry out the iron, only produces an iron form even more difficult to filter and de-water (even less shear strength, higher water content, and a gel/slime consistency). Typical, untreated colloidal material contains both sub-micron particles up to, let's say 100 micron. It is believed that the sub-micron particles penetrate filters, or sheet filters, thus plugging the pores for what should have been the successful filtration of the larger micron particles. Like BWR iron wastewaters, fuel pools/storage basins (especially in the decon. phase) often contain colloids which make clarity and the resulting visibility nearly impossible. Likewise, miscellaneous, often high conductivity, waste streams at various plants contain such colloids, iron, salts (sometimes seawater intrusion and referred to as Salt Water Collection Tanks), dirt/clay, surfactants, waxes, chelants, etc. Such waste streams are not ideally suited for standard dead-end (cartridges) or cross-flow filtration (UF/RO) followed even by demineralizers. Filter and bed plugging are almost assured. The key to solving these dilemmas

  11. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Harris, Aaron P

    2013-01-01

    A barge-mounted hydrogen-fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system has the potential to reduce emissions and fossil fuel use of maritime vessels in and around ports. This study determines the technical feasibility of this concept and examines specific options on the U.S. West Coast for deployment practicality and potential for commercialization.The conceptual design of the system is found to be straightforward and technically feasible in several configurations corresponding to various power levels and run times.The most technically viable and commercially attractive deployment options were found to be powering container ships at berth at the Port of Tacoma and/or Seattle, powering tugs at anchorage near the Port of Oakland, and powering refrigerated containers on-board Hawaiian inter-island transport barges. Other attractive demonstration options were found at the Port of Seattle, the Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, the California Maritime Academy, and an excursion vessel on the Ohio River.

  12. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  13. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Michael R.; Arnold, Robert G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  14. Iron dominated magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  15. Burkholderia phytofirmans inoculation-induced changes on the shoot cell anatomy and iron accumulation reveal novel components of Arabidopsis-endophyte interaction that can benefit downstream biomass deconstruction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Lin, Chien -Yuan; Zeng, Yining; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi -You

    2016-01-29

    In this study, it is known that plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) elicit positive effects on plant growth and biomass yield. However, the actual mechanism behind the plant-PGPB interaction is poorly understood, and the literature is scarce regarding the thermochemical pretreatability and enzymatic degradability of biomass derived from PGPB-inoculated plants. Most recent transcriptional analyses of PGPB strain Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN inoculating potato in literature and Arabidopsis in our present study have revealed the expression of genes for ferritin and the biosynthesis and transport of siderophores (i.e., the molecules with high affinity for iron), respectively. The expression of such genes inmore » the shoots of PsJN-inoculated plants prompted us to propose that PsJN-inoculation can improve the host plant's iron uptake and accumulation, which facilitates the downstream plant biomass pretreatment and conversion to simple sugars. In this study, we employed B. phytofirmans PsJN to inoculate the Arabidopsis thaliana plants, and conducted the first investigation for its effects on the biomass yield, the anatomical organization of stems, the iron accumulation, and the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of harvested biomass. The results showed that the strain PsJN stimulated plant growth in the earlier period of plant development and enlarged the cell size of stem piths, and it also indeed enhanced the essential metals uptake and accumulation in host plants. Moreover, we found that the PsJN-inoculated plant biomass released more glucose and xylose after hot water pretreatment and subsequent co-saccharification, which provided a novel insight into development of lignocellulosic biofuels from renewable biomass resources.« less

  16. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Development of an automated ultrasonic inspection cell for detecting subsurface discontinuities in cast gray iron. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burningham, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    This inspection cell consisted of an ultrasonic flaw detector, transducer, robot, immersion tank, computer, and software. Normal beam pulse-echo ultrasonic nondestructive testing, using the developed automated cell, was performed on 17 bosses on each rough casting. Ultrasonic transducer selection, initial inspection criteria, and ultrasonic flow detector (UFD) setup parameters were developed for the gray iron castings used in this study. The software were developed for control of the robot and UFD in real time. The software performed two main tasks: emulating the manual operation of the UFD, and evaluating the ultrasonic signatures for detecting subsurface discontinuities. A random lot of 105 castings were tested; the 100 castings that passed were returned to the manufacturer for machining into finished parts and then inspection. The other 5 castings had one boss each with ultrasonic signatures consistent with subsurface discontinuities. The cell was successful in quantifying the ultrasonic echo signatures for the existence of signature characteristics consistent with Go/NoGo criteria developed from simulated defects. Manual inspection showed that no defects in the areas inspected by the automated cell avoided detection in the 100 castings machined into finished parts. Of the 5 bosses found to have subsurface discontinuities, two were verified by manual inspection. The cell correctly classified 1782 of the 1785 bosses (99.832%) inspected.

  17. Post-Deposition Treatment Boosts CIGS Solar Cell Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These experiments led to a 16.2%-efficient solar cell fabricated from the CuGa In stacked metal precursor. But the goal was to increase the efficiency and decrease the time ...

  18. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O'Neill, Brian E.

    2015-08-14

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

  19. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  20. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  1. Cell density signal protein suitable for treatment of connective tissue injuries and defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, Richard I.

    2002-08-13

    Identification, isolation and partial sequencing of a cell density protein produced by fibroblastic cells. The cell density signal protein comprising a 14 amino acid peptide or a fragment, variant, mutant or analog thereof, the deduced cDNA sequence from the 14 amino acid peptide, a recombinant protein, protein and peptide-specific antibodies, and the use of the peptide and peptide-specific antibodies as therapeutic agents for regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. A method for treatment and repair of connective tissue and tendon injuries, collagen deficiency, and connective tissue defects.

  2. Weldability of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, G.M.; McKamey, C.J.; Maziasz, P.J.; Sikka, V.K.

    1993-12-31

    Corrosion-resistant, weldable iron-aluminide alloys with improved high-temperature strength are being developed for structural applications, and for weld overlay cladding of conventional structural steels and alloys. The weld hot cracking of iron-aluminide alloys is highly variable to over a wide range of aluminum content. In general, the higher aluminum content alloys are somewhat more resistant to hot cracking, and by careful choice of alloying additions (and balancing of multiple additions), cracking resistance equivalent to commercial austenitic stainless steels can be achieved. Improved weldability, however, often comes at the expense of high-temperature strength. Delayed cold cracking, presumed to be hydrogen-related, is also an important consideration in welding these alloys, either as monolithic materials, or as weld overlay cladding on stainless or low alloy steel substrates. The authors are employing various combinations of preheat and postweld stress relief heat treatments to assess the severity of this problem, and have determined that heat treatment in excess of 400 C following welding will be required to avoid delayed cracking. Due to the difficulties encountered in fabricating some of the alloy compositions into wire or rod, they are also pursuing the formulation of coated electrodes for use in shielded metal-arc (SMA) welding. Initial attempts have shown very high aluminum losses in the welding arc, and additional batches of electrodes are being formulated and produced.

  3. Binding and Direct Electrochemistry of OmcA, an Outer-Membrane Cytochrome from an Iron Reducing Bacterium, with Oxide Electrodes: A Candidate Biofuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggleston, Carrick M.; Voros, Janos; Shi, Liang; Lower, Brian H.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Colberg, Patricia J.

    2008-02-15

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria transfer electrons to solid ferric respiratory electron acceptors. Outer-membrane cytochromes expressed by these organisms are of interest in both microbial fuel cells and biofuel cells. We use optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) to show that OmcA, an 85 kDa decaheme outer-membrane c-type cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, adsorbs to isostructural Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in similar amounts. Adsorption is ionic-strength and pH dependent (peak adsorption at pH 6.57.0). The thickness of the OmcA layer on Al2O3 at pH 7.0 [5.8 1.1 (2r) nm] from OWLS is similar, within error, to that observed using atomic force microscopy (4.8 2 nm). The highest adsorption density observed was 334 ng cm 2 (2.4 1012 molecules cm 2), corresponding to a monolayer or 9.9 nm diameter spheres or submonolayer coverage by smaller molecules. Direct electrochemistry of OmcA on Fe2O3 electrodes was observed using cyclic voltammetry, with cathodic peak potentials of 380 to 320 mV versus Ag/AgCl. Variations in the cathodic peak positions are speculatively attributed to redox-linked conformation change or changes in molecular orientation. OmcA can exchange electrons with ITO electrodes at higher current densities than with Fe2O3. Overall, OmcA can bind to and exchange electrons with several oxides, and thus its utility in fuel cells is not restricted to Fe2O3.

  4. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  5. Bedrock refractive-flow cells: A passive treatment analog to funnel-and-gate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, V.; Edwards, D.

    1997-12-31

    Funnel-and-gate technology provides a mechanism to passively treat groundwater contaminant plumes, but depends on placement of a sufficient barrier ({open_quotes}funnel{close_quotes}) in the plume flow path to channel the plume to a pass-through treatment zone ({open_quotes}gate{close_quotes}). Conventional barrier technologies limit funnel-and-gate deployment to unconsolidated overburden applications. A method has been developed which allows similar passive treatment to be applied to bedrock plumes. Rather than use barriers as the funnel, the method uses engineered bedrock zones, installed via precision blasting or other means, to refract groundwater flow along a preferred path to treatment (gate). The method requires orienting the refractive cell based on the Tangent Law and extending refractive cell limbs down gradient of the gate to disperse head and control flow. A typical Refractive-Flow cell may be{open_quotes}Y{close_quotes}shaped, with each limb 3-10 ft [1-3 m] wide and several tens to a few hundred feet [10 - 100 m] in length. Treatment takes place at the center of the X. MODFLOW modeling has been used to successfully simulate desired flow. Engineered blasting has been used at full scale application to create bedrock rubble zones for active collection/flow control for several years. The method provides a previously unavailable method to passively treat contaminated groundwater in bedrock at low cost.

  6. Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2010-12-22

    To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

  7. Adipose-derived stem cells retain their regenerative potential after methotrexate treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beane, Olivia S.; Fonseca, Vera C.; Darling, Eric M.

    2014-10-01

    In musculoskeletal tissues like bone, chemotherapy can impair progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation, resulting in decreased bone growth and mineralization throughout a patient's lifetime. In the current study, we investigated the effects of chemotherapeutics on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) function to determine whether this cell source could be a candidate for repairing, or even preventing, chemotherapy-induced tissue damage. Dose-dependent proliferation rates of ASCs and normal human fibroblasts (NHFs) were quantified after treatment with cytarabine (CY), etoposide (ETO), methotrexate (MTX), and vincristine (VIN) using a fluorescence-based assay. The influence of MTX on the multipotency of ASCs and freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells was also evaluated using lineage-specific stains and spectrophotometry. ASC and NHF proliferation were equally inhibited by exposure to CY and ETO; however, when treated with MTX and VIN, ASCs exhibited greater resistance. This was especially apparent for MTX-treated samples, with ASC proliferation showing no inhibition for clinically relevant MTX doses ranging from 0.1 to 50 μM. Additional experiments revealed that the differentiation potential of ASCs was not affected by MTX treatment and that upregulation of dihydrofolate reductase possibly contributed to this response. Moreover, SVF cells, which include ASCs, exhibited similar resistance to MTX impairment, with respect to cellular proliferation, clonogenicity, and differentiation capability. Therefore, we have shown that the regenerative properties of ASCs resist the cytotoxicity of MTX, identifying these cells as a potential key for repairing musculoskeletal damage in patients undergoing chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Long-term effects of chemotherapeutics can include musculoskeletal dysfunction. • A screen of common drugs showed disparate effects on ASCs and fibroblasts. • One drug, methotrexate, did not impair ASC growth characteristics

  8. Plea for Iron Astrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostefaoui, T. A.; Benmerad, B.; Kerkar, M.

    2010-10-31

    Iron is a key element and compound in living bodies. It is the most abundant refractory element and has the most stable nucleus in the Universe. Also, elemental Iron has a relevant abundance in the interstellar medium and dense clouds, it can be in gas phase or included in dust particles. During this talk, I shall explain why this special interest in Iron and shall give a brief explanation about its origin and the interstellar nucleosynthesis. After this I'll detail the rich chemistry that Iron can be involved in the interstellar medium, dense clouds with several species.

  9. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  10. 17β-Estradiol treatment inhibits breast cell proliferation, migration and invasion by decreasing MALAT-1 RNA level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Ziyi; Chen, Changjin; Liu, Yu; Wu, Chuanfang

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • E2 affects not only estrogen-receptor α positive breast cells but also negative ones. • 100 nM E2 treatment affects breast cells proliferation, migration. • 100 nM E2 treatment functions in an estrogen-receptor α-independent way. • E2 treatment decreases MALAT-1 RNA level by post-transcriptional regulation. - Abstract: Breast cancer cells, which express estrogen receptor α (ERα), respond to estrogen in a concentration dependent fashion, resulting in proliferation or apoptosis. But breast cancer cells without ERα show no effect on low concentration of estrogen treatment. Proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF10a, MCF7 and MB231 cells treated with low (1 nM) or high (100 nM) dose of 17β-Estradiol (E2) was performed. We identified the effects of E2 on these breast cell lines, and looked for the difference in the presence and absence of ERα. Specifically, we looked for the changes of long non-coding RNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1), which is found extensively and highly expressed in several kinds of tumor cells, including breast carcinoma. It was observed that proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cells were greatly affected by high concentration E2 treatment and were not affected by low concentration E2 treatment in an ERα independent way. We found that the high concentration E2 treatment largely decreased MALAT-1 RNA level. Interestingly, MALAT-1 decreasing by knocking down showed similar effects on proliferation, migration and invasion. E2 treatment affects breast tumor or non-tumor cells proliferation, migration and invasion in an ERα -independent, but a dose-dependent way by decreasing the MALAT-1 RNA level.

  11. Electrical and thermal transport properties of iron and iron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrical and thermal transport properties of iron and iron-silicon alloy at high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrical and thermal transport properties ...

  12. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  13. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  14. Investigating the Effect of Pyridine Vapor Treatment on Perovskite Solar Cells - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Alison J.

    2015-08-25

    Perovskite photovoltaics have recently come to prominence as a viable alternative to crystalline silicon based solar cells. In an effort to create consistent and high-quality films, we studied the effect of various annealing conditions as well as the effect of pyridine vapor treatment on mixed halide methylammonium lead perovskite films. Of six conditions tested, we found that annealing at 100 degree Celsius for 90 minutes followed by 120 degree Celsius for 15 minutes resulted in the purest perovskite. Perovskite films made using that condition were treated with pyridine for various amounts of time, and the effects on perovskite microstructure were studied using x-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence lifetime analysis (TRPL). A previous study found that pyridine vapor caused perovskite films to have higher photoluminescence intensity and become more homogenous. In this study we found that the effects of pyridine are more complex: while films appeared to become more homogenous, a decrease in bulkphotoluminescence lifetime was observed. In addition, the perovskite bandgap appeared to decrease with increased pyridine treatment time. Finally, X-ray diffraction showed that pyridine vapor treatment increased the perovskite (110) peak intensity but also often gave rise to new unidentified peaks, suggesting the formation of a foreign species. It was observed that the intensity of this unknown species had an inverse correlation with the increase in perovskite peak intensity, and also seemed to be correlated with the decrease in TRPL lifetime.

  15. Investigating the Effect of Pyridine Vapor Treatment on Perovskite Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Alison

    2015-08-20

    Perovskite photovoltaics have recently come to prominence as a viable alternative to crystalline silicon based solar cells. In an effort to create consistent and high-quality films, we studied the effect of various annealing conditions as well as the effect of pyridine vapor treatment on mixed halide methylammonium lead perovskite films. Of six conditions tested, we found that annealing at 100°C for 90 minutes followed by 120°C for 15 minutes resulted in the purest perovskite. Perovskite films made using that condition were treated with pyridine for various amounts of time, and the effects on perovskite microstructure were studied using x-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence lifetime analysis (TRPL). A previous study found that pyridine vapor caused perovskite films to have higher photoluminescence intensity and become more homogenous. In this study we found that the effects of pyridine are more complex: while films appeared to become more homogenous, a decrease in bulk photoluminescence lifetime was observed. In addition, the perovskite bandgap appeared to decrease with increased pyridine treatment time. Finally, X-ray diffraction showed that pyridine vapor treatment increased the perovskite (110) peak intensity but also often gave rise to new unidentified peaks, suggesting the formation of a foreign species. It was observed that the intensity of this unknown species had an inverse correlation with the increase in perovskite peak intensity, and also seemed to be correlated with the decrease in TRPL lifetime.

  16. Rapid Disease Progression With Delay in Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry Llyn, E-mail: lkestin@beaumont.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Grills, Inga Siiner; Battu, Madhu; Fitch, Dwight Lamar [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Wong, Ching-yee Oliver [Department of Nuclear Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Margolis, Jeffrey Harold [Department of Medical Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Chmielewski, Gary William; Welsh, Robert James [Department of Thoracic Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To assess rate of disease progression from diagnosis to initiation of treatment for Stage I-IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Forty patients with NSCLC underwent at least two sets of computed tomography (CT) and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans at various time intervals before treatment. Progression was defined as development of any new lymph node involvement, site of disease, or stage change. Results: Median time interval between first and second CT scans was 13.4 weeks, and between first and second PET scans was 9.0 weeks. Median initial primary maximum tumor dimension (MTD) was 3.5 cm (0.6-8.5 cm) with a median standardized uptake value (SUV) of 13.0 (1.7-38.5). The median MTD increased by a median of 1.0 cm (mean, 1.6 cm) between scans for a median relative MTD increase of 35% (mean, 59%). Nineteen patients (48%) progressed between scans. Rate of any progression was 13%, 31%, and 46% at 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectively. Upstaging occurred in 3%, 13%, and 21% at these intervals. Distant metastasis became evident in 3%, 13%, and 13% after 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectively. T and N stage were associated with progression, whereas histology, grade, sex, age, and maximum SUV were not. At 3 years, overall survival for Stage III patients with vs. without progression was 18% vs. 67%, p = 0.05. Conclusions: With NSCLC, treatment delay can lead to disease progression. Diagnosis, staging, and treatment initiation should be expedited. After 4-8 weeks of delay, complete restaging should be strongly considered.

  17. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2013-11-27

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  18. Electronic effects on iron porphyrins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosa, M. De La; Lopez, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    We have inserted iron into a series of substituted iron tetraphenylporphyrins for the purposes of investigating electronic effects on properties of the iron porphyrins. The properties of interest are the CO stretching frequencies of the ferrous porphyrins, the rates of CO dissociation from the ferrous porphyrins, and the UV-visible spectra of the iron porphyrins. We will present our results to date.

  19. Marine Diatoms Survive Iron Droughts in the Ocean by Storing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In particular, phytoplankton, which are aquatic, free-drifting, single-celled organisms that can harvest energy from the sun, have an elevated demand for iron due to the large role ...

  20. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yi Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate

  1. Apparatus and process for water treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phifer, Mark A.; Nichols, Ralph L.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

  2. Biofuels from Bacteria, Electricity, and CO2: Biofuels from CO2 Using Ammonia or Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in Reverse Microbial Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Electrofuels Project: Columbia University is using carbon dioxide (CO2) from ambient air, ammoniaan abundant and affordable chemical, and a bacteria called N. europaea to produce liquid fuel. The Columbia University team is feeding the ammonia and CO2 into an engineered tank where the bacteria live. The bacteria capture the energy from ammonia and then use that energy to convert CO2 into a liquid fuel. When the bacteria use up all the ammonia, renewable electricity can regenerate it and pump it back into the systemcreating a continuous fuel-creation cycle. In addition, Columbia University is also working with the bacteria A. ferrooxidans to capture and use energy from ferrous iron to produce liquid fuels from CO2.

  3. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  4. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  5. Weldability of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, S.A.; Zacharia, T.; Reed, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was carried out to determine the weldability of a class of advanced iron aluminides. Thin sheets of iron aluminides were gas tungsten arc (GTA) and electron beam (EB) welded at different travel speeds and power levels. The results indicate that the weldability of these alloys is very sensitive to the welding conditions and compositions, producing good welds sometimes and severely cracked welds at other times. Alloys containing TiB{sub 2} additions for improved strength and ductility cracked severely upon welding. Alloys without boron and zirconium, in particular alloy FA-129, was found to show more promise for welding than most of the other iron aluminides. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Treatment of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Adjuvant or Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sher, David J.; Thotakura, Vijaya; Balboni, Tracy A.; Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Lorch, Jochen; Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald J.; Tishler, Roy B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The optimal management of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) typically involves surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the setting of adverse pathologic features. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is frequently used to treat oral cavity cancers, but published IMRT outcomes specific to this disease site are sparse. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for OCSCC. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of all patients treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for OCSCC with adjuvant or definitive IMRT between August 2004 and December 2009. The American Joint Committee on Cancer disease stage criteria distribution of this cohort included 5 patients (12%) with stage I; 10 patients (24%) with stage II (n = 10, 24%),; 14 patients (33%) with stage III (n = 14, 33%),; and 13 patients (31%) with stage IV. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were locoregional control (LRC) and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: Forty-two patients with OCSCC were included, 30 of whom were initially treated with surgical resection. Twenty-three (77%) of 30 surgical patients treated with adjuvant IMRT also received concurrent chemotherapy, and 9 of 12 (75%) patients treated definitively without surgery were treated with CRT or induction chemotherapy and CRT. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1-3.1 years) for all patients, the 2-year actuarial rates of OS and LRC following adjuvant IMRT were 85% and 91%, respectively, and the comparable results for definitive IMRT were 63% and 64% for OS and LRC, respectively. Only 1 patient developed symptomatic osteoradionecrosis, and among patients without evidence of disease, 35% experienced grade 2 to 3 late dysphagia, with only 1 patient who was continuously gastrostomy-dependent. Conclusions: In this single-institution series, postoperative IMRT was associated with promising LRC

  7. Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Ozone is used commercially for treatment of potable and non-potable water, and as an industrial oxidant. ISU and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a method for using iron in ozone oxidation that significantly improves the speed of oxidation reactions. Description Ozone is recognized as potent and effective oxidizing agent, and has a

  8. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G.; Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH ; Junnila, Riia K.; Kopchick, John J.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institutes NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on this data

  9. Effects of Sample Treatments on Genome Recovery via Single-Cell Genomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woyke, Tanja; Clingenpeel, Scott; Schwientek, Patrick; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2014-04-30

    Single-cell genomics is a powerful tool for accessing genetic information from uncultivated microorganisms. Methods of handling samples before single-cell genomic amplification may affect the quality of the genomes obtained. Using three bacterial strains we show that compared to cryopreservation, lower quality single-cell genomes are recovered when the sample is preserved in ethanol or if the sample undergoes fluorescence in situ hybridization, while sample preservation in paraformaldehyde renders it completely unsuitable for sequencing

  10. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions have limited their use in applications where good weldability is required. Using hot crack testing techniques invented at ORNL, and experimental determinations of preheat and postweld heat treatment needed to avoid cold cracking, we have developed iron aluminide filler metal compositions which can be successfully used to weld overlay clad various substrate materials, including 9Cr-1Mo steel, 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel, and 300-series austenitic stainless steels. Dilution must be carefully controlled to avoid crack-sensitive deposit compositions. The technique used to produce the current filler metal compositions is aspiration-casting, i.e. drawing the liquid from the melt into glass rods. Future development efforts will involve fabrication of composite wires of similar compositions to permit mechanized gas tungsten arc (GTA) and/or gas metal arc (GMA) welding.

  11. MECS 2006- Iron and Steel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  12. Metal Halide Solid-State Surface Treatment for High Efficiency PbS and PbSe QD Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crisp, R. W.; Kroupa, D. M.; Marshall, A. R.; Miller, E. M.; Zhang, J.; Beard, M. C.; Luther, J. M.

    2015-04-24

    We developed a layer-by-layer method of preparing PbE (E = S or Se) quantum dot (QD) solar cells using metal halide (PbI2, PbCl2, CdI2, or CdCl2) salts dissolved in dimethylformamide to displace oleate surface ligands and form conductive QD solids. The resulting QD solids have a significant reduction in the carbon content compared to films treated with thiols and organic halides. We find that the PbI2 treatment is the most successful in removing alkyl surface ligands and also replaces most surface bound Cl- with I-. The treatment protocol results in PbS QD films exhibiting a deeper work function and band positions than other ligand exchanges reported previously. The method developed here produces solar cells that perform well even at film thicknesses approaching a micron, indicating improved carrier transport in the QD films. We demonstrate QD solar cells based on PbI2 with power conversion efficiencies above 7%.

  13. Metal Halide Solid-State Surface Treatment for High Efficiency PbS and PbSe QD Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crisp, R. W.; Kroupa, D. M.; Marshall, A. R.; Miller, E. M.; Zhang, J.; Beard, M. C.; Luther, J. M.

    2015-04-24

    We developed a layer-by-layer method of preparing PbE (E = S or Se) quantum dot (QD) solar cells using metal halide (PbI2, PbCl2, CdI2, or CdCl2) salts dissolved in dimethylformamide to displace oleate surface ligands and form conductive QD solids. The resulting QD solids have a significant reduction in the carbon content compared to films treated with thiols and organic halides. We find that the PbI2 treatment is the most successful in removing alkyl surface ligands and also replaces most surface bound Cl- with I-. The treatment protocol results in PbS QD films exhibiting a deeper work function and bandmore » positions than other ligand exchanges reported previously. The method developed here produces solar cells that perform well even at film thicknesses approaching a micron, indicating improved carrier transport in the QD films. We demonstrate QD solar cells based on PbI2 with power conversion efficiencies above 7%.« less

  14. Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Filippi, Arthur M.; Sprecace, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    This invention identifies methods and articles designed to circumvent metallurgical problems associated with hermetically closing an all cast iron nuclear waste package by welding. It involves welding nickel-carbon alloy inserts which are bonded to the mating plug and main body components of the package. The welding inserts might be bonded in place during casting of the package components. When the waste package closure weld is made, the most severe thermal effects of the process are restricted to the nickel-carbon insert material which is far better able to accommodate them than is cast iron. Use of nickel-carbon weld inserts should eliminate any need for pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments which are a problem to apply to nuclear waste packages. Although the waste package closure weld approach described results in a dissimilar metal combination, the relative surface area of nickel-to-iron, their electrochemical relationship, and the presence of graphite in both materials will act to prevent any galvanic corrosion problem.

  15. An evaluation of anti-oxidative protection for cells against atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Ruonan; Zhang Qian; Feng Hongqing; Liang Yongdong; Li Fangting; Zhu Weidong; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing; Becker, Kurt H.

    2012-03-19

    With the development of plasma medicine, safety issues are emerging as a serious concern. In this study, both intracellular (genetic engineering) and extracellular (scavengers) measures were tested in an effort to determine the best protection for cells against plasma-induced oxidative stress. All results of immediate reactive species detection, short term survival and long term proliferation, suggest that intracellular pathways are superior in reducing oxidative stress and cell death. This work provides a potential mechanism to enhance safety and identifies precautionary measures that should be taken in future clinical applications of plasmas.

  16. Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tesanovic, Zlatko [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

    2010-09-01

    Superconductivity is a stunning quantum phenomenon and among the deepest paradigms in all of physics. From fundamental theories of the universe to strange goings-on in exotic materials to medical imaging and cell phones, its conceptual and practical dimensions span a reach as wide as anything in science. Twenty-odd years ago, the discovery of copper oxides ushered in a new era of high-temperature superconductivity, and the joyous exuberance that followed - with physicists throwing everything from fancy gauge theories to synchrotron radiation into its kitchen sink - only recently began to show any signs of waning. In the spring of 2008, as if on cue, a new family of iron pnictide high-temperature superconductors burst on the scene, hinting at an alternative route to room-temperature superconductivity and all of its momentous consequences. Fueled by genuine excitement - and a bit of hype - the iron-based superconductivity turned into a science blockbuster of 2009. I will present a pedagogical review of this new field, contrast the physics of iron- and copper-based systems, and speculate on the microscopic origins of the two types of high-temperature superconductivity.

  17. Weldability of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    Improvements in the ductility of iron aluminide alloys, achieved through control of composition and microstructure, has led to growing interest in using these materials for structural applications. weldability is a key issues in the utilization of these alloys for structural components. This paper describes the welding and welding behavior of an Fe{sub 3}Al alloy (FA-129) containing niobium and carbon. Weldability of this alloy has been found to be a strong function of composition, welding process and processing conditions. Crack free welds were made on both sheet and plate material using the electron beam (EB) welding process. Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds, on the other hand, exhibited a tendency for delayed cold cracking. However, the study clearly demonstrated that successful welds can be made using matching filler metal and proper choice of processing conditions. 15 ref., 5 figs.

  18. Computational modeling predicts simultaneous targeting of fibroblasts and epithelial cells is necessary for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Warsinske, Hayley C.; Wheaton, Amanda K.; Kim, Kevin K.; Linderman, Jennifer J.; Moore, Bethany B.; Kirschner, Denise E.

    2016-06-23

    Pulmonary fibrosis is pathologic remodeling of lung tissue that can result in difficulty breathing, reduced quality of life, and a poor prognosis for patients. Fibrosis occurs as a result of insult to lung tissue, though mechanisms of this response are not well-characterized. The disease is driven in part by dysregulation of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation into myofibroblast cells, as well as pro-fibrotic mediator-driven epithelial cell apoptosis. The most well-characterized pro-fibrotic mediator associated with pulmonary fibrosis is TGF-β1. Excessive synthesis of, and sensitivity to, pro-fibrotic mediators as well as insufficient production of and sensitivity to anti-fibrotic mediators has been credited withmore » enabling fibroblast accumulation. Available treatments neither halt nor reverse lung damage. In this study we have two aims: to identify molecular and cellular scale mechanisms driving fibroblast proliferation and differentiation as well as epithelial cell survival in the context of fibrosis, and to predict therapeutic targets and strategies. We combine in vitro studies with a multi-scale hybrid agent-based computational model that describes fibroblasts and epithelial cells in co-culture. Within this model TGF-β1 represents a pro-fibrotic mediator and we include detailed dynamics of TGFβ1 receptor ligand signaling in fibroblasts. PGE2 represents an anti-fibrotic mediator. Using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis we identify TGF-β1 synthesis, TGF-β1 activation, and PGE2 synthesis among the key mechanisms contributing to fibrotic outcomes. We further demonstrate that intervention strategies combining potential therapeutics targeting both fibroblast regulation and epithelial cell survival can promote healthy tissue repair better than individual strategies. Combinations of existing drugs and compounds may provide significant improvements to the current standard of care for pulmonary fibrosis. In conclusion, a two-hit therapeutic

  19. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    can be utilized for acid mine drainage treatment. Economic analysis from this research demonstrates that the results are favorable. The strong demand and the increase of price of the DRI and pig iron in recent years are particularly beneficial to the economics. The favorable economics has brought commercial interests. ICAN Global has obtained license agreement on the technology from Michigan Tech. This right was later transferred to the Westwood Land, Inc. A demonstration pilot plant is under construction to evaluate the technology. Steel industry will benefit from the new supply of the iron units once the commercial plants are constructed. Environmental benefits to the public and the steel industry will be tremendous. Not only the old piles of the slag will be removed, but also the federal responsible abandoned mines from the old mining activities can be remediated with the favorable product generated from the process. Cost can be reduced and there will be no lime required, which can avoid the release of carbon dioxide from lime production process.

  20. Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarma, B.; Downing, K.B.

    1999-03-23

    A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: (a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; (b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (1) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (2) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (3) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; (c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and (d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: (1) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550 C and (2) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 ton per square meter. 13 figs.

  1. Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarma, Balu; Downing, Kenneth B.

    1999-01-01

    A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (i) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (ii) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (iii) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: e) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550.degree. C. and f) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 tonne per square meter.

  2. It is ironic: many immigrants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is ironic: many immigrants fleeing Adolf Hitler's and Benito Mussolini's fascist governments in the 1930s and 1940s played critical roles in the development of Los Alamos National ...

  3. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  4. Visualization at Supercomputing Centers: The Tale of Little Big Iron and the Three Skinny Guys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E Wes; Brugger, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Supercomputing centers are unique resources that aim to enable scientific knowledge discovery by employing large computational resources - the 'Big Iron.' Design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Big Iron are carefully planned and monitored. Because these Big Iron systems produce a tsunami of data, it's natural to colocate the visualization and analysis infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of hardware (Little Iron) and staff (Skinny Guys). Our collective experience suggests that design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Little Iron and Skinny Guys doesn't receive the same level of treatment as that of the Big Iron. This article explores the following questions about the Little Iron: How should we size the Little Iron to adequately support visualization and analysis of data coming off the Big Iron? What sort of capabilities must it have? Related questions concern the size of visualization support staff: How big should a visualization program be - that is, how many Skinny Guys should it have? What should the staff do? How much of the visualization should be provided as a support service, and how much should applications scientists be expected to do on their own?

  5. Treatment and Outcomes in Patients With Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma: The BC Cancer Agency Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Sarah N.; Wai, Elaine S.; Tan, King; Alexander, Cheryl; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To review the treatment and outcomes of patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL). Methods and Materials: Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed for all patients referred to our institution from 1981 through 2011 with primary CBCL without extracutaneous or distant nodal spread at diagnosis (n=136). Hematopathologists classified 99% of cases using the World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) guidelines. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Classification was 18% diffuse large B-cell leg-type (DLBCL-leg), 32% follicle center (FCCL), 45% marginal zone (MZL), and 6% nonclassifiable (OTHER). Of the 111 subjects with indolent lymphoma (FCCL, MZL, OTHER), 79% received radiation alone (RT), 11% surgery alone, 3% chemotherapy alone, 4% chemotherapy followed by RT, and 3% observation. Following treatment, 29% of subjects relapsed. In-field recurrence occurred in 2% treated with RT and in 33% treated with surgery alone. Of the 25 subjects with DLBCL-leg, 52% received chemotherapy followed by RT, 24% chemotherapy, 20% RT, and 4% surgery alone. Seventy-nine percent received CHOP-type chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin or epirubicin, vincristine, prednisone), 47% with rituximab added. Overall and disease-specific survival and time to progression at 5 years were 81%, 92%, and 69% for indolent and 26%, 61%, and 54% for DLBCL-leg, respectively. On Cox regression analysis of indolent subjects, RT was associated with better time to progression (P=.05). RT dose, chemo, age >60 y, and >1 lesion were not significantly associated with time to progression. For DLBCL-leg, disease-specific survival at 5 years was 100% for those receiving rituximab versus 67% for no rituximab (P=.13). Conclusions: This review demonstrates better outcomes for indolent histology compared with DLBCL-leg, validating the prognostic utility of the WHO-EORTC classification. In the indolent group

  6. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. Iron increased

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of 5 Treatment Strategies for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Elderly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirvani, Shervin M.; Jiang, Jing; Chang, Joe Y.; Welsh, James W.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Swisher, Stephen; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The incidence of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among older adults is expected to increase because of demographic trends and computed tomography-based screening; yet, optimal treatment in the elderly remains controversial. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare cohort spanning 2001-2007, we compared survival outcomes associated with 5 strategies used in contemporary practice: lobectomy, sublobar resection, conventional radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), and observation. Methods and Materials: Treatment strategy and covariates were determined in 10,923 patients aged {>=}66 years with stage IA-IB NSCLC. Cox regression, adjusted for patient and tumor factors, compared overall and disease-specific survival for the 5 strategies. In a second exploratory analysis, propensity-score matching was used for comparison of SABR with other options. Results: The median age was 75 years, and 29% had moderate to severe comorbidities. Treatment distribution was lobectomy (59%), sublobar resection (11.7%), conventional radiation (14.8%), observation (12.6%), and SABR (1.1%). In Cox regression analysis with a median follow-up time of 3.2 years, SABR was associated with the lowest risk of death within 6 months of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.63; referent is lobectomy). After 6 months, lobectomy was associated with the best overall and disease-specific survival. In the propensity-score matched analysis, survival after SABR was similar to that after lobectomy (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.45-1.12; referent is SABR). Conventional radiation and observation were associated with poor outcomes in all analyses. Conclusions: In this population-based experience, lobectomy was associated with the best long-term outcomes in fit elderly patients with early-stage NSCLC. Exploratory analysis of SABR early adopters suggests efficacy comparable with that of surgery in select populations

  8. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1984-01-01

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  9. Steelmaking with iron carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, G.H.; Stephens, F.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The concept of using iron carbide in steelmaking is not new. Tests were run several decades ago, using carbide made from ore, in steelmaking furnaces. The problem was that at that time, the need for the product was not clear and the economics of production were not favorable. In the early 1970's Frank M. Stephens, Jr., conceived the basis for the present process, and considerable development work has been done during the past decade to bring the carbide production process to its present state, with the first commercial unit now under construction. The process utilizes the following overall reaction to produce Fe[sub 3]C from ore: 3Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] + 5H[sub 2] + 2 CH[sub 4][equals]2 Fe[sub 3]C + 9 H[sub 2]O. Hydrogen gas from a natural gas reformer is blended with natural gas to form the process gas that is recirculated through the fluid bed reactor, the cooling tower, to remove reaction product water, and back through the reactor again, after reheating. The closed loop nature of the process means that virtually 100% of the process reagents are utilized by the process. The only exception is that a small stream of the process gas is burned as fuel in the reheating step, in order to maintain the level of inerts in the process gas at an acceptable level. The quantity of the bleed stream is entirely dependent on the concentration of inert gases in the fuel supply.

  10. Treatment of HER2-Expressing Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Cells With Alpha Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-Trastuzumab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyerdahl, Helen; Krogh, Cecilie; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Larsen, Asmund; Dahle, Jostein

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of low-dose-rate alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-DOTA-trastuzumab ({sup 227}Th-trastuzumab [where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]) internalized by breast and ovarian cancer cell lines in order to assess the potential of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab as a therapeutic agent against metastatic cancers that overexpress the HER2 oncogene. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival and cell growth rates of breast cancer cells treated with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab were compared with rates of cells treated with nonbinding {sup 227}Th-rituximab, cold trastuzumab, and X-radiation. Cell growth experiments were also performed with ovarian cancer cells. Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at several time points, and the mean radiation dose to cells was calculated. Results: SKBR-3 cells got 50% of the mean absorbed radiation dose from internalized activity and 50% from cell surface-bound activity, while BT-474 and SKOV-3 cells got 75% radiation dose from internalized activity and 25% from cell surface-bound activity. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 2.5 kBq/ml {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab for 1 h at 4{sup o}C, followed by washing, resulted in mean absorbed radiation doses of 2 to 2.5 Gy. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis were induced in all cell lines. Conclusions: Clinically relevant activity concentrations of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab induced a specific cytotoxic effect in three HER2-expressing cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab was higher than that of single-dose X-radiation (relative biological effectiveness = 1.2). These results warrant further studies of treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab.

  11. Visualization at Supercomputing Centers: The Tale of Little Big Iron and the Three Skinny Guys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; van Rosendale, John; Southard, Dale; Gaither, Kelly; Childs, Hank; Brugger, Eric; Ahern, Sean

    2010-12-01

    Supercomputing Centers (SC's) are unique resources that aim to enable scientific knowledge discovery through the use of large computational resources, the Big Iron. Design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Big Iron are activities that are carefully planned and monitored. Since these Big Iron systems produce a tsunami of data, it is natural to co-locate visualization and analysis infrastructure as part of the same facility. This infrastructure consists of hardware (Little Iron) and staff (Skinny Guys). Our collective experience suggests that design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Little Iron and Skinny Guys does not receive the same level of treatment as that of the Big Iron. The main focus of this article is to explore different aspects of planning, designing, fielding, and maintaining the visualization and analysis infrastructure at supercomputing centers. Some of the questions we explore in this article include:"How should the Little Iron be sized to adequately support visualization and analysis of data coming off the Big Iron?" What sort of capabilities does it need to have?" Related questions concern the size of visualization support staff:"How big should a visualization program be (number of persons) and what should the staff do?" and"How much of the visualization should be provided as a support service, and how much should applications scientists be expected to do on their own?"

  12. Kumba Iron Ore | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. Kumba Iron Ore is a company located in Pretoria, South Africa . References "Kumba Iron Ore" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  13. Iron Edison Battery Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a company based in Lakewood, Colorado. Iron Edison is redefining off-grid energy storage using advanced Nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) battery technology. Vastly out-lasting the 7...

  14. Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casey, Charles P.; Guan, Hairong

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

  15. Permeation Dispersal of Treatment Agents for In Situ Remediation in Low Permeability Media: 1. Field Studies in Unconfined Test Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Smuin, D.R.; Korte, N.E.; Greene, D.W.; Pickering, D.A.; Lowe, K.S.; Strong-Gunderson, J.

    2000-08-01

    Chlorocarbons like trichloroethylene (TCE) are common contaminants of concern at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and industrial sites across the US and abroad. These contaminants of concern are present in source areas and in soil and ground water plumes as dissolved or sorbed phase constituents as well as dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs). These DNAPL compounds can be released to the environment through a variety of means including leaks in storage tanks and transfer lines, spills during transportation, and land treatment of wastes. When DNAPL compounds are present in low permeability media (LPM) like silt and clay layers or deposits, there are major challenges with assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective in situ remediation technologies. This report describes a field demonstration that was conducted at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) Clean Test Site (CTS) to evaluate the feasibility of permeation and dispersal of reagents into LPM. Various reagents and tracers were injected at seven test cells primarily to evaluate the feasibility of delivery, but also to evaluate the effects of the injected reagents on LPM. The various reagents and tracers were injected at the PORTS CTS using a multi-port injection system (MPIS) developed and provided by Hayward Baker Environmental, Inc.

  16. Bifunctional air electrodes containing elemental iron powder charging additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chia-tsun; Demczyk, Brian G.; Gongaware, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A bifunctional air electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer essentially comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon; (ii) elemental iron particles having a particle size of between about 25 microns and about 700 microns diameter; (iii) an oxygen evolution material; (iv) a nonwetting agent; and (v) a catalyst, where at least one current collector is formed into said composite.

  17. Phytoestrogens in menopausal supplements induce ER-dependent cell proliferation and overcome breast cancer treatment in an in vitro breast cancer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duursen, Majorie B.M. van; Smeets, Evelien E.J.W.; Rijk, Jeroen C.W.; Nijmeijer, Sandra M.; Berg, Martin van den

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer treatment by the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole (LET) or Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen (TAM) can result in the onset of menopausal symptoms. Women often try to relieve these symptoms by taking menopausal supplements containing high levels of phytoestrogens. However, little is known about the potential interaction between these supplements and breast cancer treatment, especially aromatase inhibitors. In this study, interaction of phytoestrogens with the estrogen receptor alpha and TAM action was determined in an ER-reporter gene assay (BG1Luc4E2 cells) and human breast epithelial tumor cells (MCF-7). Potential interactions with aromatase activity and LET were determined in human adrenocorticocarcinoma H295R cells. We also used the previously described H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model to study interactions with steroidogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. In this model, genistein (GEN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) and four commercially available menopausal supplements all induced ER-dependent tumor cell proliferation, which could not be prevented by physiologically relevant LET and 4OH-TAM concentrations. Differences in relative effect potencies between the H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model and ER-activation in BG1Luc4E2 cells, were due to the effects of the phytoestrogens on steroidogenesis. All tested supplements and GEN induced aromatase activity, while 8PN was a strong aromatase inhibitor. Steroidogenic profiles upon GEN and 8PN exposure indicated a strong inhibitory effect on steroidogenesis in H295R cells and H295R/MCF-7 co-cultures. Based on our in vitro data we suggest that menopausal supplement intake during breast cancer treatment should better be avoided, at least until more certainty regarding the safety of supplemental use in breast cancer patients can be provided. - Highlights: Supplements containing phytoestrogens are commonly used by women with breast cancer. Phytoestrogens alter steroidogenesis in a co-culture breast cancer

  18. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  19. Reactivation of AKT signaling following treatment of cancer cells with PI3K inhibitors attenuates their antitumor effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dufour, Marc; Dormond-Meuwly, Anne; Pythoud, Catherine; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: PI3K inhibitors inhibit AKT only transiently. Re-activation of AKT limits the anti-cancer effect of PI3K inhibitors. The results suggest to combine PI3K and AKT inhibitors in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: Targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is a promising approach in cancer therapy. In particular, PI3K blockade leads to the inhibition of AKT, a major downstream effector responsible for the oncogenic activity of PI3K. However, we report here that small molecule inhibitors of PI3K only transiently block AKT signaling. Indeed, treatment of cancer cells with PI3K inhibitors results in a rapid inhibition of AKT phosphorylation and signaling which is followed by the reactivation of AKT signaling after 48 h as observed by Western blot. Reactivation of AKT signaling occurs despite effective inhibition of PI3K activity by PI3K inhibitors. In addition, wortmannin, a broad range PI3K inhibitor, did not block AKT reactivation suggesting that AKT signals independently of PI3K. In a therapeutical perspective, combining AKT and PI3K inhibitors exhibit stronger anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects compared to AKT or PI3K inhibitors alone. Similarly, in a tumor xenograft mouse model, concomitant PI3K and AKT blockade results in stronger anti-cancer activity compared with either blockade alone. This study shows that PI3K inhibitors only transiently inhibit AKT which limits their antitumor activities. It also provides the proof of concept to combine PI3K inhibitors with AKT inhibitors in cancer therapy.

  20. Iron production maintenance effectiveness system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augstman, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    In 1989, an internal study in the Coke and Iron Maintenance Department identified the opportunities available to increase production, by decreasing unscheduled maintenance delays from 4.6%. A five year front loaded plan was developed, and presented to the company president. The plan required an initial investment of $1.4 million and a conservative break-even point was calculated to be 2.5 years. Due to budget restraints, it would have to be self-funded, i.e., generate additional production or savings, to pay for the program. The program began in 1991 at number 2 coke plant and the blast furnaces. This paper will describe the Iron Production Maintenance Effectiveness System (ME), which began with the mechanical and pipefitting trades.

  1. Predictive Treatment Management: Incorporating a Predictive Tumor Response Model Into Robust Prospective Treatment Planning for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Yorke, Ellen; Hu, Yu-Chi; Mageras, Gig; Rimner, Andreas; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that a treatment planning technique that incorporates predicted lung tumor regression into optimization, predictive treatment planning (PTP), could allow dose escalation to the residual tumor while maintaining coverage of the initial target without increasing dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: We created a model to estimate the geometric presence of residual tumors after radiation therapy using planning computed tomography (CT) and weekly cone beam CT scans of 5 lung cancer patients. For planning purposes, we modeled the dynamic process of tumor shrinkage by morphing the original planning target volume (PTV{sub orig}) in 3 equispaced steps to the predicted residue (PTV{sub pred}). Patients were treated with a uniform prescription dose to PTV{sub orig}. By contrast, PTP optimization started with the same prescription dose to PTV{sub orig} but linearly increased the dose at each step, until reaching the highest dose achievable to PTV{sub pred} consistent with OAR limits. This method is compared with midcourse adaptive replanning. Results: Initial parenchymal gross tumor volume (GTV) ranged from 3.6 to 186.5 cm{sup 3}. On average, the primary GTV and PTV decreased by 39% and 27%, respectively, at the end of treatment. The PTP approach gave PTV{sub orig} at least the prescription dose, and it increased the mean dose of the true residual tumor by an average of 6.0 Gy above the adaptive approach. Conclusions: PTP, incorporating a tumor regression model from the start, represents a new approach to increase tumor dose without increasing toxicities, and reduce clinical workload compared with the adaptive approach, although model verification using per-patient midcourse imaging would be prudent.

  2. Nitrided iron catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in the eighties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the preparation and structure of nitrided iron catalysts and their activity, selectivity, and stability for the reaction of synthesis gas in comparison with iron catalysts pretreated by various other methods, as measured in laboratory reactors; a comparison of product distributions obtained in fluidized-bed, slurry, and oil-circulation fixed bed pilot plants with nitrided catalysts and by the Kellogg entrained catalyst process SASOL, which uses a reduced iron catalyst; and possible methods for refining the Fischer-Tropsch products from nitrided iron catalysts for producing gasoline, including bauxite treatment, the Mobil process for converting oxygenates to high-octane gasoline and C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins, and an alkylation-polymerization process for converting the C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ fraction to high-octane blending stocks.

  3. Method for the manufacture of iron-containing sintered electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buhl, H.; Gutjahr, M.

    1980-12-02

    A method is described for manufacturing an iron-containing sintered electrode for alkaline accumulators as well as the product obtained by such method, in which iron powder and at least one reducible iron compound are intimately mixed with each other; the powder mixture is sintered into a stable body and the reducible iron compound is reduced to highly active iron.

  4. Weldability and hot ductility of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ash, D.I.; Edwards, G.R. . Center for Welding and Joining Research); David, S.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The weldability of iron aluminide alloys is discussed. Although readily welded with electron beam (EB) and gas-tungsten arc (GTA) techniques, iron aluminides are sometimes susceptible to cracking during cooling when welded with the GTA welding process. Taken into account are the effects of microstructural instability (grain growth), weld heat input (cooling rate) and environment on the hot ductility of an iron aluminide alloy designated FA-129. 64 refs., 59 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  6. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print Wednesday, 24 February 2010 00:00 In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of

  7. Improved conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells based on electrospun Al-doped ZnO nanofiber electrodes prepared by seed layer treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun Sining; Lim, Sangwoo

    2011-02-15

    The application of electrospun nanofibers in electronic devices is limited due to their poor adhesion to conductive substrates. To improve this, a seed layer (SD) is introduced on the FTO substrate before the deposition of the electrospun composite nanofibers. This facilitates the release of interfacial tensile stress during calcination and enhances the interfacial adhesion of the AZO nanofiber films with the FTO substrate. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on these AZO nanofiber photoelectrodes have been fabricated and investigated. An energy conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 0.54-0.55% has been obtained under irradiation of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight (100 mW/cm{sup 2}), indicating a massive improvement of {eta} in the AZO nanofiber film DSSCs after SD-treatment of the FTO substrate as compared to those with no treatment. The SD-treatment has been demonstrated to be a simple and facile method to solve the problem of poor adhesion between electrospun nanofibers and the conductive substrate. -- Graphical abstract: The poor adhesion between electrospun nanofibers and substrate is improved by a simple and facile seed layer (SD) treatment. The energy conversion efficiency of AZO nanofiber-based DSSCs has been greatly increased by SD-treatment of the FTO substrate. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} A simple and facile method (SD-treatment) has been demonstrated. {yields} The poor adhesion between electrospun nanofibers and substrate is improved by the SD-treatment. {yields} The {eta} of AZO nanofiber-based DSSCs has been greatly improved by SD-treatment of the FTO substrate.

  8. Method for producing iron-based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Diehl, J. Rodney; Kathrein, Hendrik

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

  9. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    At bottom left, the kinds of iron species found in two transects of the Southern Ocean are ... (ACC stands for Antarctic Circumpolar Current.) The map shows chlorophyll ...

  10. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccha...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the...

  11. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between different theoretical models and experimental data indicated that, instead of localized states due to strong electron interactions, electrons in iron pnictides prefer...

  12. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  13. Oregon Iron Works Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oregon Iron Works Inc Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  14. The Effects of Iron Complexing Ligands on the Long Term Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment of HNLC waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark L. Wells; Mary Jane Perry; William P. Cochlan; Charles G. Trick

    2006-11-18

    The central hypothesis of this project is that natural iron-complexing organic ligands in seawater differentially regulate iron availability to large (microplankton) and small (nano and picoplankton) class of phytoplankton and thereby strongly influence the potential carbon sequestration in High Nitrate Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean. The primary project goals are to: 1) determine how different natural and synthetic Fe chelators affect Fe availability to phytoplankton species that are representative of offshore HNLC waters, 2) elucidate how the changes in absolute concentrations of these chelators affect the longer-term ecosystem response to alleviation of Fe limitation, and 3) ascertain how changes in the ligand composition affect rates of cell sinking and aggregation - representative measures of the efficiency of carbon sequestration to the deep.

  15. The production of iron carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.M.; Scheel, J.

    1997-12-31

    From start-up in 1994 to present, Nucor`s Iron Carbide plant has overcome many obstacles in achieving design production. Many of these impediments were due to flaws in equipment design. With the integration existing within the plant, limitations in any one system reduced the operating capacity of others. For this reason, as modifications were made and system capacities were increased, the need for additional modifications became apparent. Subsequently, operating practices, maintenance scheduling, employee incentives, and production objectives were continually adapted. This paper discusses equipment and design corrections and the quality issues that contributed to achieving the plant`s production capacity.

  16. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print Wednesday, 30 April 2008 00:00 It is now known that the iron present...

  17. Microbial reduction of iron ore (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a...

  18. Homologous recombination contributes to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by high-energy iron ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zafar, Faria; Seidler, Sara B.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2010-06-29

    To test the contribution of homologous recombinational repair (HRR) in repairing DNA damaged sites induced by high-energy iron ions, we used: (1) HRR-deficient rodent cells carrying a deletion in the RAD51D gene and (2) syngeneic human cells impaired for HRR by RAD51D or RAD51 knockdown using RNA interference. We show that in response to iron ions, HRR contributes to cell survival in rodent cells, and that HRR-deficiency abrogates RAD51 foci formation. Complementation of the HRR defect by human RAD51D rescues both enhanced cytotoxicity and RAD51 foci formation. For human cells irradiated with iron ions, cell survival is decreased, and, in p53 mutant cells, the levels of mutagenesis are increased when HRR is impaired. Human cells synchronized in S phase exhibit more pronounced resistance to iron ions as compared with cells in G1 phase, and this increase in radioresistance is diminished by RAD51 knockdown. These results implicate a role for RAD51-mediated DNA repair (i.e. HRR) in removing a fraction of clustered lesions induced by charged particle irradiation. Our results are the first to directly show the requirement for an intact HRR pathway in human cells in ensuring DNA repair and cell survival in response to high-energy high LET radiation.

  19. Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Iron and Steel (125.81 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October

  20. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Iron and Steel (125.81 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October

  1. Arsenic Sequestration By Sorption Processes in High-Iron Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Root, R.A.; Dixit, S.; Campbell, K.M.; Jew, A.D.; Hering, J.G.; O'Day, P.A.

    2009-06-04

    High-iron sediments in North Haiwee Reservoir (Olancha, CA), resulting from water treatment for removal of elevated dissolved arsenic in the Los Angeles Aqueduct system, were studied to examine arsenic partitioning between solid phases and porewaters undergoing shallow burial. To reduce arsenic in drinking water supplies, ferric chloride and a cationic polymer coagulant are added to the aqueduct upstream of Haiwee Reservoir, forming an iron-rich floc that scavenges arsenic from the water. Analysis by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the aqueduct precipitate is an amorphous hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) similar to ferrihydrite, and that arsenic is associated with the floc as adsorbed and/or coprecipitated As(V). Arsenic-rich floc and sediments are deposited along the inlet channel as aqueduct waters enter the reservoir. Sediment core samples were collected in two consecutive years from the edge of the reservoir along the inlet channel using 30- or 90-cm push cores. Cores were analyzed for total and extractable arsenic and iron concentrations. Arsenic and iron speciation and mineralogy in sediments were examined at selected depths by synchrotron XAS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Sediment-porewater measurements were made adjacent to the core sample sites using polyacrylamide gel probe samplers. Results showed that sediment As(V) is reduced to As(III) in all cores at or near the sediment-water interface (0--4 cm), and only As(III) was observed in deeper sediments. Analyses of EXAFS spectra indicated that arsenic is present in the sediments mostly as a bidentate-binuclear, inner-sphere sorption complex with local atomic geometries similar to those found in laboratory studies. Below about 10 cm depth, XAS indicated that the HFO floc had been reduced to a mixed Fe(II, III) solid with a local structure similar to that of synthetic green rust (GR) but with a slightly contracted average interatomic Fe-Fe distance in the hydroxide layer. There was no

  2. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  3. Removal of metallic iron on oxide slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, G.N.; Fruehan, R.J.; Sridhar, S.

    2009-10-15

    It is possible, in some cases, for ground coal particles to react with gasifier gas during combustion, allowing the ash material in the coal to form phases besides the expected slag phase. One of these phases is metallic iron, because some gasifiers are designed to operate under a reducing atmosphere (pO{sub 2}) of approximately 10{sup -4} atm). Metallic iron can become entrained in the gas stream and deposit on, and foul, downstream equipment. To improve the understanding of the reaction between different metallic iron particles and gas, which eventually oxidizes them, and the slag that the resulting oxide dissolves in, the kinetics of iron reaction on slag were predicted using gas-phase mass-transfer limitations for the reaction and were compared with diffusion in the slag; the reaction itself was observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy. The expected rates for iron droplet removal are provided based on the size and effective partial pressure of oxygen, and it is found that decarburization occurs before iron reaction, leading to an extra 30- to 100-second delay for carbon-saturated particles vs pure iron particles. A pure metallic iron particle of 0.5 mg should be removed in about 220 seconds at 1400{sup o}C and in 160 seconds at 1600{sup o}C.

  4. IRON COATED URANIUM AND ITS PRODUCTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1960-03-15

    A method of applying a protective coating to a metallic uranium article is given. The method comprises etching the surface of the article with an etchant solution containlng chloride ions, such as a solution of phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid, cleaning the etched surface, electroplating iron thereon from a ferrous ammonium sulfate electroplating bath, and soldering an aluminum sheath to the resultant iron layer.

  5. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus; Muftikian, Rosy; Korte, Nic

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products.

  6. Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors Title: Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors Authors: Guo, Jing ; Chen, Xiao-Jia ...

  7. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.

    1986-09-16

    An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  8. Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron scattering of iron-based superconductors Low-energy spin excitations have been...

  9. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come...

  10. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  11. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS ...

  12. COLLOQUIUM: How Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: How Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America Mr. Clifford Zink Independent Historian Iron and steel innovations in Trenton helped transform ...

  13. Laboratory Shock Experiments on Basalt - Iron Sulfate Mixes at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory Shock Experiments on Basalt - Iron Sulfate Mixes at 40 - 50 GPa and their ... Title: Laboratory Shock Experiments on Basalt - Iron Sulfate Mixes at 40 - 50 GPa and ...

  14. An Octahedral Coordination Complex of Iron(VI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the most abundant transition element on earth, and is typically found in formal oxidation states of either II or III. However, high valent Fe(IV) and Fe(V) complexes are invoked in the mechanisms of both heme and non-heme enzymes; and Fe(VI) is known to exist in the mineral ferrate.[1] Ferrate is a powerful oxidant, which has been used in soil and wastewater treatment, batteries, and disinfectants; however, it is unstable and often indiscriminately reactive. This has driven chemists to

  15. Acquired Tumor Cell Radiation Resistance at the Treatment Site Is Mediated Through Radiation-Orchestrated Intercellular Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aravindan, Natarajan; Aravindan, Sheeja; Pandian, Vijayabaskar; Khan, Faizan H.; Ramraj, Satish Kumar; Natt, Praveen; Natarajan, Mohan

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation resistance induced in cancer cells that survive after radiation therapy (RT) could be associated with increased radiation protection, limiting the therapeutic benefit of radiation. Herein we investigated the sequential mechanistic molecular orchestration involved in radiation-induced radiation protection in tumor cells. Results: Radiation, both in the low-dose irradiation (LDIR) range (10, 50, or 100 cGy) or at a higher, challenge dose IR (CDIR), 4 Gy, induced dose-dependent and sustained NFκB-DNA binding activity. However, a robust and consistent increase was seen in CDIR-induced NFκB activity, decreased DNA fragmentation, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity and attenuation of CDIR-inhibited clonal expansion when the cells were primed with LDIR prior to challenge dose. Furthermore, NFκB manipulation studies with small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing or p50/p65 overexpression unveiled the influence of LDIR-activated NFκB in regulating CDIR-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. LDIR significantly increased the transactivation/translation of the radiation-responsive factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), cMYC, and SOD2. Coculture experiments exhibit LDIR-influenced radiation protection and increases in cellular expression, secretion, and activation of radiation-responsive molecules in bystander cells. Individual gene-silencing approach with siRNAs coupled with coculture studies showed the influence of LDIR-modulated TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 in induced radiation protection in bystander cells. NFκB inhibition/overexpression studies coupled with coculture experiments demonstrated that TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 are selectively regulated by LDIR-induced NFκB. Conclusions: Together, these data strongly suggest that scattered LDIR-induced NFκB-dependent TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 mediate radiation protection to the subsequent challenge dose in tumor cells.

  16. Discharge model for the lithium iron-phosphate electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Venkat; Newman, John

    2004-02-28

    This paper develops a mathematical model for lithium intercalation and phase change in an iron phosphate-based lithium-ion cell in order to understand the cause for the low power capability of the material. The juxtaposition of the two phases is assumed to be in the form of a shrinking core, where a shell of one phase covers a core of the second phase. Diffusion of lithium through the shell and the movement of the phase interface are described and incorporated into a porous electrode model consisting of two different particle sizes. Open-circuit measurements are used to estimate the composition ranges of the single-phase region. Model-experimental comparisons under constant current show that ohmic drops in the matrix phase, contact resistances between the current collector and the porous matrix, and transport limitations in the iron phosphate particle limit the power capability of the cells. Various design options, consisting of decreasing the ohmic drops, using smaller particles, and substituting the liquid electrolyte by a gel are explored, and their relative importance discussed. The model developed in this paper can be used as a means of optimizing the cell design to suit a particular application.

  17. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-03-18

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

  18. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1998-06-02

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

  19. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus; Muftikian, Rosy; Korte, Nic

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds.

  20. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus; Muftikian, Rosy; Korte, Nic

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds.

  1. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:08 The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is

  2. Synthesis of iron based hydrocracking catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Eldredge, Patricia A. (Barboursville, VA); Ladner, Edward P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A method of preparing a fine particle iron based hydrocracking catalyst and the catalyst prepared thereby. An iron (III) oxide powder and elemental sulfur are reacted with a liquid hydrogen donor having a hydroaromatic structure present in the range of from about 5 to about 50 times the weight of iron (III) oxide at a temperature in the range of from about 180.degree. C. to about 240.degree. C. for a time in the range of from about 0 to about 8 hours. Various specific hydrogen donors are disclosed. The catalysts are active at low temperature (<350.degree. C.) and low pressure.

  3. Treatment of electrochemical cell components with lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl.sub.4) to promote electrolyte wetting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhart, James G. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Electrochemical cell components such as interelectrode separators, retaining screens and current collectors are contacted with lithium tetrachloroaluminate prior to contact with molten electrolytic salt to improve electrolyte wetting. The LiAlCl.sub.4 can be applied in powdered, molten or solution form but, since this material has a lower melting point than the electrolytic salt used in high-temperature cells, the powdered LiAlCl.sub.4 forms a molten flux prior to contact by the molten electrolyte when both materials are initially provided in solid form. Components of materials such as boron nitride and other materials which are difficult to wet with molten salts are advantageously treated by this process.

  4. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Animal, Vegetable or Mineral? Iron is a limiting nutrient in many parts of the oceans, nowhere more so than in the Southern Ocean's photic zone, which receives enough sunlight for...

  5. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-07-29

    A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

  6. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which prevents two electrons from occupying the same site, resulting in a so-called Mott insulator. The lack of information on the strength of electron correlation in the iron...

  7. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  8. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  9. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-04-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. 10 figs.

  10. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  11. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  12. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  13. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  14. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One

  15. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  16. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  17. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  18. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  19. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  20. Maraging superalloys and heat treatment processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K.; Gelles, David S.; Thomas, Larry E.

    1986-01-01

    Described herein are nickel-chromium-iron maraging, gamma prime strengthened superalloys containing about 18 to 25 weight percent nickel, about 4 to 8 weight percent chromium, gamma prime forming elements such as aluminum and/or titanium, and a solid solution strengthening element, such as molybdenum. After heat treatment, which includes at least one ausaging treatment and at least one maraging treatment, a microstructure containing gamma prime phase and decomposed Fe-Ni-Cr type martensite is produced.

  1. Production and Machining of Thin Wall Gray and Ductile Cast Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleischman, E.H.; Li, H.; Griffin, R.; Bates, C.E.; Eleftheriou, E.

    2000-11-03

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham, in cooperation with the American Foundry Society, companies across North America, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a project to develop an understanding of the factors that control the machinability of cast gray and ductile iron. Differences of as much as 500% have been found in machinability have been observed at the same strength. The most machinable irons were those with a high cell counts and few carbonitride inclusions. Additions of tin and copper can be added to both gray and ductile iron to stabilize the pearlite, but excessive additions (above those required to produce the desired pearlite content) degrade the machinability.

  2. Refractory lining for electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contcat with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  3. Method and electrochemical cell for synthesis and treatment of metal monolayer electrocatalysts metal, carbon, and oxide nanoparticles ion batch, or in continuous fashion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2015-04-28

    An apparatus and method for synthesis and treatment of electrocatalyst particles in batch or continuous fashion is provided. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a sonication bath and a two-compartment chamber submerged in the sonication bath. The upper and lower compartments are separated by a microporous material surface. The upper compartment comprises a cover and a working electrode (WE) connected to a Pt foil contact, with the foil contact connected to the microporous material. The upper chamber further comprises reference counter electrodes. The lower compartment comprises an electrochemical cell containing a solution of metal ions. In one embodiment, the method for synthesis of electrocatalysts comprises introducing a plurality of particles into the apparatus and applying sonication and an electrical potential to the microporous material connected to the WE. After the non-noble metal ions are deposited onto the particles, the non-noble metal ions are displaced by noble-metal ions by galvanic displacement.

  4. Understanding the Factors Affecting the Formation of Carbonyl Iron Electrodes in Rechargeable Alkaline Iron Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable iron-based alkaline batteries such as iron - air and nickel - iron batteries are attractive for large-scale electrical energy storage because iron is inexpensive, globally-abundant and environmentally-friendly. Further, the iron electrode is known for its robustness to repeated charge/discharge cycling. During manufacturing these batteries are charged and discharged 20 to 50 times during which the discharge capacity of the iron electrode increases gradually and attains a stable value. This process of achieving stable capacity is called formation. In this study we have focused our efforts on understanding the effect of electrode design on formation. We have investigated the role of wetting agent, pore-former additive, and sulfide additive on the formation of carbonyl iron electrodes. The wetting agent increased the rate of formation while the pore-former additive increased the final capacity. Sodium sulfide added to the electrolyte worked as a de-passivation agent and increased the final discharge capacity. We have proposed a phenomenological model for the formation process that predicts the rate of formation and final discharge capacity given the design parameters for the electrode. The understanding gained here will be useful in reducing the time lost in formation and in maximizing the utilization of the iron electrode. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.021301jes] All rights reserved.

  5. In-situ method to remove iron and other metals from Solution in Groundwater down Gradient from Permeable Reactive Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Clay E.; Morrison, Stanley J.

    1999-09-22

    This invention is directed to a process for treating the flow of anaerobic groundwater through an aquifer with a primary treatment media, preferably iron, and then passing the treated groundwater through a second porous media though which an oxygenated gas is passed in order to oxygenate the dissolved primary treatment material and convert it into an insoluble material thereby removing the dissolved primary treatment material from the groundwater.

  6. In-situ method to remove iron and other metals from solution in groundwater down gradient from permeable reactive barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Clay E.; Morrison, Stanley J.

    2001-07-03

    This invention is directed to a process for treating the flow of anaerobic groundwater through an aquifer with a primary treatment media, preferably iron, and then passing the treated groundwater through a second porous media though which an oxygenated gas is passed in order to oxygenate the dissolved primary treatment material and convert it into an insoluble material thereby removing the dissolved primary treatment material from the groundwater.

  7. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  8. SU-E-T-275: Radiobiological Evaluation of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekha Reddy, B.; Ravikumar, M.; Tanvir Pasha, C.R; Anil Kumar, M.R; Varatharaj, C.; Pyakuryal, A; Narayanasamy, Ganesh

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiobiological outcome of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment (IMRT) for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using HART (Histogram Analysis in Radiation Therapy; J Appl Clin Med Phys 11(1): 137157, 2010) program and compare with the clinical outcomes. Methods: We have treated 20 patients of stage III and IV HNSCC Oropharynx and hypopharynx with accelerated IMRT technique and concurrent chemotherapy. Delineation of tumor and normal tissues were done using Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) contouring guidelines and radiotherapy was delivered to a dose of 70Gy in 35 fractions to the primary and involved lymph nodes, 63Gy to intermediate risk areas and 56 Gy to lower risk areas, Monday to Saturday, 6 Days/week using 6 MV Photons with an expected overall treatment time of 6 weeks. The TCP and NTCP's were calculated from the dose-volume histogram (DVH) statistics using the Poisson Statistics (PS) and JT Lyman models respectively and the Resultwas correlated with clinical outcomes of the patients with mean follow up of 24 months. Results: Using HART program, the TCP (0.89 0.01) of primary tumor and the NTCP for parotids (0.200.12), spinal cord (0.050.01), esophagus (0.300.2), mandible (0.350.21), Oral cavity (0.370.18), Larynx (0.300.15) were estimated and correlated with clinical outcome of the patients. Conclusion: Accelerated IMRT with Chemotherapy is a clinical feasible option in the treatment of locally advanced HNSCC with encouraging initial tumour response and acceptable acute toxicities. The correlation between the clinical outcomes and radiobiological model estimated parameters using HART programs are found to be satisfactory.

  9. Lung Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Unresectable Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer After Surgical Intervention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodama, Hiroshi Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Kashima, Masataka; Uraki, Junji; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takao, Motoshi; Taguchi, Osamu; Yamada, Tomomi; Takeda, Kan

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: A retrospective evaluation was done of clinical utility of lung radiofrequency (RF) ablation in recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical intervention. Methods: During May 2003 to October 2010, 44 consecutive patients (26 male and 18 female) received curative lung RF ablation for 51 recurrent NSCLC (mean diameter 1.7 {+-} 0.9 cm, range 0.6 to 4.0) after surgical intervention. Safety, tumor progression rate, overall survival, and recurrence-free survival were evaluated. Prognostic factors were evaluated in multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 55 lung RF sessions were performed. Pneumothorax requiring pluerosclerosis (n = 2) and surgical suture (n = 1) were the only grade 3 or 4 adverse events (5.5%, 3 of 55). During mean follow-up of 28.6 {+-} 20.3 months (range 1 to 98), local tumor progression was found in 5 patients (11.4%, 5 of 44). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 97.7, 72.9, and 55.7%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 76.7 and 41.1%, respectively. Tumor size and sex were independent significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. The 5-year survival rates were 73.3% in 18 women and 60.5% in 38 patients who had small tumors measuring {<=}3 cm. Conclusion: Our results suggest that lung RF ablation is a safe and useful therapeutic option for obtaining long-term survival in treated patients.

  10. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY); Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  11. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Films | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films

  12. City of Mountain Iron, Minnesota (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Mountain Iron, Minnesota (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Mountain Iron Place: Minnesota Phone Number: (218)748-7570 Website: www.mtniron.com...

  13. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced...

  14. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.

    1985-10-28

    Disclosed is an improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  15. Baotou Iron and Steel Group Baotou Steel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Baotou Iron and Steel Group (Baotou Steel) Place: Baotou, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Baotou-based iron and steel maker as well as a rare...

  16. Iron County, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is classified as ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number 5 Climate Zone Subtype B. Registered Energy Companies in Iron County, Utah Solar Unlimited USA Places in Iron County, Utah...

  17. Sorption of Ferric Iron from Siderophore Complexes by Layer Type...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bottom: Structure of the iron-siderophore complex ferrioxamine B Fe(III)HDFOB+. Image courtesy of Andrzej Jarzecki, Brooklyn College, the City University of New York. Iron is one ...

  18. How Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America Clifford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America Clifford Zink Independent Historian ... DeParTmenT of energy faciliTy Iron and steel innovations in Trenton helped transform ...

  19. Minnesota Jobs to Come with Efficient Iron Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New energy-efficient iron plant offers a ray of hope for workers after local mining company shuts down.

  20. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.; Finnemore, D.K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400 to 600 C; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature. 2 figs.

  1. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. Dale; Gibson, Edwin D.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Finnemore, Douglas K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400.degree. to 600.degree. C.; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature.

  2. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Krishnamurti

    1992-01-01

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

  3. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1992-11-17

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

  4. A Review of Iron Phosphate Glasses and Recommendations for Vitrifying Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delbert E. Ray; Chandra S. Ray

    2013-11-01

    This report contains a comprehensive review of the research conducted, world-wide, on iron phosphate glass over the past ~30 years. Special attention is devoted to those iron phosphate glass compositions which have been formulated for the purpose of vitrifying numerous types of nuclear waste, with special emphasis on the wastes stored in the underground tanks at Hanford WA. Data for the structural, chemical, and physical properties of iron phosphate waste forms are reviewed for the purpose of understanding their (a) outstanding chemical durability which meets all current DOE requirements, (b) high waste loadings which can exceed 40 wt% (up to 75 wt%) for several Hanford wastes, (c) low melting temperatures, can be as low as 900°C for certain wastes, and (d) high tolerance for “problem” waste components such as sulfates, halides, and heavy metals (chromium, actinides, noble metals, etc.). Several recommendations are given for actions that are necessary to smoothly integrate iron phosphate glass technology into the present waste treatment plans and vitrification facilities at Hanford.

  5. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  6. Water Clustering on Nanostructured Iron Oxide Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merte, L. R.; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Laegsgaard, E.; Wendt, Stefen; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2014-06-30

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing moleculemolecule and moleculesurface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the are film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moire structure.

  7. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  8. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Guanguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2016-06-14

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  9. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  10. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iraq NNSA program strengthens national security from afar The Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) program is a key component of NNSA's core mission to reduce nuclear threats. The program, part of NNSA's Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, provides partners tools and training to deter, detect, and investigate smuggling of

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South

  11. Spectroscopic absorption measurements of an iron plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, P.T.; Fields, D.J.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.; Goldstein, W.H.; Iglesias, C.A.; Rogers, F.J.; Swenson, J.K.; Chen, M.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Stewart, R.E. Nuclear Research Center Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 )

    1992-12-28

    The first quantitative measurement of photoabsorption in the region determining the Rosseland and Planck mean opacities is obtained for a well-characterized, radiatively heated iron plasma using new techniques and instrumentation. The plasma density and temperature are simultaneously constrained with high accuracy, allowing unambiguous comparisons with opacity models used in modeling radiative transfer in equilibrium astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. The experimental Rosseland and Planck group means are constrained to an accuracy of 15%.

  12. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  13. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  14. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  15. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Delbert E.

    1998-01-01

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

  16. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, D.E.

    1998-05-12

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

  17. Iron-titanium-mischmetal alloys for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary Dale

    1978-01-01

    A method for the preparation of an iron-titanium-mischmetal alloy which is used for the storage of hydrogen. The alloy is prepared by air-melting an iron charge in a clay-graphite crucible, adding titanium and deoxidizing with mischmetal. The resultant alloy contains less than about 0.1% oxygen and exhibits a capability for hydrogen sorption in less than half the time required by vacuum-melted, iron-titanium alloys.

  18. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  19. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  20. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  1. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  2. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Highlights | Local iron displacements and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    magnetoelastic coupling in a spin-ladder compound Local iron displacements and magnetoelastic coupling in a spin-ladder compound Hypothesis: Is magnetoelastic coupling in [FeX4]-based materials, an important ingredient in the emergence of superconductivity? Lujan Center: Combined Total Scattering and magnetic structure determination (HIPD-NPDF) The study of local, average and magnetic structure shows the existenceof highly correlated local iron (Fe) displacements in the spin-ladder iron

  3. Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Aerosol Solubility: Potential Effects of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Source on Ocean Photosynthesis Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Aerosol Solubility: Potential Effects of Aerosol Source on Ocean Photosynthesis figure 1 Figure 1. Dust storm blowing glacial dusts from the Copper River Basin of southeast Alaska into the North Pacific Ocean, which depends on this and other external iron sources to support its biological communities. (Image: NASA MODIS satellite image, Nov. 1, 2006. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7094) Iron is one of

  4. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  5. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  6. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were identified at the ALS. Researchers hypothesized that the iron had come from dinosaurs'

  7. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue Print Thursday, 21 August 2014 10:43 Researchers studying organic material from dinosaur bones have been able to show that the organic material in the samples contained original soft tissue material from Mesozoic dinosaurs. The x-ray techniques at the ALS were key to showing a possible mechanism for this unexpected preservation-iron nanoparticles associated with dinosaur blood vessels were

  8. Reduction and carburization reactions in the iron bath smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uemura, Kenichiro

    1993-01-01

    Slag-metal-coal reactions in the iron-bath smelter were analyzed based on a reaction model. It was concluded that the productivity and carbon content of the hot metal produced in a smelter can be controlled by adjusting the slag volume and iron oxide content in slag. Furthermore, iron oxide content is determined by the slag volume and the stirring intensity of the slag.

  9. Predictive Parameters of CyberKnife Fiducial-less (XSight Lung) Applicability for Treatment of Early Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahig, Houda; Campeau, Marie-Pierre; Vu, Toni; Doucet, Robert; Bliveau Nadeau, Dominic; Fortin, Bernard; Roberge, David; Lambert, Louise; Carrier, Jean-Franois; Filion, Edith

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine which parameters allow for CyberKnife fiducial-less tumor tracking in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 133 lung SBRT patients were preselected for direct soft-tissue tracking based on manufacturer recommendations (peripherally located tumors ?1.5 cm with a dense appearance) and staff experience. Patients underwent a tumor visualization test to verify adequate detection by the tracking system (orthogonal radiographs). An analysis of potential predictors of successful tumor tracking was conducted looking at: tumor stage, size, histology, tumor projection on the vertebral column or mediastinum, distance to the diaphragm, lung-to-soft tissue ratio, and patient body mass index. Results: Tumor visualization was satisfactory for 88 patients (66%) and unsatisfactory for 45 patients (34%). Median time to treatment start was 6 days in the success group (range, 2-18 days) and 15 days (range, 3-63 days) in the failure group. A stage T2 (P=.04), larger tumor size (volume of 15.3 cm{sup 3} vs 6.5 cm{sup 3} in success and failure group, respectively) (P<.0001), and higher tumor density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3} vs 0.79 g/cm{sup 3}) were predictive of adequate detection. There was a 63% decrease in failure risk with every 1-cm increase in maximum tumor dimension (relative risk for failure = 0.37, CI=0.23-0.60, P=.001). A diameter of 3.6 cm predicted a success probability of 80%. Histology, lung-to-soft tissue ratio, distance to diaphragm, patient's body mass index, and tumor projection on vertebral column and mediastinum were not found to be predictive of success. Conclusions: Tumor size, volume, and density were the most predictive factors of a successful XSight Lung tumor tracking. Tumors >3.5 cm have ?80% chance of being adequately visualized and therefore should all be considered for direct tumor tracking.

  10. SU-E-T-606: A Novel Integrated VMAT/IMRT Technique For the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, N; Yang, R; Wang, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate a novel Integrated VMAT/IMRT technique which combines volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: 2 partial arcs VMAT, 5-field IMRT and Integrated VMAT/IMRT plans were created for 17 patients with NSCLC. The Integrated VMAT/IMRT technique consisted of 2 partial VMAT arcs and 5 IMRT fields. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) for Integrated VMAT/IMRT was compared with IMRT and VMAT. The monitor units (MUs) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated. For each plan, a dry run was performed to assess the dosimetric accuracy with MatriXX from IBA. Results: Integrated VMAT/IMRT significantly improved the target conformity and homogeneity. The V30 of normal lung for Integrated plans was significantly lower than IMRT plans (8.4% vs 9.2%; p<0.05). The V5 and mean lung dose (MLD) of normal lung for Integrated plans were 9.8% and 4.6% lower than VMAT plans (p<0.05). The maximum dose of spinal cord for Integrated plans was 4.9 Gy lower than IMRT plans (p<0.05). The mean delivery time of IMRT, VMAT and Integrated plans was 280 s, 114 s, and 327 s, respectively. The mean MUs needed for IMRT, VMAT and Integrated plans were 933, 512, and 737, respectively. The gamma pass rates were beyond 90% at the 3%/3 mm criteria when the gantry angles were set to 0 for pretreatment verification. Conclusion: Integrated VMAT/IMRT technique significantly reduced V5, V10 and MLD of normal lung compared with VMAT, and the irradiated volume of the OARs receiving medium to high dose with fewer MUs compared with IMRT. Integrated VMAT/IMRT technique can be a feasible radiotherapy technique with better plan quality and accurately delivered on the linear accelerator. Ruijie Yang was funded by the grant project: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81071237). Other authors have no competing interest for this work.

  11. Big Iron for Big Data: An Unnatural Alliance?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Big Iron for Big Data: An Unnatural Alliance? Steve Plimpton Sandia National Labs Salishan Conference on High-Speed Computing April 2012 Big data analytics (BD) versus scientific...

  12. Iron active electrode and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackovitz, John F. (Monroeville, PA); Seidel, Joseph (Pittsburgh, PA); Pantier, Earl A. (Verona, PA)

    1982-10-26

    An iron active electrode and method of preparing same in which iron sulfate is calcined in an oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature in the range of from about 600.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce an iron oxide with a trace amount of sulfate. The calcined material is loaded into an electrically conductive support and then heated in a reducing atmosphere at an elevated temperature to produce activated iron having a trace amount of sulfide which is formed into an electrode plate.

  13. Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide ... Publication Date: 2014-07-21 OSTI Identifier: 1123936 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  14. Mountain Iron, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Iron, Minnesota: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 47.5324267, -92.623515 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  15. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  16. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    occurring mechanism for stabilization of soft tissues has implications beyond paleontology. If iron-mediated reactions are part of a continuum from those that facilitate life...

  17. Recoil-free fractions of iron in aluminous bridgmanite fromtemperatur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from temperature-dependent Mssbauer spectra Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recoil-free fractions of iron in aluminous bridgmanite from temperature-dependent ...

  18. Correlation effects in the iron pnictides (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    One of the central questions about the iron pnictides concerns the extent to which their electrons are strongly correlated. Here we address this issue through the phenomenology of ...

  19. Microstructural Modification of a Cast Iron by Magnetic Field Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenik, Edward A; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz-; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    The current study deals with the microstructural modification of a nodular cast iron during solidification under the influence of high magnetic fields (up to 18 tesla).

  20. Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accurate and precise determination of the redox state of iron (Fe) in spinels presents a significant challenge due to their refractory nature. The resultant extreme conditions ...

  1. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Wednesday, 30 April 2014 00:00 Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron

  2. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Total Onsite Electricity Export 1 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311,3312) Onsite Generation Process Energy Machine-Driven Systems Fans ...

  3. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Littlejohn, David; Shi, Yao

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH.sub.3. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20.degree. and 90.degree. C. to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution.

  4. Low Resistivity Contact to Iron-Pnicitide Superconductors - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Low Resistivity Contact to Iron-Pnicitide Superconductors Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology...

  5. Low Resistivity Contact to Iron-Pnicitide Superconductors - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Resistivity Contact to Iron-Pnicitide Superconductors Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Superconductors are materials which carry...

  6. Iron County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone Number 7 Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Iron County, Wisconsin Anderson, Wisconsin Carey, Wisconsin Gurney, Wisconsin Hurley, Wisconsin Kimball, Wisconsin...

  7. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (IN-11...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (IN-11-024) Low-Cost Phosphate Compounds Enhance Lithium Battery Performance Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About ...

  8. Microbial Metabolism Shifts Towards an Adverse Profile with Supplementary Iron in the TIM-2 In vitro Model of the Human Colon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kortman, Guus A. M.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Maathuis, Annet J. H.; Engelke, Udo F.; Boekhorst, Jos; Keegan, Kevin P.; Nielsen, Fiona G. G.; Betley, Jason; Weir, Jacqueline C.; Kingsbury, Zoya; et al

    2016-01-06

    Oral iron administration in African children can increase the risk for infections. However, it remains unclear to what extent supplementary iron affects the intestinal microbiome. We here explored the impact of iron preparations on microbial growth and metabolism in the well-controlled TNO's in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2). The model was inoculated with a human microbiota, without supplementary iron, or with 50 or 250 μmol/L ferrous sulfate, 50 or 250 μmol/L ferric citrate, or 50 μmol/L hemin. High resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing, microarray analysis, and metagenomic sequencing. The metabolome was assessedmore » by fatty acid quantification, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Cultured intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were used to assess fecal water toxicity. Microbiome analysis showed, among others, that supplementary iron induced decreased levels of Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae, while it caused higher levels of Roseburia and Prevotella. Metagenomic analyses showed an enrichment of microbial motility-chemotaxis systems, while the metabolome markedly changed from a saccharolytic to a proteolytic profile in response to iron. Branched chain fatty acids and ammonia levels increased significantly, in particular with ferrous sulfate. Importantly, the metabolite-containing effluent from iron-rich conditions showed increased cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, our explorations indicate that in the absence of host influences, iron induces a more hostile environment characterized by a reduction of microbes that are generally beneficial, and increased levels of bacterial metabolites that can impair the barrier function of a cultured intestinal epithelial monolayer.« less

  9. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

  10. Hydrogen-induced cracking in pure iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, J.H.; Carpenter, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The modulus and internal friction of Armco iron were continuously measured during cathodic charging with hydrogen to investigate crack initiation and growth. The observed modulus decrease was attributed to crack initiation and growth. The internal friction increase during cathodic charging was attributed to plastic deformation accompanying the crack formation. Both the modulus and internal friction behavior were found to be a sum of two parallel exponential processes. The two exponential processes were consistent with different sources of carbon for the crack-producing hydrogen bubble nucleation.

  11. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  12. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Up-regulation of DRP-3 long isoform during the induction of neural progenitor cells by glutamate treatment in the ex vivo rat retina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Byron, Baron; Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuda, Nobuko; Kobayashi, Daiki; Nagayama, Megumi; Araki, Norie; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2015-08-07

    Glutamate has been shown to induce neural progenitor cells in the adult vertebrate retina. However, protein dynamics during progenitor cell induction by glutamate are not fully understood. To identify specific proteins involved in the process, we employed two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics on glutamate untreated and treated retinal ex vivo sections. Rat retinal tissues were incubated with 1 mM glutamate for 1 h, followed by incubation in glutamate-free media for a total of 24 h. Consistent with prior reports, it was found that mitotic cells appeared in the outer nuclear layer without any histological damage. Immunohistological evaluations and immunoblotting confirmed the emergence of neuronal progenitor cells in the mature retina treated with glutamate. Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 3 (DRP-3), DRP-2 and stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) during neural progenitor cell induction by glutamate. Moreover, mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased in the treated retina compared to that in the untreated retina. These results may indicate that glutamate induces neural progenitor cells in the mature rat retina by up-regulating the proteins which mediate cell mitosis and neurite growth. - Highlights: • Glutamate induced neuronal progenitor cells in the mature rat retina. • Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of DRP-3, DRP-2 and STIP1. • mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased.

  14. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-08-02

    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  15. Fate of As, Se, and Hg in a Passive Integrated System for Treatment of Fossil Plant Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Yost; Paul Pier; Gregory Brodie

    2007-12-31

    TVA is collaborating with EPRI and DOE to demonstrate a passive treatment system for removing SCR-derived ammonia and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant wastewater stream. The components of the integrated system consist of trickling filters for ammonia oxidation, reaction cells containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for trace contaminant removal, a settling basin for storage of iron hydroxide floc, and anaerobic vertical-flow wetlands for biological denitrification. The passive integrated treatment system will treat up to 0.25 million gallons per day (gpd) of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pond effluent, with a configuration requiring only gravity flow to obviate the need for pumps. The design of the system will enable a comparative evaluation of two parallel treatment trains, with and without the ZVI extraction trench and settling/oxidation basin components. One of the main objectives is to gain a better understanding of the chemical transformations that species of trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in passive treatment system components with differing environmental conditions. This progress report details the design criteria for the passive integrated system for treating fossil power plant wastewater as well as performance results from the first several months of operation. Engineering work on the project has been completed, and construction took place during the summer of 2005. Monitoring of the passive treatment system was initiated in October 2005 and continued until May 18 2006. The results to date indicate that the treatment system is effective in reducing levels of nitrogen compounds and trace metals. Concentrations of both ammonia and trace metals were lower than expected in the influent FGD water, and additions to increase these concentrations will be done in the future to further test the removal efficiency of the treatment system. In May 2006, the wetland cells were drained of FGD water, refilled with

  16. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metalized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metalized iron nodules at low cost.

  17. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metallized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metallized iron nodules at low cost.

  18. Heat treatment giving a stable high temperature micro-structure in cast austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anton, Donald L.; Lemkey, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    A novel micro-structure developed in a cast austenitic stainless steel alloy and a heat treatment thereof are disclosed. The alloy is based on a multicomponent Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-Nb-C system consisting of an austenitic iron solid solution (.gamma.) matrix reinforced by finely dispersed carbide phases and a heat treatment to produce the micro-structure. The heat treatment includes a prebraze heat treatment followed by a three stage braze cycle heat treatment.

  19. EPR and magnetic susceptibility investigation of iron-zinc-phosphate glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popa, A.; Stefan, R.; Bosca, M.; Dan, V.; Pop, V.; Pascuta, P.

    2013-11-13

    (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}⋅(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 40}⋅(ZnO){sub 60−x} glass ceramics containing different concentrations of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ranging from 1 to 20 mol% were obtained by heat treatment of glass samples at 650 °C for 2 h. The structural and magnetic properties of these glass ceramics were investigated by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The EPR spectra of the studied samples revealed absorptions centered at g ≈ 2.0 and 4.3. The compositional variations of the intensity and line width of these absorption lines was interpreted in terms of the variation in Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions concentration in the glass ceramics as well as the interaction between the iron ions. The magnetic susceptibility data evidenced the presence of both Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions, with their relative content depending on the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. Dipolar and superexchange interactions involving iron ions were revealed depending on the iron content of the sample.

  20. Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2012-02-28

    A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

  1. Fabrication and mechanical properties of Fe sub 3 Al-based iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.; Howell, C.R.; Baldwin, R.H.

    1990-03-01

    Iron aluminides based on Fe{sub 3}Al are ordered intermetallic alloys that offer good oxidation resistance, excellent sulfidation resistance, and lower material cost than many stainless steels. These materials also conserve strategic elements such as chromium and have a lower density than stainless steels. However, limited ductility at ambient temperature and a sharp drop in strength have been major deterrents to their acceptance for structural applications. This report presents results on iron aluminides with room-temperature elongations of 15 to 20%. Ductility values were improved by a combination of thermomechanical processing and heat-treatment control. This method of ductility improvement has been demonstrated for a range of compositions. Melting, casting, and processing of 7-kg (15-lb) heats produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and 70-kg (150-lb) commercial heats are described. Vacuum melting and other refining processes such as electroslag remelting are recommended for commercial heats. The Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides are hot workable by forging or extruding at temperatures in the range of 850 to 1100{degree}C. rolling at 800{degree}C is recommended with a final 50% reduction at 650{degree}C. Tensile and creep properties of 7- and 70-kg (15- and 150-lb) heats are presented. The presence of impurities such as manganese an silicon played an important role in reducing the ductility of commercially melted heats. 7 refs., 60 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age Superconductivity is a stunning quantum ...

  3. Iron Phosphate Glass-Containing Hanford Waste Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2011-08-01

    Resolution of the nation’s high level tank waste legacy requires the design, construction, and operation of large and technically complex one-of-a-kind processing waste treatment and vitrification facilities. While the ultimate limits for waste loading and melter efficiency have yet to be defined or realized, significant reductions in glass volumes for disposal and mission life may be possible with advancements in melter technologies and/or glass formulations. This test report describes the experimental results from a small-scale test using the research scale melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to demonstrate the viability of iron phosphate-based glass with a selected waste composition that is high in sulfates (4.37 wt% SO3). The primary objective of the test was to develop data to support a cost-benefit analysis as related to the implementation of phosphate-based glasses for Hanford low activity waste (LAW) and/or other high-level waste streams within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The testing was performed by PNNL and supported by Idaho National Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory, and Mo-Sci Corporation.

  4. Iron Phosphate Glass-Containing Hanford Waste Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Schweiger, M. J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Riley, Brian J.

    2012-01-18

    Resolution of the nation's high-level tank waste legacy requires the design, construction, and operation of large and technically complex one-of-a-kind processing waste treatment and vitrification facilities. While the ultimate limits for waste loading and melter efficiency have yet to be defined or realized, significant reductions in glass volumes for disposal and mission life may be possible with advancements in melter technologies and/or glass formulations. This test report describes the experimental results from a small-scale test using the research-scale melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to demonstrate the viability of iron-phosphate-based glass with a selected waste composition that is high in sulfate (4.37 wt% SO3). The primary objective of the test was to develop data to support a cost-benefit analysis related to the implementation of phosphate-based glasses for Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) and/or other high-level waste streams within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The testing was performed by PNNL and supported by Idaho National Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory, Missouri University of Science and Technology, and Mo-Sci Corporation.

  5. Electrochemical Deposition of Iron Nanoneedles on Titanium Oxide Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan Y. X.; Zhang L.; Gan B.J.

    2011-10-01

    Iron as a catalyst has wide applications for hydrogen generation from ammonia, photodecomposition of organics, and carbon nanotube growth. Tuning the size and shape of iron is meaningful for improving the catalysis efficiency. It is the objective of this work to prepare nanostructured iron with high surface area via electrochemical deposition. Iron nanoneedles were successfully electrodeposited on Ti supported TiO2 nanotube arrays in a chlorine-based electrolyte containing 0.15 M FeCl2 {center_dot} 4H2O and 2.0 M HCl. Transmission electron microscopic analysis reveals that the average length of the nanoneedles is about 200 nm and the thickness is about 10 nm. It has been found that a high overpotential at the cathode made of Ti/TiO2 nanotube arrays is necessary for the formation of the nanoneedles. Cyclic voltammetry test indicates that the electrodeposition of iron nanoneedles is a concentration-limited process.

  6. Large Tensions and Strength of Iron in Different Structure States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razorenov, S. V.; Savinykh, A. S.; Kanel, G. I.; Fortov, V. E.

    2006-07-28

    Results of shock-wave experiments with iron single crystals, ultra-fine grain and as-received Armco-iron, at load durations of {approx}20 ns to 200 ns are presented. No evidence of the expected formation of rarefaction shock waves, as predicted by the ab initio calculations, was observed in the range of attained tensile stresses down to -7.6 GPa. The tensile fracture stresses achieved 25-50% of the theoretical iron ultimate strength for a load duration of {approx}10-8 s. The spall strength of a coarse-grain Armco-iron is much less than that of single crystals whereas an intensively deformed Armco-iron with a sub-micron grain size demonstrates nearly the same spall strength as the crystals do.

  7. System and method for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L.; Englund, David J.; Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

    2011-09-20

    A method for producing metallic iron nodules by assembling a shielding entry system to introduce coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh in to the furnace atmosphere at location(s) where the temperature of the furnace atmosphere adjacent at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material is between about 2200 and 2650.degree. F. (1200 and 1450.degree. C.), the shielding entry system adapted to inhibit emission of infrared radiation from the furnace atmosphere and seal the furnace atmosphere from exterior atmosphere while introducing coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh into the furnace to be distributed over the at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material, and heating the covered at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material in a fusion atmosphere to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material during fusion to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material in forming metallic iron nodules.

  8. The carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 is required for subnuclear assembly of RAD51 after treatment with cisplatin but not ionizing radiation in human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Chenyi; Huang Peng; Liu Jinsong . E-mail: jliu@mdanderson.org

    2005-10-28

    BRCA1 plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability through its involvement in DNA repair. Although it is known that BRCA1 and RAD51 form distinct DNA repair subnuclear complexes, or foci, following environmental insults to the DNA, the role of BRCA1 in this process remains to be characterized. The purpose of the study was therefore to determine the role of BRCA1 in the formation of RAD51 foci following treatment with cisplatin and ionizing radiation. We found that although a functional BRCA1 is required for the subnuclear assembly of BRCA1 foci following treatment with either ionizing radiation or cisplatin, a functional BRCA1 is required for RAD51 foci to form following treatment with cisplatin but not with ionizing radiation. Similar results were obtained in SKOV-3 cells when the level of BRCA1 expression was knocked down by stable expression of a retrovirus-mediated small-interfering RNA against BRCA1. We also found that the carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 contains uncharacterized phosphorylation sites that are responsive to cisplatin. The functional BRCA1 is also required for breast and ovarian cancer cells to mount resistance to cisplatin. These results suggest that the carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 is required for the cisplatin-induced recruitment of RAD51 to the DNA-damage site, which may contribute to cisplatin resistance.

  9. In situ XANES Spectroscopic Investigation of the Pre-Reduction of Iron-Based Catalysts for Non-Oxidative Alkane Dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.; Shen, W; Cprek, N; Shah, N; Marinkovic, N; Huffman, G

    2008-01-01

    The reduction in a methane atmosphere of two as-prepared ferric oxide catalysts for the non-oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes has been investigated by in situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy using a novel X-ray transmission reaction cell. The two catalysts were prepared by different synthesis methods (incipient wetness and nanoparticle impregnation) and were supported on Al-substituted magnesium oxide obtained by decomposition of a synthetic hydrotalcite. The reduction of the ferric oxides by methane was followed by iron XANES spectroscopy at temperatures up to 650 C complemented by a residual gas analyzer (RGA) used to track changes in the product gas. Results showed that the ferric oxides in the two catalysts underwent a stepwise reduction to first ferrous oxide, releasing mainly H{sub 2}O in the case of the nanoparticle catalyst but H{sub 2} and CO in the case of the incipient wetness formulation at temperatures between 200 and 550 C, and then more slowly to metallic iron at higher temperatures. Reaction of the ferrous oxide with the support to form magnesiowstite also occurred in conjunction with the reduction. This in situ investigation confirms that metallic iron is the active catalytic phase for alkane dehydrogenation and that observations of ferric iron in samples investigated at room temperature after reduction and reaction are most likely due to re-oxidation of the iron in the catalyst upon exposure to air rather than incomplete reduction of the original ferric iron in the catalyst.

  10. Archaeometallurgical investigation of the iron anchor from the Tantura F shipwreck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aronson, A.; Ashkenazi, D.; Barkai, O.; Kahanov, Y.

    2013-04-15

    The Tantura F shipwreck was a coaster or a fishing vessel about 15.7 m long, discovered in the Dor/Tantura lagoon, Israel in 1995. It was dated to between the mid-7th and the end of the 8th centuries CE. Among the finds excavated were two T-shaped type iron anchors. Of the two anchors, one (anchor A) was thoroughly studied by archaeometallurgical methods in order to identify forge-welding lines, to determine the welding quality and to understand the manufacturing technology. The examinations included X-ray radiography, XRF analysis, optical microscopy, SEM/EDS observation and analysis, OES analysis and microhardness tests. The investigation included characterization of the composition, microstructure, thermal treatments, forge-welding junctions and slag analysis. The results revealed a heterogeneous microstructure, rich in glassy, fayalite and wüstite slag. Iron based phases included ferrite, pearlite, cementite and Widmanstätten plates, all typical to wrought iron. The forge-welds of Anchor A were located. Each arm was made of one piece, weighing about 2.5–3 kg and the shank was made of a few 1.5–2 kg pieces. The second anchor (anchor B) was only briefly examined visually and with a few radiographs, which support the results from anchor A. The research results revealed significant information about T-shaped anchors and their manufacturing process, including hot-working processes without any additional heat treatments, and folding techniques. The microstructure was similar to other ancient simple tools such as saws, sickles, axes and mortise chisels, and though the technology to make complicated structures and objects, such as swords, existed at that time, the anchors did not require this sophistication; thus simpler techniques were used, presumably because they were more cost-effective. - Highlights: ► Tantura F was a coaster dated to mid-7th–end-8th centuries. ► Two iron anchors were discovered at the Tantura F shipwreck-site. ► Anchor A was

  11. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2013-09-17

    A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  12. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L.; Englund, David J.; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R.; Brandon, Mark M.; True, Bradford G.

    2012-01-17

    A hearth furnace 10 for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing 11 having a drying/preheat zone 12, a conversion zone 13, a fusion zone 14, and optionally a cooling zone 15, the conversion zone 13 is between the drying/preheat zone 12 and the fusion zone 14. A moving hearth 20 is positioned within the furnace housing 11. A hood or separation barrier 30 within at least a portion of the conversion zone 13, fusion zone 14 or both separates the fusion zone 14 into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth 20 and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth 20. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth 20. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  13. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  14. Predict carbonation rate on iron catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1980-02-01

    On solely thermodynamic grounds, the main hydrocarbon product of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction should be methane; in practice, however, carbon is frequently produced as well and deposited on the iron catalyst, fouling the active surface sites. South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd.'s experiments with a fluidized Fischer-Tropsch catalyst bed demonstrate that the rate of carbon deposition is strongly dependent on the hydrogen partial pressure in the reactor, much less dependent on the CO pressure, and not affected at all by the pressure of CO/sub 2/. A suggested reaction scheme for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis explains these observations and provides a basis for a correlation useful in predicting carbon-deposition rates.

  15. Rhombohedral magnetostriction in dilute iron (Co) alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Nicholas J. Wun-Fogle, Marilyn; Restorff, J. B.; Petculescu, Gabriela; Clark, Arthur E.; Hathaway, Kristl B.; Schlagel, Deborah; Lograsso, Thomas A.

    2015-05-07

    Iron is a well-utilized material in structural and magnetic applications. This does not mean, however, that it is well understood, especially in the field of magnetostriction. In particular, the rhombohedral magnetostriction of iron, λ{sub 111}, is anomalous in two respects: it is negative in sign, in disagreement with the prediction of first principles theory, and its magnitude decreases with increasing temperature much too rapidly to be explained by a power law dependence on magnetization. These behaviors could arise from the location of the Fermi level, which leaves a small region of the majority 3d t{sub 2g} states unfilled, possibly favoring small internal displacements that split these states. If this view is correct, adding small amounts of Co to Fe fills some of these states, and the value of λ{sub 111} should increase toward a positive value, as predicted for perfect bcc Fe. We have measured the magnetostriction coefficients (λ{sub 111} and λ{sub 100}) of pure Fe, Fe{sub 97}Co{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 94}Co{sub 6} single crystals from 77 K to 450 K. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy has been used to check for anomalies in the associated elastic constants, c{sub 44} and c′. The additional electrons provided by the cobalt atoms indeed produced positive contributions to both magnetostriction constants, λ{sub 111} and λ{sub 100}, exhibiting an increase of 2.8 × 10{sup −6} per at. % Co for λ{sub 111} and 3.8 × 10{sup −6} per at. % Co for λ{sub 100}.

  16. Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen Adsorption and Dissociation on Iron and Iron Carbide Surfaces Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of FischerTropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.

  17. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtron H. Davis

    1999-04-30

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94% {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C.

  18. Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Julie K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600.degree. C. to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

  19. Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, R.N.; Wright, J.K.; Moore, G.A.

    1994-09-27

    Disclosed is a method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: (a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; (b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; (c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600 C to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; (d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and (e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

  20. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    2014-07-21

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370 MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490 MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2 GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  1. Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-08-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on 320 kW fuel cell and microturbine power plants at Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant in Portland, Oregon.

  2. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  3. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  4. Iron-carbon compacts and process for making them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes iron-carbon compacts and a process for making them. The process includes preparing a slurry comprising iron powder, furfuryl alcohol, and a polymerization catalyst for initiating the polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol into a resin, and heating the slurry to convert the alcohol into the resin. The resulting mixture is pressed into a green body and heated to form the iron-carbon compact. The compact can be used as, or machined into, a magnetic flux concentrator for an induction heating apparatus.

  5. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print Wednesday, 30 April 2008 00:00 It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the

  6. Probing iron at Super-Earth core conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amadou, N.; Brambrink, E.; Vinci, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Huser, G.; Brygoo, S.; Morard, G.; Guyot, F.; Resseguier, T. de; Mazevet, S.; Miyanishi, K.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Henry, O.; Raffestin, D.; Boehly, T.; and others

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we report on the quasi-isentropic compression of an iron sample using ramp shaped laser irradiation. This technique allows us to quasi-isentropically compress iron up to 700 GPa and 8500 K. To our knowledge, these data are the highest pressures reached on iron in off-Hugoniot conditions and the closest to the thermodynamic states thought to exist in Earth-like planetary cores. The experiment was performed on the Ligne d'Intégration laser facility at CESTA, Bordeaux, France.

  7. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  8. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  9. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  10. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that transmits waves more efficiently in one direction than the other. Recent evidence for this "texturing" of iron grains in the Earth's inner core comes from x-ray spectroscopy and diffraction

  11. Metallic sulfide additives for positive electrode material within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, William J.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Yao, Neng-ping; Koura, Kobuyuki

    1976-01-01

    An improved active material for use within the positive electrode of a secondary electrochemical cell includes a mixture of iron disulfide and a sulfide of a polyvalent metal. Various metal sulfides, particularly sulfides of cobalt, nickel, copper, cerium and manganese, are added in minor weight proportion in respect to iron disulfide for improving the electrode performance and reducing current collector requirements.

  12. Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; COPPER OXIDES; DIMENSIONS; IRON; PHYSICS; PNICTIDES; SUPERCONDUCTIVITY; SUPERCONDUCTORS; SYNCHROTRON ...

  13. Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah

  14. Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J.; Paris, Alan M.; Vought, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

  15. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS` contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe {sup +6}) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern.

  16. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory is that the grains of iron that make up most of the solid inner core could be aligned in a way that...

  17. Magnetic properties of the iron laminations for CBA magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.; Ghosh, A.K.; Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The required magnetic properties of the iron for CBA dipoles are for the most part the same as those for conventional accelerators, namely: low coercive force, high permeability at both low and high inductions, and high saturation induction. There are two main differences in the CBA application, (1) the iron is at 3.8/sup 0/K, and (2) the magnetic field in the iron can go as high as 6 Tesla, which is well above saturation. Measurements of the magnetization curves for CBA iron laminations at 300/sup 0/K and 4.2/sup 0/K are presented. The data are analyzed in terms of a simple model in which the variation in saturation induction can be separated from the low field permeability variation. Tolerances on coercive force, permeability, and saturation induction are discussed.

  18. EOS for Armco Iron at pressures less than 100 GPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, W.C.

    1984-06-06

    We have constructed an analytic EOS for Armco Iron, at pressures less than 100 GPa using shock data. The efects of the ..cap alpha.. reversible epsilon phase transition have been included.

  19. Percolation Explains How Earth's Iron Core Formed | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... at high pressure (64 GPa) and temperature (3,300 K). a,b, The channel in a has been confirmed to be iron-rich material by element-sensitive nanoscale tomographic imaging; the ...

  20. Evaluation of Characterization Techniques for Iron Pipe Corrosion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Films A common problem faced by drinking water studies is that of properly characterizing ... Fe (hydr)oxides used to simulate the iron pipe used in municipal drinking-water systems. ...

  1. Shewanella loihica sp. nov., isolated from iron-rich microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    loihica sp. nov., isolated from iron-rich microbial mats in the Pacific Ocean A novel marine bacterial strain, PV-4T, isolated from a microbial mat located at a hydrothermal vent...

  2. Dopant Site Determination in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Utilizing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dopant Site Determination in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Utilizing X-ray Absorption Techniques Monday, September 9, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Dr....

  3. Probing high-energy spin fluctuations in iron pnictide superconductors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spin fluctuations in iron pnictide superconductors and the metal-insulator transition in rare-earth nickelates by soft X-ray RIXS Wednesday, November 18, 2015 - 3:00pm...

  4. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory...

  5. Controlled Phase and Tunable Magnetism in Ordered Iron Oxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Finally, the ALD deposition of iron oxide with well-controlled phase and tunable magnetism demonstrated in this work provides a promising opportunity for the fabrication of 3D nano...

  6. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Kiesel, Richard F.; Englund, David J; Hendrickson, Dave

    2012-12-18

    A method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets may include providing multiple layers of agglomerates, such as briquettes, balls and extrusions, of a reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and of a reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) on a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material) and providing a coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material over at least some of the agglomerates. Heating the agglomerates of reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  7. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, James M.; Trowbridge, Lee D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.

  8. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  9. Korea Iron Steel Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steel Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Korea Iron & Steel Co Ltd Place: Changwon, South Gyeongsang, Korea (Republic) Zip: 641 370 Product: Korea-based manufacturer of steel...

  10. Origin of banded iron formations : oceanic crust leaching & self...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 58 GEOSCIENCES; IRON; LEACHING; OCEANIC CRUST; ORIGIN Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles Find in Google Scholar Find in Google Scholar Search WorldCat ...

  11. Iron speciation in minerals and glasses probed by M [subscript...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Iron speciation in minerals and glasses probed by M subscript 23 -edge X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy Authors: Nyrow, A. ; Sternemann, C. ; Wilke, M. ; Gordon, R. A. ...

  12. Modernization of the iron making plant at SOLLAC FOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crayelynghe, M. van; Dufour, A.; Soland, J.; Feret, J.; Lebonvallet, J.

    1995-12-01

    When the blast furnaces at SOLLAC/FOS were relined, the objective being to ensure a worklife of 15 years, it was decided that the iron making plant would be modernized at the same time: the coking plant has been overhauled and renovated and its coking time increased to ensure a worklife of at least 34 years. The surface area of the sinter strand was increased from 400 to 520 m{sup 2}, the burden preparation circuit were simplified, and pig iron production capacity increased from 4.2 to 4.5 million metric tons per year. Coal injection was developed so as to obtain 170 kg/t of pig iron, an expert system was added to ensure more efficient blast furnace operation, and new measures have been carried out for environmental protection. Since these heavy investments have been completed, SOLLAC/FOS is a high-performance iron making plant, allowing it to face new challenges in the future.

  13. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial...

  14. Nitrogen Atom Transfer From High Valent Iron Nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Smith, Jeremy M.

    2015-10-14

    This report describes the synthesis and reactions of high valent iron nitrides. Organonitrogen compounds such as aziridines are useful species for organic synthesis, but there are few efficient methods for their synthesis. Using iron nitrides to catalytically access these species may allow for their synthesis in an energy-and atom-efficient manner. We have developed a new ligand framework to achieve these goals as well as providing a method for inducing previously unknown reactivity.

  15. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM VALUES FORM IRON VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron values. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the values to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  16. Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrosilylation Catalysts Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone Hydrosilylation Catalysts Authors: Trovitch, R.J. Title: Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone Hydrosilylation Catalysts Source: Synlett Year: 2014 Volume: published online May 8, 2014 Pages: ABSTRACT: A brief review of manganese-catalyzed hydrosilylation is presented along with a personal account of how the design for the highly active catalyst, (Ph2PPrPDI)Mn, was

  17. High-temperature fabricable nickel-iron aluminides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-02-02

    Nickel-iron aluminides are described that are based on Ni.sub.3 Al, and have significant iron content, to which additions of hafnium, boron, carbon and cerium are made resulting in Ni.sub.3 Al base alloys that can be fabricated at higher temperatures than similar alloys previously developed. Further addition of molybdenum improves oxidation and cracking resistance. These alloys possess the advantages of ductility, hot fabricability, strength, and oxidation resistance.

  18. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Knoxville Iron Co - TN 07

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Knoxville Iron Co - TN 07 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: KNOXVILLE IRON CO. (TN.07 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Knoxville , Tennessee TN.07-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 TN.07-2 TN.07-3 Site Operations: Melted uranium contaminated scrap metal in order to test industrial hygiene procedures in the mid-1950s. TN.07-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - AEC license TN.07-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive

  19. Strong Orbital-selective Correlation Effects Unite Iron Chalcogenide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconductors | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Strong Orbital-selective Correlation Effects Unite Iron Chalcogenide Superconductors Wednesday, September 30, 2015 Seven years ago when superconductivity was first discovered in the iron-based compounds (FeSCs), one of the very first questions in the field was to find out whether the physics governing superconductivity in these materials were the same or different from the only other known high temperature superconductors (HTSC) -

  20. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  1. Single-Institution Experience in the Treatment of Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma Treated With Immunochemotherapy in the Setting of Response Assessment by {sup 18}Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Ahmed, Mohamed Amin; Costelloe, Colleen; Wogan, Christine F.; Reed, Valerie; Romaguera, Jorge E.; Neelapu, Sattva; Oki, Yasuhiro; Fayad, Luis; Hagemeister, Frederick B.; Nastoupil, Loretta; Turturro, Francesco; Fowler, Nathan; Fanale, Michelle A.; and others

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Excellent outcomes obtained after infusional dose-adjusted etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (R-EPOCH) alone have led some to question the role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL). We reviewed the outcomes in patients treated with 1 of 3 rituximab-containing regimens (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone [R-CHOP]; hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone [R-HCVAD], or R-EPOCH) with or without RT. We also evaluated the ability of positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) to identify patients at risk of relapse. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 97 patients with diagnoses of stage I/II PMBCL treated at our institution between 2001 and 2013. The clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and toxicity were assessed. We analyzed whether postchemotherapy PET-CT could identify patients at risk for progressive disease according to a 5 point scale (5PS) Deauville score assigned. Results: Among 97 patients (median follow-up time, 57 months), the 5-year overall survival rate was 99%. Of patients treated with R-CHOP, 99% received RT; R-HCVAD, 82%; and R-EPOCH, 36%. Of 68 patients with evaluable end-of-chemotherapy PET-CT scans, 62% had a positive scan (avidity above that of the mediastinal blood pool [Deauville 5PS = 3]), but only 9 patients experienced relapse (n=1) or progressive disease (n=8), all with a 5PS of 4 to 5. Of the 25 patients who received R-EPOCH, 4 experienced progression, all with 5PS of 4 to 5; salvage therapy (RT and autologous stem cell transplantation) was successful in all cases. Conclusion: Combined modality immunochemotherapy and RT is well tolerated and effective for treatment of PMBCL. A postchemotherapy 5PS of 4 to 5, rather than 3 to 5, can identify patients at high risk of progression who should be considered for therapy beyond

  2. Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John

    2013-07-01

    DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

  3. Study of hydrogen induced cracking in iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrogen assisted crack growth of Armco iron from cathodic charging was studied using continuous measurements of the modulus and internal friction. A Marx composite piezoelectric oscillator was used to measure resonant frequency and internal friction during the cathodic charging. Internal friction measured before and after cathodic charging was separated into dislocation and magnetic effects. The effects of charging time, vibratory strain amplitude and charging current density were studied. In all cases the modulus decreased continuously during cathodic charging. The internal friction increased rapidly during the early portion of cathodic charging and leveled off during the latter portion. Using a composite sample model (a cracked thin outer layer with a solid core), the change in modulus was found to be proportional to the quantity na/sup 3/..delta..d, where n is the crack density, a is the average crack radius and d is the depth of cracking. The kinetic behavior of both the internal friction and modulus change were found to be a two-part parallel exponential process. The rapid process was quite rapid and was found to be consistent with the initiation and growth of cracks due to the combination of hydrogen and carbon found at grain boundaries. The rapid increase in internal friction during the first process was attributed to the rapid plastic deformation from the initiation of the cracks.

  4. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S.

    2013-11-27

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  5. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation lm043allard2011p.pdf (1.26 MB) More Documents & Publications ...

  6. Interplay between interband coupling and ferromagnetism in iron pnictide superconductor/ferromagnet/iron pnictide superconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, S. Y.; Tao, Y. C.; Hu, J. G.

    2014-08-28

    An extended eight-component Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation is applied to study the Josephson effect between iron-based superconductors (SCs) with s{sub }-wave pairing symmetry, separated by an ferromagnet (FM). The feature of damped oscillations of critical Josephson current as a function of FM thickness, the split of the peaks induced by the interband coupling is much different from that for the junction with the s{sub }-wave SCs replaced by s{sub ++}-wave ones. In particular, a 0?? transition as a function of interband coupling strength ? is found to always exhibit with the corresponding dip shifting toward the larger ? due to enhancing the spin polarization in the FM, while there exits no 0?? transition for the SC with s{sub ++}-wave pairing symmetry. The two features can be used to identify the pairing symmetry in the iron pnictide SC different from the s{sub ++}-wave one in MgB{sub 2}. Experimentally, by adjusting the doping level in the s{sub }-wave SCs, one can vary ?.

  7. Fuel Cell Power Plants Biofuel Case Study - Tulare, CA | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Success story about fuel cell power plants using wastewater treatment gas in Tulare, California. Presented by Frank Wolak, Fuel Cell Energy, at the NRELDOE Biogas and Fuel Cells ...

  8. Microstructural Characterization of Nodular Ductile Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, H K

    2012-01-03

    The objective of this study is to quantify the graphite particle phase in nodular ductile iron (NDI). This study provides the basis for initializing microstructure in direct numerical simulations, as part of developing microstructure-fracture response models. The work presented here is a subset of a PhD dissertation on spall fracture in NDI. NDI is an ideal material for studying the influence of microstructure on ductile fracture because it contains a readily identifiable second-phase particle population, embedded in a ductile metallic matrix, which serves as primary void nucleation sites. Nucleated voids grow and coalesce under continued tensile loading, as part of the micromechanisms of ductile fracture, and lead to macroscopic failure. For this study, we used 2D optical microscopy and quantitative metallography relationships to characterize the volume fraction, size distribution, nearest-neighbor distance, and other higher-order metrics of the graphite particle phase. We found that the volume fraction was {Phi} = 0.115, the average particle diameter was d{sub avg} = 25.9 {mu}m, the Weibull shape and scaling parameters were {beta} = 1.8 and {eta} = 29.1 {mu}m, respectively, the (first) nearest neighbor distance was L{sub nn} = 32.4 {mu}m, the exponential coefficients for volume fraction fluctuations was A{sub {Phi}} = 1.89 and B{sub {Phi}} = -0.59, respectively. Based on reaching a coefficient-of-variation (COV) of 0.01, the representative volume element (RVE) size was determined to be 8.9L{sub nn} (288 {mu}m).

  9. Effect of heat treatments and window layer processing on the characteristics of CuInGaSe{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, K.; Contreras, M.A.; Tuttle, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    Interaction between chemical bath deposited CdS and ZnO window layers are a focus of this paper. Low temperature anneals were used to follow the changes at the interface. Optical absorption spectra show that CdS and ZnO intermix upon annealing. When applied to ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe{sub 2} thin film solar cells, changes in the short and long wavelength response were observed. The latter is attributed to an increase in the energy gap of the absorber by diffusion of S. The interdiffusion is shown to increase the short wavelength collection, and hence the current density of the devices. Photoluminescence data provides some indication of the quality of the interface.

  10. The effect of iron dilution on strength of nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fout, S.L.; Wamsley, S.D.

    1983-03-28

    The weld strength, as a function of iron content, for nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds was determined. Samples were prepared using a Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) automatic process to weld steel plate together with nickel or Monel to produce a range of iron contents typical of weld compositions. Tensile specimens of each iron content were tested to obtain strength and ductility measurements for that weld composition. Data indicate that at iron contents of less than 20% iron in a nickel/steel weld, the weld fails at the weld interface, due to a lack of fusion. Between 20% and 35% iron, the highest iron dilution that could be achieved in a nickel weld, the welds were stronger than the steel base metal. This indicates that a minimum amount of iron dilution (20%) is necessary for good fusion and optimum strength. On the other hand for Monel/steel welds, test results showed that the welds had good strength and integrity between 10% and 27% iron in the weld. Above 35% iron, the welds have less strength and are more brittle. The 35% iron content also corresponds to the iron dilution in Monel welds that has been shown to produce an increase in corrosion rate. This indicates that the iron dilution in Monel welds should be kept below 35% iron to maximize both the strength and corrosion resistance. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-05-09

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  12. Insights into the Structure and Metabolic Function of Microbes That Shape Pelagic Iron-Rich Aggregates ( Iron Snow )

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, S; Chourey, Karuna; REICHE, M; Nietzsche, S; Shah, Manesh B; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Kusel, K

    2013-01-01

    Metaproteomics combined with total nucleic acid-based methods aided in deciphering the roles of microorganisms in the formation and transformation of iron-rich macroscopic aggregates (iron snow) formed in the redoxcline of an acidic lignite mine lake. Iron snow had high total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies, with 2 x 109 copies g (dry wt)-1 in the acidic (pH 3.5) central lake basin and 4 x 1010 copies g (dry wt)-1 in the less acidic (pH 5.5) northern lake basin. Active microbial communities in the central basin were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (36.6%) and Actinobacteria (21.4%), and by Betaproteobacteria (36.2%) in the northern basin. Microbial Fe-cycling appeared to be the dominant metabolism in the schwertmannite-rich iron snow, because cloning and qPCR assigned up to 61% of active bacteria as Fe-cycling bacteria (FeB). Metaproteomics revealed 70 unique proteins from central basin iron snow and 283 unique proteins from 43 genera from northern basin. Protein identification provided a glimpse into in situ processes, such as primary production, motility, metabolism of acidophilic FeB, and survival strategies of neutrophilic FeB. Expression of carboxysome shell proteins and RubisCO indicated active CO2 fixation by Fe(II) oxidizers. Flagellar proteins from heterotrophs indicated their activity to reach and attach surfaces. Gas vesicle proteins related to CO2-fixing Chlorobium suggested that microbes could influence iron snow sinking. We suggest that iron snow formed by autotrophs in the redoxcline acts as a microbial parachute, since it is colonized by motile heterotrophs during sinking which start to dissolve schwertmannite.

  13. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

    2013-06-25

    Method and system for producing metallic nuggets includes providing reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) that may be arranged in discrete portions, such as mounds or briquettes, on at least a portion of a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material). A coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material may be provided over at least some of the discrete portions. Heating the reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  14. Reaction of iron and steel slags with refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, S.; Anderson, M.W.

    1993-04-01

    Slag corrosion and erosion has been a major wear factor for refractories wear in contact with molten iron and steel. In blast furnace ironmaking, the slag/iron interface plays a more important role than does the slag/refractory interface. On the other hand in steelmaking, the slag in the ladles and tundish predominantly affect refractory wear. This paper presents the results of a detailed microstructural evaluation of (a) slag and slag/iron interactions with A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-C refractories for ironmaking in blast furnaces, (b) basic oxygen furnace and ladle slag interactions with alumina spinel refractories for steelmaking, and (c) slag interactions with working refractory lining for continuous casting tundishes. Results will also be presented on refractory wear/failure due to simultaneous corrosion and penetration by the slag.

  15. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2007-07-20

    Typical manufacturing methods produce solar cells with an efficiency of 12-15%; and 14% efficiency is the bare minimum for achieving a profit. In work performed at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, CA, 5 10-486-577 1)--a US Department of Energy national laboratory that conducts unclassified scientific research and is managed by the University of California--scientist Scott McHugo has obtained keen insights into the impaired performance of solar cells manufactured from polycrystalline silicon. The solar cell market is potentially vast, according to Berkeley Lab. Lightweight solar panels are highly beneficial for providing electrical power to remote locations in developing nations, since there is no need to build transmission lines or truck-in generator fuel. Moreover, industrial nations confronted with diminishing resources have active programs aimed at producing improved, less expensive solar cells. 'In a solar cell, there is a junction between p-type silicon and an n-type layer, such as diffused-in phosphorous', explained McHugo, who is now with Berkeley Lab's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. 'When sunlight is absorbed, it frees electrons, which start migrating in a random-walk fashion toward that junction. If the electrons make it to the junction; they contribute to the cell's output of electric current. Often, however, before they reach the junction, they recombine at specific sites in the crystal' (and, therefore, cannot contribute to current output). McHugo scrutinized a map of a silicon wafer in which sites of high recombination appeared as dark regions. Previously, researchers had shown that such phenomena occurred not primarily at grain boundaries in the polycrystalline material, as might be expected, but more often at dislocations in the crystal. However, the dislocations themselves were not the problem. Using a unique heat treatment technique, McHugo performed electrical measurements to investigate the material

  16. Welding studies of nickel aluminide and nickel-iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M.L.; David, S.A.; Horton, J.A.; White, C.L.; Liu, C.T.

    1985-08-01

    Because welding is often used during the fabrication of structural components, one of the key issues in the development of nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for engineering applications is their weldability. The goals of this study were to characterize weldment microstructures and to identify some of the factors controlling weldability of ductile Ni/sub 3/Al alloys. The alloys used in this initial study were Ni/sub 3/Al containing 500 wppm boron and Ni/sub 3/Al containing 10 at. % iron and either 500 wppm or 20 wppm boron. Full-penetration autogenous welds were made in sheet shock by the electron beam (EB) and gas tungsten arc (GTA) processes. The main process variables were travel speed and preheat. The as-welded coupons were examined visually and in detail by the usual optical and electron metallographic methods. Weldments of boron-doped Ni/sub 3/Al were composed of nearly 100% ordered ..gamma..' phase. Weldments of the nickel-iron aluminides were ..gamma..' + ..beta..' phase mixtures, with martensitic ..beta..' distributed interdendritically in the fusion zone and decorating grain boundaries in the heat-affected zone. All welds made in this particular boron-doped Ni/sub 3/Al alloy contained cracks. Weldability improved with the addition of iron, and defect-free welds were made in the nickel-iron aluminides by both EB and GTA welding. Nevertheless, the iron-containing alloys were susceptible to cracking, and their weldability was affected by boron concentration, welding speed, and (for GTA) gas shielding. Defect-free welds were found to have good tensile properties relative to those of the base metal. 34 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Optimization of a Non-arsenic Iron-based Superconductor for Wire Fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mitchell, Jonathan E; Hillesheim, D A; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Rindfleisch, M; Tomsic, M; Safa-Sefat, Athena

    2015-03-13

    Here we report on the optimization of synthesis of iron selenide-based superconducting powders and the fabrication of selenide-based wire. The powders were synthesized by an ammonothermal method, whereby Ba is intercalated between FeSe layers to produce Bax(NH3)yFe2Se2, with tetragonal structure similar to AFe2X2 (X: As, Se), '122', superconductors. The optimal Tc (up to 38 K) and Meissner and shielding superconducting fractions are obtained from the shortest reaction time (t) of reactants in liquid ammonia (30 min). With the increase of t, a second crystalline 122 phase, with a smaller unit cell, emerges. A small amount of NH3 is released frommore » the structure above ~200 °C, which results in loss of superconductivity. However, in the confined space of niobium/Monel tubing, results indicate there is enough pressure for some of NH3 to remain in the crystal lattice, and thermal annealing can be performed at temperatures of up to 780 °C, increasing wire density and yielded a reasonable Tc ≈ 16 K. Here, we report of the first successful wire fabrication of non-arsenic high-Tc iron-based superconductor. We find that although bulk materials are estimated to carry critical current densities >100 kA cm₋2 (4 K, self-field), the current transport within wires need to be optimized (Jc ~ 1 kA cm₋2).« less

  18. Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide photochemical diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Leygraf, Christofer H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor photochemical diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The photochemical diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

  19. Electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Struzhkin, V.; Mao, H.-k.; Shu, J.; Hemley, R.; Fei, Y.; Mysen, B.; Dera, P.; Parapenka, V.; Shen, G.

    2010-11-16

    The electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite is one of the fundamental parameters that governs the physics and chemistry of the most voluminous and massive shell in the Earth. We present experimental evidence for spin-pairing transition in aluminum-bearing silicate perovskite (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O{sub 3} under the lower mantle pressures. Our results demonstrate that as pressure increases, iron in perovskite transforms gradually from the initial high-spin state toward the final low-spin state. At 100 GPa, both aluminum-free and aluminum-bearing samples exhibit a mixed spin state. The residual magnetic moment in the aluminum-bearing perovskite is significantly higher than that in its aluminum-free counterpart. The observed spin evolution with pressure can be explained by the presence of multiple iron species and the occurrence of partial spin-paring transitions in the perovskite. Pressure-induced spin-pairing transitions in the perovskite would have important bearing on the magnetic, thermoelastic, and transport properties of the lower mantle, and on the distribution of iron in the Earth's interior. The lower mantle constitutes more than half of the Earth's interior by volume (1), and it is believed to consist predominantly (80-100%) of (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O{sub 3} perovskite (hereafter called perovskite), with up to 20% (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase (2). The electronic spin state of iron has direct influence on the physical properties and chemical behavior of its host phase. Hence, knowledge on the spin state of iron is important for the interpretation of seismic observations, geochemical modeling, and geodynamic simulation of the Earth's deep interior (3, 4). Crystal field theory (4, 5) and band theory (6) predicted that a high-spin to low-spin transition would occur as a result of compression. To date, no experimental data exist on the spin sate of iron in Al-bearing perovskite. To detect possible spinpairing transition of iron in perovskite under the lower mantle

  20. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  1. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  2. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  3. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  4. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, Michael S.; Murtha, Marlyn J.

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  5. Effects of titanium and zirconium on iron aluminide weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, R.P.; Edwards, G.R.; David, S.A.

    1996-08-01

    Iron aluminides form a coarse fusion zone microstructure when gas-tungsten arc welded. This microstructure is susceptible to hydrogen cracking when water vapor is present in the welding environment. Because fusion zone microstructural refinement can reduce the hydrogen cracking susceptibility, titanium was used to inoculate the weld pool in iron aluminide alloy FA-129. Although the fusion zone microstructure was significantly refined by this method, the fracture stress was found to decrease with titanium additions. This decrease is attributed to an increase in inclusions at the grain boundaries.

  6. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iran Deal is Working The Iran Deal is Working Addthis Topic Nuclear Security & Safety Since the Iran Deal came into effect in October 2015, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) verified that Iran undertook critical steps to ensure its four pathways to a nuclear bomb are blocked. Watch to see how the Iran Deal is working

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a

  7. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  8. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons. A team from the University of California, Berkeley, Tel Aviv University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has used x-ray diffraction at very high pressure to investigate the effects of this transition on the elastic properties of magnesiowüstite (Mg1-xFex)O,

  9. WATER TREATMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  10. Disposal Authorization Statement

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    November 2005 Through February 2008 | Department of Energy Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through

  11. Effects of high temperature surface oxides on room temperature aqueous corrosion and environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, R.A.; Perrin, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing, heat treatment (750 {degrees}C in air, one hour) or simulated in-service-type oxidation (1000{degrees}C in air, 24 hours) on the room-temperature aqueous-corrosion and environmental-embrittlement characteristics of iron aluminides. Materials evaluated included the Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides, FA-84, FA-129, FAL and FAL-Mo, a FeAl-based iron aluminide, FA-385, and a disordered low-aluminum Fe-Al alloy, FAPY. Tests were performed in a mild acid-chloride solution to simulate aggressive atmospheric corrosion. Cyclic-anodic-polarization tests were employed to evaluate resistances to localized aqueous corrosion. The high-temperature oxide surfaces consistently produced detrimental results relative to mechanically or chemically cleaned surfaces. Specifically, the pitting corrosion resistances were much lower for the as-processed and 750{degrees} C surfaces, relative to the cleaned surfaces, for FA-84, FA-129, FAL-Mo, FA-385 and FAPY. Furthermore, the pitting corrosion resistances were much lower for the 1000{degrees}C surfaces, relative to cleaned surfaces, for FA-129, FAL and FAL-Mo.

  12. ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry steelprofile.pdf (581.28 KB) ...

  13. ITmk3: High-Quality Iron Nuggets Using a Rotary Hearth Furnace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The industrial sector consumes 30% of all U.S. energy consumption, of which about half (1.5 quad) is consumed by iron and steel production. Despite steadily increasing demand the iron and steel...

  14. Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)[subscript...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)subscript 3 Ink Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)subscript 3 Ink...

  15. Solvent Tuning of Properties of Iron-Sulfur Clusters in Proteins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Proteins Figure 1. Schematic repre-sentation of the common active-site iron-sulfur cluster structural motif. Proteins containing Fe4S4 iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous in...

  16. Magnetic states of the two-leg-ladder alkali metal iron selenides...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    states of the two-leg-ladder alkali metal iron selenides AFe2Se3 Prev Next Title: Magnetic states of the two-leg-ladder alkali metal iron selenides AFe2Se3 Authors: Luo, ...

  17. Studies of anisotropy of iron based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Jason

    2013-05-15

    To study the electronic anisotropy in iron based superconductors, the temperature dependent London penetration depth, {Delta}{lambda}#1;#21;(T), have been measured in several compounds, along with the angular dependent upper critical field, H{sub c2}(T). Study was undertaken on single crystals of Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} with x=0.108 and x=0.127, in the overdoped range of the doping phase diagram, characterized by notable modulation of the superconducting gap. Heavy ion irradiation with matching field doses of 6 T and 6.5 T respectively, were used to create columnar defects and to study their effect on the temperature {Delta}{lambda}#1;#21;(T). The variation of the low-temperature penetration depth in both pristine and irradiated samples was #12;tted with a power-law function {Delta}{lambda}#1;#21;(T) = AT{sup n}. Irradiation increases the magnitude of the pre-factor A and decreases the exponent n, similar to the effect on the optimally doped samples. This finding supports the universal s{sub {+-}}#6; scenario for the whole doping range. Knowing that the s{sub {+-}}#6; gap symmetry exists across the superconducting dome for the electron doped systems, we next looked at {lambda}#21;(T), in optimally - doped, SrFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2}, x =0.35. Both, as-grown (T{sub c} ~ #25;25 K) and annealed (T{sub c} ~ #25;35 K) single crystals of SrFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} were measured. Annealing decreases the absolute value of the London penetration depth from #21;{lambda}(0) = 300 {+-}#6; 10 nm in as-grown samples to {lambda}#21;(0) = 275{+-}#6;10 nm. At low temperatures, {lambda}#21;(T) #24;~ T indicates a superconducting gap with line nodes. Analysis of the full-temperature range superfluid density is consistent with the line nodes, but differs from the simple single-gap d-wave. The observed behavior is very similar to that of BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2}, showing that isovalently substituted pnictides are inherently

  18. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint- Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input

  19. Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iron and Steel Manufacturing Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in

  20. Chromium modified nickel-iron aluminide useful in sulfur bearing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cathcart, John V.; Liu, Chain T.

    1989-06-13

    An improved nickel-iron aluminide containing chromium and molybdenum additions to improve resistance to sulfur attack.

  1. High-strength iron aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKamey, C.G.; Marrero-Santos, Y.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1995-06-01

    Past studies have shown that binary Fe{sub 3}Al possesses low creep-rupture strength compared to many other alloys, with creep-rupture lives of less than 5 h being reported for tests conducted at 593{degrees}C and 207 MPa. The combination of poor creep resistance and low room-temperature tensile density due to a susceptibility to environmentally-induced dynamic hydrogen embrittlement has limited use of these alloys for structural applications, despite their excellent corrosion properties. Improvements in room temperature tensile ductility have been realized mainly through alloying effects, changes in thermomechanical processing to control microstructure, and by control of the specimen`s surface condition. Ductilities of 10-20% and tensile yield strengths as high as 500 MPa have been reported. In terms of creep-rupture strength, small additions of Mo, Nb, and Zr have produced significant improvements, but at the expense of weldability and room-temperature tensile ductility. Recently an alloy containing these additions, designated FA-180, was shown to exhibit a creep-rupture life of over 2000 h after a heat treatment of 1 h at 1150{degrees}C. This study presents the results of creep-rupture tests at various test temperatures and stresses and discusses the results as part of our effort to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved with heat treatment at 1150{degrees}C.

  2. Effects of titanium and zirconium on iron aluminide weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulac, B.L.; Edwards, G.R.; Burt, R.P.; David, S.A.

    1997-12-01

    When gas-tungsten arc welded, iron aluminides form a coarse fusion zone microstructure which is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Titanium inoculation effectively refined the fusion zone microstructure in iron aluminide weldments, but the inoculated weldments had a reduced fracture strength despite the presence of a finer microstructure. The weldments fractured by transgranular cleavage which nucleated at cracked second phase particles. With titanium inoculation, second phase particles in the fusion zone changed shape and also became more concentrated at the grain boundaries, which increased the particle spacing in the fusion zone. The observed decrease in fracture strength with titanium inoculation was attributed to increased spacing of second phase particles in the fusion zone. Current research has focused on the weldability of zirconium- and carbon-alloyed iron aluminides. Preliminary work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has shown that zirconium and carbon additions affect the weldability of the alloy as well as the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the weldments. A sigmajig hot cracking test apparatus has been constructed and tested at Colorado School of Mines. Preliminary characterization of hot cracking of three zirconium- and carbon-alloyed iron aluminides, each containing a different total concentration of zirconium at a constant zirconium/carbon ratio of ten, is in progress. Future testing will include low zirconium alloys at zirconium/carbon ratios of five and one, as well as high zirconium alloys (1.5 to 2.0 atomic percent) at zirconium/carbon ratios of ten to forty.

  3. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  4. Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38 Using polarized and ...

  5. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C H

    1991-02-14

    Progress is reported for a four-year fundamental investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for FT synthesis, the objectives of which were to (1) determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation and (2) model the global rates of deactivation at the surface of the catalyst for the same catalysts. A computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was designed, constructed and tested. Kinetic data for CO hydrogenation on unsupported, unpromoted iron, 99% Fe/1% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and K-promoted 99% Fe/1% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were obtained as functions of temperature, reactant particle pressures and time. The activity/selectivity and kinetic data are consistent with those previously reported for supported, unpromoted and promoted iron. Two kinds of deactivation were observed during FT synthesis on these samples: (1) loss of surface area after reduction of unsupported, unpromoted iron at 400{degree}C and (2) loss of activity with time due to carbon deposition, especially in the case of K-promoted 99% Fe/1% A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Deactivation rate data were obtained for CO hydrogenation on promoted Fe as a function of time, temperature, and H{sub 2}/CO ratio. 50 refs., 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. MECHANICAL ALLOYING AND THERMAL TREATMENT FOR PRODUCTION OF ZIRCONIUM IRON HYDROGEN ISOTOPE GETTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2008-02-20

    The objective of this task was to demonstrate that metal hydrides could be produced by mechanical alloying in the quantities needed to support production-scale hydrogen isotope separations. Three starting compositions (ratios of elemental Zr and Fe powders) were selected and attritor milled under argon for times of 8 to 60 hours. In general, milling times of at least 24 hours were required to form the desired Zr{sub 2}Fe and Zr{sub 3}Fe phases, although a considerable amount of unalloyed Zr and Fe remained. Milling in liquid nitrogen does not appear to provide any advantages over milling in hexane, particularly due to the formation of ZrN after longer milling times. Carbides of Zr formed during some of the milling experiments in hexane. Elemental Zr was present in the as-milled material but not detected after annealing for milling times of 48 and 60 hours. It may be that after intimate mixing of the powders in the attritor mill the annealing temperature was sufficient to allow for the formation of a Zr-Fe alloy. Further investigation of this conversion is necessary, and could provide an opportunity for reducing the amount of unreacted metal powder after milling.

  7. Alteration of Iron-Rich Lacustrine Sediments by Dissimilatory Iron-Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe,S.; Roberts, J.; Weisener, C.; Fowle, D.

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of Fe during bacterial anaerobic respiration in sediments and soils not only causes the degradation of organic matter but also results in changes in mineralogy and the redistribution of many nutrients and trace metals. Understanding trace metal patterns in sedimentary rocks and predicting the fate of contaminants in the environment requires a detailed understanding of the mechanisms through which they are redistributed during Fe reduction. In this work, lacustrine sediments from Lake Matano in Indonesia were incubated in a minimal media with the dissimilatory iron reducing (DIR) bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens 200R. These sediments were reductively dissolved at rates slower than pure synthetic goethite despite the presence of an 'easily reducible' component, as defined by selective extractions. DIR of the lacustrine sediments resulted in the substrate-dependent production of abundant quantities of extracellular polymeric substances. Trace elements, including Ni, Co, P, Si, and As, were released from the sediments with progressive Fe reduction while Cr was sequestered. Much of the initial trace metal mobility can be attributed to the rapid reduction of a Mn-rich oxyhydroxide phase. The production of organo-Fe(III) reveals that DIR bacteria can generate significant metal complexation capacity. This work demonstrates that DIR induces the release of many elements associated with Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides, despite secondary mineralization.

  8. Iron Aerogel and Xerogel Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bali, S.; Huggins, F; Huffman, G; Ernst, R; Pugmire, R; Eyring, E

    2009-01-01

    Iron aerogels, potassium-doped iron aerogels, and potassium-doped iron xerogels have been synthesized and characterized and their catalytic activity in the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction has been studied. Iron aerogels and xerogels were synthesized by polycondensation of an ethanolic solution of iron(III) chloride hexahydrate with propylene oxide which acts as a proton scavenger for the initiation of hydrolysis and polycondensation. Potassium was incorporated in the iron aerogel and iron xerogel by adding aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to the ethanolic solutions of the Fe(III) precursor prior to addition of propylene oxide. Fischer-Tropsch activities of the catalysts were tested in a fixed bed reactor at a pressure of 100 psi with a H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 2:1. Iron aerogels were found to be active for F-T synthesis, and their F-T activities increased on addition of a K containing promoter. Moessbauer spectroscopic data are consistent with an open, nonrigid iron(III) aerogel structure progressing to an iron carbide/metallic iron catalyst via agglomeration as the F-T synthesis proceeds in the course of a 35 h fixed bed reaction test.

  9. High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and volume difference between the metal-oxide pairs Fe-FeO and Ni-NiO were measured using synchrotron X-ray diffraction in a multi-anvil press and laser heated diamond anvil cells. ...

  10. Use of bimodal carbon distribution in compacts for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao

    2014-04-08

    A method for use in production of metallic iron nodules comprising providing a reducible mixture into a hearth furnace for the production of metallic iron nodules, where the reducible mixture comprises a quantity of reducible iron bearing material, a quantity of first carbonaceous reducing material of a size less than about 28 mesh of an amount between about 65 percent and about 95 percent of a stoichiometric amount necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material, and a quantity of second carbonaceous reducing material with an average particle size greater than average particle size of the first carbonaceous reducing material and a size between about 3 mesh and about 48 mesh of an amount between about 20 percent and about 60 percent of a stoichiometric amount of necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material.

  11. Use of bimodal carbon distribution in compacts for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao

    2012-10-16

    A method for use in production of metallic iron nodules comprising providing a reducible mixture into a hearth furnace for the production of metallic iron nodules, where the reducible mixture comprises a quantity of reducible iron bearing material, a quantity of first carbonaceous reducing material of a size less than about 28 mesh of an amount between about 65 percent and about 95 percent of a stoichiometric amount necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material, and a quantity of second carbonaceous reducing material with an average particle size greater than average particle size of the first carbonaceous reducing material and a size between about 3 mesh and about 48 mesh of an amount between about 20 percent and about 60 percent of a stoichiometric amount of necessary for complete iron reduction of the reducible iron bearing material.

  12. Solid-solid phase transition measurements in iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Cynthia Louise

    2010-01-01

    Previously, dynamic experiments on iron have observed a non-zero transition time and width in the solid-solid {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition. Using Proton Radiography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have performed plate impact experiments on iron to further study the {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition which occurs at 13GPa. A 40mm bore powder gun was coupled to a proton radiography beam line and imaging system and synchronized to the impact of the projectile on the target sample with the proton beam pattern. A typical experimental configuration for the iron study, as shown below in 3 color-enhanced radiographs, is a 40mm diameter aluminum sabot impacting a 40mm diameter of polycrystalline ARMCO iron. The iron is backed by a sapphire optical window for velocimetry measurements. The aluminum flyer on the left of the iron is barely visible for visual display purposes. Direct density jumps were measured which corresponded to calculations to within 1% using a Wondy mUlti-phase equation of state model. In addition, shock velocities were measured using an edge fitting technique and followed that edge movement from radiograph to radiograph, where radiographs are separated in time by 500 ns. Preliminary measurements give a shock velocity (P1 wave) of 5.251 km/s. The projectile velocity was 0.725 km/s which translate to a peak stress of 17.5 GPa. Assuming the P1 wave is instantaneous, we are able to calibrate the chromatic, motion, object and camera blur by measuring the width of the P1 wave. This approximation works in this case since each of the two density jumps are small compared to the density of the object. Subtracting the measured width of the P1 wave in quadrature from the width of the P2 wave gives a preliminary measurement of the transition length of 265 {mu}m. Therefore, a preliminary measured phase transition relaxation time {tau} = transition length/u{sub s} = 265 {mu}m/5.251 km/s = 50 ns. Both Boettger and Jensen conclude that the

  13. Kinetics of Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Iron (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Cynthia, L

    2011-01-27

    Previously, dynamic experiments on iron have observed a non-zero transition time and width in the solid-solid {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition. Using Proton Radiography at the los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have performed plate impact experiments on iron to further study the {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition which occurs at 13GPa. A 40mm bore powder gun was coupled to a proton radiography beam line and imaging system and synchronized to the impact of the projectile on the target sample with the proton beam pattern. A typical experimental configuration for the iron study, as shown below in 3 color-enhanced radiographs, is a 40mm diameter aluminum sabot impacting a 40mm diameter of polycrystalline ARMCO iron. The iron is backed by a sapphire optical window for velocimetry measurements. The aluminum flyer on the left of the iron is barely visible for visual display purposes. Direct density jumps were measured which corresponded to calculations to within 1% using a Wondy multi-phase equation of state model. In addition, shock velocities were measured using an edge fitting technique and followed that edge movement from radiograph to radiograph, where rad iographs are separated in time by 500 ns. Preliminary measurements give a shock velocity (P1 wave) of 5.251 km/s. The projectile velocity was 0.725 km/s which translate to a peak stress of 17.5 GPa. Assuming the P1 wave is instantaneous, we are able to calibrate the chromatic, motion, object and camera blur by measuring the width of the P1 wave. This approximation works in this case since each of the two density jumps are small compared to the density of the object. Subtracting the measured width of the P1 wave in quadrature from the width of the P2 wave gives a preliminary measurement of the transition length of 265 {micro}m. Therefore, a preliminary measured phase transition relaxation time {tau} = transition length/u{sub s} = 265 {micro}m/5.251 km/s = 50 ns. Both Boettger1 & Jensen2 conclude that

  14. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1997-12-01

    The author has established a range of compositions for these alloys within which hot cracking resistance is very good, and within which cold cracking can be avoided in many instances by careful control of welding conditions, particularly preheat and postweld heat treatment. For example, crack-free butt welds have been produced for the first time in 12-mm thick wrought Fe{sub 3}Al plate. Cold cracking, however, still remains an issue in many cases. The author has developed a commercial source for composite weld filler metals spanning a wide range of achievable aluminum levels, and are pursuing the application of these filler metals in a variety of industrial environments. Welding techniques have been developed for both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes, and preliminary work has been done to utilize the wire arc process for coating of boiler tubes. Clad specimens have been prepared for environmental testing in-house, and a number of components have been modified and placed in service in operating kraft recovery boilers. In collaboration with a commercial producer of spiral weld overlay tubing, the author is attempting to utilize the new filler metals for this novel application.

  15. Synthesis of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles by detonation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Guilei, E-mail: sunguilei@126.com [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China)] [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China); Li, Xiaojie, E-mail: dalian03@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Qiquan [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China)] [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China); Yan, Honghao [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were synthesized by detonating a mixture of ferrocene, naphthalene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in an explosion vessel under low vacuum conditions (8.1 kPa). The RDX functioned as an energy source for the decomposition of ferrocene and naphthalene. The carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were formed as soot-like deposits on the inner surface of the reactor, which were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. And a portion of the detonation soot was treated with hydrochloric acid. The product was carbon-coated nanoparticles in perfect core-shell structures with graphitic shells and bcc-Fe cores. The detonation technique offers an energy-saving route to the synthesis of carbon-coated nanomaterials.

  16. Weldability of Fe sub 3 Al based iron aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharia, T.; Maziasz, P.J.; David, S.A.; McKamey, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the weldability of Fe{sub 3}Al type alloys. Sigmajig tests of a commercial heat of FA-129 alloy indicate that hot-cracking may not be a problem for this alloy. Additionally, several new Fe{sub 3}Al based iron aluminides were evaluated for weldability. The preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that some of these alloys have comparable or better weldability than FA-129 based iron-aluminides. For the first time, successful welds, without hot or cold cracking, were made on 13 mm (0.5 in.) thick plates from a commercial heat of FA-129 using the proper choice of welding conditions and parameters.

  17. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1998-07-22

    The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  18. Cation-exchange fiber reduces iron oxide leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacClure, S.L.

    1993-10-01

    This article describes how addition of new fiber in powdered-resin precoat improves demineralizer crud-retention capability and reduces disposal cost for radioactive spent resin. Various attempts have been made to reduce the concentrations of iron oxide at the outlet of filter/demineralizer (FTD) vessels. Each vessel is fitted with an array of tubular septa that are precoated with powdered ion-exchange resin. The coatings perform filtering and ion-exchange actions on incoming feedwater, removing both suspended and dissolved solids. Experience at Duane Arnold Energy Center (CAED) indicates that use of a powdered-resin precoat containing cation-exchange fibers rather than cellulose fibers can reduce iron oxide levels in FTD effluent significantly.

  19. Iron beam acceleration using direct plasma injection scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura, M.; Kanesue, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Fuwa, Y.; RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198

    2014-02-15

    A new set of vanes of radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator was commissioned using highly charged iron beam. To supply high intensity heavy ion beams to the RFQ, direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) with a confinement solenoid was adopted. One of the difficulties to utilize the combination of DPIS and a solenoid field is a complexity of electro magnetic field at the beam extraction region, since biasing high static electric field for ion extraction, RFQ focusing field, and the solenoid magnetic field fill the same space simultaneously. To mitigate the complexity, a newly designed magnetic field clamps were used. The intense iron beam was observed with bunched structure and the total accelerated current reached 2.5 nC.

  20. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  1. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

    1997-04-15

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {<=}1% Cr and either {>=}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {>=}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, {<=}2% Ti, {<=}2% Mo, {<=}1% Zr, {<=}1% C, {<=}0.1% B, {<=}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {<=}1% rare earth metal, {<=}1% oxygen, {<=}3% Cu, balance Fe. 64 figs.

  2. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  3. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  4. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase, the alloy consisting essentially of about 40 to 50% nickel, 7.5 to 14% chromium, 1.5 to 4% niobium, 0.3 to 0.75% silicon, 1 to 3% titanium, 0.1 to 0.5% aluminum, 0.02 to 1% carbon, 0.002 to 0.0015% boron and the remain substantially all iron. To obtain optimal results, the alloy is cold-worked 20 to 60% followed by heating at 1050.degree. C. for 1/2 hour with an air-cool plus heating at 800.degree. C. for 2 hours with a furnace cool to 625.degree. C. The alloy is then held at 625.degree. C. for 12 hours, followed by an air-cool.

  5. Brooklyn Union develops tool for replacing steel, cast iron mains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marazzo, J.J. )

    1994-12-01

    Over the last 10 years, Brooklyn Union Gas Co. has undergone significant changes in the methods it has used to install gas service and gas main systems. Recently, Brooklyn Union engineers developed a user friendly method of replacing steel and cast iron gas mains and service lines with same size or larger polyethylene pipe without using conventional trench excavation. The system, known as the ''Bullet'' pipe replacement system, involves splitting steel and cast iron pipe using a series of rolling cutter wheels. After consecutive cutting wheels completely penetrate both pipe and fittings, both pipe and soil are spread with an expander and new polyethylene pipe is inserted. The ''Bullet'' pipe splitting system for 1[1/4] in. (32 mm) through 6 in. (150 mm) diameter has been developed.

  6. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKamey, C.G.; Liu, C.T.

    1990-10-09

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO[sub 3] type is described that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy conversion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26--30 at. % aluminum, 0.5--10 at. % chromium, 0.02--0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron. 3 figs.

  7. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrick, Howard F.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1982-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a bimodal distribution of gamma prime phase within a network of dislocations, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25% to 45% nickel, 10% to 16% chromium, 1.5% to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025.degree. C. to 1075.degree. C. for 2-5 minutes, cold-worked about 20% to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775.degree. C. for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  8. Gamma prime hardened nickel-iron based superalloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1978-01-01

    A low swelling, gamma prime hardened nickel-iron base superalloy useful for fast reactor duct and cladding applications is described having from about 7.0 to about 10.5 weight percent (wt%) chromium, from about 24 to about 35 wt% nickel, from about 1.7 to about 2.5 wt% titanium, from about 0.3 to about 1.0 wt% aluminum, from about 2.0 to about 3.3 wt% molybdenum, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 wt% silicon, from about 0.03 to about 0.06 wt% carbon, a maximum of about 2 wt% manganese, and the balance iron.

  9. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKamey, Claudette G.; Liu, Chain T.

    1990-01-01

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO.sub.3 type that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy corrosion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26-30 at. % aluminum, 0.5-10 at. % chromium, 0.02-0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron.

  10. The world`s first commercial iron carbide plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prichard, L.C.; Schad, D.

    1995-12-01

    The paper traces the development of Nucor`s investigation of clean iron unit processes, namely, direct reduction, and the decision to build and operate the world`s first commercial iron carbide plant. They first investigated coal based processes since the US has abundant coal reserves, but found a variety of reasons for dropping the coal-based processes from further consideration. A natural gas based process was selected, but the failure to find economically priced gas supplies stopped the development of a US based venture. It was later found that Trinidad had economically priced and abundant supplies of natural gas, and the system of government, the use of English language, and geographic location were also ideal. The cost estimates required modification of the design, but the plant was begun in April, 1993. Start-up problems with the plant are also discussed. Production should commence shortly.

  11. Oxidation, carburization and/or sulfidation resistant iron aluminide alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2003-08-19

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or Zro.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B. .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  12. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-04-03

    A method is described for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25 to 45% nickel, 10 to 16% chromium, 1.5 to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025 to 1075/sup 0/C for 2 to 5 minutes, cold-worked about 20 to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775/sup 0/C for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650 to 700/sup 0/C for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  13. Low resistivity contact to iron-pnictide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanatar, Makariy; Prozorov, Ruslan; Ni, Ni; Bud'ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

    2013-05-28

    Method of making a low resistivity electrical connection between an electrical conductor and an iron pnictide superconductor involves connecting the electrical conductor and superconductor using a tin or tin-based material therebetween, such as using a tin or tin-based solder. The superconductor can be based on doped AFe.sub.2As.sub.2, where A can be Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu or combinations thereof for purposes of illustration only.

  14. Magnetism and Superconductivity Compete in Iron-based Superconductors |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Magnetism and Superconductivity Compete in Iron-based Superconductors Wednesday, April 30, 2014 HTSC Figure 1 Fig. 1. Measured electronic structure of underdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 in the orthorhombic spin-density-wave (SDW) ordered state. The antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic directions are indicated by arrows. High-temperature superconductivity (HTSC), one of the long-standing unsolved mysteries of condensed matter physics, is a beautiful example of

  15. Methods for making a supported iron-copper catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst is described for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO+H.sub.2 utilizing a porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support impregnated with iron and copper and optionally promoted with an alkali metal. The use of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support results in the suppression of heavy waxes (C.sub.26 + hydrocarbons), particularly in slurry phase operation, when compared to unsupported or co-precipitated catalysts.

  16. Technology development for iron F-T catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this work were twofold. The first objective was to design and construct a pilot plant for preparing precipitated iron oxide F-T precursors and demonstrate that the rate of production from this plant is equivalent to 100 lbs/day of dried metal oxide. Secondly, these precipitates were to be used to prepare catalysts capable of achieving 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion with {le} 5 mole percent selectivity to methane + ethane.

  17. Effects of surface condition on aqueous corrosion and environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perrin, R.L.; Buchanan, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    Effects of retained high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing and/or heat treatment, on the aqueous-corrosion and environmental-embrittlement characteristics of Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides (FA-84, FA-129 and FAL-Mo), a FeAl-based iron aluminide (FA-385), and a disordered low-aluminum Fe-Al alloy (FAPY) were evaluated. All tests were conducted at room temperature in a mild acid-chloride solution. In cyclic-anodic-polarization testing for aqueous-corrosion behavior, the surface conditions examined were: as-received (i.e., with the retained high-temperature oxides), mechanically cleaned and chemically cleaned. For all materials, the polarization tests showed the critical pitting potentials to be significantly lower in the as-received condition than in the mechanically-cleaned and chemically-cleaned conditions. These results indicate detrimental effects of the retained high-temperature oxides in terms of increased susceptibilities to localized corrosion. In 200-hour U-bend stress-corrosion-cracking tests for environmental-embrittlement behavior, conducted at open-circuit corrosion potentials and at a hydrogen-charging potential of {minus}1500 mV (SHE), the above materials (except FA-385) were examined with retained oxides and with mechanically cleaned surfaces. At the open-circuit corrosion potentials, none of the materials in either surface condition underwent cracking. At the hydrogen-charging potential, none of the materials with retained oxides underwent cracking, but FA-84, FA-129 and FAL-Mo in the mechanically cleaned condition did undergo cracking. These results suggest beneficial effects of the retained high-temperature oxides in terms of increased resistance to environmental hydrogen embrittlement.

  18. Effect of surface condition on the aqueous corrosion behavior of iron aluminies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, R.A.; Perrin, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    The effects of retained high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing and/or heat treatment, on the aqueous-corrosion characteristics of Fe-Al-based alloys were evaluated by electrochemical methods. Cyclic anodic polarization evaluations were conducted at room temperature in a mild acid-chloride solution (pH = 4,200 ppm Cl{sup {minus}}) on the Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides, FA-84 (Fe-28Al-2Cr-0.05B, at %), FA-129 (Fe-28Al-5Cr-0.5Nb-0.2C, at %), and FAL-Mo (Fe-28Al-5Cr-1Mo-0.04B-0.08Zr, at %), on the FeAl-based iron aluminide, FA-385 (Fe-35.65Al-0.20Mo-0.05Zr-0.11C, at %). The surface conditions evaluated were: As received (i.e. with the retained high-temperature oxides), mechanically cleaned (ground through 600-grit SiC paper), and chemically cleaned (10% HNO{sub 3}, 2%HF, at 43 {degree}C). The principal electrochemical parameter of interest was the critical putting potential with lower values indicating less resistance to chloride-induced localized corrosion. For all materials evaluated, the critical pitting potential was found to be significantly lower in the as-received condition than in the mechanically-cleaned and chemically-cleaned conditions. Mechanisms responsible for the detrimental high-temperature-oxide effect are under study.

  19. The development of precipitated iron catalysts with improved stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this program is to identify the chemical principles governing the deactivation of precipitated iron catalysts during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and to use these chemical principles in the design of catalysts suitable for slurry reactors. This report covers testing an iron catalyst. During the last quarter, a new precipitated iron catalyst was prepared and tested in the slurry autoclave reactor at various conditions. This catalyst did not noticeably deactivate during 1250 hours of testing. This quarter, the test was extended to include performance evaluations at different conversion levels ranging from 35 to 88% at 265 and 275{degree}C. The conversion levels were varied by changing the feed rate. The catalytic performance at different conversion intervals was then integrated to approximately predict performance in a bubble column reactor. The run was shut down at the end of 1996 hours because of a 24-hour-power outage. When the power was back on, the run was restarted from room temperature. Catalytic performance during the first 300 hours after the restart-up was monitored. Overall product distributions are being tabulated as analytical laboratory data are obtained. 34 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Ancient Blacksmiths, The Iron Age, Damascus Steels, and Modern Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    2000-09-11

    The history of iron and Damascus steels is described through the eyes of ancient blacksmiths. For example, evidence is presented that questions why the Iron Age could not have begun at about the same time as the early Bronze Age (i.e. approximately 7000 B.C.). It is also clear that ancient blacksmiths had enough information from their forging work, together with their observation of color changes during heating and their estimate of hardness by scratch tests, to have determined some key parts of the present-day iron-carbon phase diagram. The blacksmiths' greatest artistic accomplishments were the Damascus and Japanese steel swords. The Damascus sword was famous not only for its exceptional cutting edge and toughness, but also for its beautiful surface markings. Damascus steels are ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) that contain from 1.0 to 2.1%. carbon. The modern metallurgical understanding of UHCSs has revealed that remarkable properties can be obtained in these hypereutectoid steels. The results achieved in UHCSs are attributed to the ability to place the carbon, in excess of the eutectoid composition, to do useful work that enhances the high temperature processing of carbon steels and that improves the low and intermediate temperature mechanical properties.

  1. Method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    A method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel wherein double wall cast iron body segments each have an arcuate inner wall and a spaced apart substantially parallel outer wall with a plurality of radially extending webs interconnecting the inner wall and the outer wall, the bottom surface and the two exposed radial side surfaces of each body segment are machined and eight body segments are formed into a ring. The top surfaces and outer surfaces of the outer walls are machined and keyways are provided across the juncture of adjacent end walls of the body segments. A liner segment complementary in shape to a selected inner wall of one of the body segments is mounted to each of the body segments and again formed into a ring. The liner segments of each ring are welded to form unitary liner rings and thereafter the cast iron body segments are prestressed to complete the ring assembly. Ring assemblies are stacked to form the vessel and adjacent unitary liner rings are welded. A top head covers the top ring assembly to close the vessel and axially extending tendons retain the top and bottom heads in place under pressure.

  2. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1991-01-10

    Although promoted cobalt and iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis of gasoline feedstock were first developed more than three decades ago, a major technical problem still limiting the commercial use of these catalysts today is carbon deactivation. This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for FT synthesis, the objectives of which are to: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; and model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. To accomplish the above objectives, the project is divided into the following tasks: (1) determine the kinetics of reaction and of carbon deactivation during CO hydrogenation on Fe and Fe/K catalysts coated on monolith bodies. (2) Determine the reactivities and types of carbon deposited during reaction on the same catalysts from temperature-programmed-surface-reaction spectroscopy (TPSR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Determine the types of iron carbides formed at various temperatures and H{sub 2}/CO ratios using x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (3) Develop mathematical deactivation models which include heat and mass transport contributions for FT synthesis is packed-bed reactors. Progress to date is described. 48 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Wednesday, 27 July 2011 00:00 Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A

  4. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2012-01-18

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made to compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report an investigation of the iron dissolution of three fly ash samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust, a reference material of mineral dust. The effects of pH, cloud processing, and solar irradiation on Fe solubility were explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provide predominant dissolved iron compared with iron in oxides. Iron solubility of fly ash is higher than Arizona test dust, especially at the higher pH conditions investigated. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology aluminosilicate glass, a dominantly material in fly ash particle. Iron continuously releases into the aqueous solution as fly ash particles break up into smaller fragments. The assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes, and their effect on the biogeochemistry at ocean surface should be constrained by taking into account the source, environment pH, Fe speciation, and solar radiation.

  5. Interface driven magnetic interactions in nanostructured thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desautels, R. D. Lierop, J. van; Shueh, C.; Lin, K.-W.; Freeland, J. W.

    2015-05-07

    We have fabricated thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix using a dual ion beam assisted deposition technique. A secondary End-Hall ion beam bombarded the iron atoms during deposition altering significantly the morphology of the films and allowing for control of the intermixing between iron and copper components. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray reflectometry experiments indicated that the morphology of the films was that of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction pattern identified fcc-copper and amorphous iron. An increased amount of disorder was observed with a reduction in the amount of deposited iron from a 1:1 Fe:Cu ratio to 0.25:0.75 Fe:Cu ratio. Interfacial copper-iron alloys were identified by DC susceptibility experiments through their reduced T{sub C,Alloy} (370, 310, and 280 K) compared with that of bulk iron (∼1000 K). Element specific x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments were performed to identify the contributions to the magnetism from the iron and the copper-iron alloy.

  6. Snapshot of iron response in Shewanella oneidensis by gene network reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P.; Luo, Feng; Xiong, Wenlu; Joachimiak, Marcin; Wu, Liyou; Dehal, Paramvir; Jacobsen, Janet; Yang, Zamin; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Arkin, Adam P.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-10-09

    Background: Iron homeostasis of Shewanella oneidensis, a gamma-proteobacterium possessing high iron content, is regulated by a global transcription factor Fur. However, knowledge is incomplete about other biological pathways that respond to changes in iron concentration, as well as details of the responses. In this work, we integrate physiological, transcriptomics and genetic approaches to delineate the iron response of S. oneidensis. Results: We show that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. Temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, and a gene co-expression network was reconstructed. Modules of iron acquisition systems, anaerobic energy metabolism and protein degradation were the most noteworthy in the gene network. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that genes in each of the modules might be regulated by DNA-binding proteins Fur, CRP and RpoH, respectively. Closer inspection of these modules revealed a transcriptional regulator (SO2426) involved in iron acquisition and ten transcriptional factors involved in anaerobic energy metabolism. Selected genes in the network were analyzed by genetic studies. Disruption of genes encoding a putative alcaligin biosynthesis protein (SO3032) and a gene previously implicated in protein degradation (SO2017) led to severe growth deficiency under iron depletion conditions. Disruption of a novel transcriptional factor (SO1415) caused deficiency in both anaerobic iron reduction and growth with thiosulfate or TMAO as an electronic acceptor, suggesting that SO1415 is required for specific branches of anaerobic energy metabolism pathways. Conclusions: Using a reconstructed gene network, we identified major biological pathways that were differentially expressed during iron depletion and repletion. Genetic studies not only demonstrated the importance of iron acquisition and protein degradation for iron depletion, but also characterized a novel transcriptional factor (SO1415) with a

  7. Mssbauer study of metallic iron and iron oxide nanoparticles having environmental purifying ability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubuki, Shiro Watanabe, Yuka Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Risti?, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko; Homonnay, Zoltn; Kuzmann, Ern?; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    2014-10-27

    A relationship between local structure and methylene blue (MB) decomposing ability of nanoparticles (NPs) of metallic iron (Fe{sup 0}) and maghemite (??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy. ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were successfully prepared by mixing (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}?6H{sub 2}O (Mohr's salt) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}?3H{sub 2}O aqueous solution at 30 C for 1 h, while those of Fe{sup 0} were obtained by the reduction of Mohr's salt with NaBH{sub 4}. From the Scherrer's equation, the smallest crystallite sizes of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs and Fe{sup 0} NPs were determined to be 9.7 and 1.5 nm, respectively. {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectrum of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs consists of a relaxed sextet with isomer shift (?) of 0.33{sub 0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, internal magnetic field (H{sub int}) of 25.8{sub 0.5} T, and linewidth (?) of 0.62{sub 0.04} mm s{sup ?1}. {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectrum of Fe{sup 0} NP is mainly composed of a sextet having ?, ?, and H{sub int} of 0.00{sub 0.01} mm s{sup ?1} 0.45{sub 0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, and 22.8{sub 0.1} T, respectively. A bleaching test of the mixture of Fe{sup 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (3:7 ratio, 100 mg) in MB aqueous solution (20 mL) for 6 h showed a remarkable decrease of MB concentration with the first-order rate constant (k{sub MB}) of 6.7 10{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. This value is larger than that obtained for the bleaching test using bulk Fe{sup 0}+??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3:7) mixture (k{sub MB}?=?6.510{sup ?3}h{sup ?1}). These results prove that MB decomposing ability is enhanced by the NPs mixture of Fe{sub 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  8. High-temperature low cycle fatigue behavior of a gray cast iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, K.L. He, G.Q.; She, M.; Liu, X.S.; Lu, Q.; Yang, Y.; Tian, D.D.; Shen, Y.

    2014-12-15

    The strain controlled low cycle fatigue properties of the studied gray cast iron for engine cylinder blocks were investigated. At the same total strain amplitude, the low cycle fatigue life of the studied material at 523 K was higher than that at 423 K. The fatigue behavior of the studied material was characterized as cyclic softening at any given total strain amplitude (0.12%0.24%), which was attributed to fatigue crack initiation and propagation. Moreover, this material exhibited asymmetric hysteresis loops due to the presence of the graphite lamellas. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggested that cyclic softening was also caused by the interactions of dislocations at 423 K, such as cell structure in ferrite, whereas cyclic softening was related to subgrain boundaries and dislocation climbing at 523 K. Micro-analysis of specimen fracture appearance was conducted in order to obtain the fracture characteristics and crack paths for different strain amplitudes. It showed that the higher the temperature, the rougher the crack face of the examined gray cast iron at the same total strain amplitude. Additionally, the microcracks were readily blunted during growth inside the pearlite matrix at 423 K, whereas the microcracks could easily pass through pearlite matrix along with deflection at 523 K. The results of fatigue experiments consistently showed that fatigue damage for the studied material at 423 K was lower than that at 523 K under any given total strain amplitude. - Highlights: The low cycle fatigue behavior of the HT250 for engine cylinder blocks was investigated. TEM investigations were conducted to explain the cyclic deformation response. The low cycle fatigue cracks of HT250 GCI were studied by SEM. The fatigue life of the examined material at 523 K is higher than that at 423 K.

  9. IEA Energy conservation in the iron and steel industry. [US and Western Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunnah, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society research program, under the auspices of the IEA, had the objectives of collecting data on material requirements and energy-consumption patterns in selected energy-intensive industries in the US and Western Europe, of identifying technologies and operating practices with the potential for energy conservation in those industries, and of recommending research projects that could lead to improved energy efficiency. The steel industry was selected for analysis and ideas for an international cooperative program were developed. Representatives from various countries conducted meetings and the form of an implementing agreement for a research and development program was finalized in December, 1980. The program includes three technical areas: hot-surface inspection, heat recovery, and coal gasification. Hot-surface inspection methods to be demonstrated are: optical, induction, electromagnetic ultrasonic, electromagnetic ultrasonic surface testing methods, and eddy current method for hot surface inspection and an infrared system (possibly). Three heat-recovery projects are: ceramic heat wheel development; demonstration of granular bed/heat pipe system for heat recovery; and demonstration of tubular ceramic recuperators. Processes in coal gasification are: converter process, gas treatment, and iron treatment. Each project is described in detail. (MCW)

  10. Electrochemical cell assembled in discharged state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yao, Neng-Ping; Walsh, William J.

    1976-01-01

    A secondary, electrochemical cell is assembled in a completely discharged state within a sealed containment. As assembled, the cell includes a positive electrode separated from a negative electrode by a molten salt electrolyte. The positive electrode is contained within a porous structure, permitting passage of molten electrolyte, and includes one or more layers of a metallic mesh, e.g. iron, impregnated with an intimate mixture of lithium sulfide and the electrolyte. The negative electrode is a porous plaque of aluminum metal. Prior to using the cell, an electrical charge forms lithium-aluminum alloy within the negative electrode and metal sulfide within the positive electrode.

  11. Studies on the reduction kinetics of hematite iron ore pellets with noncoking coals for sponge iron plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, M.; Mohapatra, P.; Patel, S.K.

    2009-07-01

    In the present investigation, fired pellets were made by mixing hematite iron ore fines of -100, -16+18, and -8+10 mesh size in different ratios and studies on their reduction kinetics in Lakhanpur, Orient OC-2 and Belpahar coals were carried out at temperatures ranging from 850{sup o}C to 1000{sup o}C with a view toward promoting the massive utilization of fines in ironmaking. The rate of reduction in all the fired iron ore pellets increased markedly with an increase in temperature up to 1000{sup o}C, and it was more intense in the first 30min. The values of activation energy, calculated from integral and differential approaches, for the reduction of fired pellets (prepared from iron ore fines of -100 mesh size) in coals were found to be in the range 131-148 and 130-181 kJ mol{sup -1} (for =0.2 to 0.8), indicating the process is controlled by a carbon gasification reaction. The addition of selected larger size particles in the matrix of -100 mesh size fines up to the extent studied decreased the activation energy and slightly increased the reduction rates of resultant fired pellets. In comparison to coal, the reduction of fired pellets in char was characterized by significantly lower reduction rates and higher activation energy.

  12. Superexchange and iron valence control by off-stoichiometry in yttrium iron garnet thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumont, Y.; Keller, N.; Popova, E.; Schmool, D.S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Stahl, B.; Tessier, M.; Guyot, M.

    2005-05-15

    Controlled off-stoichiometric single phase polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition, adjusting the oxygen partial pressure P{sub O2} between 5 and 400 mTorr. Atomic stoichiometry by RBS shows an oxygen deficiency for P{sub O2}iron and yttrium deficiency for P{sub O2}>P{sub stoich}. P{sub stoich}=30 mTorr refers to films showing magnetic and structural properties of the bulk stoichiometric YIG. Curie temperature T{sub c} and saturation magnetization 4{pi}Ms decreased for P{sub O2}P{sub stoich}: Increase of Tc (up to +10%) and of 4{pi}Ms (up to +20%) and lattice parameter compression. Microscopic interpretation is given in terms of superexchange interaction and creation and site selectivity of iron vacancies.

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickols, Richard C.

    1986-09-02

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  15. Laboratory study related to the production and properties of pig iron nuggets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anameric, B.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2006-02-15

    Pig iron nuggets were produced in a laboratory-scale furnace at Michigan Technological University. The process was intended to replicate Kobe Steel's ITmk3 direct ironmaking process. These nuggets were produced from pellets that were made from a mixture of iron oxide, coal, flux and a binder and heated in a furnace with a chamber temperature of 1450{sup o}C. The pellets then self-reduced to produce a solid, high-density, highly metallized (96.5% Fe) pig iron. During the nugget production process, a separate liquid slag phase formed that cleanly separated from the molten metal. The physical and chemical properties of the pig iron nuggets were similar to pig iron produced by blast furnaces, which is distinct from direct reduced iron (DRI).

  16. Nitrided iron catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in the eighties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrided iron catalysts are active and durable and have an unusal selectivity. They do not produce significant amounts of wax, which should be advantageous in situations where gasoline is the desired product. The low yield of wax permits operation of nitrided iron in fluidized fixed-bed or entrained reactors at 230 to 255/sup 0/C. Conventional reduced iron catalysts in these reactors must be operated at about 325/sup 0/C to prevent formation of higher hydrocarbon that leads to agglomeration of the fluidized particles. At 325/sup 0/C carbon deposition and other processes leading to catalyst deterioration proceed rapidly. The yields of methane and ethane from nitrided iron are larger than desired for most purposes. Possibly promoters may be found to improve the selectivity of nitrided iron catalysts. The Bureau of Mines did not conduct a systematic catalyst development program on iron nitrides. (DP) 5 fgures, 6 tables.

  17. Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otto, Neil C.; Warner, Barry T.; Smaga, John A.; Battles, James E.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

  18. Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otto, N.C.; Warner, B.T.; Smaga, J.A.; Battles, J.E.

    1982-07-07

    The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

  19. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  20. Voronoi analysis of the short–range atomic structure in iron and iron–carbon melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobolev, Andrey; Mirzoev, Alexander

    2015-08-17

    In this work, we simulated the atomic structure of liquid iron and iron–carbon alloys by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. Voronoi analysis was used to highlight changes in the close environments of Fe atoms as carbon concentration in the melt increases. We have found, that even high concentrations of carbon do not affect short–range atomic order of iron atoms — it remains effectively the same as in pure iron melts.

  1. METAL REMOVAL FROM PROCESS AND STORMWATER DISCHARGES BY CONSTRUCTED TREATMENT WETLANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NELSON, ERIC

    2004-11-02

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater and stormwater which passes through a wetland treatment system (WTS) prior to discharge. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to the design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland and has a retention time of approximately 48 hours. Sampling conducted during the fourth year of operation validated continued wetland performance, and assessed the fate of a larger suite of metals present in the water. Copper and mercury removal efficiencies were still very high, both in excess of 80 per cent removal from the water after passage through the wetland system. Lead removal from the water by the system was 83 per cent, zinc removal was 60 per cent, and nickel was generally unaffected. Nitrates entering into the wetland cells are almost immediately removed from the water column and generally no nitrates are discharged from the A cells. The wetland cells are very anaerobic and the sediments have negative redox potentials. As a result, manganese and iron mineral phases in the sediments have been reduced to soluble forms and increase in the water during passage through the wetland system. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is also increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Operation and maintenance of the system is minimal, and consists of checking for growth of the vegetation and free flow of the water through the system.

  2. Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Alumimum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW Streams - 13000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-01-16

    The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract terms. The WTP?s overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulphur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings and higher throughput efficiencies. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. In view of the importance of aluminum limited waste streams at Hanford (and also Savannah River), the ability to achieve high waste loadings without adversely impacting melt rates has the potential for enormous cost savings from reductions in canister count and the potential for schedule acceleration. Consequently, the potential return on the investment made in the development of these enhancements is extremely favorable. Glass composition development for one of the latest Hanford HLW projected compositions with sulphate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading have been successfully tested and show tolerance for previously unreported tolerance for sulphate. Though a significant increase in waste loading for high-iron wastes has been achieved, the magnitude of the increase is not as substantial as those achieved for high-aluminum, high-chromium, high-bismuth or sulphur

  3. Synthesis of phase-pure and monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hufschmid, Ryan D.; Arami, Hamed; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Gonzales, Marcela; Teeman, Eric M.; Brush, Lucien N.; Browning, Nigel D.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-06-03

    We present a comprehensive template for the design and synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with control over size, size distribution, phase, and resulting properties. Monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of three different iron containing precursors (iron oleate, iron pentacarbonyl, and iron oxyhydroxide) in organic solvents under a variety of synthetic conditions. We compare the suitability of these three kinetically controlled synthesis protocols, which have in common the use of iron oleate as a starting precursor or reaction intermediate, for producing nanoparticles with specific size and magnetic properties. Monodisperse particles were produced over a tunable range of sizes from approximately 2-30 nm. Reaction parameters such as precursor concentration, addition of surfactant, temperature, ramp rate, and time were adjusted to kinetically control size and size-distribution. In particular, large quantities of excess surfactant (up to 25:1 molar ratio) alter reaction kinetics and result in larger particles with uniform size; however, there is often a trade-off between large particles and a narrow size distribution. Iron oxide phase is also critical for establishing magnetic properties. As an example, we show the importance of obtaining the required iron oxide phase for application to Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), and describe how phase purity can be controlled.

  4. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    effort conducted at Arizona State University (ASU) and the University of Michigan (UM). ... precipitation, the mineralogical characteristics of the iron sulfides, and how uranium ...

  5. Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311 and 3312) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    99 2.6 IRON AND STEEL SECTOR (NAICS 3311, 3312) 2.6.1. Overview of the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Sector The iron and steel sector is an essential part of the U.S. manufacturing sector, providing the necessary raw material for the extensive industrial supply chain. U.S. infrastructure is heavily reliant on the U.S. iron and steel sector, as it provides the foundation for construction (bridges, buildings), transportation systems (railroads, cars, trucks), utility systems (municipal water

  6. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantages in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. Iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone may be effective not only as a desulfurizing agent, but under the right conditions of oxygen potential and after combination with sulfur, the reaction products of coal gases with iron oxide can act as a flux to produce a fluid phase. The thermodynamic conditions for determining the most effective operating conditions of the first stage of a combustor are calculated for several Illinois coals. These conditions include contact of the gas with the phase combinations: CaO/CaSO{sub 4}, CaO/CaS, and Fe/FeO/liquid for the temperature range 950{degree} to 1300{degree}C. In the latter system, the minimum dosage of iron required at equilibrium and the calculated maximum percent sulfur removal are reported. Also given are the expected pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu of heat evolution calculated for complete combustion. The calculations indicate that for the Fe-O-S system, higher temperatures give better results approaching 96 percent sulfur removal from a coal containing 4.2% sulfur. For this example, the stack gas emerging from the second stage of combustion under stoichiometric conditions would contain 0.36 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU's of heat generated. The temperature limits of the sulfate and sulfide forming reactions are defined.

  7. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium

  8. Kinetics of fatigue cracks in iron in electrolytic hydrogen impregnation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Bilyi, L.M.

    1985-05-01

    Fatigue failure of metals is localized in the zone of plastic deformation at the tip of the developing crack. Crack development depends to a large extent upon the parameters of the deformed volume, the loading conditions, and features of the material microstructure. It may be assumed that the medium, especially a hydrogen-impregnating medium, leads to a change in the zone of plastic deformation and thereby influences the rate of fatigue crack growth. This work is devoted to a study of cyclic crack resistance and determination of the zone of plastic deformation of failure specimens of Armco iron under conditions of the action of a hydrogen-impregnating medium.

  9. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a cabon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  10. New iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  11. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.; Franco, S.C.S.

    1994-03-29

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications. 6 figures.

  12. Fractography of hydrogen-embrittled iron-chromium-nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Tensile specimens of iron-chromium-nickel base alloys were broken in either a hydrogen enviroment or in air following thermal charging with hydrogen. Fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Fracture morphology of hydrogen-embrittled specimens was characterized by: changed dimple size, twin-boundary parting, transgranular cleavage, and intergranular separation. The nature and extent of the fracture mode changes induced by hydrogen varied systematically with alloy composition and test temperature. Initial microstructure developed during deformation processing and heat treating had a secondary influence on fracture mode.

  13. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.; Franco, Sofia C. S.

    1994-01-01

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications.

  14. Selected test results from the LiFeBatt iron phosphate Li-ion battery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper the performance of the LiFeBatt Li-ion cell was measured using a number of tests including capacity measurements, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, high power partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycling, pulse power measurements, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the iron phosphate Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, and wind farm energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the LiFeBatt battery technology can function up to a 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h discharge rate (1C). The utility PSOC cycle test at up to the 4C{sub 1} pulse rate completed 8,394 PSOC pulsed cycles with a gradual loss in capacity of 10 to 15% depending on how the capacity loss is calculated. The majority of the capacity loss occurred during the initial 2,000 cycles, so it is projected that the LiFeBatt should PSOC cycle well beyond 8,394 cycles with less than 20% capacity loss. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were only very small changes after cycling. Finally, at a 1C charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test resulted in the cell venting electrolyte at 110 C after 30 minutes and then open-circuiting at 120 C with no sparks, fire, or voltage across the cell.

  15. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization Rb Promoted Iron Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar,A.; Jacobs, G.; Ji, Y.; Hamdeh, H.; Davis, B.

    2008-01-01

    Rubidium promoted iron Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were prepared with two Rb/Fe atomic ratios (1.44/100 and 5/100) using rubidium nitrate and rubidium carbonate as rubidium precursors. Results of catalytic activity and deactivation studies in a CSTR revealed that rubidium promoted catalysts result in a steady conversion with a lower deactivation rate than that of the corresponding unpromoted catalyst although the initial activity of the promoted catalyst was almost half that of the unpromoted catalyst. Rubidium promotion results in lower methane production, and higher CO2, alkene and 1-alkene fraction in FTS products. M{umlt o}ssbauer spectroscopic measurements of CO activated and working catalyst samples indicated that the composition of the iron carbide phase formed after carbidization was -Fe5 C2 for both promoted and unpromoted catalysts. However, in the case of the rubidium promoted catalyst, '-Fe2.2C became the predominant carbidic phase as FTS continued and the overall catalyst composition remained carbidic in nature. In contrast, the carbide content of the unpromoted catalyst was found to decline very quickly as a function of synthesis time. Results of XANES and EXAFS measurements suggested that rubidium was present in the oxidized state and that the compound most prevalent in the active catalyst samples closely resembled that of rubidium carbonate.

  16. Technology Development for Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1997-12-16

    The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the `standard-catalyst` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  17. Electron uptake by iron-oxidizing phototrophic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, A; Gardel, EJ; Vidoudez, C; Parra, EA; Girguis, PR

    2014-02-26

    Oxidation-reduction reactions underlie energy generation in nearly all life forms. Although most organisms use soluble oxidants and reductants, some microbes can access solid-phase materials as electron-acceptors or -donors via extracellular electron transfer. Many studies have focused on the reduction of solid-phase oxidants. Far less is known about electron uptake via microbial extracellular electron transfer, and almost nothing is known about the associated mechanisms. Here we show that the iron-oxidizing photoautotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 accepts electrons from a poised electrode, with carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source/electron acceptor. Both electron uptake and ruBisCo form I expression are stimulated by light. Electron uptake also occurs in the dark, uncoupled from photosynthesis. Notably, the pioABC operon, which encodes a protein system essential for photoautotrophic growth by ferrous iron oxidation, influences electron uptake. These data reveal a previously unknown metabolic versatility of photoferrotrophs to use extracellular electron transfer for electron uptake.

  18. Thermo-Mechanical Processing and Properties of a Ductile Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, R.R.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-07-14

    Thermo-mechanical processing of ductile irons is a potential method for enhancing their mechanical properties. A ductile cast iron containing 3.6% C, 2.6% Si and 0.045% Mg was continuously hot-and-warm rolled or one-step press-forged from a temperature in the austenite range (900{degrees}C-1100{degrees}C) to a temperature below the A, temperature. Various amounts of reduction were used (from 60% to more than 90%) followed by a short heat ent at 600`C. The heat ent lead to a structure of fine graphite in a matrix of ferrite and carbides. The hot-and- warm worked materials developed a pearlitic microstructure while the press-forged material developed a spheroidite-like carbide microstructure in the matrix. Cementite-denuded ferrite zones were developed around graphite stringers in the hot-and-warm worked materials, but such zones were absent in the press-forged material. Tensile properties including tensile strength and total elongation were measured along the direction parallel and transverse to the rolling direction and along the direction transverse to the press-forging direction. The tensile ductility and strength both increased with a decrease in the amount of hot-and-warm working. The press- forged materials showed higher strength (645 MPa) than the hot-and-warrn worked materials (575 MPa) when compared at the same ductility level (22% elongation).

  19. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-10-11

    This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, the objectives of which are: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. During the thirteenth quarter design of software for a computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was continued. Further progress was made toward the completion of the control language, control routines, and software for operating this system. Progress was also made on the testing of the system hardware and software. H{sub 2} chemisorption capacities and activity selectivity data were also measured for three iron catalysts promoted with 1% alumina. 47 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Technology development for iron fisher-tropsch catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.H.

    1997-07-15

    The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. the catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the standard-catalyst developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis, The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. the oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studies at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity, and aging characteristics.

  1. Sublattice Magnetic Relaxation in Rare Earth Iron Garnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Walsh, Brian

    2013-07-08

    The magnetic properties of rare earth garnets make them attractive materials for applications ranging from optical communications to magnetic refrigeration. The purpose of this research was to determine the AC magnetic properties of several rare earth garnets, in order to ascertain the contributions of various sublattices. Gd3Fe5O¬12, Gd3Ga5O12, Tb3Fe5O12, Tb3Ga5O12, and Y3Fe5O12 were synthesized by a solid state reaction of their oxides and verified by x-ray diffraction. Frequency-dependent AC susceptibility and DC magnetization were measured versus temperature (10 – 340 K). Field cooling had little effect on AC susceptibility, but large effect on DC magnetization, increasing magnetization at the lowest temperature and shifting the compensation point to lower temperatures. Data suggest that interaction of the two iron lattices results in the two frequency dependent magnetic relaxations in the iron garnets, which were fit using the Vogel-Fulcher and Arrhenius laws.

  2. GLASSES CONTAINING IRON (II III) OXIDES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE TECHNETIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HEO J; XU K; CHOI JK; HRMA PR; UM W

    2011-11-07

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) has posed serious environmental threats as US Department of Energy's high-level waste. This work reports the vitrification of Re, as surrogate for Tc-99, by iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses, respectively. Iron-phosphate glasses can dissolve Re as high as {approx} 1.2 wt. %, which can become candidate waste forms for Tc-99 disposal, while borosilicate glasses can retain less than 0.1 wt. % of Re due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Vitrification of Re as Tc-99's mimic was investigated using iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses. The retention of Re in borosilicate glasses was less than 0.1 wt. % and more than 99 wt. % of Re were volatilized due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Because the retention of Re in iron-phosphate glasses is as high as 1.2 wt. % and the volatilization is reduced down to {approx}50 wt. %, iron-phosphate glasses can be one of the glass waste form candidates for Tc (or Re) disposal. The investigations of chemical durability and leaching test of iron-phosphate glasses containing Re are now underway to test the performance of the waste form.

  3. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  4. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics of trivalent oxides of iron and manganese

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2002-01-01

    A new method for combining elemental iron and other metals to form an inexpensive ceramic to stabilize arsenic, alkaline red mud wastes, swarfs, and other iron or metal-based additives, to create products and waste forms which can be poured or dye cast.

  5. Attrition resistant bulk iron catalysts and processes for preparing and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy; Goodwin, Jr., James G.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    2007-08-21

    An attrition resistant precipitated bulk iron catalyst is prepared from iron oxide precursor and a binder by spray drying. The catalysts are preferably used in carbon monoxide hydrogenation processes such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These catalysts are suitable for use in fluidized-bed reactors, transport reactors and, especially, slurry bubble column reactors.

  6. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  7. Evaluation of lead-iron-phosphate glass as a high-level waste form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, L.A.; Bunnell, L.R.; Strachan, D.M.; Kissinger, H.E.; Hodges, F.N.

    1986-09-01

    The lead-iron-phosphate (Pb-Fe-P) glass developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was evaluated for its potential as an improvement over the current reference nuclear waste form, borosilicate (B-Si) glass. The evaluation was conducted as part of the Second Generation HLW Technology Subtask of the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purpose of this work was to investigate possible alternatives to B-Si glass as second-generation waste forms. While vitreous Pb-Fe-P glass appears to have substantially better chemical durability than B-Si glass, severe crystallization or devitrification leading to deteriorated chemical durability would result if this glass were poured into large canisters as is the procedure with B-Si glass. Cesium leach rates from this crystallized material are orders of magnitude greater than those from B-Si glass. Therefore, to realize the potential performance advantages of the Pb-Fe-P material in a nuclear waste form, the processing method would have to cool the material rapidly to retain its vitreous structure.

  8. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westre, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Fe-K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the electronic and geometric structure of the iron active site in non-heme iron enzymes. A new theoretical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis approach, called GNXAS, has been tested on data for iron model complexes to evaluate the utility and reliability of this new technique, especially with respect to the effects of multiple-scattering. In addition, a detailed analysis of the 1s{yields}3d pre-edge feature has been developed as a tool for investigating the oxidation state, spin state, and geometry of iron sites. Edge and EXAFS analyses have then been applied to the study of non-heme iron enzyme active sites.

  9. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2004-04-27

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  10. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2004-07-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  11. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon; Reina Calderon

    2004-01-27

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  12. Iron (II) and Silicate Effects on Mineralization and Immobilzation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler A. Sullens; Cynthia-May S. Gong; Kenneth R. Szerwinski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - The unique composition of the Yucca Mountain repository site, which contains large concentrations of silicate in an oxidative environment, has required extensive research into compound formation involving uranium and iron(II) under such conditions. The possibility of uranium leakage from within the containment vessels into the near-field ground water, as well as iron leaching from the vessel itself, necessitates study of the individual contributions of these elements for compound formation. By mimicking the known silicate concentration found in surrounding ground water and varying concentrations of both uranyl and iron(II), subsequent precipitation of uranyl silicate phases has shown evidence of iron(II) sorption to the available sites on the mineral surface. The mineralization seems to be driven by the formation of uranyl silicate, in contrast to iron(III)-control of precipitation in the oxidated system. Characterization of this system presented includes ICP-AES analysis as well as preliminary EDAX, XRD, and FT-IR

  13. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2005-01-25

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  14. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2005-01-26

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  15. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2006-01-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  16. Phase II Calderon Process to Produce Direct Reduced Iron Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2007-03-31

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase 1 was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  17. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2005-07-29

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  18. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2006-04-19

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  19. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2004-10-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  20. A study of kinetics and mechanisms of iron ore reduction in ore/coal composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, S.; Lu, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    Blast furnace ironmaking technology, by far the most important ironmaking process, is based on coke and iron ore pellets (or sinter) to produce liquid iron. However, there has been a worldwide effort searching for a more economical and environmental friendly alternative process for the production of liquid iron. The essential requirement is that it should be minimized in the usage of metallurgical coke and agglomerate of iron ore concentrates. With iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, there are two approaches: (a) Smelting reduction; melting the ore before reduction; (b) Reduction of the ore in solid state followed by melting. The present work is on the fundamentals of the latter. It consists of a better designed experimental study including pressure gradient measurement, and a more rigorous non-isothermal and non-isobaric mathematical model. Results of this work may be applied to carbothermic processes, such as FASTMET and LB processes, as well as recycling of fines in steel plants.

  1. The nature of iron deposits differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.

    2015-11-25

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophagesmore » with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.« less

  2. The nature of iron deposits differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.

    2015-11-25

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophages with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.

  3. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to decay. Once released, it is highly reactive, while in the protein, it is not. Dinosaur blood cells were likely to have more hemoglobin per cell than mammals, which would amplify...

  4. Iron-rich perovskite in the Earth;s lower mantle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Z.; Lin, J.F.; Scott, H.P.; Watson, H.C.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Xiao, Y.; Chow, P.; McCammon, C. NIU

    2013-10-22

    The equations of state of perovskite with (Mg{sub 0.75},Fe{sub 0.25})SiO{sub 3} and MgSiO{sub 3} compositions have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 130 GPa at 300 K in diamond anvil cells. Here we show that the addition of 25% Fe in MgSiO{sub 3} perovskite increases its density and bulk sound velocity (V{phi}) by 4-6% and 6-7%, respectively, at lower-mantle pressures. Based on concurrent synchrotron X-ray emission and Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of the samples, the increase in V{phi} and density can be explained by the occurrence of the low-spin Fe3+ and the extremely high-quadrupole component of Fe{sup 2+}. Combining these experimental results with thermodynamic modeling, our results indicate that iron-rich perovskite can produce an increase in density and a value of V{phi} that is compatible with seismic observations of reduced shear-wave velocity in regions interpreted as dense, stiff piles in the lower mantle. Therefore, the existence of the Fe-rich perovskite in the lower mantle may help elucidate the cause of the lower-mantle large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs) where enhanced density and V{phi} are seismically observed to anti-correlate with the reduced shear wave velocity.

  5. Effects of Amines on the Surface Charge Poperties of Iron Oxides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, Pascale; Wesolowski, David J; Palmer, Donald; Machesky, Michael L.

    2009-07-01

    Specific studies detailing the effects of amines, used as pH control agents for corrosion inhibition in power plants, on the surface charge of iron oxides provide data to assess the mechanism of how these amines impact deposition rate. The current study was undertaken in order to determine accurately the dissociation constants of the relevant amines at Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) operating conditions and to investigate the effect of sorption of two of these amines (morpholine and dimethylamine) by magnetite. The acid-dissociation equilibria of morpholine (MOR), dimethylamine (DMA) and ethanolamine (ETA) were measured potentiometrically with a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell (HECC) from 0 to 290 C in sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (NaTr) solutions at ionic strengths up to 1 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. Magnetite surface titrations were performed at an ionic strength of 0.03 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} (NaTr medium) in the presence or absence of morpholine and dimethylamine buffers over a wide range of pH and total amine concentrations at 150-250 C.

  6. Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrometric analysis of liquid chromatography ... Accurate mass measurement and tandem mass spectrometry ... WATER Electrospray; System; Contaminants; Cell; ...

  7. Iron supplement prevents lead-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier during rat development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Qiang; Luo Wenjing; Zheng Wei; Liu Yiping; Xu Hui; Zheng Gang; Dai Zhongming; Zhang Wenbin; Chen Yaoming; Chen Jingyuan . E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2007-02-15

    Children are known to be venerable to lead (Pb) toxicity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in immature brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb insults. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Pb exposure damaged the integrity of the BBB in young animals and iron (Fe) supplement may prevent against Pb-induced BBB disruption. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Three groups of rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water containing 342 {mu}g Pb/mL as Pb acetate, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day with 7 mg Fe/kg and 14 mg Fe/kg as FeSO{sub 4} solution as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. The control group received sodium acetate in drinking water. Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in blood by 6.6-folds (p < 0.05) and brain tissues by 1.5-2.0-folds (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. Under the electron microscope, Pb exposure in young animals caused an extensive extravascular staining of lanthanum nitrate in brain parenchyma, suggesting a leakage of cerebral vasculature. Western blot showed that Pb treatment led to 29-68% reduction (p < 0.05) in the expression of occludin as compared to the controls. Fe supplement among Pb-exposed rats maintained the normal ultra-structure of the BBB and restored the expression of occludin to normal levels. Moreover, the low dose Fe supplement significantly reduced Pb levels in blood and brain tissues. These data suggest that Pb exposure disrupts the structure of the BBB in young animals. The increased BBB permeability may facilitate the accumulation of Pb. Fe supplement appears to protect the integrity of the BBB against Pb insults, a beneficial effect that may have significant clinical implications.

  8. Studies on the catalytic activity of zirconia promoted with sulfate, iron, and manganese

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, K.T.; Khouw, C.B.; Davis, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic properties of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia (SFMZ) for the isomerization of n-butane to isobutane are investigated using various catalyst pretreatments and reaction conditions. The n-butane isomerization reactivity at 30{degrees}C is effected by calcination of the catalyst at 650{degrees}C in helium and vacuum treatment at room temperature indicating that superacidity is not likely to be responsible for activity. In addition, SFMZ samples exposed to dry air at over 450{degrees}C are more active than those calcined in helium at a reaction temperature of 30{degrees}C (n-butane conversions of 18.7% vs 0.4%) suggesting the presence of an active site involving a metal {open_quotes}oxy{close_quotes} species. The oxy species is capable of reacting CO to CO{sub 2} at room temperature and is present at a number density of 10-15 {mu}mol/g. At a reaction temperature of 100{degrees}C, SFMZ catalysts calcined in air then activated in helium show similar reactivities to those activated in air up to a preheating temperature of 450{degrees}C; above 450{degrees}C the metal oxy species is formed and provides additional activity (n-butane conversions of 37.1% in air vs 15.4% in He for calcinations at 650{degrees}C). The nature of the active sites on SFMZ are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption of substituted benzenes. The liberation of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in the benzene TPD profile of SFMZ is attributed to the oxidation of benzene at the redox-active metal sites, resulting in the subsequent decomposition of the reduced iron (II) sulfate. Data from the TPD studies do not suggest the presence of superacidity on SFMZ that could contribute to the low-temperature n-butane isomerization activity. Instead, a bifunctional mechanism that involves a combination of a redox-active metal site and an acid site in close proximity is proposed. 62 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. An Experimental Study of Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer-Enhanced Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2005-12-22

    At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. In these zones, groundwater moves relatively fast and is able to oxidize iron more rapidly. There is also a possibility that the high-permeability flow paths are deficient in reducing equivalents (e.g. reactive iron), required for barrier performance. One way enhancement of the current barrier reductive capacity can be achieved is by the addition of micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments (Ringold Unit E gravels) using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Polymers were used to create a suspension viscous enough to keep the Fe0 in solution for extended time periods to improve colloid movement into the porous media without causing a permanent detrimental decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone in between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments.

  10. Exploring the structure of high temperature, iron-bearing liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wilding, Martin; Benmore, Chris; Weber, Rick; Parise, John; Lazareva, Lena; Skinner, Lawrie; Alderman, Oliver; Tamalonis, Antony

    2015-06-25

    This paper describes the direct measurements of the structure of iron-bearing liquids using a combination of containerless techniques and in–situ high energy x-ray diffraction. These capabilities provide data that is important to help model and optimize processes such as smelting, steel making, and controlling slag chemistry. A successful programme of liquid studies has been undertaken and the Advanced Photon Source using these combined techniques which include the provision of gas mixing and the control of pO₂ and the changing influence of mixed valance elements. It is possible to combine rapid image acquisition with quenching of liquids to obtain the fullmore » diffraction patterns of deeply supercooled liquids and the metastable supercooled liquid regime, where the liquid structures and viscosity change most dramatically, can also be explored.« less

  11. Capacitance of a passive iron electrode in acidic solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grilikhes, M.S.; Berezin, M.Yu.; Gorlin, A.V.; Sapelova, E.V.; Sokolov, M.A.; Sukhotin, A.M.

    1985-12-01

    In the present work the authors measured the capacitance of the electrical double layer on passive Armco iron in acidic solutions with the simultaneous recording of the potentiodynamic curves. The measurements were carried out on an apparatus which is based on the double-pulse variant of the galvanostatic method with a pulse lifetime of 2 microseconds, in which the influence of the faradic processes on the capacitance curves is negligibly small in the case of electrochemical systems with small exchange currents. The experiments were carried out at room temperature in 0.5 M sulfuric acid (pH 0.25) and 0.5 M tartaric acid H/sub 2/C/sub 4/H/sub 4/O/sub 6/ (pH 1.6).

  12. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  13. Salt Fog Testing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, Raul B.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Day, S. Daniel; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2007-07-01

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings. (authors)

  14. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  15. Exploring the structure of high temperature, iron-bearing liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilding, Martin; Benmore, Chris; Weber, Rick; Parise, John; Lazareva, Lena; Skinner, Lawrie; Alderman, Oliver; Tamalonis, Antony

    2015-06-25

    This paper describes the direct measurements of the structure of iron-bearing liquids using a combination of containerless techniques and in–situ high energy x-ray diffraction. These capabilities provide data that is important to help model and optimize processes such as smelting, steel making, and controlling slag chemistry. A successful programme of liquid studies has been undertaken and the Advanced Photon Source using these combined techniques which include the provision of gas mixing and the control of pO₂ and the changing influence of mixed valance elements. It is possible to combine rapid image acquisition with quenching of liquids to obtain the full diffraction patterns of deeply supercooled liquids and the metastable supercooled liquid regime, where the liquid structures and viscosity change most dramatically, can also be explored.

  16. High strength nickel-chromium-iron austenitic alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert C.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A solid solution strengthened Ni-Cr-Fe alloy capable of retaining its strength at high temperatures and consisting essentially of 42 to 48% nickel, 11 to 13% chromium, 2.6 to 3.4% niobium, 0.2 to 1.2% silicon, 0.5 to 1.5% vanadium, 2.6 to 3.4% molybdenum, 0.1 to 0.3% aluminum, 0.1 to 0.3% titanium, 0.02 to 0.05% carbon, 0.002 to 0.015% boron, up to 0.06 zirconium, and the balance iron. After solution annealing at 1038.degree. C. for one hour, the alloy, when heated to a temperature of 650.degree. C., has a 2% yield strength of 307 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 513 MPa and a rupture strength of as high as 400 MPa after 100 hours.

  17. Development of Improved Iron-Aluminide Filter Tubes and Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkins, R.R.; Sutton, T.G.; Miller, C.J.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    2008-01-14

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to explore and develop advanced manufacturing techniques to fabricate sintered iron-aluminide intermetallic porous bodies used for gas filtration so as to reduce production costs while maintaining or improving performance in advanced coal gasification and combustion systems. The use of a power turbine fired with coal-derived synthesis gas requires some form of gas cleaning in order to protect turbine and downstream components from degradation by erosion, corrosion, and/or deposition. Hot-gas filtration is one form of cleaning that offers the ability to remove particles from the gases produced by gasification processes without having to substantially cool and, possibly, reheat them before their introduction into the turbine. This technology depends critically on materials durability and reliability, which have been the subject of study for a number of years.

  18. Organic binders for iron ore pelletization and steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karkoska, D.; Sankey, E.; Anderson, R.

    1995-12-01

    Historically, bentonite has been used in the agglomeration process in North American iron ore plants. In 1986, Eveleth Mines replaced bentonite with Peridur, a carboxy methyl cellulose organic binder used in conjunction with 1% limestone. Since May of 1993, Allied Colloids` Alcotac FE8 has been used by Eveleth as the replacement for bentonite. This paper discusses the performance benefits obtained when bentonite was replaced with an organic binder. These totally synthetic binders are used in conjunction with limestone. The benefits of organic binders are: improved metallurgical parameters of the fired pellet, especially the reducibility, which results in more efficient use of gases in the blast furnace; reduced silica in the pellet, in the case of Eveleth Mines this was a reduction of 0.5%, a lower silica pellet reduces slag in the blast furnace; increased production in both the agglomeration/induration and steelmaking processes; and a decrease in coke consumption.

  19. Innovative environmental investigation techniques for iron and steel facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hullinger, J.P.; Skubak, J.; Hawthorne, D.S.; Swales, A.C.

    1997-02-01

    Closed or curtailed iron and steelmaking facilities represent a substantial resource to US industry as the US steel industry rationalizes and retools to meet the demands of the world marketplace. Recently, many states have begun to enact legislation aimed at encouraging reuse of such facilities. Therefore, interest in evaluating them as to environmental status is increasing. A number of relatively new investigative techniques are available that can allow an environmental site assessment or other environmental investigation to proceed more quickly and/or at less cost. This article discussed the following methods: Direct-use technology for sampling groundwater, subsurface soil and soil gas; immunoassay field screening for organic contaminants; and close-support (field mobilized) analytical laboratory. Different approaches for sequencing investigative and remediation efforts are also discussed, building upon the observational method for site investigation and clean up.

  20. Strong nonlinear current–voltage behaviour in iron oxyborate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Yuanjun; Xu, Yingying; Song, Yujun; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Rongming

    2014-11-15

    Strong nonlinear resistance has been found in the charge ordered ferroelectric iron oxyborate (Fe{sub 2}OBO{sub 3}) with a high dielectric constant and giant converse magnetoelectric effect. In low temperature range the I-V nonlinearity increases quickly with decreasing temperature. Transport measurements on polycrystalline and single crystal Fe{sub 2}OBO{sub 3} indicate that the nonlinearity is not induced by grain boundaries. The nonlinear I-V behavior is intrinsically correlated with the charge order phase melting in Fe{sub 2}OBO{sub 3} by detailed in-situ TEM investigations. These results provide an insight into structure-activity relationship of resistance switching effects at atomic and electric scales, which is essential for its potential application as varistors and storage media.

  1. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-10-29

    This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for synthesis, the objectives of which are: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. During the fourteenth quarter design of software for a computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was continued. Further progress was made toward the completion of the control language, control routines, and software for operating this system. Progress was also made towards testing of the system hardware and software. 47 refs.

  2. Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode.

  3. A High-Performance Rechargeable Iron Electrode for Large-Scale Battery-Based Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Yang, C; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive, robust and efficient large-scale electrical energy storage systems are vital to the utilization of electricity generated from solar and wind resources. In this regard, the low cost, robustness, and eco-friendliness of aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries are particularly attractive and compelling. However, wasteful evolution of hydrogen during charging and the inability to discharge at high rates have limited the deployment of iron-based aqueous batteries. We report here new chemical formulations of the rechargeable iron battery electrode to achieve a ten-fold reduction in the hydrogen evolution rate, an unprecedented charging efficiency of 96%, a high specific capacity of 0.3 Ah/g, and a twenty-fold increase in discharge rate capability. We show that modifying high-purity carbonyl iron by in situ electro-deposition of bismuth leads to substantial inhibition of the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The in situ formation of conductive iron sulfides mitigates the passivation by iron hydroxide thereby allowing high discharge rates and high specific capacity to be simultaneously achieved. These major performance improvements are crucial to advancing the prospect of a sustainable large-scale energy storage solution based on aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.034208jes] All rights reserved.

  4. In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into MDCK Cells In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine into MDCK Cells Sulfur is essential for life. It plays important roles in the amino acids methionine and cysteine, and has a structural function in disulfide bonds. As a component of iron-sulfur clusters it takes part in electron and sulfur transfer reactions.1 Glutathione, a sulfur-containing tripeptide, is an important part of biological antioxidant systems.2 Another example for the biological

  5. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: ???¢???????¢ Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. ???¢???????¢ Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. ???¢???????¢ Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. ???¢???????¢ Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  6. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rashid Khan, M.

    1988-05-05

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

  8. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria This overarching aim of this project was to identify the role of biogenic and synthetic iron-sulfide minerals in the long-term sequestration of reduced U(IV) formed

  9. Phase II Calderon Process to Produce Direct Reduced Iron Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2003-06-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  10. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2003-01-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  11. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2003-04-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  12. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-06-26

    Chromium (Cr) forms a solid solution with iron (Fe) lattice when doped in core-shell iron -iron oxide nanocluster (NC) and shows a mixed phase of sigma (?) FeCr and bcc Fe. The Cr dopant affects heavily the magnetization and magnetic reversal process, and causes the hysteresis loop to shrink near the zero field axis. Dramatic transformation happens from dipolar interaction (0 at. % Cr) to strong exchange interaction (8 at. % of Cr) is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M plot, and is explained by a water-melon model of core-shell NC system.

  13. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Rogers Iron Works Co - MO 10

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Rogers Iron Works Co - MO 10 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: ROGERS IRON WORKS CO. (MO.10 ) Elimination from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Rogers Iron Co. MO.10-1 Location: Joplin , Missouri MO.10-1 Evaluation Year: 1990 MO.10-2 MO.10-3 Site Operations: Tested C-liner crushing methods. MO.10-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based on limited quantities of material handled MO.10-3 MO.10-4 Radioactive Materials

  14. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  15. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  16. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  17. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  18. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  19. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  20. Nickel decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the mechanism for the observed effects, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over ... B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International ...

  1. Studies of the Atomic and Crystalline Characteristics of Ceramic Oxide Nano Powders after Bio field Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Article Open Access Industrial Engineering & Management Trivedi et al., Ind Eng Manage 2015, 4:3 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2169-0316.1000161 Volume 4 * Issue 3 * 1000161 Ind Eng Manage ISSN: 2169-0316, IEM an open access journal Keywords: Biofield treatment; Iron oxide; Copper oxide; Zinc oxide; X-ray diffraction; FT-IR Introduction Transition metal oxides (TMOs) exhibit fascinating properties such as piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, nonlinear optical behaviour, wide band gap and high-TC

  2. Hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture in an iron-based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture in an iron-based sodalite-type metal-organic framework (Fe-BTT) discovered via high-throughput methods Previous Next List Kenji Sumida, ...

  3. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is a stunning quantum phenomenon and among the deepest paradigms in all of physics. ... review of this new field, contrast the physics of iron- and copper-based systems, and ...

  5. Thermal plasma processed ferro-magnetically ordered face-centered cubic iron at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2014-10-28

    Here, we report tailor made phase of iron nanoparticles using homogeneous gas phase condensation process via thermal plasma route. It was observed that crystal lattice of nano-crystalline iron changes as a function of operating parameters of the plasma reactor. In the present investigation iron nanoparticles have been synthesized in presence of argon at operating pressures of 1251000?Torr and fixed plasma input DC power of 6?kW. It was possible to obtain pure fcc, pure bcc as well as the mixed phases for iron nanoparticles in powder form as a function of operating pressure. The as synthesized product was characterized for understanding the structural and magnetic properties by using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mssbauer spectroscopy. The data reveal that fcc phase is ferromagnetically ordered with high spin state, which is unusual whereas bcc phase is found to be ferromagnetic as usual. Finally, the structural and magnetic properties are co-related.

  6. The f-spin physics of rare-earth iron pnictides: influence of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    influence of d-electron antiferromagnetic order on heavy fermion phase diagram Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The f-spin physics of rare-earth iron pnictides: influence ...

  7. Role of copper promotion in precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, R.J.; Xu, L.; Davis, B.H.

    1996-10-01

    Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was conducted on precipitated iron-silicon catalysts. The affect of copper promotion on the activity and selectivity of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and syngas activated catalysts is presented. High activity and stability have been obtained for potassium promoted catalysts when operating at 270{degrees}C; however, it has been found that promotion with potassium and copper is essential to obtaining good activity in a wax producing mode at 230{degrees}C. Promotion with copper is critical to achieving good activity when pretreating catalysts with hydrogen or with syngas at high pressure. XRD and Mossbauer data indicate that copper facilitates the reduction of iron oxide to metallic iron and iron carbides during hydrogen and syngas pretreatments.

  8. Melting in the Iron-Oxygen-Silicon System up to 85 GPa. (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Melting in the Iron-Oxygen-Silicon System up to 85 GPa. Citation Details ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  9. Melting in the Iron-Oxygen-Silicon System up to 85 GPa. (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Melting in the Iron-Oxygen-Silicon System ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  10. Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for use in oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    1988-03-15

    Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides treated with hafnium or zirconium, boron and cerium to which have been added chromium to significantly improve high temperature ductility, creep resistance and oxidation properties in oxidizing environments.

  11. Efficient laser-induced 6 - 8 keV x-ray production from iron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Efficient laser-induced 6 - 8 keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficient ...

  12. Melting Hanford LAW into Iron-Phosphate Glass in a CCIM (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Melting Hanford LAW into Iron-Phosphate Glass in a CCIM A vitrification test has been conducted using the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system at the Idaho ...

  13. Combining automatic titration of total iron and sulfur in thermal battery materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marley, N.A.

    1986-05-28

    Optimal thermal battery performance requires careful control of the iron disulfide content in the catholyte mixture. Previously, the iron and sulfur content of battery materials was determined separately, each requiring a lengthy sample preparation and clean up procedure. A new method has been developed which allows both determinations to be made on the same sample following a simple dissolution procedure. Sample preparation requires oxidation and dissolution with nitric acid followed by dissolution in hydrochloric acid. Iron and sulfur are then determined on sample aliquots by automatic titration. The implementation of this combined procedure for the determination of iron and sulfur by automatic titration has resulted in a substantial reduction in the analysis time. Since sample aliquots are used for each determination, the need to repeat a sample for analysis is rare, improving both the analytical efficiency and sample throughput. Results obtained for sulfur show an improved precision.

  14. ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE's Office of Industrial Technologes has formed a partnership with the U.S. iron and steel industry to accelerate development of technologies and processes that will improve the industry's production and energy efficiency and environmental performance.

  15. Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on iron (hydr)oxide reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and microbial community development | Argonne National Laboratory Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on iron (hydr)oxide reduction and microbial community development May 14, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Aquatic and terrestrial environments are dynamic systems where coupled microbiological, geochemical, and hydrological processes define the complex interactions that drive the biogeochemical cycling of the major and minor elements. For example, microbial iron and sulfate reduction profoundly

  16. FEASIBILITY OF MEASURING IRON IN VIVO USING FAST 14 MEV NEUTRONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.

    2005-05-01

    In this short report, I reassess the feasibility of measuring iron in vivo in the liver and heart of thalassemia patients undergoing chelation therapy. Despite the multiplicity of analytical methods for analyzing iron, only two, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic susceptibility, are suitable for in vivo applications, and these are limited to the liver because of the heart's beat. Previously, a nuclear method, gamma-resonance scattering, offered a quantitative measure of iron in these organs; however, it was abandoned because it necessitated a nuclear reactor to produce the radioactive source. I reviewed and reassessed the status of two alternative nuclear methods, based on iron spectroscopy of gamma rays induced by fast neutron inelastic scattering and delayed activation in iron. Both are quantitative methods with high specificity for iron and adequate penetrating power to measure it in organs sited deep within the human body. My experiments demonstrated that both modalities met the stated qualitative objectives to measure iron. However, neutron dosimetry revealed that the intensity of the neutron radiation field was too weak to reliably assess the minimum detection limits, and to allow quantitative extrapolations to measurements in people. A review of the literature, included in this report, showed that these findings agree qualitatively with the published results, although the doses reported were about three orders-of-magnitude higher than those I used. Reviewing the limitations of the present work, steps were outlined for overcoming some of the shortcomings. Due to a dearth of valid quantitative alternatives for determining iron in vivo, I conclude that nuclear methods remain the only viable option. However, from the lessons learned, further systematic work is required before embarking on clinical studies.

  17. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE ALPHA-EPSILON TRANSITION IN SHOCKED SINGLE CRYSTAL IRON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalantar, D H; Collins, G W; Colvin, J D; Davies, H M; Eggert, J H; Hawreliak, J; Lorenzana, H E; Meyers, M A; Rosolankova, K; Schneider, M S; Sheppard, J; Stolken, J S; Wark, J S

    2005-08-23

    In-situ x-ray diffraction was used to study the response of single crystal iron under shock conditions. Measurements of the response of [001] iron showed a uniaxial compression of the initially bcc lattice along the shock direction by up to 6% at 13 GPa. Above this pressure, the lattice responded with a further collapse of the lattice by 15-18% and a transformation to a hcp structure. The in-situ measurements are discussed and results summarized.

  18. Data on production and use of DRI: World and U. S. [Direct Reduced Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, H.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will present data on the production and use direct-reduced iron (DRI) worldwide, focusing primarily on its use in the United States. The author is indebted to the Midrex Corporation for the data on world production of DRI. The U.S. data is his own and he will explain later how it was collected. He uses the term DRI to include all forms of direct-reduced iron, whether briquettes, pellets or lump.

  19. Methods for the analysis of lithium-silicon, iron disulfide thermal battery materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krall, P.R.

    1985-09-30

    Analytical methods for the characterization of the lithium-silicon/iron disulfide thermal battery materials have been developed and evaluated. The standard procedures being used for the quality control testing of the battery materials are described in this report. These procedures are based on both classical chemical methods and instrumental methods of analysis. The materials characterized include lithium-silicon alloy, iron disulfide, catholyte material, separator material, calcium disilicide, depolarizer-electrolyte-binder material, electrolyte and electrolyte binder material.

  20. Absence of cytotoxicity towards microglia of iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanorhombohedra

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crystal S. Lewis; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Torres, Luisa; Miyauchi, Jeremy T.; Rastegar, Cyrus; Patete, Jonathan M.; Smith, Jacqueline M.; Tsirka, Stella E.

    2016-02-26

    Understanding the nature of interactions between nanomaterials, such as commercially ubiquitous hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanorhombohedra (N-Rhomb) and biological systems is of critical importance for gaining insight into the practical applicability of nanomaterials. Microglia represent the first line of defense in the central nervous system (CNS) during severe injury or disease such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease as illustrative examples. Hence, to analyze the potential cytotoxic effect of N-Rhomb exposure in the presence of microglia, we have synthesized Rhodamine B (RhB)-labeled α-Fe2O3 N-Rhomb, with lengths of 47 ± 10 nm and widths of 35 ± 8 nm. Internalization of RhB-labeled α-Fe2O3 N-Rhombmore » by microglia in the mouse brain was observed, and a dose-dependent increase in the cellular iron content as probed by cellular fluorescence was detected in cultured microglia after nanoparticle exposure. The cells maintained clear functional viability, exhibiting little to no cytotoxic effects after 24 and 48 hours at acceptable, physiological concentrations. Importantly, the nanoparticle exposure did not induce microglial cells to produce either tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) or interleukin 1-beta (IL1β), two pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor did exposure stimulate the production of nitrites and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are common indicators for the onset of inflammation. Finally, we propose that under the conditions of our experiments, i.e. in the presence of RhB labeled-α-Fe2O3 N-Rhomb maintaining concentrations of up to 100 μg mL–1 after 48 hours of incubation, the in vitro and in vivo internalization of RhB-labeled α-Fe2O3 N-Rhomb are likely to be clathrin-dependent, which represents a conventional mechanistic uptake route for most cells. Furthermore, given the crucial role that microglia play in many neurological disorders, understanding the potential cytotoxic effects of these nanostructures is of fundamental importance if they are