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1

Security and privacy threats in IoT architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe developments towards the Internet of Things (IoT) and discuss architecture visions for the IoT. Our emphasis is to analyze the known and new threats for the security, privacy and trust (SPT) at different levels of architecture. ... Keywords: IoT architecture, energy consumption, future internet, privacy, security, trust

Denis Kozlov; Jari Veijalainen; Yasir Ali

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Data fusion of multi-sensor for IOT precise measurement based on improved PSO algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work proposes an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) method to increase the measurement precision of multi-sensors data fusion in the Internet of Things (IOT) system. Critical IOT technologies consist of a wireless sensor network, RFID, various ... Keywords: Data fusion, Internet of things, Particle swarm optimization, RFID, Wireless sensor network

Wen-Tsai Sung; Ming-Han Tsai

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

O 2 Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007... out with H2SO4-O2 solutions in the temperature range 125–150°C, and partial pressures of oxygen from 507 to 1216 kPa (5 to 12 atm).

4

Lawrence Co. Scioto Co. Greenup Co. Jack  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

COWEN COWEN BELLS F OR D FREDVILLE BIG CH IMNEY ALVIN N RPD-LAWRENC E-2 PEYTONA-EMMON S TOM PR ICE SCHOOL NE BREEDEN MAR E CREEK SCHOOL FAR LEY C HUR CH W LON G R UN LICKBURG RPD-GALLIA-1 MIMA LEF T F OR K RPD-MASON-1 MABSCOT T-CBM CON LEY MEAD E BR ANCH PET ERSBURG VAN LEAR SILVERTON RPD-SC IOT O-2 HURR ICANE CR EEK OT TER ROAD BRANCH SH AVERS FORK HAGERH ILL KEEL FORK CRAGER FORK CON TRARY BRAN CH HUNN EWELL S DUMPS CREEK DOBSON SCH OOL BU LAN DANIEL HINDMAN N LAU REL HILL CROOK PYR AMI D AU XIER LEF T F OR K B CUCU MBER CRK CHANEY CREEK DINGUS RPD-SC IOT O-3 MOORE BRANC H RPD-TAZ EWELL-1 PORT ER CAMP MOU SIE WILD CAT HOLLOW SPR ING CREEK RACCOON SCHOOL ALVIN W ROSC OE GEORGES F ORK DAVISPOR T N LEATH ER BAR K CRK MOON N RPD-673 RPD-678 RPD-520 RPD-334 RPD-335 RPD-510 RPD-100 RPD-333 RPD-509 RPD-280 MAL DEN SALYERSVILLE FAR LEY C HUR CH CEREDO LINCOLN ST RAT TON KNOB SALLY BR ANCH

5

Electrical Conductance of Single TiO2 Nanotube Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As fabricated TiO2 nanotubes with different wall thicknesses were annealed either in ... carbon foam saturated with SiO2 aerogel for heat insulation purposes.

6

Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

The role of oxygen-related defects and hydrogen impurities in HfO2 and ZrO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of oxygen-related defects and hydrogen impurities in monoclinic HfO"2 and ZrO"2 using first-principles calculations based on a hybrid functional. We examine how the formation energy of these defects depend on the Fermi level ... Keywords: Defects in semiconductors, First-principles calculations, HfO2, High-k dielectrics, Hydrogen impurities, Oxygen interstitial, Oxygen vacancy, Sources of fixed charge, ZrO2

J. L. Lyons; A. Janotti; C. G. Van de Walle

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on TiO2-coated nanoporous alumina membranes using an S4700 microscope (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) with ...

9

Low Cost TiO2 Nanoparticles - Energy Innovation Portal  

Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Low Cost TiO2 Nanoparticles Sandia National Laboratories. Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: Market ...

10

Trapping and diffusion of fission products in ThO2 and CeO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The trapping and diffusion of Br, Rb, Cs and Xe in ThO2 and CeO{sub 2} have been studied using an Ab Initio total energy method in the local-density approximation of density functional theory. Fission products incorporated in cation mono-vacancy, cation-anion di-vacancy and Schottky defect sites are found to be stable, with the cation mono-vacancy being the preferred site in most cases. In both oxides, Rb and Cs are the most likely to be trapped, and Xe is more difficult to incorporate than other fission products. The energy barriers for migration of each species in ThO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2} are also calculated. Alkali metals are relatively more mobile than other fission products, and bromine is the least mobile.

Xiao, Haiyan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Weber, William J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Characterization of SiO2/Si Interface Quality by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Steam in Furnace at 350oC 2.0 Wafer C Native Oxide 1.4 Wafer D ... Ultra-thin SiO2 films were grown by plasma oxidation and steam ...

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

12

J-26: Nanocomposite Photocatalysts Containing TiO2 for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... viruses, fungi and algae. The main drawbacks of the low quantum yields and the lack of visible-light utilization hinder the practical applications of TiO2. Hence  ...

13

TiO2: Fundamentals, Applications, and Perspectives  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TiO2: Fundamentals, Applications, and Perspectives Speaker(s): Werner Hofer Date: November 18, 2011 (All day) Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Robert Kostecki I...

14

Synthesis of Nanostructured TiO2 /Carbon Nanotube Heterojunction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructural Evolution of SnS Thin Films Grown by Electrodeposition · Morphology Engineering of 1D, 2D and 3D TiO2 Nanostructures and Their Application ...

15

Superhydrophilic TiO2 surface without photocatalytic activation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Superhydrophilic TiO2 surface without photocatalytic activation Superhydrophilic TiO2 surface without photocatalytic activation Title Superhydrophilic TiO2 surface without photocatalytic activation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Zormpa, Vasileia, Xiaobo Chen, and Samuel S. Mao Journal Applied Physics Letter Volume 96 Issue 9 Date Published 12/2009 Abstract Since the discovery of extreme surface wetting phenomenon induced by ultraviolet photocatalysis, TiO2 has become the material of choice for environmental friendly applications such as self-cleaning coatings. Nevertheless, it remains a significant challenge to realize surfaces exhibiting persistent superhydrophilicity but without the need of external stimuli. We report a bioinspired TiO2 nanostructure that shows extreme superhydrophilicity without the need of light activation, and with stability against successive wetting-dewetting cycles. This ultimate TiO2 wetting surface exhibits high transmittance from near ultraviolet to the infrared, thus enabling practical antifogging technologies where transparency is critical.

16

O2Diesel Corporation formerly Dynamic Ventures | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

O2Diesel Corporation formerly Dynamic Ventures O2Diesel Corporation formerly Dynamic Ventures Jump to: navigation, search Name O2Diesel Corporation (formerly Dynamic Ventures) Place Newark, Delaware Zip 19713 Product O2Diesel Corporation has a proprietary additive made from fats and oils, which facilitates the blending of ethanol with diesel. Coordinates 44.690435°, -71.951685° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.690435,"lon":-71.951685,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

17

Continuous active-source seismic monitoring of C O 2 injection ...  

Subsurface storage of C O 2 for greenhouse gas mitigation is ex- ... shale unit. Because the shale unit is relatively impermeable and C O 2

18

CANMET CO2 Consortium - O2/CO2 Recycle Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CANMET CO CANMET CO 2 Consortium - O 2 /CO 2 Recycle Combustion Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental

19

Influence of selected alkoxysilanes on dispersive properties and surface chemistry of titanium dioxide and TiO2-SiO2 composite material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper reports on characterisation of titanium dioxide and coprecipitated TiO2-SiO2 composite material functionalised with selected alkoxysilanes. Synthetic composite material was obtained by an emulsion method with cyclohexane ...

Katarzyna Siwi?ska-Stefa?ska, Filip Ciesielczyk, Magdalena Nowacka, Teofil Jesionowski

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

The Role of Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) Deposition in Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the role of manganese dioxide (MnO2) in microbiologically influenced corrosion.

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Heat Transfer between Graphene and Amorphous SiO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the heat transfer between graphene and amorphous SiO2. We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and between the surfaces in the non-contact region. We consider the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies, and the heat transfer by the gas in the non-contact region. We find that the dominant contribution to the heat transfer result from the area of real contact, and the calculated value of the heat transfer coefficient is in good agreement with the value deduced from experimental data.

B. N. J. Persson; H. Ueba

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

22

trans-K3[TcO2(CN)4  

SciTech Connect

The dioxotetracyanotechnetate anion, [TcO2(CN)4]3-, of the title complex has octahedral symmetry. The technetium is located on a center of inversion and is bound by two oxygen atoms and four cyano ligands. The Tc?O bond distance of 1.7721 (12) Ĺ is consistent with double bond character. The potassium cations [located on special (1/2,0,1) and general positions] reside in octahedral or tetrahedral environments; interionic K···O and K···N interactions occur in the 2.7877 (19)-2.8598 (15) Ĺ range.

Chatterjee, Sayandev; Del Negro, Andrew S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Twamley, Brendan; Krause, Jeanette A.; Bryan, Samuel A.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

23

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Surface?modified RuO2?based thick film resistors using Nd:YAG laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An RuO2?based thick film resistor (TFR) is a cermet?type resistor which consists of RuO2 particles and glass. Paste containing organic vehicles is printed onto an insulating substrate

E. Gofuku; T. Ogama; H. Takasago

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

CO Oxidation mechanism on CeO2-supported Au nanoclusters  

SciTech Connect

To reveal the richer chemistry of CO oxidation by CeO2 supported Au Nanoclusters(NCs)/Nanoparticles, we design Au13 and Au12 supported on a flat and a stepped-CeO2 model (Au/CeO2) and study various kinds of CO oxidation mechanisms at the Au-CeO2 interface and the Au NC as well.

Kim H. Y.; Henkelman, G.

2013-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

26

Assessment of the O2Diesel Operational Safety Program: December 23, 2002 -- June 30, 2007  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report assesses O2Diesel's operational safety program using its ethanol-diesel blended fuel product.

TIAX LLC

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

First principles study of Li diffusion in I-Li_{2}NiO_{2} structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

First principles computations have been used to study Li mobility in the orthorhombic Li2NiO2 structure with the Immm space group (I-Li2NiO2). Understanding Li mobility in I-Li2NiO2 structure other than the conventional ...

Ceder, Gerbrand

28

Leakage current and dielectric breakdown behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Leakage current and dielectric breakdown behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films Moon-Ho Jo behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films for intermetal dielectric applications was investigated in a metal­insulator­semiconductor structure. SiO2 aerogel films with porosities of 70% exhibited Poole­Frenkel conduction both before

Jo, Moon-Ho

29

Investigation on the Charging Process of Li2O2-Based Air Electrodes in Li-O2 Batteries with Organic Carbonate Electrolytes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The charge processes of Li-O2 batteries were investigated by analyzing the gas evolution by in situ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) technique. The mixture of Li2O2/Fe3O4/Super P carbon/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used as the starting air electrode material and 1M LiTFSI in carbonate-based solvents was used as electrolyte. It was found that Li2O2 is reactive to 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PVDF binder used in the electrode preparation. During the 1st charge (up to 4.6 V), O2 was the main component in the gases released. The amount of O2 measured by GC/MS was consistent with the amount of Li2O2 decomposed in the electrochemical process as measured by the charge capacity, indicative of the good chargeability of Li2O2. However, after the cell was discharged to 2.0 V in O2 atmosphere and re-charged to ~ 4.6 V in the second cycle, CO2 was dominant in the released gases. Further analysis of the discharged air electrode by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that lithium-containing carbonate species (lithium alkyl carbonate and/or Li2CO3) were the main reaction products. Therefore, compatible electrolyte and electrodes as well as the electrode preparation procedures need to be developed for long term operation of rechargeable Li-O2 or Li-air batteries.

Xu, Wu; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Deyu; Towne, Silas A.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jiguang

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Spectroscopic differentiation between O-atom vacancy and divacancy defects, respectively, in TiO2 and HfO2 by X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defect state features have been detected in second derivative O K edge spectra for thin films of nano-crystalline TiO"2 and HfO"2. Based on soft X-ray photoelectron band edge spectra, and the occurrence of occupied band edge 4f states in Gd(Sc,Ti)O"3, ... Keywords: Bound resonance states, Divacancies, Immobile and mobile vacancies, Monovacancies, Pre-edge regime, X-ray absorption spectroscopy

G. Lucovsky; K. -B. Chung; J. -W. Kim; D. Norlund

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Phase Diagram of CuCrO2 in a Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic phase diagram of CuCrO2 is constructed as a function of magnetic field and anisotropy using a trial spin state built from harmonics of a fundamental ordering wavevector. Whereas the multiferroic phase of CuCrO2 is a modified spin spiral with a 3-sublattice (SL) period, the phase diagram also contains 1-SL, 2-SL, 4-SL, and 5-SL collinear states which may be accessi- ble in the nonstoichiometric compound CuCrO2+ . For small anisotropy, CuCrO2 is predicted to undergo a transition between two modified spiral states with an intervening 3-SL collinear phase.

Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Ultrafast X-ray and 2-dimensional UV Spectroscopy of TiO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ultrafast X-ray and 2-dimensional UV Spectroscopy of TiO2 Nanoparticles. Author(s), Majed Chergui. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Majed ...

33

Ion-exchanged MnO2 nanoparticles as cathodes of lithium ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ion-exchanged MnO2 nanoparticles as cathodes of lithium ion batteries at elevated temperatures. Author(s), Dawei Liu, Jasper Wright, Wei ...

34

Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of TiO2 Nanorod Films for Dye ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, One of limitations of conventional dye sensitized solar cells ( DSSC) is the use of TiO2 ... Radio Frequency Lamination for Photovoltaic Panels.

35

Detonation Spraying of TiO2-Ag: Controlling the Phase Composition ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Detonation Spraying of TiO2-Ag: Controlling the Phase Composition and Microstructure ... Using Ice to Make Nature Inspired Hybrid Materials.

36

Investigation of Structural Stability of Monolayer MnO 2 Sheet under ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Investigation of Structural Stability of Monolayer MnO2 Sheet under Electron Beam Irradiation. Author(s), Yong Wang, Chenghua Sun, Jin Zou  ...

37

Diffraction Analysis of Ball Milled Platinum Based Powders (Pt-ZrO2)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... series of powder samples with different amount of ZrO2 and ball milling time were examined by the synchrotron radiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

38

Optimization of Na 0.44 MnO 2 Cathode Material - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Storage: Materials, Systems, and Applications. Presentation Title, Optimization of Na0.44MnO2 Cathode Material for Use in Aqueous ...

39

Aligned TiO2 Nanotubes as Long Durability Anodes for Lithium-Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aligned TiO2 Nanotubes as Long Durability Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries · Aniline Coated Carbon Cryogel with Improved Cyclic Stability for Supercapacitor  ...

40

B7: Synthesis and Deposition of CeO2 Nanocrystals via Aqueous ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, B7: Synthesis and Deposition of CeO2 Nanocrystals via ... Abstract Scope, Morphological control of nanocrystals (NCs) has been one of the  ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Hydrothermal Growth of the TiO2 Nanowire Array on Ti Plates for the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applications of the aligned TiO2 nanowire array were studied in both the photoanalytic mineralization of acetone, benzene and dye molecules in water and the ...

42

Effect of TiO2 on the Conduction Heat Transfer of Mold Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, 2nd International Symposium on High-Temperature Metallurgical Processing. Presentation Title, Effect of TiO2 on the Conduction Heat Transfer of

43

Reticulated vitreous carbon foam saturated with SiO2 aerogel for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat insulation composites, RVC carbon foam matrix impregnated with SiO2 aerogel, were processed by multi-solgel method coupled with dipping ...

44

TiO2 Nanowire Solar Cells with Enhanced Energy Harvesting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, TiO2 Nanowire Solar Cells with Enhanced Energy Harvesting. Author(s), Anming Hu, John Wen, Y. Zhou. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Anming ...

45

Thermodynamic Model for SnO2(cr) and SnO2(am) Solubility in the Aqueous Na+-H+ -OH- -Cl- -H2O System  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of SnO2(cassiterite) was studied at 23 ? 2?C as functions of time (7 – 49 days) and pH value (0-14.5). Steady state concentrations were reached in < 7 days. The data were interpreted using the SIT model. The data shows that SnO2(cassiterite) is the stable phase at pH values of < ~11.7. These extensive data provided a log10 K0 value of -64.39 ± 0.30 for the reaction (SnO2(cassiterite) + 2H2O = Sn4+ + 4OH-) and values of 1.86 ± 0.30, ? -0.62, -9.20 ± 0.34, and -20.28 ± 0.34 for the reaction (Sn4+ + nH2O = Sn(OH)n4-n + nH+) with values of “n” equal to 1, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. These thermodynamic hydrolysis constants were used to reinterpret the extensive literature data for SnO2(am) solubility, which provided a log10 K0 value of -61.80 ± 0.29 for the reaction (SnO2(am) + 2H2O = Sn4+ + 4OH-). SnO2(cassiterite) is unstable under highly alkaline conditions (NaOH concentrations > 0.003 mol.dm-3) and transforms to a double salt of SnO2 and NaOH. Although additional well-focused studies will be required for confirmation, the experimental data in the highly alkaline region (0.003 to 3.5 mol.dm-3 NaOH) can be well described with log10 K0 of -5.29 ± 0.35 for the reaction (Na2Sn(OH)6(s) = Na2Sn(OH)6(aq)).

Rai, Dhanpat; Yui, Mikazu; Schaef, Herbert T.; Kitamura, Akira

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Exploration of artificial neural network to predict morphology of TiO2 nanotube  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to predict the morphology of TiO"2 nanotube prepared by anodization. The collected experimental data was simplified in an innovative approach and used as training and validation data, and the morphology of ... Keywords: Anodization, Artificial neural network, Morphology, Prediction, TiO2 nanotube

Hongyi Zhang; Jianling Zhao; Yuying Jia; Xuewen Xu; Cencun Tang; Yangxian Li

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE Lars Imsland Dagfinn Snarheim and control of a semi-closed O2/CO2 gas turbine cycle for CO2 capture. In the first part the process predictive control, Gas turbines, CO2 capture 1. INTRODUCTION Gas turbines are widely used for power

Foss, Bjarne A.

48

Synthesis and Characterization of MnO2-Based Mixed Oxides as Supercapacitors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis and Characterization of MnO2-Based Mixed Oxides as Supercapacitors Hansung Kim. Available electronically January 28, 2003. The development of a high-power-density supercapacitor made to develop supercapacitors based on non-noble oxides.13 Hydrous manganese oxide (a-MnO2 · nH2O

Popov, Branko N.

49

Lithium Hectorite Clay as the Ionic Conductor in LiCoO2 Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Hectorite Clay as the Ionic Conductor in LiCoO2 Cathodes Michael W. Riley,* Peter S. Fedkiw Carolina 27695-7905, USA Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species lithium hectorite, lithium Laponite, and lithium- exchanged Nafion are studied in conjunction with lithium metal

Khan, Saad A.

50

Highly ordered TiO2 macropore arrays as transparent photocatalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly ordered transparent TiO2 macropore arrays were synthesized via a simple glass-clamping method at room temperature. The as-synthesized TiO2 macropore arrays show high transmittance in the visible light region and can be used ...

Yuan Dong; Junfeng Chao; Zhong Xie; Xin Xu; Zhuoran Wang; Di Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Application of SiO2 aerogel film with low dielectric constant to intermetal dielectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Application of SiO2 aerogel film with low dielectric constant to intermetal dielectrics Moon-Ho Jo aerogel film was characterized from its structural and chemical viewpoints. High porosity of material infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for their chemical states. The improved electrical properties of SiO2 aerogel

Jo, Moon-Ho

52

Effect of Al addition on the microstructure and electronic structure of HfO2 film  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Al addition on the microstructure and electronic structure of HfO2 film X. F. Wang investigated the microstructures and electronic structures of a series of hafnium aluminate HfAlO films with Al concentration ranging from 0% to 100%. When the films evolve from pure HfO2 to pure Al2O3 by increasing

Gong, Xingao

53

Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag microgrid connected Ti O 2 nanocrystalline films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One reason for the high degree of photogenerated carrier recombination was found to be the charge accumulation caused by the uneven reaction area on the photocatalyst surface. The authors connected Ti O 2 nanoparticles with conducting Ag microgrid. Obvious photocatalytic activity improvement (81%) over the pure Ti O 2 was observed

Feng Pan; Junying Zhang; Weiwei Zhang; Tianmin Wang; Chao Cai

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Synthesis and characterization of LiNiO2 nanopowder with various chelating agents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LiNiO2 powders were synthesized with acrylic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, and triethanolamine (TEA) as a chelating agent. Crystallized LiNiO2 was synthesized in air at a calcinations temperature of 500°C for 12 hours, when ...

Mehrdad Balandeh; Sirous Asgari

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Microchannel Reactor System Design & Demonstration For On-Site H2O2 Production by Controlled H2/O2 Reaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We successfully demonstrated an innovative hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production concept which involved the development of flame- and explosion-resistant microchannel reactor system for energy efficient, cost-saving, on-site H2O2 production. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for controlled direct combination of H2 and O2 in all proportions including explosive regime, at a low pressure and a low temperature to produce about 1.5 wt% H2O2 as proposed. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we demonstrated our H2O2 production approach by ‘numbering up’ the channels in a multi-channel microreactor-based pilot plant to produce 1 kg/h of H2O2 at 1.5 wt% as demanded by end-users of the developed technology. To our knowledge, we are the first group to accomplish this significant milestone. We identified the reaction pathways that comprise the process, and implemented rigorous mechanistic kinetic studies to obtain the kinetics of the three main dominant reactions. We are not aware of any such comprehensive kinetic studies for the direct combination process, either in a microreactor or any other reactor system. We showed that the mass transfer parameter in our microreactor system is several orders of magnitude higher than what obtains in the macroreactor, attesting to the superior performance of microreactor. A one-dimensional reactor model incorporating the kinetics information enabled us to clarify certain important aspects of the chemistry of the direct combination process as detailed in section 5 of this report. Also, through mathematical modeling and simulation using sophisticated and robust commercial software packages, we were able to elucidate the hydrodynamics of the complex multiphase flows that take place in the microchannel. In conjunction with the kinetics information, we were able to validate the experimental data. If fully implemented across the whole industry as a result of our technology demonstration, our production concept is expected to save >5 trillion Btu/year of steam usage and >3 trillion Btu/year in electric power consumption. Our analysis also indicates >50 % reduction in waste disposal cost and ~10% reduction in feedstock energy. These savings translate to ~30% reduction in overall production and transportation costs for the $1B annual H2O2 market.

Adeniyi Lawal

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

56

Synthesis and Analysis of TiO2-Oligonucleotide Hybrid Nanoparticles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthesis and Analysis of TiO2-Oligonucleotide Hybrid Nanoparticles Synthesis and Analysis of TiO2-Oligonucleotide Hybrid Nanoparticles New developments in nanotechnology offer the creation of chemical-biological hybrid nanocomposites, which can be introduced into cells to initiate intracellular processes or biochemical reactions. Researchers from Northwestern University Medical Center (Chicago, IL) and Argonne National Laboratory synthesized TiO2-oligonucleotide nanocomposites made of DNA oligonucleotides attached to 45-Ă… TiO2 nanoparticles and tested them by using the 2-ID-E x-ray beamline at the X-ray Operations and Research sector 2 of the APS. A key benefit of nanocomposites is that they could advance medical biotechnology and open new doors in chemistry and materials sciences. Scan of a 21 x 21-m area with a single nucleus containing 3.6 x 106 nanoparticles.

57

Benefits and technological challenges in the implementation of TiO2-based  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Benefits and technological challenges in the implementation of TiO2-based Benefits and technological challenges in the implementation of TiO2-based ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners Title Benefits and technological challenges in the implementation of TiO2-based ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2008 Authors Hodgson, Alfred T., Hugo Destaillats, Toshifumi Hotchi, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Indoor Air 2008 Pagination 17-22 Date Published August 2008 Publisher Indoor Air, Paper ID: 297 Conference Location Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract Indoor air cleaners based on TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation of organic pollutants are a promising technology to improve or maintain indoor air quality while reducing ventilation energy costs. We evaluated the performance of a pilot scale UVPCO air cleaner under realistic conditions in single pass and recirculation modes

58

Catalytic activity of ZrO2 nanotube arrays prepared by anodization method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH4)2SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning ...

Xixin Wang; Jianling Zhao; Xiaorui Hou; Qi He; Chengchun Tang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Self-assembled TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced Li-ion Insertion  

SciTech Connect

We used anionic sulfate surfactants to assist the stabilization of graphene in aqueous solutions and facilitate the self-assembly of in-situ grown nanocrystalline TiO2, rutile and anatase, with graphene. These nanostructured TiO2-graphene hybrid materials were used for investigation of Li-ion insertion properties. The hybrid materials showed significantly enhanced Li-ion insertion/extraction in TiO2. The specific capacity was more than doubled at high charge rates, as compared with the pure TiO2 phase. The improved capacity at high charge-discharge rate may be attributed to increased electrode conductivity in presence of a percolated graphene network embedded into the metal oxide electrodes.

Wang, Donghai; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Juan; Yang, Zhenguo; Nie, Zimin; Kou, Rong; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Chong M.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Zhang, Jiguang; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Preparation of Highly Crystalline TiO2 Nanostructures by Acid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 11, 2010 ... Figure 1 shows the typical TEM images of the Hex-. ncTiO2/CTAB .... band energy of 3.2 and 3.0 eV, respectively [1]. The valance band of ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

TiO2-based photocatalytic process for purification of polluted water: bridging fundamentals to applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent years have witnessed a rapid accumulation of investigations on TiO2-based photocatalysis, which poses as a greatly promising advanced oxidation technology for water purification. As the ability of this advanced oxidation process is ...

Chuan Wang, Hong Liu, Yanzhen Qu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Role of CeO2 Addition on Catalytic Conversion of Plasma Sprayed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the current work, 316L steel substrate is plasma sprayed with CeO2-Al2O3 to achieve a catalytic surface. Microstructural evaluation of plasma-sprayed ...

63

Pure rotational spectra of TiO and TiO_2 in VY Canis Majoris  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the first detection of pure rotational transitions of TiO and TiO_2 at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths towards the red supergiant VY CMa. A rotational temperature, T_rot, of about 250 K was derived for TiO_2. Although T_rot was not well constrained for TiO, it is likely somewhat higher than that of TiO_2. The detection of the Ti oxides confirms that they are formed in the circumstellar envelopes of cool oxygen-rich stars and may be the "seeds" of inorganic-dust formation, but alternative explanations for our observation of TiO and TiO_2 in the cooler regions of the envelope cannot be ruled out at this time. The observations suggest that a significant fraction of the oxides is not converted to dust, but instead remains in the gas phase throughout the outflow.

Kaminski, T; Menten, K M; Patel, N A; Young, K H; Brunken, S; Muller, H S P; McCarthy, M C; Winters, J M; Decin, L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The progress of TiO2 nanocrystals doped with rare earth ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the past decades, TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) have been widely studied in the fields of photoelectric devices, optical communication, and environment for their stability in aqueous solution, being nontoxic, cheapness, and so on. Among the three ...

Hai Liu; Lixin Yu; Weifan Chen; Yingyi Li

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Oxy-coal combustion: stability of coaxial pulverized coal flames in O2/CO2 environments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oxy-coal combustion, in which air is replaced by an O2/ CO2 mixture, is one of the few technologies that may allow CO2 capture and sequestration… (more)

Zhang, Jingwei

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Effect factors of benzene adsorption and degradation by nano-TiO2 immobilized on diatomite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Difference between adsorption of benzene by diatomite and nano-TiO2 immobilized on diatomite was investigated. And effects of temperature, light intensity, relative humidity, and initial benzene concentration on adsorption and degradation ...

Lijun Cheng, Yong Kang, Guishui Li

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

SiO 2 Glass Ceramics by Selective Etching for Super  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Porosification of CaO-B2O3-SiO2 Glass Ceramics by Selective Etching for ... of the Localized Temperature during a Back Grinding Process for TSV Wafers.

68

Gas-supported high-photoactivity TiO2 nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By changing hydrothermal condition and post-heat-treatment temperature, silica-coated TiO2 nanotubes are obtained successfully. The effects of gas-supported process on tubular morphology, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity are discussed. ...

Sheng Wang, Tao Wang, Yuanwei Ding, Youfeng Xu, Qiying Su, Yanlong Gao, Guohua Jiang, Wenxing Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Multiple-Stripe Lithiation of Individual SnO2 Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The atomic scale lithiation mechanism of individual SnO2 nanowires in a flooding ... Multinuclear Solid and Liquid State NMR Studies of Battery Materials ... Novel Design of Nanostructured Si Anode on Nanohair Array Polymer ...

70

Gas Sensing Properties of Platinum Doped Nanocrystalline SnO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensors dip coated for 5 minutes and sintered at 750oC show the highest sensitivity towards H2, Co and LPG which is ten times higher than undoped SnO2 ...

71

Thermodynamic Model for ThO2(am) Solubility in Isosaccharinate Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Loon, L.R. : Comprehensive Thermodynamic Model Applicable toC.S. , and Yui, M. : Thermodynamic Model for the SolubilityThermodynamic Model for ThO 2 (am) Solubility in

Rai, Dhanpat

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Scanning tunneling microscopic studies of SiO2 thin film supported metal nano-clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation is focused on understanding heterogeneous metal catalysts supported on oxides using a model catalyst system of SiO2 thin film supported metal nano-clusters. The primary technique applied to this study is scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The most important constituent of this model catalyst system is the SiO2 thin film, as it must be thin and homogeneous enough to apply electron or ion based surface science techniques as well as STM. Ultra-thin SiO2 films were successfully synthesized on a Mo(112) single crystal. The electronic and geometric structure of the SiO2 thin film was investigated by STM combined with LEED, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The relationship between defects on the SiO2 thin film and the nucleation and growth of metal nano-clusters was also investigated. By monitoring morphology changes during thermal annealing, it was found that the metal-support interaction is strongly dependent on the type of metal as well as on the defect density of the SiO2 thin film. Especially, it was found that oxygen vacancies and Si impurities play an important role in the formation of Pd-silicide. By substituting Ti atoms into the SiO2 thin film network, an atomically mixed TiO2-SiO2 thin film was synthesized. Furthermore, these Ti atoms play a role as heterogeneous defects, resulting in the creation of nucleation sites for Au nano-clusters. A marked increase in Au cluster density due to Ti defects was observed in STM. A TiO2-SiO2 thin film consisting of atomic Ti as well as TiOx islands was also synthesized by using higher amounts of Ti (17 %). More importantly, this oxide surface was found to have sinter resistant properties for Au nano-clusters, which are desirable in order to make highly active Au nano-clusters more stable under reaction conditions.

Min, Byoung Koun

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Results from ORNL characterization of ZrO2-500-AK2 - surrogate TRISO material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is a compilation of the characterization data for the TRISO-coated surrogate particles designated ZrO2-500-AK2 that was produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program. The ZrO2-500-AK2 material contains nominally 500 {micro}m kernels of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coated with all TRISO layers (buffer, inner pyrocarbon, silicon carbide, and outer pyrocarbon). The ZrO2-500-AK2 material was created for: (1) irradiation testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and (2) limited dissemination to laboratories as deemed appropriate to the AGR program. This material was created midway into a TRISO fuel development program to accommodate a sudden opportunity to perform irradiation testing on surrogate material. While the layer deposition processes were chosen based on the best technical understanding at the time, technical progress at ORNL has led to an evolution in the perceived optimal deposition conditions since the creation of ZrO2-500-AK2. Thus, ZrO2-500-AK2 contains a reasonable TRISO microstructure, but does differ significantly from currently produced TRISO surrogates and fuel at ORNL. In this document, characterization data of the ZrO2-500-AK2 surrogate includes: size, shape, coating thickness, and density.

Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Selective Production of H2 from Ethanol at Low Temperatures over Rh/ZrO2-CeO2 Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of Rh catalysts on various supports have been applied to H2 production from the bio-ethanol steam reforming reaction. Support plays a very important role on product selectivity at low temperatures (below 450°C). Acidic or basic supports favor ethanol dehydration, while ethanol dehydrogenation is favored over neutral supports at low temperatures. Among the catalysts evaluated in this study, the Rh/Ce-ZrO2 catalyst exhibited the highest H2 yield at 450 °C, which is possibly due to the high oxygen storage capacity of Ce-ZrO2 resulting in efficient transfer of mobile oxygen species from the H2O molecule to the reaction intermediate.

Roh, Hyun-Seog; Wang, Yong; King, David L.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS: Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS: products, effect of UV irradiation, water and coadsorbed K+ Title Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS: products, effect of UV irradiation, water and coadsorbed K+ Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Rosseler, Olivier, Mohamad Sleiman, Nahuel V. Montesinos, Andrey Shavorskiy, Valerie Keller, Nicolas Keller, Marta I. Litter, Hendrik Bluhm, Miquel Salmeron, and Hugo Destaillats Journal J. Phys. Chem. Lett. Volume 4 Start Page 536 Issue 3 Pagination 536-541 Date Published 01/2013 Abstract Self-cleaning surfaces containing TiO2 nanoparticles have been postulated to efficiently remove NOx from the atmosphere. However, UV irradiation of NOx adsorbed on TiO2 also was shown to form harmful gas-phase byproducts such as HONO and N2O that may limit their depolluting potential. Ambient pressure XPS was used to study surface and gas-phase species formed during adsorption of NO2 on TiO2 and subsequent UV irradiation at λ = 365 nm. It is shown here that NO3-, adsorbed on TiO2 as a byproduct of NO2 disproportionation, was quantitatively converted to surface NO2 and other reduced nitrogenated species under UV irradiation in the absence of moisture. When water vapor was present, a faster NO3- conversion occurred, leading to a net loss of surface-bound nitrogenated species. Strongly adsorbed NO3- in the vicinity of coadsorbed K+ cations was stable under UV light, leading to an efficient capture of nitrogenated compounds.

76

Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that the stability of nonaqueous electrolyte is critical for the rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. Although stability of many solvents used in the electrolytes has been investigated, considerably less attention has been paid to the stability of electrolyte salt which is the second major component. Herein, we report the systematic investigation of the stability of seven common lithium salts in tetraglyme used as electrolytes for Li-O2 batteries. The discharge products of Li-O2 reaction were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The performance of Li-O2 batteries was strongly affected by the salt used in the electrolyte. Lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) decompose and form LiF and lithium borates, respectively during the discharge of Li-O2 batteries. Several other salts, including lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI), lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) , and lithium bromide (LiBr) led to the discharge products which mainly consisted of Li2O2 and only minor signs of decomposition of LiTFSI, LiTf, LPF6 and LiClO4 were detected. LiBr showed the best stability during the discharge process. As for the cycling performance, LiTf and LiTFSI were the best among the studied salts. In addition to the instability of lithium salts, decomposition of tetraglyme solvent was a more significant factor contributing to the limited cycling stability. Thus a more stable nonaqueous electrolyte including organic solvent and lithium salt still need to be further developed to reach a fully reversible Li-O2 battery.

Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Burton, Sarah D.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Gross, Mark E.; Zhang, Jiguang

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

77

TiO2 Nanotubes Filled with NiFe2O4 Quantum Dots and Ni-Fe ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The obtained TiO2NTs were filled with ... in the temperature range 25-850 °C. The modified TiO2NTs were also tested for ...

78

Thermodynamic properties of CexTh1-xO2 solid solution from first-principles calculations  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study based on first-principles calculations along with a quasi-harmonic approximation has been conducted to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the CexTh1xO2 solid solution. The predicted density, thermal expansion coefficients, heat capacity and thermal conductivity for the CexTh1xO2 solid solution all agree well with the available experimental data. The thermal expansion coefficient for ThO2 increases with CeO2 substitution, and complete substitution shows the highest expansion coefficient. On the other hand, the mixed CexTh1xO2 (0 < x < 1) solid solution generally exhibits lower heat capacity and thermal conductivity than the ThO2 and CeO2 end members. Our calculations indicate a strong effect of Ce concentration on the thermodynamic properties of the CexTh1xO2 solid solution.

Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

79

Extensions of representations of the CAR algebra to the Cuntz algebra $O_{2}$ - The fock and the infinite wedge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extensions of representations of the CAR algebra to the Cuntz algebra $O_{2}$ - The fock and the infinite wedge

Kawamura, K

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Controls on Soluble Pu Concentrations in PuO2/Magnetite Suspensions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time-dependent reduction of PuO2(am) was studied over a range of pH values in the presence of aqueous Fe(II) and magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. At early time frames (up to 56 days) very little aqueous Pu was mobilized from PuO2(am), even though measured pH and redox potentials, coupled to equilibrium thermodynamic modeling indicated the potential for significant reduction of PuO2(am) to relatively soluble Pu(III). Introduction of Eu(III) or Nd(III) to the suspensions as competitive cations to displace possible sorbed Pu(III) resulted in the release of significant concentrations of aqueous Pu. However, the similarity of aqueous Pu concentrations that resulted from the introduction of Eu(III)/Nd(III) to suspensions with and without magnetite indicated that the Pu was displaced from the PuO2(am), not from magnetite. The fact that soluble forms of Pu can be displaced from the surface of PuO2(am) represents a potential, but previously unidentified, source of Pu to aqueous solution or subsurface groundwaters.

Felmy, Andrew R.; Moore, Dean A.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Conradson, Steven D.; Qafoku, Odeta; Buck, Edgar C.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Ilton, Eugene S.

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Annealing effect on photovoltaic performance of CdSe quantum-dots-sensitized TiO2 nanorod solar cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large area rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were grown on F:SnO2 (FTO) conductive glass using a hydrothermal method at low temperature. CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto single-crystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays by a ...

Yitan Li, Lin Wei, Ruizi Zhang, Yanxue Chen, Jun Jiao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Effect of solvent on the preparation of ambient pressure-dried SiO2 aerogel films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SiO2 aerogel film has a promising property as intermetal dielectrics (IMD) for its low dielectric constant. However, a stable and porous SiO2 aerogel film was not properly synthesized due to the rapid evaporation of solvent during ... Keywords: SiO2 aerogel film, ambient pressure drying, solvent, spin coating

Sang-Bae Jung; Jung-Ho Kim; Hong-Ryul Kim; Hyung-Ho Park

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen (O2) from Scripps Institution of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Oxygen » Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen Atmospheric Trace Gases » Oxygen » Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen (O2) from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Modern Records of Atmospheric Oxygen (O2) from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric oxygen (O2) concentrations at nine currently active stations. Records since 1989 are available from Scripps Pier and Alert, Alaska, although these are not continuous. Continuous records from seven stations extend back to 1993, and data for the other two stations (Cold Bay, Alaska and Palmer Station, Antarctica) are available back to the mid 1990s. These data are from remote locations or other locations situated so that they represent averages over large portions of the globe rather than local background sources.

84

Reaction Mechanisms for the Limited Reversibility of Li-O2 Chemistry in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The Li-O2 chemistry in nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes and the underneath reason of its limited reversibility was exhaustively investigated. The discharge products collected from the air cathode in a Li-O2 battery at different depth of discharge (DOD) were systematically analyzed with X-ray diffraction. It is revealed that, independent of the discharge depth, lithium alkylcarbonate (either lithium propylenedicarbonate - LPDC, or lithium ethylenedicarbonate - LEDC, with other related derivatives) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) are always the main products, obviously originated from the electrolyte solvents propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC). These lithium alkylcarbonates are obviously generated from the single-electron reductive decomposition of the corresponding carbonate solvents initiated by the attack of superoxide radical anions. On the other hand, neither lithium peroxide (Li2O2) nor lithium oxide (Li2O) is detected. More significantly, from in situ gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy it is found that Li2CO3 and Li2O cannot be oxidized even when charged up to 4.6 V vs. Li/Li+, while LPDC, LEDC and Li2O2 are readily able to, with CO2 and CO released with the re-oxidation of LPDC and LEDC. It is therefore concluded that the quasi-reversibility of Li-O2 chemistry observed hitherto in an organic carbonate-based electrolyte is actually reliant on the formation of lithium alkylcarbonates through the reductive decomposition of carbonate solvents during discharge process and the subsequent oxidation of these same alkylcarbonates during charge process. It is the poor oxidizability of these alkylcarbonate species that constitutes the obstruction to an ideal rechargeable Li-O2 battery.

Xu, Wu; Xu, Kang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Hardy, John S.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Advances in the Surface Science of TiO2 – A Global Perspective  

SciTech Connect

TiO2 rutile single-crystal surfaces have served has useful prototypical, well-defined specimens for fundamental investigations of oxide surface science for many years. As a result of both experimental and theoretical efforts, we have gained considerable insight into the structural, electronic, thermochemical and photochemical properties of pristine as well as defective surfaces. In this brief review, I summarize some of the recent advances that have been made in the laboratories of participants of the International Workshop of Oxide Surfaces (IWOX) series, principally on TiO2(110).

Chambers, Scott A.

2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

86

Floating Electrode Electrowetting on Hydrophobic Dielectric with an SiO2 Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Floating electrode electrowetting is caused by dc voltage applied to a liquid droplet on the Cytop surface, without electrical connection to the substrate. The effect is caused by the charge separation in the floating electrode. A highly-resistive thermally-grown SiO2 layer underneath the Cytop enables the droplet to hold charges without leakage, which is the key contribution. Electrowetting with an SiO2 layer shows a memory effect, where the wetting angle stays the same after the auxiliary electrode is removed from the droplet in both conventional and floating electrode electrowetting. Floating electrode electrowetting provides an alternative configuration for developing advanced electrowetting-based devices.

Mehdi Khodayari; Benjamin Hahne; Nathan B. Crane; Alex A. Volinsky

2013-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

87

Characteristics of Desulfation Behavior for Pre-Sulfated Pt-BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts: The Role of the CeO2 Support  

SciTech Connect

The desulfation of pre-sulfated Pt-BaO/CeO2 lean NOx trap catalysts was investigated by H2 TPRX (temperature programmed reaction), in-situ TR-XRD (time-resolved X-ray diffraction) and in-situ S K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy) techniques. Compared with Pt-BaO/Al2O3 materials, the reductive treatment in H2 for a CeO2 supported sample up to 1073 K hardly removes any sulfur species. However, the results of in-situ TR-XRD measurements demonstrate that the quantity of a BaS phase formed on Pt-BaO/CeO2 is much smaller than that on Pt-BaO/Al2O3, implying that the formation of BaS crystallites, which occurs during the reduction from sulfate (SO42-) to sulfide (S2-), is significantly suppressed in the CeO2-supported catalyst. As the desulfation temperature increases under reducing conditions (in H2), the in-situ S XANES spectra show that, compared with alumina-supported samples, the reduction temperature for sulfates (S6+) decreases by about 150 K. Concomitantly, the formation of sulfur species with lower oxidation states (S2- - S4+) is enhanced. The step jump of S XANES spectra before and after desulfation are very similar, implying that the amount of sulfur-containing species removed during the reductive treatment is negligible, in agreement with the results of H2 TPRX. These results suggest that H2S produced by the reduction of BaSO4 is readily re-adsorbed on the ceria support to form ceria-sulfur complexes (e.g. CeS2). The high affinity of ceria for H2S, combined with the ease of reducibility of the ceria support gives rise to various oxidation states of sulfur after high temperature H2 treatments. Thus, the results of this study clearly show that the ceria support strongly affects the overall desulfation mechanism. The intrinsic role of the ceria support during desulfation, and its effect on the overall NOx storage processes are discussed on the basis of the characterization results obtained here.

Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Szanyi, Janos; Wang, Xianqin; Li, Guosheng; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Peden, Charles HF

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

88

The Association of Inbreeding With Lung Fibrosis Incidence in Beagle Dogs That Inhaled 238PuO2 or 239PuO2.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of health effects in animals after exposure to internally deposited radionuclides were intended to supplement observational studies in humans. Both nuclear workers and Beagle dogs have exhibited plutonium associated lung fibrosis; however, the dogs smaller gene pool may limit the applicability of findings to humans. Data on Beagles that inhaled either plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2) or plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) were analyzed. Wright's Coefficient of Inbreeding was used to measure genetic or familial susceptibility and was assessed as an explanatory variable when modeling the association between lung fibrosis incidence and plutonium exposure. Lung fibrosis was diagnosed in approximately 80% of the exposed dogs compared with 23.7% of the control dogs. The maximum degree of inbreeding was 9.4%. Regardless of isotope, the addition of inbreeding significantly improved the model in female dogs but not in males. In female dogs an increased inbreeding coefficient predicted decreased hazard of a lung fibrosis diagnosis. Lung fibrosis was common in these dogs with inbreeding affecting models of lung fibrosis incidence in females but not in males. The apparent protective effect in females predicted by these models of lung fibrosis incidence is likely to be minimal given the small degree of inbreeding in these groups.

Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brigantic, Andrea M.; Morgan, William F.

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

89

Formation of CO precursors during char gasification with O2, CO2 and H2O  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation of CO precursors during char gasification with O2, CO2 and H2O Alejandro Montoya a are presented to get insight into an unified mechanism of uncatalyzed carbon gasification. D 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Gasification; Chemisorption; Molecular simulation; Surface

Truong, Thanh N.

90

Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 nanotubes can be effectively controlled for the suitable use for a hybrid solar cell by varying the diameter nanotubes to form hybrid solar cells. The open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, fill factor

Cao, Guozhong

91

Effect of particle morphology on sinterability of SiC-ZrO2 in microwave  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of particle morphology on the sinterability of microwave-sintered SiC-ZrO2 was evaluated in this paper. A comparison was alsomade against the electric furnace and resulted in faster heating rate because of the difference of heat ...

Lydia Anggraini; Kei Ameyama

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Structural Environment of Nitrogen in N-doped Rutile TiO2(110)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We employ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to characterize the concentration-dependent structural properties of nitrogen doping into rutile TiO2. High quality N-doped TiO2 were prepared on rutile single crystal TiO2(110) substrates using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and Ti effusive sources. Films with N dopant concentrations at or below 2 at.% exhibited predominately substitutional doping based on NRA data, whereas films with concentrations above this limit resulted in little or no substitutional N and surfaces rich in Ti3+. The binding energy of the N 1s feature in XPS did not readily distinguish between these two extremes in N-doping, rendering features within 0.4 eV of each other and similar peak profiles. Although widely used to characterize the state of N in anion-doped TiO2 materials, we find that XPS is unsuitable for this task.

Henderson, Michael A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ohsawa, Takeo; Chambers, Scott A.

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

Airborne Measurements of Air Mass from O2 A-Band Absorption Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne experiments to assess the feasibility of remote sensing surface pressure from a space platform are described. The data are high-resolution spectra in the O2 A band (759–771 nm) of sunlight reflected from the sea surface, measured by a ...

D. M. O’Brien; R. M. Mitchell; S. A. English; G. A. Da Costa

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

SnO2 nanoparticle-based passive capacitive sensor for ethylene detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A passive capacitor-based ethylene sensor using SnO2 nanoparticles is presented for the detection of ethylene gas. The nanoscale particle size (10 nm to 15 nm) and film thickness (1300 nm) of the sensing dielectric layer in the capacitor model ...

Mangilal Agarwal; Mercyma D. Balachandran; Sudhir Shrestha; Kody Varahramyan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Probing the Failure Mechanism of SnO2 Nanowires for Sodium-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Non-lithium metals such as sodium have attracted wide attention as a potential charge carrying ion for rechargeable batteries, performing the same role as lithium in lithium- ion batteries. As sodium and lithium have the same +1 charge, it is assumed that what has been learnt about the operation of lithium ion batteries can be transferred directly to sodium batteries. Using in-situ TEM, in combination with DFT calculations, we probed the structural and chemical evolution of SnO2 nanowire anodes in Na-ion batteries and compared them quantitatively with results from Li-ion batteries [Science 330 (2010) 1515]. Upon Na insertion into SnO2, a displacement reaction occurs, leading to the formation of amorphous NaxSn nanoparticles covered by crystalline Na2O shell. With further Na insertion, the NaxSn core crystallized into Na15Sn4 (x=3.75). Upon extraction of Na (desodiation), the NaxSn core transforms to Sn nanoparticles. Associated with a volume shrinkage, nanopores appear and metallic Sn particles are confined in hollow shells of Na2O, mimicking a peapod structure. These pores greatly increase electrical impedance, therefore naturally accounting for the poor cyclability of SnO2. DFT calculations indicate that Na+ diffuses 30 times slower than Li+ in SnO2, in agreement with in-situ TEM measurement. Insertion of Na can chemo-mechanically soften the reaction product to greater extent than in lithiation. Therefore, in contrast to the lithiation of SnO2, no dislocation plasticity was seen ahead of the sodiation front. This direct comparison of the results from Na and Li highlights the critical role of ionic size and electronic structure of different ionic species on the charge/discharge rate and failure mechanisms in these batteries.

Gu, Meng; Kushima, Akihiro; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Li, Ju; Wang, Chong M.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

96

Thermodynamic properties of CexTh1-xO2 solid solution from first-principles calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic study based on first-principles calculations along with the quasi-harmonic approximation has been conducted to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the CexTh1-xO2 solid solution. The predicted density, thermal expansion coefficients, heat capacity and thermal conductivity for the CexTh1-xO2 solid solution all agree well with available experimental data. The thermal expansion coefficient for ThO2 increases with CeO2 substitution, and complete substitution shows the highest expansion coefficient. On the other hand, the mixed CexTh1-xO2 (0thermodynamic properties of the CexTh1-xO2 solid solution.

Xiao, Haiyan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Weber, William J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

SnO2-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors based oxygen sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrothermally grown SnO2 was integrated with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) sensor as the gate electrode for oxygen detection. The crystalline of the SnO2 was improved after annealing at 400 C. The grain growth kinetics of the SnO2 nanomaterials, together with the O2 gas sensing properties and sensing mechanism of the SnO2 gated HEMT sensors were investigated. Detection of 1% oxygen in nitrogen at 100 C was possible. A low operation temperature and low power consumption oxygen sensor can be achieved by combining the SnO2 films with the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure

Hung, S.T. [Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan; Chung, Chi-Jung [Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan; Chen, Chin Ching [University of Florida, Gainesville; Lo, C. F. [University of Florida; Ren, F. [University of Florida; Pearton, S. J. [University of Florida; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Evidence of Photocatalytic Dissociation of Water on TiO2 with Atomic Resolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photocatalytic water splitting reaction on TiO2 surface is one of the fundamental issues that bears significant implication in hydrogen energy technology and has been extensively studied. However, the existence of the very first reaction step, the direct photo-dissociation of water, has been disregarded. Here, we provide unambiguously experimental evidence to demonstrate that adsorbed water molecules on reduced rutile TiO2(110)-1\\times1 surface can be dissociated under UV irradiation using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. It is identified that a water molecule at fivefold coordinated Ti (Ti5c) site can be photocatalytically dissociated, resulting in a hydroxyl at Ti5c and another hydroxyl at bridge oxygen row. Our findings reveal a missing link in the photocatalytic water splitting reaction chain, which greatly contribute to the detailed understanding of underlying mechanism.

Tan, Shijing; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Jin; Zhao, Aidi; Wang, Bing; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J G

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Current-Controlled Negative Differential Resistance due to Joule Heating in TiO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that Joule heating causes current-controlled negative differential resistance (CC-NDR) in TiO2 by constructing an analytical model of the voltage-current V(I) characteristic based on polaronic transport for Ohm's Law and Newton's Law of Cooling, and fitting this model to experimental data. This threshold switching is the 'soft breakdown' observed during electroforming of TiO2 and other transition-metal-oxide based memristors, as well as a precursor to 'ON' or 'SET' switching of unipolar memristors from their high to their low resistance states. The shape of the V(I) curve is a sensitive indicator of the nature of the polaronic conduction.

A. S. Alexandrov; A. M. Bratkovsky; B. Bridle; S. E. Savel'ev; D. B. Strukov; R. Stanley Williams

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

Mesoporous TiO2 spheres with a nitridated conducting layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nitridated TiO2 mesoporous spheres have been synthesized by hydrothermal processing followed by post-nitridation with NH3. Characterization data reveal a nitridated conducting layer, in addition to a mesoporous, and nanosized building-block morphology resulting in a large surface area. The samples have an average pore size and surface area of, respectively, 10 nm and 87 m2/g. The nitridated TiO2 mesoporous spheres exhibit a high capacity of > 200 mAh/g with good cyclability and high rate capability, as the nitridated conducting layer and favorable morphology of nanosized spheres provides good electrical contact, accommodates cycling induced strain smoothly, and facilitates lithium-ion diffusion.

Yoon, Sukeun [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Flexible Zn2SnO4/MnO2 Core/Shell Nanocable-Carbon Microfiber ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Flexible Zn2SnO4/MnO2 Core/Shell Nanocable-Carbon Microfiber Hybrid Composites for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes.

102

Atomic-Scale Structure of Al2O3-ZrO2 Mixed Oxides Prepared by Laser Ablation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, the phase composition and atomic structure of laser evaporated ZrO2 and ZrO2-Al2O3 nanopowders have been studied. The results indicate that pure ZrO2 exists in the form of tetragonal structure, Al2O3 doped ZrO2 nanoparticles, however, have cubic structure. Compared to bulk tetragonal ZrO2, pure tetragonal ZrO2 nanoparticles have a shorter Zr-O- and Zr-Zr shell, indicating that the lattice contracts with decreasing particle size. For Al2O3 doped ZrO2 solid solution, the distances of first Zr-O and Zr-Zr (Al) coordination decrease with increasing solid solubility. The disorder degree of the ZrO2 lattice increases with increasing solid solubility. The coevaporated ZrO2-Al2O3 is quickly solidified into amorphous phase when it is ablated in a higher pressure. The amorphous phase contains Zr-O-Zr (Al) clusters and has shorter Zr-O distance and tower Zr-O coordination number.

Yang Xiuchun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dubiel, M. [Department of Physics, Martin Luther University of Halle, D-06108 Halle (Germany); Hofmeister, H. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Riehemann, W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology (Germany)

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

103

Mesoporous TiO2-B Microspheres with Superior Rate Performance for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous TiO2-B microsperes with a favorable material architecture are designed and synthesized for high power lithium ion batteries. This material, combining the advantages of fast lithium transport with a pseudocapacitive mechanism, adequate electrode-electrolyte contact and compact particle packing in electrode layer, shows superior high-rate charge-discharge capability and long-time cyclability for lithium ion batteries.

Liu, Hansan [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

SnO2 sub-micron wires for gas sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work a novel semiconductor metal-oxide (MOX) gas sensor is developed by means of lithographic techniques. The basic idea is to replace the continuous sensing film of standard MOX sensors with a pattern of wires in the sub-micron scale. ... Keywords: E-beam lithography, Gas sensors, Semiconductor metal-oxide, SiO2 reactive ion etching, Tin dioxide

P. Candeloro; A. Carpentiero; S. Cabrini; E. Di Fabrizio; E. Comini; C. Baratto; G. Faglia; G. Sberveglieri; A. Gerardino

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The low-energy, electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of molecular products from amorphous solid water (ASW) films capped with methanol is investigated versus methanol coverage (0 - 4 x 1015 cm-2) at 50 K using 100 eV incident electrons. The major ESD products from a monolayer of methanol on ASW are quite similar to the ESD products from bulk methanol film: H2, CH4, H2O, C2H6, CO, CH2O, and CH3OH. For 40 ML ASW films, the molecular oxygen, hydrogen, and water ESD yields from the ASW are suppressed with increasing methanol coverage, while the CH3OH ESD yield increases proportionally to the methanol coverage. The suppression of the water ESD products by methanol is consistent with the non-thermal reactions occurring preferentially at or near the ASW/vacuum interface and not in the interior of the film. The water and molecular hydrogen ESD yields from the water layer decrease exponentially with the methanol cap coverage with 1/e constants of ~ 0.6 x 1015 cm-2 and 1.6 x 1015 cm-2, respectively. In contrast, the O2 ESD from the water layer is very efficiently quenched by small amounts of methanol (1/e ~ 6.5 x 1013 cm-2). The rapid suppression of O2 production by small amounts of methanol is due to reactions between CH3OH and the precursors for the O2 - mainly OH radicals. A kinetic model for the O2 ESD which semi-quantitatively accounts for the observations is presented.

Akin, Minta C.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

2009-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

106

Measuring the Casimir force gradient from graphene on a SiO_2 substrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gradient of the Casimir force between a Si-SiO${}_2$-graphene substrate and an Au-coated sphere is measured by means of a dynamic atomic force microscope operated in the frequency shift technique. It is shown that the presence of graphene leads to up to 9% increase in the force gradient at the shortest separation considered. This is in qualitative agreement with the predictions of an additive theory using the Dirac model of graphene.

A. A. Banishev; H. Wen; J. Xu; R. K. Kawakami; G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko; U. Mohideen

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

107

Hydrogen impurities and shallow donors in SnO2 studied by infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen has been found to be an important source of n-type conductivity in the transparent conducting oxide SnO2. We have studied the properties of H in SnO2 single crystals with infrared spectroscopy. When H or D is introduced into SnO2 by annealing in an H2 or D2 ambient at elevated temperature, several O-H and O-D vibrational lines are produced along with the low-frequency absorption that is characteristic of free carriers. To probe the relationship between H and the free carriers it introduces, the thermal stability of the free carrier absorption, and its relationship to the thermal stabilities of the O-H lines have been examined. Two H-related donors are found, one that is stable at room temperature on a time scale of weeks and a second that is stable up to 600 C. These electrically active defects are found to interact with other O-H centers and can be converted from one to another by thermal treatments. The vibrational modes have been found to have distinctive polarization properties that provide an important test of microscopic defect models for the several O-H and (O-H)2 centers that we have observed.

BEKISLI, F [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Stavola, M. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; FOWLER, W B [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Spahr, E. J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA; Lüpke, G. [Vanderbilt University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes Riccardo Ruffo a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes Riccardo Ruffo 2008 Available online xxxx Keywords: LiCoO2 Aqueous electrolyte LiNO3 Lithium-ion battery Cathode substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries in organic

Cui, Yi

109

Low temperature hydrothermally synthesized nanocrystalline orthorhombic LiMnO2 cathode material for lithium-ion cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline orthorhombic LiMnO2 particles with an average particle size of about 35 nm in diameter were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal process at 160-180 °C from trimanganese tetroxide (Mn3O4) prepared ... Keywords: hydrothermal process, lithium ion battery, nanocrystalline, orthorhombic LiMnO2, solvothermal process

Mengqiang Wu; Ai Chen; Rongqing Xu; Yue Li

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Multisegmented Au-MnO2/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Coaxial Arrays for High-Power Supercapacitor Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multisegmented Au-MnO2/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Coaxial Arrays for High-Power SupercapacitorVised Manuscript ReceiVed: NoVember 4, 2009 The present work reports on synthesis and supercapacitor applications hybrid coaxial arrays are efficient electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Au-segmented MnO2/CNT

Ajayan, Pulickel M.

111

Charging effects in CdSe nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix produced by rf magnetron sputtering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Charging effects in CdSe nanocrystals embedded in SiO"2 matrix fabricated by rf magnetron co-sputtering technique were electrically characterized by means of capacitance-voltage (C-V) combined with current-voltage (I-V). The presence of CdSe nanocrystals ... Keywords: CdSe, Charging effect, Nanocrystals, SiO2

S. Levichev; A. Chahboun; P. Basa; A. G. Rolo; N. P. Barradas; E. Alves; Zs. J. Horvath; O. Conde; M. J. M. Gomes

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A molecular mechanics study of morphologic interaction between graphene and Si nanowires on a SiO2 substrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the morphologic interaction between graphene and Si nanowires on a SiO2 substrate, using molecular mechanics simulations. Two cases are considered: (1) a graphene nanoribbon intercalated by a single Si nanowire on a SiO2 ...

Zhao Zhang; Teng Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

High Density n-Si/n-TiO2 Core/Shell Nanowire Arrays with Enhanced Photoactivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are currently great needs to develop low-cost inorganic materials that can efficiently perform solar water splitting as photoelectrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen has significant potential to provide clean energy. We investigate the Si/TiO2 nanowire heterostructures to determine their potential for the photooxidation of water. We observed that highly dense Si/TiO2 core/shell nanowire arrays enhanced the photocurrent by 2.5 times compared to planar Si/TiO2 structure due to their low reflectance and high surface area. We also showed that n-Si/n-TiO2 nanowire arrays exhibited a larger photocurrent and open circuit voltage than p-Si/n-TiO2 nanowires due to a barrier at the heterojunction.

Hwang, Yun Jeong; Boukai, Akram; Yang, Peidong

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Comparison Between Research-Grade and Commercially Available SnO2 for Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Compared to commercial SnO2 (with similar film thickness and sheet resistance), research-grade SnO2 has higher optical transmittance and higher electron mobility. Based on our study, changing the glass substrate and improving the SnO2 quality could improve the optical properties of commercial SnO2.

Li, X.; Pankow, J.; To, B.; Gessert, T.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Excellent Sulfur Resistance of Pt/BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we investigated the NOx storage behavior of Pt-BaO/CeO2 catalysts, especially in the presence of SO2. High surface area CeO2 (~ 110 m2/g) with a rod like morphology was synthesized and used as a support. The Pt-BaO/CeO2 sample demonstrated slightly higher NOx conversion in the entire temperature range studied compared with Pt-BaO/?-Al2O3. More importantly, this ceria-based catalyst showed higher sulfur tolerance than the alumina-based one. The time of complete NOx uptake was maintained even after exposing the sample to ~3 g/L of SO2. The same sulfur exposure, on the other hand, eliminated the complete NOx uptake time on the alumina-based NOx storage catalysts. TEM images show no evidence of either Pt sintering or BaS phase formation during reductive de-sulfation up to 600°C on the ceria based catalyst, while the same process over the alumina-based catalyst resulted in both a significant increase in the average Pt cluster size and the agglomeration of a newly-formed BaS phase into large crystallites. XPS results revealed the presence of about 5 times more residual sulfur after reductive de-sulfation at 600°C on the alumina based catalysts in comparison with the ceria-based ones. All of these results strongly support that, besides their superior intrinsic NOx uptake properties, ceria based catalysts have a) much higher sulfur tolerance and b) excellent resistance against Pt sintering when they are compared to the widely used alumina based catalysts.

Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

116

Importance of Diffusion in Methanol Photochemistry on TiO2(110)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photoactivity of methanol on the rutile TiO2(110) surface is shown to depend on the ability of methanol to diffuse on the surface and find sites active for its thermal dissociation to methoxy. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) results show that the extent of methanol photodecomposition to formaldehyde is negligible on the clean TiO2(110) surface at 100 K due to a scarcity of sites that can convert (photoinactive) methanol to (photoactive) methoxy. The extent of photoactivity at 100 K significantly increases when methanol is coadsorbed with oxygen, however only those molecules able to adsorb near (next to) a coadsorbed oxygen species are active. Preannealing coadsorbed methanol and oxygen to above 200 K prior to UV irradiation results in a significant increase in photoactivity. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images clearly show that the advent of increased photoactivity in TPD correlates with the onset of methanol diffusion along the surface’s Ti4+ rows at ~200 K. These results demonstrate that optimizing thermal processes (such as diffusion or proton transfer reactions) can be critical to maximizing photocatalytic reactivity on TiO2 surfaces. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle under contract DEAC05-76RL01830. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Shen, Mingmin; Acharya, Danda P.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Henderson, Michael A.

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

117

Microinhomogeneities of glasses of the system PbO–SiO 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and Rayleigh–Mandelstam–Brillouin (RMB) light scattering as well as ultrasonic sound velocities have been studied in glasses of the system PbO–SiO 2 which has an unusually wide range of glass forming ability. The results of scattering are compared with calculations based on the concept of frozen-in equilibrium thermal fluctuations as the origin of static microinhomogeneities (MIH) in glasses. MIH of compositions seem to be the main source of scattering

V. V. Golubkov; V. N. Bogdanov; A. Ya. Pakhnin; V. A. Solovyev; E. V. Zhivaeva; V. O. Kabanov; O. V. Yanush; S. V. Nemilov; A. Kisliuk; M. Soltwisch; D. Quitmann

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

In Situ Observation of the Electrochemical Lithiation of a Single SnO2 Nanowire Electrode  

SciTech Connect

We report the first real-time transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the structural evolution and phase transformation of lithium-ion battery anode during the battery charging process. A nanobattery consisting of a single SnO2 nanowire anode and an ionic liquid electrolyte was successfully constructed in a TEM. We observed that during the charging process, the SnO2 crystal was converted to Li2O glass with LixSn nanocrystalline precipitates as the reaction front propagated progressively along the nanowire. After the reaction front passed, the nanowire showed swelling, elongation, and large off-axis distortion (spiraling). Upon completion of the electrochemical charging, the nanowire showed up to 120% elongation and a 30% increase in diameter with a volume expansion of about 272%. The charging front, which separates the reacted and unreacted sections of the nanowire, contains a high density of mobile dislocations, which are continuously nucleated and annihilated at the moving reaction front. This dislocation cloud indicates large in-plane misfit stresses, and serves as structural precursor to the eventual complete solid-state amorphization. The rate of charging in our nanobatteries is found to be proportional to the inverse square root of nanowire length, indicating that a standalone nanobattery or integrated arrays of nanobatteries should have kinetic advantage over conventional battery design. The present observations also provide important mechanistic insights for the design of advanced batteries with improved performance and lifetime for broad electrical energy storage applications.

Huang, J. Y.; Zhong, Li; Wang, Chong M.; Sullivan, John P.; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Li Q.; Mao, Scott; Hudak, N.; Liu, Xiao H.; Subramanian, Arun Kumar; Fan, Hongyou; Qi, Liang; Kushima, Akihiro; Li, Ju

2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

119

Redox Active Layer-by-Layer Structures containing MnO2 Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoscale materials provide unique properties that will enable new technologies and enhance older ones. One area of intense activity in which nanoscale materials are being used is in the development of new functional materials for battery applications. This effort promises superior materials with properties that circumvent many of the problems associated with traditional battery materials. Previously we have worked on several approaches for using nanoscale materials for application as cathode materials in rechargeable Li batteries. Our recent work has focused on synthesizing MnO2 nanoparticles and using these in layer-by-layer (LbL) structures to probe the redox properties of the nanoparticles. We show that the aqueous colloidal nanoparticles produced by butanol reduction of tetramethylammonium permanganate can be trapped in thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition approach, and that these films are both redox active and exhibit kinetically facile electrochemical responses. We show cyclic voltammetry of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles entrapped in a LbL thin film at an ITO electrode surface using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). CV experiments demonstrate that Li+ insertion accompanies Mn(IV) reduction in LiClO4 supporting electrolytes, and that reduction is hindered in supporting electrolytes containing only tetrabutylammonium cations. We also show that electron propagation through multilayer films is facile, suggesting that electrons percolate through the films via electron exchange between nanoparticles.

Bazito, Fernanda; O'Brien, Robert; Buttry, Daniel A.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Measurements of the Cerenkov light emitted by a TeO2 crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bolometers have proven to be good instruments to search for rare processes because of their excellent energy resolution and their extremely low intrinsic background. In this kind of detectors, the capability of discriminating alpha particles from electrons represents an important aspect for the background reduction. One possibility for obtaining such a discrimination is provided by the detection of the Cerenkov light which, at the low energies of the natural radioactivity, is only emitted by electrons. In this paper, the results of the analysis of the light emitted by a TeO2 crystal at room temperature when transversed by a cosmic ray are reported. Light is promptly emitted after the particle crossing and a clear evidence of its directionality is also found. These results represent a strong indication that Cerenkov light is the main, if not even the only, component of the light signal in a TeO2 crystal. They open the possibility to make large improvements in the performance of experiments based on this kind of materials

F. Bellini; N. Casali; I. Dafinei; M. Marafini; S. Morganti; F. Orio; D. Pinci; M. Vignati; C. Voena

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Structure and Stability of SnO2 Nanocrystals and Surface-Bound  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: The structure of SnO2 nanoparticles (avg. 5 nm) with a few layers of water on the surface has been elucidated by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) methods using in situ neutron total scattering data and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Analysis of PDF, neutron prompt gamma, and thermogravimetric data, coupled with MD-generated surface D2O/OD configurations demonstrates that the minimum concentration of OD groups required to prevent rapid growth of nanoparticles during thermal dehydration corresponds to 0.7 monolayer coverage. Surface hydration layers not only stabilize the SnO2 nanoparticles but also induce particle-size-dependent structural modifications and are likely to promote interfacial reactions through hydrogen bonds between adjacent particles. Upon heating/dehydration under vacuum above 250 C, nanoparticles start to grow with low activation energies, rapid increase of nanoparticle size, and a reduction in the a lattice dimension. This study underscores the value of neutron diffraction and prompt-gamma analysis, coupled with molecular modeling, in elucidating the influence of surface hydration on the structure and metastable persistence of oxide nanomaterials.

Wang, Hsiu-Wen [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Paul, Dr. Rick L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Interfacial Energy Transfer during Gamma Radiolysis of Water on the Surface of ZrO2 and Some Other Oxides  

SciTech Connect

Effect of oxide interface on 60Co gamma radiolysis of water molecules was studied. Based on the molecular hydrogen yield when compared with that from the radiolysis of pure gas-phase water, all tested oxides can be classified into three groups: (i) inhibitors - MnO2, Co3O4, CuO and Fe2O3; (ii) oxides with H2 yields, which are similar to or slightly greater than radiolysis of pure gas-phase water - MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, CdO, Cu2O, NiO, Cr2O3, Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, TiO2, Nb2O5 and WO3; (iii) promoters - Ga2O3, Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Er2O3, HfO2, and ZrO2. H2O radiolysis enhancement for ZrO2 and other promoters is result of effective energy transfer at the oxide/water interface, presumably due to migration of excitons to the surface and their resonant coupling with the H2O adsorption complex. Plot''effective H2 yield vs. band-gap (Eg) energy'' shows a maximum near 5 eV.

Petrik, Nikolay G. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Alexandrov, Alexandr B. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Vall, Andrey I. (Institute of Technology)

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The preparation of carbon nanotube/MnO2 composite fiber and its application to flexible micro-supercapacitor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, flexible electronic devices pursued for potential applications. The design and the fabrication of a novel flexible nanoarchitecture by coating electrical conductive MWCNT fiber with ultrathin films of MnO2 to achieve high ...

Li Li, Chen Chen, Jing Xie, Zehuai Shao, Fuxin Yang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Modification of the spontaneous emission of CdTe nanocrystals in TiO 2 inverted opals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A light source in a three-dimensional photonic crystal has been realized by depositing CdTenanocrystals on the inner surface of TiO 2 inverted opalfilms. Two effects

V. G. Solovyev; S. G. Romanov; C. M. Sotomayor Torres; M. Müller; R. Zentel; N. Gaponik; A. Eychmüller; A. L. Rogach

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

A three-dimensional Macroporous Cu/SnO2 composite anode sheet prepared via a novel method  

SciTech Connect

Macroporous Cu/SnO2 composite anode sheets were prepared by a novel method which is based on slurry blending, tape casting, sintering, and reducing of metal oxides. Such composite Cu/SnO2 anode sheets have no conducting carbons and binders, and show improved discharge capacity and cycle life than the SnO2 electrode from conventional tape-casting method on Cu foil. This methodology produces limited wastes and is also adaptable to many other materials. It is easy for industrial scale production. With the optimization of particle size of the metal oxide, pore size, pore volume and other factors, this kind of macroporous Cu/SnO2 composite anode sheets could give significantly improved capacity and cycle life.

Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

P-1: Mechanisms of Calcium Oxide Dissolution in CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P-1: Mechanisms of Calcium Oxide Dissolution in CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-based Slags · P-2: Effect of Fluoride Containing Slag on Oxide Inclusions in Electroslag ...

127

one-pot fabrication of Nb-doped TiO2 photoanode for dye-sensitized ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and current-voltage curves. ... Birnessite MnO2 Nanoflakes for Efficient Energy Storage at Elevated Temperatures ... Nano-texturization for Light Trapping in Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Can ...

128

Mossbauer spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction studies of FeSiO2 nanocomposite soft magnetic materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a wet chemical reaction method. A series of metal-ceramic Fe/SiO2 nanocomposite powder samples were cannot yield bulk products for which there is a large demand in high- frequency electronics industry

Yang, De-Ping

129

Nitric Acid Oxidized ZrO$_2$ as the Tunneling Oxide of Cobalt Silicide Nanocrystal Memory Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, ZrO$_2$ formed by the nitric acid oxidation method is proposed to be the tunneling oxide for nonvolatile memory device applications. The sputtered Zr thin film was oxidized ...

Chih-Wei Hu; Ting-Chang Chang; Chun-Hao Tu; Yang-Dong Chen; Chao-Cheng Lin; Min-Chen Chen; Jian-Yang Lin; Simon M. Sze; Tseung-Yuen Tseng

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Molecular Line Absorption in a Scattering Atmosphere. Part II: Application to Remote Sensing in the O2 A band  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explores the feasibility of using O2 A-band reflectance spectra in the retrieval of cloud optical and physical properties. Analyses demonstrate that these reflection spectra are sensitive to optical properties of clouds such as optical ...

Andrew K. Heidinger; Graeme L. Stephens

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Cathodic Behavior of Silicon (?) in BaF2-CaF2 –SiO2 Melts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Furthermore, electro-depositing of liquid silicon in BaF2-CaF2- SiO2 was performed ... Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Uranium Chloride in Molten ...

132

The Effect of High-Resistance SnO2 on CdS/CdTe Device Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, we have studied the effect of high-resistance SnO2 buffer layers, deposited by low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition, on CdS/CdTe device performance. Our results indicate that when CdS/CdTe devices have a very thin layer of CdS or no CdS at all, the i-SnO2 buffer layer helps to increase device efficiency. When the CdS layer is thicker than 600{angstrom}, the device performance is dominated by CdS thickness, not the i-SnO2 layer. If a very thin CdS layer is to be used to enhance device performance, we conclude that a better SnO2 buffer layer is needed.

Li, W.; Ribelin, R.; Mahathongdy, Y.; Albin, D.; Dhere, R.; Rose, D.; Asher, S.; Moutinho, H.; Sheldon, P.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

133

SiO2 Fracture: Chemomechanics with a Machine-Learning Hybrid QM/MM Scheme |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Snapshot from a simulation of subcritical stress corrosion cracking in Snapshot from a simulation of subcritical stress corrosion cracking in silica in a wet environment, of the kind that will be carried out at the quantum mechanical level during this INCITE project. Silicon atoms are shown in grey, oxygen in red and hydrogen in white. The nanoscale mechanisms underlying stress corrosion cracking remain unclear and can only be elucidated with these kinds of non-uniform precision simulations, which will allow quantitative comparison with experiments for the first time. James Kermode, King's College London SiO2 Fracture: Chemomechanics with a Machine-Learning Hybrid QM/MM Scheme PI Name: James Kermode PI Email: King's College London Institution: james.kermode@kcl.ac.uk Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 125 Million

134

Low-energy Electron collisions with O$_2$: Test of Molecular R-matrix without Diagonalization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron collisions with O$_2$ at scattering energies below 1 eV are studied in the fixed-nuclei approximation for a range of internuclear separations using the ab initio molecular R-matrix method. The $^2\\Pi_g$ scattering eigenphases and quantum defects are calculated. The parameters of the resonance and the energy of the bound negative ion are then extracted. Different models of the target that employ molecular orbitals calculated for the neutral target are compared with models based on anionic orbitals. A model using a basis of anionic molecular orbitals yields physically correct results in good agreement with experiment. An alternative method of calculation of the R-matrix is tested, where instead of performing a single complete diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix in the inner region, the system of linear equations is solved individually for every scattering energy. This approach is designed to handle problems where diagonalization of an extremely large Hamiltonian is numerically too demanding.

Tarana, Michal

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

IR Imaging Using Arrays of SiO2 Micromechanical Detectors  

SciTech Connect

In this letter, we describe the fabrication of an array of bimaterial detectors for infrared (IR) imaging that utilize SiO2 as a structural material. All the substrate material underneath the active area of each detector element was removed. Each detector element incorporates an optical resonant cavity layer in the IR absorbing region of the sensing element. The simplified microfabrication process requires only four photolithographic steps with no wet etching or sacrificial layers. The thermomechanical deflection sensitivity was 7.9 10-3 rad/K which corresponds to a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 2.9 mK. In the present work the array was used to capture IR images while operating at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and no need for vacuum packaging. The average measured NETD of our IR detector system was approximately 200 mK but some sensing elements exhibited an NETD of 50 mK.

Grbovic, Dragoslav [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Multiple-stripe lithiation mechanism of individual SnO2 nanowires in a flooding geometry  

SciTech Connect

The atomic scale lithiation mechanism of individual SnO2 nanowires in a flooding geometry with the entire wires being immersed in the electrolyte was revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. The lithiation initiated multiple stripes with width of a few nanometer parallel to {l_brace}020{r_brace} planes transversing the entire wires, serving as multiple reaction fronts for late stage of lithiation. Inside the stripes, we identified high density of dislocations and enlarged inter-planar spacing, which provide effective path for lithium ion transport. The density of the stripes increased with further lithiation, and eventually they merged with one another, causing a large enlongation and volume expansion and the crystalline to amorphous phase transformation. This multiple stripes and multiple reaction fronts lithiation mechanism is unexpected and differs completely from the expected core-shell lithiation mechanism.

Zhong, Li; Liu, Xiao H.; Wang, G. F.; Mao, Scott X.; Huang, Jian Yu

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

137

Inhomogeneous magnetism in the doped kagome lattice of LaCuO2.66  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hole-doped kagome lattice of Cu2+ ions in LaCuO2.66 was investigated by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), electron spin resonance (ESR), electrical resistivity, bulk magnetization and specific heat measurements. For temperatures above 180 K, the spin and charge properties show an activated behavior suggestive of a narrow-gap semiconductor. At lower temperatures, the results indicate an insulating ground state which may or may not be charge ordered. While the frustrated spins in remaining patches of the original kagome lattice might not be directly detected here, the observation of coexisting non-magnetic sites, free spins and frozen moments reveals an intrinsically inhomogeneous magnetism. Numerical simulations of a 1/3-diluted kagome lattice rationalize this magnetic state in terms of a heterogeneous distribution of cluster sizes and morphologies near the site-percolation threshold.

Julien, M.-H. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magn´etiques Intenses; Simonet, V [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF; Canals, B. [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Bordet, Pierre [Laboratoire of Cristallographie, Grenoble; Darie, Celine [Laboratoire of Cristallographie, Grenoble

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Roaming in the Dark: Deciphering the Mystery of NO3 --> NO + O2 Photolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The focus of this dissertation is to decipher the previously unknown reaction dynamics of NO3 photodissociation. Although the NO + O2 products are known to catalyze atmospheric ozone destruction, the mechanism by which these products are formed has remained a mystery, and no energetically accessible transition state has ever been calculated. Using velocity map ion imaging experiments to carefully study the stereochemistry of the product fragments combined with theoretical calculations performed by Drs. Xiao, Maeda, and Morokuma at Kyoto University, we have determined that the reaction proceeds exclusively via the unusual "roaming mechanism," with no evidence of a competing traditional transition state pathway. Within, the significance of this discovery is discussed in regards to both the NO3 system and roaming dynamics in general, for which this system has provided new insight.

Grubb, Michael Patrick

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

On the dynamic NBTI of the HfO2 and HfSiON P-MOSFET  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under typical dynamic NBTI conditions (~7MV/cm, 100^oC), a progressive decrease in the recoverable component (R) of the HfO"2 p-MOSFET is observed but those of the HfSiON and SiON p-MOSFETs are found to remain constant. The decrease in the R of the HfO"2 ... Keywords: Bias-temperature instability, Hole trapping, Interface traps, Permanent degradation, Recovery

Y. Gao; D. S. Ang; A. A. Boo; Z. Q. Teo

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Antireflection and SiO2 Surface Passivation by Liquid-Phase Chemistry for Efficient Black Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report solar cells with both black Si antireflection and SiO2 surface passivation provided by inexpensive liquid-phase chemistry, rather than by conventional vacuum-based techniques. Preliminary cell efficiency has reached 16.4%. Nanoporous black Si antireflection on crystalline Si by aqueous etching promises low surface reflection for high photon utilization, together with lower manufacturing cost compared to vacuum-based antireflection coating. Ag-nanoparticle-assisted black Si etching and post-etching chemical treatment recently developed at NREL enables excellent control over the pore diameter and pore separation. Performance of black Si solar cells, including open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and blue response, has benefited from these improvements. Prior to this study, our black Si solar cells were all passivated by thermal SiO2 produced in tube furnaces. Although this passivation is effective, it is not yet ideal for ultra-low-cost manufacturing. In this study, we report, for the first time, the integration of black Si with a proprietary liquid-phase deposition (LPD) passivation from Natcore Technology. The Natcore LPD forms a layer of <10-nm SiO2 on top of the black Si surface in a relatively mild chemical bath at room temperature. We demonstrate black Si solar cells with LPD SiO2 with a spectrum-weighted average reflection lower than 5%, similar to the more costly thermally grown SiO2 approach. However, LPD SiO2 provides somewhat better surface-passivation quality according to the lifetime analysis by the photo-conductivity decay measurement. Moreover, black Si solar cells with LPD SiO2 passivation exhibit higher spectral response at short wavelength compared to those passivated by thermally grown SiO2. With further optimization, the combination of aqueous black Si etching and LPD could provide a pathway for low-cost, high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells.

Yuan, H. C.; Oh, J.; Zhang, Y.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Flood, D. J.; Branz, H. M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Photocatalytic and electrochemically assisted photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid on TiO2 films under UVA and UVB irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis is a possible alternative/complementary technology for water purification. Attempts to increase the overall efficiency of the process include using higher energy UV to gain better quantum efficiency and electrochemically assisting the process by the application of an external electrical potential. In this work, nanocrystalline TiO2 films, prepared on borosilicate glass and indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) borosilicate glass, were used to investigate the photocatalytic and electrochemically assisted photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid under UVA and UVB irradiation. The experiments were carried out in a stirred tank reactor with high mass transfer characteristics. The rate of formic acid oxidation under UVB irradiation was 30 % greater as compared to UVA irradiation. A maximum Uapp of 9 % was obtained under UVA irradiation in 100 % O2 under open circuit or +1.0 V (SCE) applied potential. A maximum Uapp of 20.3 % was obtained under UVB irradiation with 100 % O2 using TiO2 on borosilicate glass. Uapp was 19 % for +1.0 V, 100 % O2, using TiO2 on ITO borosilicate glass under UVB irradiation. The increase in oxidation rates and Uapp with UVB irradiation are due to the higher extinction coefficient of TiO2 at shorter wavelengths and/or the promotion of conduction band electrons to higher more stable states, thus reducing the rate of recombination of charge carriers. The use of a UVB source as compared to a UVA source results in a significant increase in the rate of oxidation and increased apparent quantum yields, however, a cost analysis of the process would

T. A. Mcmurray; J. A. Byrne; P. S. M. Dunlop; E. T. Mcadams

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

SiO2 aerogel ultra low k dielectric patterning using different hard mask concepts and stripping processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The patterning of porous SiO"2 aerogel as ultra low k dielectric has been investigated. Three different concepts were examined to etch this material without damage and to finally integrate it into a copper damascene metallization. Oxygen containing etching ... Keywords: Dielectric thin films, H2/N2 strip, Integrated circuit interconnections, Low dielectric constant, Plasma etching, Porous materials, SiO2 aerogel

F. Blaschta; K. Schulze; S. E. Schulz; T. Gessner

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Density Functional Theory Study of Methanol Decomposition on the CeO2(110) Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methanol decomposition on the stoichiometric CeO2(110) surface has been investigated using density functional theory slab calculations. Three possible initial steps to decompose methanol by breaking one of three bonds (O?H, C?O and C?H) of methanol were examined. The relative order of thermodynamic stability for the three possible bond scission steps is: C?H > O?H > C?O. We further isolated transition state and determined activation energy for each bond-breaking mode using the nudged elastic method. The activation barrier for the most favorable dissociation mode, the O?H bond scission, is 0.3 eV on the (110) surface. An even lower activation barrier ( C?O > C?H. Our results are consistent with the previous experimental observation that methoxy is the dominant surface species after a stoichiometric CeO2 surface was exposed to methanol. The experimentally observed methanol chemistry was determined by the kinetics of initial dissociation steps rather than the thermodynamic stability of product states. Surface coverage of methanol was found to affect the relative stability between molecular and dissociative adsorption modes. Dissociative adsorption modes are preferred thermodynamically for methanol coverage up to 0.5 ML but only molecular adsorption was stable at full monolayer coverage. This work was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The computations were performed using the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), which is a U.S. Department of Energy national scientific user facility located at PNNL in Richland, Washington. Computing time was made under a Computational Grand Challenge “Computational Catalysis”. Part of the computing time was also granted by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

Mei, Donghai; Deskins, N. Aaron; Dupuis, Michel; Ge, Qingfeng

2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

144

Antireflection and SiO2 Surface Passivation by Liquid-Phase Chemistry for Efficient Black Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report solar cells with both black Si antireflection and SiO2 surface passivation provided by inexpensive liquid-phase chemistry, rather than by conventional vacuum-based techniques. Preliminary cell efficiency has reached 16.4%. Nanoporous black Si antireflection on crystalline Si by aqueous etching promises low surface reflection for high photon utilization, together with lower manufacturing cost compared to vacuum-based antireflection coating. Ag-nanoparticle-assisted black Si etching and post-etching chemical treatment recently developed at NREL enables excellent control over the pore diameter and pore separation. Performance of black Si solar cells, including open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and blue response, has benefited from these improvements. Prior to this study, our black Si solar cells were all passivated by thermal SiO2 produced in tube furnaces. Although this passivation is effective, it is not yet ideal for ultra-low-cost manufacturing. In this study, we report, for the first time, the integration of black Si with a proprietary liquid-phase deposition (LPD) passivation from Natcore Technology. The Natcore LPD forms a layer of solar cells with LPD SiO2 with a spectrum-weighted average reflection lower than 5%, similar to the more costly thermally grown SiO2 approach. However, LPD SiO2 provides somewhat better surface-passivation quality according to the lifetime analysis by the photo-conductivity decay measurement. Moreover, black Si solar cells with LPD SiO2 passivation exhibit higher spectral response at short wavelength compared to those passivated by thermally grown SiO2. With further optimization, the combination of aqueous black Si etching and LPD could provide a pathway for low-cost, high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells.

Yuan, H. C.; Oh, J.; Zhang, Y.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Flood, D. J.; Branz, H. M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Structure of epitaxial (Fe,N) codoped rutile TiO2 thin films by x-ray absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Homoepitaxial thin films of Fe:TiO2 and (Fe,N):TiO2 were deposited on rutile(110) by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra were collected at the Ti L-edge, Fe L-edge, O K-edge, N K-edge, and Ti K-edge. No evidence of structural disorder associated with a high concentration of oxygen vacancies is observed. Substitution of Fe for Ti could not be confirmed, although secondary phase Fe2O3 and metallic Fe can be ruled out. The similarity of the N K-edge spectra to O, and the presence of a strong x-ray linear dichroism (XLD) signal for the N K-edge, indicates that N is substitutional for O in the rutile lattice, and is not present as a secondary phase such as TiN. Simulations of the XANES spectra qualitatively confirm substitution, although N appears to be present in more than one local environment. Neither Fe:TiO2 nor (Fe,N):TiO2 exhibit intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism, despite the presence of mixed valence Fe(II)/Fe(III) in the reduced (Fe,N):TiO2 film.

Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Ney, A.; Mangham, Andrew N.; Heald, Steve M.; Joly, Yves; Ney, V.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Yakou, Flora; Chambers, Scott A.

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

146

Monte-Carlo and Variational Calculations of the Magnetic Phase Diagram of CuFeO2  

SciTech Connect

Monte-Carlo and variational calculations are used to revise the phase diagram of the magnetically- frustrated material CuFeO2. For fields 50 T < H < 65 T, a new spin flop phase is predicted between a canted three-sublattice phase and the conventional conical spin-flop phase. This phase has wavevector Q (0.8 , 0.43 ) and is commensurate in the x direction but incommensurate in the y direction. A canted five-sublattice phase is predicted between the multiferroic phase and either a collinear five-sublattice phase for pure CuFeO2 or a canted three-sublattice phase for Al- or Ga-doped CuFeO2.

Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL; Brown, Gregory [Florida State University; Haraldsen, Jason T [ORNL; Haraldsen, Jason T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Water-Gas Shift and CO Methanation Reactions over Ni-CeO2(111) Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies were used to study the interaction of Ni atoms with CeO2(111) surfaces. Upon adsorption on CeO2(111) at 300 K, nickel remains in a metallic state. Heating to elevated temperatures (500 800 K) leads to partial reduction of the ceria substrate with the formation of Ni2? species that exists as NiO and/or Ce1-xNixO2-y. Interactions of nickel with the oxide substrate significantly reduce the density of occupied Ni 3d states near the Fermi level. The results of core-level photoemission and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure point to weakly bound CO species on CeO2(111) which are clearly distinguishable from the formation of chemisorbed carbonates. In the presence of Ni, a stronger interaction is observed with chemisorption of CO on the admetal. When the Ni is in contact with Ce?3 cations, CO dissociates on the surface at 300 K forming NiCx compounds that may be involved in the formation of CH4 at higher temperatures. At medium and large Ni coverages ([0.3 ML), the Ni/CeO2(111) surfaces are able to catalyze the production of methane from CO and H2, with an activity slightly higher than that of Ni(100) or Ni(111). On the other hand, at small coverages of Ni (\\0.3 ML), the Ni/CeO2(111) surfaces exhibit a very low activity for CO methanation but are very good catalysts for the water gas shift reaction.

Senanayake, Sanjaya D [ORNL; Evans, Jaime [Universidad Central de Venezuela; Agnoli, Stefano [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Barrio, Laura [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL; Hrbek, Jan [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Radriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Synthesis of LiNiO2 cathode materials with homogeneous Al doping at the atomic level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum doped LiNiO2 cathode materials are synthesized by using Raney nickel as the starting material. The structure and composition are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with elemental mapping. The lithium deficiency is analyzed by Rieveld refinement. The initial capacity and retention of capacity are correlated to the lithium deficiency of the resulting cathode material. Using strong oxidant of Li2O2 in the synthesis results in materials with improved electrochemical cyclability. The improvement is related to the diminishing of lithium deficiency in strong oxidizing synthesis conditions.

Liu, Zengcai [ORNL; Zhen, Honghe [Soochow University, Suzhou, People's Republic of China; Kim, Yoongu [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Investigation of Local Environments in Nafion-SiO2 Composite Membranes used in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The proton conducting polymer composite membranes are of technological interest in many energy devices such as fuel cells and redox flow batteries. In particular, the polymer composite membranes such as SiO2 incorporated Nafion membranes are recently reported as highly promising for the redox flow batteries. However, there is conflicting reports regarding the performance of this Nafion-SiO2 composite membrane in the redox flow cell. This paper presents results of the analysis of the Nafion-SiO2 composite membrane used in a vanadium redox flow battery by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. The XPS study reveals the chemical identity and environment of vanadium cations accumulated at the surface. On the other hand, the 19F and 29Si NMR measurement explores the nature of the interaction between the silica particles, Nafion side chains and diffused vanadium cations. The 29Si NMR shows that the silica particles interaction via hydrogen bonds to the sulfonic groups of Nafion and diffused vanadium cations. Based on these spectroscopic studies, the chemical environment of the silica particles inside the Nafion membrane and their interaction with diffusing vanadium cations during flow cell operations are discussed. This study discusses the origin of performance degradation of the Nafion-SiO2 composite membrane materials in vanadium redox flow batteries.

Vijayakumar, M.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Hu, Jian Z.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Field emission characteristics of SnO2/CNTs composites prepared by microwave-assisted wet impregnation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The SnO2/CNT composites were prepared by microwave-assisted wet impregnation at 60°C. The process was optimized by varying the microwave power and reaction time. Raman analysis showed the typical features of the rutile phase of as-synthesized ...

Sreejarani K. Pillai; Sarah C. Motshekga; Suprakas Sinha Ray; John Kennedy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Parameterizations for the Absorption of Solar Radiation by O2 and CO2 with Application to Climate Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simple and accurate parameterizations have been developed for computing the absorption of solar radiation due to O2 and CO2. The parameterizations are based on the findings that temperature has a minimal effect on the absorption and that the one-...

Ming-Dah Chou

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Simulation of the dissolved oxygen concentration and the pH value at the O2-FET  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The O2-FET is a pH ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) modified to measure dissolved oxygen via the acidification from an amperometric dissolved oxygen microsensor. A diffusion based finite elements model which describes the transactions at ... Keywords: ISFET, diffusion, dissolved oxygen, finite elements simulation

J. Wiest; S. Blank; M. Brischwein; H. Grothe; B. Wolf

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS 17 (1998) 20832086 Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on SiO2 aerogel lms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aerogel ®lms H.-H. PARK, M.-H. JO, H.-R. KIM, S.-H. HYUN Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei with a lower dielectric constant material as an intermetal dielectric (IMD). SiO2 aerogel is a promising aerogel ®lm with 70% porosity exhibited the static dielectric constant of 2 at 1 MHz, and a leakage

Jo, Moon-Ho

154

Multilevel charge storage in Si nanocrystals arranged in double-dot-layers within SiO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigated charging/discharging characteristics of a MOS structure with two layers of Si-nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in the SiO"2 dielectric. The two-dimensional (2D) arrays of nanocrystals, of sizes 3 and 5nm in the lower and upper NCs layer, respectively, ... Keywords: Electrical characterization, Non-volatile memories, Si-nanocrystal memories, Si-nanocrystals

M. Theodoropoulou; A. G. Nassiopoulou

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Assessment of kinetic modeling for lean H2/CH4/O2/diluent flames at high pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Hydrogen; Methane; Syngas; Flame speed; Chemical mechanism 1. Introduction The H2/O2 reaction system CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other small hydrocarbons (synthetic gas or "syngas") from coal or biomass gasification [2]. Typical syngas mixtures can contain significant amounts of small molecular weight

Ju, Yiguang

156

ChrR, a Soluble Quinone Reductase of Pseudomonas putida That Defends against H2O2*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sorter; H2DCFDA, dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate; LpDH, lipoyl dehydrogenase. THE JOURNAL Cytometry--Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) cytom- etry analysis was performed using the H2O2 by external factors. As a soil-dwelling, primarily saprophytic or- ganism, P. putida is regularly exposed

Matin, A.C.

157

The deposition of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film on silicon using Sol-Gel technique and its characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TiO"2 thin films were deposited using Sol-Gel spin coating technique using titanium isoperoxide as the Titania precursor. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, capacitance voltage measurement and Raman characterization technique. The ... Keywords: Sol-Gel, Spin coating, Titanium dioxide, X-ray diffraction

Mukesh Kumar; Mukesh Kumar; Dinesh Kumar

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Two-step self-assembly and lyotropic liquid crystal behavior of TiO2 nanorods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several self-assembly structures of anatase TiO2 nanorods were obtained by a two-step assembly process, and these structures formed different lyotropic liquid crystal in solution. Primary self-assembly occurred in synthesis process and formed ...

Zhimin Ren; Chao Chen; Rong Hu; Kaiguang Mai; Guodong Qian; Zhiyu Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Accelerated Publication: Drain current enhancement and negligible current collapse in GaN MOSFETs with atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 as a gate dielectric  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accumulation-type GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFET's) with atomic-layer-deposited HfO"2 gate dielectrics have been fabricated; a 4@mm gate-length device with a gate dielectric of 14.8nm in thickness (an equivalent SiO"2 ... Keywords: Atomic layer deposition (ALD), Current collapse, GaN, HfO2, Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET)

Y. C. Chang; W. H. Chang; Y. H. Chang; J. Kwo; Y. S. Lin; S. H. Hsu; J. M. Hong; C. C. Tsai; M. Hong

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

SiO2 aerogel film as a novel intermetal dielectric Moon-Ho Jo, Hyung-Ho Park,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SiO2 aerogel film as a novel intermetal dielectric Moon-Ho Jo, Hyung-Ho Park,a) Dong-Joon Kim, Sang, cross talk, and interconnection delay in the deep submicron device regime. SiO2 aerogel is one of the successful fabrication of a SiO2 aerogel film as well as its material properties and electrical properties

Jo, Moon-Ho

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 on GaN: A comparative study on interfaces and electrical characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Al"2O"3, HfO"2, and composite HfO"2/Al"2O"3 films were deposited on n-type GaN using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The interfacial layer of GaON and HfON was observed between HfO"2 and GaN, whereas the absence of an interfacial layer at Al"2O"3/GaN ... Keywords: Al2O3, Atomic-layer-deposition (ALD), GaN, HfO2, High k dielectric, MOS

Y. C. Chang; M. L. Huang; Y. H. Chang; Y. J. Lee; H. C. Chiu; J. Kwo; M. Hong

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Performance of Gd-doped Ti-based Sb-SnO2 anodes for electrochemical destruction of phenol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(see Supporting Information). 90 nm SiO2/Si substrates allowed us to improve the contrast between MoX2 spectrum of single (solid red line) and more than 10 layers (dashed blue line) MoX2 (X = S, Se). (c) AFM-dimensional MoX2 (2H-MoX2) possesses both time-reversal and inversion symmetry, and therefore spin-up and spin

163

Bond angles for O-H defects in SnO2 from polarization properties of their vibrational modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrared absorption experiments along with a mass-and-spring model and detailed quantum-mechanical calculations using CRYSTAL06 are used to assign structures of trapped H in SnO2. We conclude that the evidence for H trapped at a Sn vacancy is weak at best, and that along with isolated interstitial H and H trapped at an O vacancy, there is evidence that one or two H atoms can be trapped at a Sn interstitial.

FOWLER, W B [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; BEKISLI, F [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Stavola, M. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Spahr, E. J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA; Lüpke, G. [Vanderbilt University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Equivalent Circuit Description of Non-compensated n-p Codoped TiO2 as Intermediate Band Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The novel concept of non-compensated n-p codoping has made it possible to create tunable intermediate bands in the intrinsic band gap of TiO2, making the codoped TiO2 a promising material for developing intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs). Here we investigate the quantum efficiency of such IBSCs within two scenarios - with and without current extracted from the extended intermediate band. Using the ideal equivalent circuit model, we find that the maximum efficiency of 57% in the first scenario and 53% in the second are both much higher than the Shockley-Queisser limit from single gap solar cells. We also obtain various key quantities of the circuits, a useful step in realistic development of TiO2 based solar cells invoking device integration. These equivalent circuit results are also compared with the efficiencies obtained directly from consideration of electron transition between the energy bands, and both approaches reveal the intriguing existence of double peaks in the maximum quantum efficiency as a function of the relative location of IBs.

Tian-Li Feng; Guang-Wei Deng; Yi Xia; Feng-Cheng Wu; Ping Cui; Hai-Ping Lan; Zhen-Yu Zhang

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

165

Compatibility of Lithium Salts with Solvent of the Non-Aqueous Electrolyte in Li–O2 Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The stability of lithium salts, especially in the presence of reduced oxygen species, O2 and H2O (even in a small amount), plays an important role in the cyclability and capacity of Li–O2 cells. This combined experimental and computational study provides evidence that the stability of the electrolyte used in Li–O2 cells strongly depends on the compatibility of lithium salts with solvent. In the case of the LiPF6–1NM3 electrolyte, the decomposition of LiPF6 occurs in the cell as evidenced by in situ XRD, FT-IR and XPS analysis, which triggers the decomposition of 1NM3 solvent due to formation of HF from the decomposition of LiPF6. These reactions lead to degradation of the electrolyte and cause poor cyclability of the cell. The same reactions are not observed when LiTFSI and LiCF3SO3 are used as the lithium salts in 1NM3 solvent, or LiPF6 is used in TEGDME solvent.

Du, Peng; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Luo, Xiangyi; Bareno, Javier; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Curtiss, Larry A.; Sun, Yang-Kook; Amine, Khalil

2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

166

Theoretical study of the molecular and electronic structure of methanol on a TiO2(110) surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present density-functional-theory calculations of the molecular and electronic structure of methanol adsorption on stoichiometric TiO2(110) surface. We have investigated 11 different molecular and dissociated adsorption structures of CH3OH at 1 monolayer coverage. The relative stabilities of different structures depend on the chemisorption-induced charge transfer, the relative strengths of different types of hydrogen bonds, the steric hindrance between methyl groups and the surface stress. We found the intermolecular hydrogen bonding to play an important role in stabilizing the overlayer. We also investigated the occupied and unoccupied surface electronic structure, and the adsorbate-induced surface dipole moment and work-function changes. The electronic structures show that the highest-occupied molecular orbital of CH3OH is near the valance-band maximum, which reflects the character of CH3OH as a hole scavenger on TiO2 surfaces. The unoccupied partially solvated or “wet” electron states for CH3OH on TiO2 are primarily distributed on H atoms of methyl groups. Despite many different structural motifs, the wet-electron-state energy primarily correlates with the surface dipole moment.

Zhao, Jin; Yang, Jinlong; Petek, Hrvoje

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

167

Au/MxOy/TiO2 catalysts for CO oxidation: promotional effect of main-group, transition, and rare-earth metal oxide additives.  

SciTech Connect

Au/TiO2 catalysts are active for CO oxidation, but they suffer from high-temperature sintering of the gold particles, and few attempts have been made to promote or stabilize Au/TiO2. Our recent communication addressed these issues by loading gold onto Al2O3/TiO2 prepared via surface-sol-gel processing of Al(sec-OC4H9)3 on TiO2. In our current full paper, Au/Al2O3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared alternatively by thermal decomposition of Al(NO3)3 on TiO2 followed by loading gold, and the influences of the decomposition temperature and Al2O3 content were systematically surveyed. This facile method was subsequently extended to the preparation of a battery of metal oxide-modified Au/TiO2 catalysts virtually not reported. It was found that Au/TiO2 modified by CaO, NiO, ZnO, Ga2O3, Y2O3, ZrO2, La2O3, Pr2O3, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, Er2O3, or Yb2O3 could retain significant activity at ambient temperature even after aging in O2-He at 500 C, whereas unmodified Au/TiO2 lost its activity. Moreover, some 200 C-calcined promoted catalysts showed high activity even at about -100 C. The deactivation and regeneration of some of these new catalysts were studied. This work furnished novel catalysts for further fundamental and applied research.

Ma, Zhen [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Influence of growth rate on the epitaxial orientation and crystalline quality of CeO2 thin films grown on Al2O3(0001)  

SciTech Connect

Growth rate-induced epitaxial orientations and crystalline quality of CeO2 thin films grown on Al2O3(0001) by oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied using in-situ and ex-situ characterization techniques. CeO2 grows as three-dimensional (3-D) islands and two-dimensional (2-D) layers at growth rates of 1-7 Ĺ/min, and ?9 Ĺ/min, respectively. The formation of epitaxial CeO2(100) and CeO2(111) thin films occurs at growth rates of 1 Ĺ/min and ? 9 Ĺ/min, respectively. Glancing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements have shown that the films grown at intermediate growth rates (2-7 Ĺ/min) consist of polycrystalline CeO2 along with CeO2(100). The thin film grown at 1 Ĺ/min exhibits six in-plane domains, characteristic of well-aligned CeO2(100) crystallites. The content of the poorly-aligned CeO2(100) crystallites increases with increasing growth rate from 2 Ĺ/min to 7 Ĺ/min, and three out of six in-plane domains gradually decrease and eventually disappear, as confirmed by XRD pole figures. At growth rates ?9 Ĺ/min, CeO2(111) film with single in-plane domain was identified. The formation of CeO2(100) 3-D islands at growth rates of 1-7 Ĺ/min is a kinetically driven process unlike at growth rates ?9 Ĺ/min which result in an energetically and thermodynamically more stable CeO2(111) surface.

Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Varga, Tamas; Shutthanandan, V.; Jiang, Weilin; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Seal, Sudipta; Kayani, Asghar N.

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

169

Enhancement of electron lifetime in dye-sensitized solar cells using anodically grown TiO2 nanotube/nanoparticle composite photoanodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on TiO"2 nanotube/nanoparticle (NT/NP) composite photoanodes were fabricated including different NT content into the NP network. The NPs expose large surface area for the dye anchoring, while the incorporated nanotubes ... Keywords: Anodic oxidation, Charge transport, Dye-sensitized solar cell, Electron lifetime, TiO2 nanotubes

Andrea Lamberti, Adriano Sacco, Stefano Bianco, Marzia Quaglio, Diego Manfredi, Candido Fabrizio Pirri

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

In situ synthesis of poly (methyl methacrylate)/SiO2 hybrid nanocomposites via "Grafting Onto" strategy based on UV irradiation in the presence of iron aqueous solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poly(methyl methacrylate)/SiO2 (PMMA/SiO2) hybrid composites were prepared via "grafting onto" strategy based on UV irradiation in the presence of iron aqueous solution. Two steps were used to graft polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ...

Hong Zhang; Chao Li; Jinshan Guo; Limin Zang; Jiahe Luo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 Nanotube Arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 harvest and storage processes. This power pack incorporates a series-wound dye- sensitized solar cell material.11,15 Compared with other integrated solar power supplies,16,17 double-sided TiO2 NTs with large

Wang, Zhong L.

172

Improvement of short-circuit current density in dye-sensitized solar cells using sputtered nanocolumnar TiO2compact layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of a nanocolumnar TiO2 compact layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was examined. Such a compact layer was sputtered on a glass substrate with an indium tin oxide (ITO) film using TiO2 powder as the raw material, ...

Lung-Chien Chen; Cheng-Chiang Chen; Bo-Shiang Tseng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

CdSe quantum dots sensitized mesoporous TiO2 solar cells with CuSCN as solid-state electrolyte  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoporous TiO2 is functionalized by 3-mercaptopropyl trimethyoxysilane (MPTMS) to anchor CdSe quantum dots (QDs). The resulting TiO2/CdSe is combined with solid-state electrolyte (CuSCN) to form solar cells. It is found that the ...

Guanbi Chen; Lei Wang; Yu Zou; Xia Sheng; Hongjuan Liu; Xiaodong Pi; Deren Yang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Making organic-inorganic nanocomposites via selective dispersion of PS-tethered SiO2 particles in polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate copolymer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SiO2 nanoparticles have been dispersed selectively in the polystyrene (PS) microdomain of polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer via the blending of PS-b-PMMA with PS-tethered SiO2. As ...

Chia-Hong Liu; Li-Ko Chiu; Je-Yuan Yeh; Raymond Chien-Chao Tsiang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Analyses of interface adhesion between porous SiO2 low-k film and SiC/SiN layers by nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the interface adhesion between porous SiO"2 low-dielectric-constant film and SiN capping layer as well as SiC etch stop layer has been investigated. The SiN capping layer was found mostly composed of Si to N bonds, and the porous SiO"2 ... Keywords: Bonding configuration, Dielectrics, Interface adhesion

Shou-Yi Chang; Yi-Chung Huang

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Direct Determination of the Ionization Energies of PtC, PtO, and PtO2 with VUVRadiation  

SciTech Connect

Photoionization efficiency curves were measured for gas-phase PtC, PtO, and PtO2 using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at the Advanced Light Source. The molecules were prepared by laser ablation of a platinum tube, followed by reaction with CH4 or N2O and supersonic expansion. These measurements providethe first directly measured ionization energy for PtC, IE(PtC) = 9.45 +- 0.05 eV. The direct measurement also gives greatly improved ionization energies for the platinum oxides, IE(PtO) = 10.0 +- 0.1 eV and IE(PtO2) = 11.35 +- 0.05 eV. The ionization energy connects the dissociation energies of the neutral and cation, leading to greatly improved 0 K bond dissociation energies for the neutrals: D0(Pt-C) = 5.95 +- 0.07 eV, D0(Pt-O)= 4.30 +- 0.12 eV, and D0(OPt-O) = 4.41 +- 0.13 eV, as well as enthalpies of formation for the gas-phase molecules Delta H0 f,0(PtC(g)) = 701 +- 7 kJ/mol, Delta H0f,0(PtO(g)) = 396 +- 12 kJ/mol, and Delta H0f,0(PtO2(g)) = 218 +- 11 kJ/mol. Much of the error in previous Knudsen cell measurements of platinum oxide bond dissociation energies is due to the use of thermodynamic second law extrapolations. Third law values calculated using statistical mechanical thermodynamic functions are in much better agreement with values obtained from ionization energies and ion energetics. These experiments demonstrate that laser ablation production with direct VUV ionization measurements is a versatile tool to measure ionization energies and bond dissociation energies for catalytically interesting species such as metal oxides and carbides.

Citir, Murat; Metz, Ricardo B.; Belau, Leonid; Ahmed, Musahid

2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

177

Probing the Vibrational Relaxation of N2 and O2 by Use of CARS Spectroscopy to Model NTE-Turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermochemical dynamics associated with hypersonic flight and turbulent flow is vital to understanding the effects that hypersonic turbulence has on objects or vehicles traveling at speeds above Mach 5 (~ 1708 m/s). Non-thermochemical equilibrium (NTE) exists downstream of strong shock fronts and encountered in the shear layers from hypersonic flight, and coupled with turbulence, it has significant effects on flow dynamics. NTE, characterized by high vibrational temperatures of N2 and O2, was observed, and the relaxation processes were measured to obtain time-resolved results. By inducing cold-flow NTE via RF-plasma, species in the flow were probed to determine specific vibrational temperatures at particular distances and times following initial NTE-preparation. The detection technique used in the experiment was coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and variations of this laser-based technique were optimized to maximize accuracy and signal-to-noise in the vibrational relaxation measurements. It was found that the boxCARS variant was most successful in probing the v=1 --> v=0 vibrational transition associated with the measurement. Also a dual pump-beam CARS setup enabled the probing of both N2 and O2 simultaneously; however, in this report only N2 vibrational relaxation was modeled because the lifetime of vibrationally-excited (v=1) O2 was too short and the O2 vibrational temperature was too low to model. The CARS spectra were obtained in a subsonic wind tunnel with a flow velocity of approximately 30 m/s and probing distances from 4.4-39.4 cm downstream the plasma. Five averaged vibrational temperature values were determined and they yielded a decay from 1882 ± 46 K (4.4 cm from plasma) to 1010 ± 16 K (39.4 cm from plasma) showing the relative rate of vibrational relaxation of N2. The vibrational relaxation was also modeled as a function of time after passing through the plasma, and a kinetic simulation was fit to the results. The spectral decay of the v=1 peak relative to v=0 (Iv=1/Iv=0) was found and compared to the decay of the vibrational temperature. Data analysis revealed that the results were in agreement with theory and the observed vibrational relaxation of N2 fit the simulated kinetic model accurately.

Dean, Jacob

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

178

First Demonstration of Surface Passivation in Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells by an Additive in the Electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The composition of the electrolyte is known to greatly influence the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. It has been speculated that some components of the electrolyte passivate the TiO2 surface against recombination; however, this has never been confirmed experimentally. We hereby present the first case of passivation of the TiO2 surface against recombination by an additive in the electrolyte. Even though the additive also causes a downward movement of the TiO2 bands, suppression of recombination prevails and an overall improvement in open-circuit photovoltage is observed. This work was conducted in collaboration with the DOE Office of Science program.

Kopidakis, N.; Neale, N. R.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Frank, A. J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

MWCNT-based Ag2S-TiO2 nanocomposites photocatalyst: ultrasound-assisted synthesis, characterization, and enhanced catalytic efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiwalled carbon nanotube based nanoscale Ag2S and TiO2 composites have successfully synthesized via a facile ultrasoundassisted method. The nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ...

Lei Zhu; Ze-Da Meng; Won-Chun Oh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Characteristics of Emitted Carbonyl Compounds by using Biodiesel fuel with constant H2/O2 in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The emission tests were conducted under steady-state cycle condition in a heavy-duty diesel engine using 0% to 30% ratios of biodiesel fuel with constant H2/O2… (more)

Shih, Jia-Yu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

CO2 Capture Options for an Existing Coal Fired Power Plant: O2/CO2 Recycle Combustion vs. Amine Scrubbing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OPTIONS FOR AN EXISTING COAL FIRED POWER PLANT: OPTIONS FOR AN EXISTING COAL FIRED POWER PLANT: O 2 /CO 2 RECYCLE COMBUSTION vs. AMINE SCRUBBING D. J. Singh (djsingh@uwaterloo.ca; +001-519-496-2064) E. Croiset 1 (ecroiset@uwaterloo.ca;+001-519-888-4567x6472) P.L. Douglas (pdouglas@uwaterloo.ca; +001-519-888-4567x2913) Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1 M.A. Douglas (madougla@nrcan.gc.ca; +001-613 996-2761) CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Dr., Nepean, Ontario, Canada, K1A 1M1 Abstract The existing fleet of modern pulverized coal fired power plants represents an opportunity to achieve significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the coming years providing efficient and economical CO 2 capture technologies are available for retrofit.

182

Performance of a large TeO2 crystal as a cryogenic bolometer in searching for neutrinoless double beta decay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bolometers are ideal devices in the search for neutrinoless Double Beta Decay. Enlarging the mass of individual detectors would simplify the construction of a large experiment, but would also decrease the background per unit mass induced by alpha-emitters located close to the surfaces and background arising from external and internal gamma's. We present the very promising results obtained with a 2.13 kg TeO2 crystal. This bolometer, cooled down to a temperature of 10.5 mK in a dilution refrigerator located deep underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, represents the largest thermal detector ever operated. The detector exhibited an energy resolution spanning a range from 3.9 keV (at 145 keV) to 7.8 keV (at the 2615 gamma-line of 208Tl) FWHM. We discuss the decrease in the background per unit mass that can be achieved increasing the mass of a bolometer.

L. Cardani; L. Gironi; J. W. Beeman; I. Dafinei; Z. Ge; G. Pessina; S. Pirro; Y. Zhu

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

183

Selective Plasmonic Gas Sensing: H2, NO2, and CO Discrimination by a Single Au-CeO2 Nanocomposite Film  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Au-CeO2 nanocomposite film has been investigated as a potential sensing element for high-temperature plasmonic sensing of H2, CO, and NO2 in an oxygen containing environment. The CeO2 thin film was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and Au was implanted into the as-grown film at an elevated temperature followed by high temperature annealing to form well-defined Au nanoclusters. The Au-CeO2 nanocomposite film was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). For the gas sensing experiments, separate exposures to varying concentrations of H2, CO, and NO2 were performed at a temperature of 500 C in oxygen backgrounds of 5.0, 10, and {approx}21% O2. Changes in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak were monitored during gas exposures and are believed to be the result of oxidation-reduction processes that fill or create oxygen vacancies in the CeO2. This process affects the LSPR peak position either by charge exchange with the Au nanoparticles or by changes in the dielectric constant surrounding the particles. Multivariate analysis was used to gauge the inherent selectivity of the film between the separate analytes. From principal component analysis (PCA), unique and identifiable responses were seen for each of the analytes. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was also used and showed separation between analytes as well as trends in gas concentration. Results indicate that the Au-CeO2 thin film is selective to O2, H2, CO, and NO2 in separate exposures. Combined with the observed stability over long exposure periods, the Au-CeO2 film shows good potential as an optical sensing element for harsh environmental conditions.

Joy, N.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Rogers, Phillip H.; Jiang, Weilin; Varga, Tamas; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Carpenter, Michael A.

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

184

Heterogeneous Reduction of PuO2 with Fe(II): Importance of the Fe(III) Reaction Product  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Heterogeneous reduction of actinides in higher and more soluble oxidation states to lower more insoluble oxidation states by reductants such as Fe(II) has been the subject of intensive study for more than two decades. However, Fe(II)-induced reduction of sparingly soluble Pu(IV) to the more soluble lower oxidation state Pu(III) has been much less studied even though such reactions can potentially increase the mobility of Pu in the subsurface. Thermodynamic calculations are presented that show how differences in the free energy of various possible solid-phase Fe(III) reaction products can greatly influence aqueous Pu(III) concentrations resulting from reduction of PuO2(am) by Fe(II). We present the first experimental evidence that reduction of PuO2(am) to Pu(III) by Fe(II) was enhanced when the Fe(III) mineral goethite was spiked into the reaction. The effect of goethite on reduction of Pu(IV) was demonstrated by measuring the time-dependence of total aqueous Pu concentration, its oxidation state, and system pe/pH. We also re-evaluated established protocols for determining Pu(III) [(Pu(III) + Pu(IV)) - Pu(IV)] by using thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in toluene extractions; the study showed that it is important to eliminate dissolved oxygen from the TTA solutions for accurate determinations. More broadly, this study highlights the importance of the Fe(III) reaction product in actinide reduction rate and extent by Fe(II).

Felmy, Andrew R.; Moore, Dean A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Rai, Dhanpat; Buck, Edgar C.; Ilton, Eugene S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Electrode Materials with the Na0.44MnO2 Structure: Effect ofTitanium Substitution on Physical and Electrochemical Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The physical and electrochemical properties of LixMnO2 and LixTi0.11Mn0.89O2 synthesized from precursors made by glycine-nitrate combustion (GNC) and solid-state synthesis methods (SS) are examined in this paper. The highest specific capacities in lithium cells are obtained for SS-LixMnO2 electrodes at low current densities, but GNC-LixTi0.11Mn0.89O2 electrodes show the best high rate performance. These results can be explained by changes in the voltage characteristics and differences in the particle morphologies induced by the Ti-substitution and synthesis method. Ti-substitution also results in a decrease in the electronic conductivity, but greatly improves the thermal properties and imparts dissolution resistance to the electrode. For these reasons, it is preferable to use LixTi0.11MnO0.89O2 in lithium battery configurations rather than LixMnO2. Suggestions for improving the electrochemical performance of the Ti-substituted variant are given based on the results described herein.

Doeff, Marca M; Saint, Juliette A.; Doeff, Marca M; Wilcox, James D.

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

186

Modeling the Noble Metal/TiO2 (110) Interface with Hybrid DFT Functionals: A Periodic Electrostatic Embedded Cluster Model Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of Aun and Ptn (n=2,3) clusters with the stoichiometric and partially reduced rutile TiO2 (110) surfaces has been investigated using periodic slab and periodic electrostatic embedded cluster models. Compared to Au clusters, Pt clusters interact strongly with both stoichiometric and reduced TiO2 (110) surfaces and are able to enhance the reducibility of the TiO2 (110) surface, i.e., reduce the oxygen vacancy formation energy. The focus of this study is the effect of Hartree–Fock exchange on the description of the strength of chemical bonds at the interface of Au/Pt clusters and the TiO2 (110) surface. Hartree–Fock exchange helps describing the changes in the electronic structures due to metal cluster adsorption as well as their effect on the reducibility of the TiO2 surface. Finally, the performance of periodic embedded cluster models has been assessed by calculating the Pt adsorption and oxygen vacancy formation energies. Cluster models, together with hybrid PBE0 functional, are able to efficiently compute reasonable electronic structures of the reduced TiO2 surface and predict charge localization at surface oxygen vacancies, in agreement with the experimental data, that significantly affect computed adsorption and reaction energies.

Ammal, Salai Cheettu; Heyden, Andreas

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

187

Hydrogen Reactivity on Highly-hydroxylated TiO2(110) Surfaces Prepared via Carboxylic Acid Adsorption and Photolysis  

SciTech Connect

Combined scanning tunneling microscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, photo stimulated desorption, and density functional theory studies have probed the formation and reactivity of highly-hydroxylated rutile TiO2(110) surfaces, which were prepared via a novel, photochemical route using trimethyl acetic acid (TMAA) dissociative adsorption and subsequent photolysis at 300 K. Deprotonation of TMAA molecules upon adsorption produces both surface bridging hydroxyls (OHb) and bidentate trimethyl acetate (TMA) species with a saturation coverage of near 0.5 monolayer (ML). Ultra-violet light irradiation selectively removes TMA species, producing a highly-hydroxylated surface with up to ~0.5 ML OHb coverage. At high coverages, the OHb species typically occupy second-nearest neighbor sites along the bridging oxygen row locally forming linear (2×1) structures of different lengths, although the surface is less ordered on a long scale. The annealing of the highly-hydroxylated surface leads to hydroxyl recombination and H2O desorption with ~100% yield, thus ruling out the diffusion of H into the bulk that has been suggested in the literature. In agreement with experimental data, theoretical results show that the recombinative H2O desorption is preferred over both H bulk diffusion and H2 desorption processes.

Du, Yingge; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Deskins, N. Aaron; Wang, Zhitao; Henderson, Michael A.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

188

Implications of the Formation of Small Polarons in Li2O2 for Li-Air Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lithium-air batteries (LABs) are an intriguing next-generation technology due to their high theoretical energy density of {approx}11 kWh/kg. However, LABs are hindered by both poor rate capability and significant polarization in cell voltage, primarily due to the formation of Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the air cathode. Here, by employing hybrid density functional theory, we show that the formation of small polarons in Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} limits electron transport. Consequently, the low electron mobility {mu} = 10{sup -10}-10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/V s contributes to both the poor rate capability and the polarization that limit the LAB power and energy densities. The self-trapping of electrons in the small polarons arises from the molecular nature of the conduction band states of Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the strong spin polarization of the O 2p state. Our understanding of the polaronic electron transport in Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} suggests that designing alternative carrier conduction paths for the cathode reaction could significantly improve the performance of LABs at high current densities.

Kang, J.; Jung, Y. S.; Wei, S. H.; Dillon, A. C.

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Morphological and Structural Changes during the Reduction and Reoxidation of CuO/CeO2 and Ce1-xCuxO2 Nanocatalysts: In Situ Studies with Environmental TEM XRD and XAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied the structural, morphological, and electronic properties of CuO/CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} nanocatalysts during reduction/oxidation cycles using H2 and O2 as chemical probes. Time-resolved in situ characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as well as aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). We have found that both types of nanocatalysts reduce to a Cu/CeO{sub 2} biphase system with significant oxygen vacancies in CeO{sub 2}. Important variations are seen in the Cu particle size and metal dispersion depending on the initial state of the copper oxide-ceria systems. During subsequent in situ oxygen annealing, the Cu precipitated from the CuO/CeO{sub 2} system reoxidized to form CuO through a Cu2O intermediate phase as expected. However, the Cu precipitated from the Ce{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} solid solution behaved rather differently under oxidizing conditions, and neither oxidized to form CuO nor fully returned to a bulk Ce{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} phase in solid solution. We found that 50% of the Cu returned to a Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} solid solution, while the remainder was observed by in situ ETEM to form an amorphous copper oxide phase with a Cu oxidation state similar to Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2}, but with a local bonding environment similar to CuO. The behavior of the reduced Ce{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} reflects strong interactions between Cu and the ceria matrix and illustrates the advantages of working with solid solutions of mixed oxides.

J Ciston; R Si; J Rodriquez; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; M Fernandez-Garcia; Y Zhu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 Nanoparticles-based Test Strip Immunosensing Device for Rapid Detection of Phosphorylated Butyrylcholinesterase  

SciTech Connect

An integrated magnetic nanoparticles-based test-strip immunosensing device was developed for rapid and sensitive quantification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the biomarker of exposure to organophosphous pesticides (OP), in human plasma. In order to overcome the difficulty in scarce availability of OP-specific antibody, here magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles were used and adsorbed on the test strip through a small magnet inserted in the device to capture target OP-BChE through selective binding between TiO2 and OP moiety. Further recognition was completed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and anti-BChE antibody (Ab) co-immobilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Their strong affinities among Fe3O4@TiO2, OP-BChE and HRP/Ab-GNPs were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) measurements. After cutting off from test strip, the resulted immunocomplex (HRP/Ab-GNPs/OP-BChE/Fe3O4@TiO2) was measured by SWV using a screen printed electrode under the test zone. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by introduction of GNPs to link enzyme and antibody at high ratio, which amplifies electrocatalytic signal significantly. Moreover, the use of test strip for fast immunoreactions reduces analytical time remarkably. Coupling with a portable electrochemical detector, the integrated device with advanced nanotechnology displays great promise for sensitive, rapid and in-filed on-site evaluation of OP poisoning.

Ge, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Retrieval of Atmospheric Optical Depth Profiles from Downward-Looking High-Resolution O2 A-Band Measurements: Optically Thin Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quasi-linear retrieval was developed to profile moderately thin atmospheres using a high-resolution O2 A-band spectrometer. The retrieval is explicitly linear with respect to single scattering; the multiple-scattering contribution is treated as ...

Qilong Min; Lee C. Harrison

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

A Novel Combustion Synthesis Preparation of CuO/ZnO/ZrO2/Pd for Oxidative Hydrogen Production from Methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Novel Combustion Synthesis Preparation of CuO/ZnO/ZrO2/Pd for Oxidative Hydrogen Production from pre- pared via three combustion synthesis routes including volume combustion, impregnated substrate combustion, and so-called second wave impregnation combustion methods. These catalysts were characterized via

Mukasyan, Alexander

193

SiO2 and Si etching in fluorocarbon plasmas: A detailed surface model coupled with a complete plasma and profile simulator.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A surface model for SiO"2 and Si etching in fluorocarbon plasmas is presented, taking into account polymer deposition. The polymer, the CF"x, and the F surface coverage is calculated, as well as the etching yields and rates. Transition from deposition ...

E. Gogolides; P. Vauvert; Y. Courtin; G. Kokkoris; R. Pelle; A. Boudouvis; G. Turban

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous phase with TiO2immobilized on three different supports with a simple method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photocatalytic treatment of water and wastewater is a process which has been introduced since at least a couple of decades ago. But, in spite of its high capabilities, it has not yet reached its real niche among the other treatment methods. Immobilization ... Keywords: glass plates, perlite, phenol, photocatalytic water treatment, steel fiber, titanium dioxide (TiO2) immobilization

S. N. Hosseini; M. Borghei; M. Vossoughi; N. Taghavinia

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Chemical nature of the passivation layer depending on the oxidizing agent in Gd2O3/GeO2/Ge stacks grown by molecular beam deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Ge-based metal oxide semiconductor technology, the insertion of a passivation layer seems to be crucial in unpinning the Fermi level at the interface and in reducing the amount of interface defects. GeO"2 was obtained by atomic oxygen (AO), molecular ... Keywords: Gadolinium oxide, Germanium, Molecular beam deposition, Passivation layer, Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

A. Lamperti; S. Baldovino; A. Molle; M. Fanciulli

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Effect of plasma treatments on interface chemistry and adhesion strength between porous SiO2 low-k film and SiC/SiN layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the interface chemistry and adhesion strengths between porous SiO"2 low-dielectric-constant film and SiN capping layer as well as SiC etch stop layer have been investigated under different plasma treatments. Elements of Si, O, and N constructed ... Keywords: Bonding configuration, Dielectrics, Interface adhesion

Shou-Yi Chang; Yi-Chung Huang

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Impact of three different TiO2 morphologies on hydrogen evolution by methonal assisted water-splitting: nanoparticles, nanotubes and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-splitting: nanoparticles, nanotubes and aerogels. (published in International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 36, 22 (2011, nanotubes and aerogels. These materials have shown different behaviours depending on both their composition of the samples (nanotubes or aerogels). Among all the tested samples, the TiO2 aerogel supported Pt one exhibited

198

Deposition of Dense SiO2 Thin Films for Electrical Insulation Applications by Microwave ECR Plasma Source Enhanced RF Reactive Magnetron Sputtering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silicon dioxide thin films have been deposited successfully on high speed steel (HSS) cutting tool substrates by means of microwave electron cyclotron resonance (MW-ECR) plasma source enhanced RF reactive magnetron sputtering of a pure silica target ... Keywords: SiO2 thin films, Electrical insulation properties, RF magnetron sputtering, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

Qiyong Zeng; Xiaofeng Zheng; Zhonghua Yu; Yunxian Cui

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

NMR Study of the Magnetic and Metal-Insulator Transitions in Na0:5CoO2: A Nesting Scenario J. Bobroff,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NMR Study of the Magnetic and Metal-Insulator Transitions in Na0:5CoO2: A Nesting Scenario J, France (Received 22 July 2005; published 13 March 2006) Co and Na NMR are used to probe the local have performed a 59Co and 23Na NMR study which allows us to differentiate the two Co sites and to give

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

200

The 2 1 reconstruction of the rutile TiO2(011) surface: A combined density functional theory, X-ray diffraction, and scanning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

t An extensive search for possible structural models of the (2 Ă? 1)-reconstructed rutile TiO2(011) surface was carried out by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A number of models were iden- tified that have much lower surface energies than the previously-proposed `titanyl' and `microfaceting' models

Diebold, Ulrike

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Rapid Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Made from Vertically Aligned Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rapid solvothermal approach was used to synthesize aligned 1D single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays on transparent conducting substrates as electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The NW arrays showed a more than 200 times faster charge transport (see picture) and a factor four lower defect state density than conventional rutile nanoparticle films.

Feng, X.; Zhu, K.; Frank, A. J.; Grimes, C. A.; Mallouk, T. E.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

202

Synthesis and characterization of stable and binder-free electrodes of TiO2 nanofibers for li-ion batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrospinning technique was used to fabricate TiO2 nanofibers for use as binder-free electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The as-electrospun nanofibers were calcined at 400-1,000°C and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ...

Phontip Tammawat, Nonglak Meethong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fabrication of CeO2 by sol-gel process based on microfluidic technology as an analog preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel microspheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microfluidics integrated with sol-gel processes is introduced in preparing monodispersed MOX nuclear fuel microspheres using nonactive cerium as a surrogate for uranium or plutonium. The detailed information about microfluidic devices and sol-gel processes are provided. The effects of viscosity and flow rate of continuous and dispersed phase on size and size distribution of CeO2 microspheres have been investigated. A comprehensive characterization of the CeO2 microspheres has been conducted, including XRD pattern, SEM, density, size and size distribution. The size of prepared monodisperse particles can be controlled precisely in range of 10{\\mu}m to 1000{\\mu}m and the particle CV is below 3%.

Ye, Bin; Li, Jiaolong; Zhao, Zichen; Chang, Zhenqi; Serra, Christophe A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Fabrication of CeO2 by sol-gel process based on microfluidic technology as an analog preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel microspheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microfluidics integrated with sol-gel processes is introduced in preparing monodispersed MOX nuclear fuel microspheres using nonactive cerium as a surrogate for uranium or plutonium. The detailed information about microfluidic devices and sol-gel processes are provided. The effects of viscosity and flow rate of continuous and dispersed phase on size and size distribution of CeO2 microspheres have been investigated. A comprehensive characterization of the CeO2 microspheres has been conducted, including XRD pattern, SEM, density, size and size distribution. The size of prepared monodisperse particles can be controlled precisely in range of 10{\\mu}m to 1000{\\mu}m and the particle CV is below 3%.

Bin Ye; Jilang Miao; Jiaolong Li; Zichen Zhao; Zhenqi Chang; Christophe A. Serra

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Interfacial transition regions at germanium/Hf oxide based dielectric interfaces: Qualitative differences between non-crystalline Hf Si oxynitride and nanocrystalline HfO2 gate stacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contribution from a relatively low-K SiON (K~6) interfacial transition region (ITR) between Si and transition metal high-K gate dielectrics such as nanocrystalline HfO"2 (K~20), and non-crystalline Hf Si oxynitride (K~10-12) places a significant ... Keywords: Di-vacancy defects, Ge substrates, High-K gate dielectrics, Interfacial transition regions, MOS devices, Native Ge dielectrics, Spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy

G. Lucovsky; S. Lee; J. P. Long; H. Seo; J. Lüning

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Na NMR Evidence for Charge Order and Anomalous Magnetism in NaxCoO2 I. R. Mukhamedshin,1,* H. Alloul,1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

23 Na NMR Evidence for Charge Order and Anomalous Magnetism in NaxCoO2 I. R. Mukhamedshin,1,* H are studied by 23Na NMR and SQUID magnetometry. In nominal 0:50 x 0:70 solid state reacted samples,6] with the magnetic prop- erties. In a pioneering work, two 59Co NMR signals attributed to nonmagnetic Co3 sites were

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

207

SiC MOSFETs with thermally oxidized Ta2Si stacked on SiO2 as high-k gate insulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we compare the electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors and lateral MOSFETs with oxidized Ta"2Si (O-Ta"2Si) as a high-k dielectric on silicon carbide or stacked on thermally grown SiO"2 on SiC. MOS capacitors are used to determine ... Keywords: High-k dielectric, MOSFET, Oxidation, SiC, Ta2Si, Tantalum silicide

A. Pérez-Tomás; M. R. Jennings; P. M. Gammon; G. J. Roberts; P. A. Mawby; J. Millán; P. Godignon; J. Montserrat; N. Mestres

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Self-Organized Amorphous TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Porous Ti Foam for Rechargeable Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Self-organized amorphous TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) were successfully fabricated on both Ti foil and porous Ti foam through electrochemical anodization techniques. The starting Ti foams were fabricated using ARCAM s Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology. The TiO2 NTAs on Ti foam were used as anodes in lithium ion batteries; they exhibited high capacities of 103 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 83 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, which are two to three times higher than those achieved on the standard Ti foil, which is around 40 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 24 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, respectively. This improvement is mainly attributed to higher surface area of the Ti foam and higher porosity of the nanotube arrays layer grown on the Ti foam. In addition, a Na-ion half-cell composed of these NTAs anodes and Na metal showed a self-improving specific capacity upon cycling at 10 Acm-2. These results indicate that TiO2 NTAs grown on Ti porous foam are promising electrodes for Li-ion or Na-ion rechargeable batteries.

Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Menchhofer, Paul A [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Impact of Solvent on Photocatalytic Mechanisms: Reactions of Photodesorption Products with Ice Overlayers on the TiO2(110) Surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of water and methanol ice overlayers on the photodecomposition of acetone on rutile TiO2(110) were evaluated in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In the absence of ice overlayers, acetone photodecomposed on TiO2(110) at 95 K by ejection of a methyl radical into the gas phase and formation of acetate on the surface. With ice overlayers, the methyl radicals are trapped at the interface between TiO2(110) and the ice. When water ice was present, these trapped methyl radicals reacted either with each other to form ethane or with other molecules in the ice (e.g., water or displaced acetone) to form methane (CH4), ethane (CH3CH3) and other products (e.g., methanol), with all of these products trapped in the ice. The new products were free to revisit the surface or depart during desorption of the ice. When methanol ice was present, methane formation came about only from reaction of trapped methyl radicals with the methanol ice. Methane and ethane slowly leaked through methanol ice overlayers into vacuum at 95 K, but not through water ice overlayers. Different degrees of site competition between water and acetone, and between methanol and acetone led to different hydrogen abstraction pathways in the two ices. These results provide new insights into product formation routes and solution-phase radical formation mechanisms that are important in heterogeneous photocatalysis.

Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

210

Electrochemical Kinetics and Performance of Layered Composite Cathode Material Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2  

SciTech Connect

Lithium-rich, manganese-rich (LMR) layered composite cathode material Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 has been successfully prepared by a co-precipitation method and its structure is confirmed by XRD characterization. The material delivers a high discharge capacity of 281 mAh g-1, when charged and discharged at a low current density of 10 mA g-1. However, significant increase of cell polarization and decrease of discharge capacity are observed at voltages below 3.5 V with increasing current densities. Galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) analysis demonstrates that lithium ion intercalation/de-intercalation reactions in this material are kinetically controlled by Li2MnO3 and its activated MnO2 component. The relationship between the electrochemical kinetics and rate performance as well as cycling stability has been systematically investigated. High discharge capacity of 149 mAh g-1 can be achieved at 10 C charge rate and C/10 discharge rate. The result demonstrates that the Li2MnO3 based material could withstand high charge rate (except initial activation process), which is very promising for practical applications. A lower discharge current density is preferred to overcome the kinetic barrier of lithium ion intercalation into MnO2 component, in order to achieve higher discharge capacity even at high charge rates.

Zheng, Jianming; Shi, Wei; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Jie; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

211

(Butan-2-ol-jO)[2-({(ethylsulfanyl)- [2-(2-oxidobenzylidene-jO)hydrazinylidene-jN 2]methyl}iminomethyl)phenolato-jO]dioxidouranium(VI)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disorder in main residue; R factor = 0.038; wR factor = 0.078; data-to-parameter ratio = 17.4. The U atom in the title complex, [U(C17H15N3O2S)O2-(C4H10O)], exists within a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry where the oxide O atoms occupy axial positions [O—U—O = 179.61 (18) ] and the pentagonal plane is defined by the N2O2 atoms of the tetradentate Schiff base ligand and the O atom of the butan-2-ol molecule. In the crystal, centrosymmetric aggregates are formed via pairs of hydroxy–phenoxide O—H O hydrogen bonds. The azomethine C N atoms, the ethylthiolyl group and the butyl group of the butan-2-ol molecule are disordered over two positions in a 0.668 (3):0.332 (3) ratio. Related literature For background to uranyl Schiff base complexes, see: S ¸ ahin et al. (2010); Özdemir et al. (2011). For a related structure, see: Takjoo et al. (2012).

Reza Takjoo; A Atefeh Najafi; A Seik Weng Ng B; Edward R. T. Tiekink B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Catalyst Activity and Post-operation Analyses of Pt/TiO2 (Rutile) Catalysts Used in the Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Reaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production of hydrogen by splitting of water at lower temperatures than by direct thermal decomposition can be achieved by a series of particular chemical reactions that establish a thermochemical cycle [1]. Among the high number of thermochemical water-splitting cycles proposed in the literature [2], the sulfur-based group is of considerable interest. All the sulfur-based cycles employ the catalytic decomposition of sulfuric acid into SO2 and O2. The produced O2 corresponds to the O2 generated from water in the overall cycle. Research performed at the Idaho National Laboratory [3] has found that even one of the most stables catalysts, Pt supported on low surface area titania, deactivates with time on stream (TOS). To develop an understanding of the factors that cause catalyst deactivation, samples of 1% Pt supported on titania (rutile) catalyst were submitted to flowing concentrated sulfuric acid at 1123 K and atmospheric pressure for different TOSs between 0 and 548 h and a number of chemical and spectroscopic analyses applied to the spent samples.

Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar; Harry W. Rollins; Kyle C. Burch; Patrick J. Pinhero; Helen H. Farrell

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Non-solvolytic synthesis of aqueous soluble TiO2 nanoparticles and real-time dynamic measurements of the nanoparticle formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of dried bare Dpa- and GalA-TiO2 NPs. Chen et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012, 7:297 Page 6 of 10 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/7/1/297b)these NPs may have application in solar energy capture or sunscreens. Fourier transform infrared (FT... nucleation and a growth stage by a single normal UV–vis absorbance spectrum (I-?) or a single fixed-wavelength dynamic scan (I-t) because both the nucleation and growth are, in fact, concurrent and cannot be clearly separated ei- 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280...

Chen, Lan; Rahme, Kamil; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A; Slater, Nigel KH

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

214

Excellent Passivation and Low Reflectivity Al2O3/TiO2 Bilayer Coatings for n-Wafer Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A bilayer coating of Al2O3 and TiO2 is used to simultaneously achieve excellent passivation and low reflectivity on p-type silicon. This coating is targeted for achieving high efficiency n-wafer Si solar cells, where both passivation and anti-reflection (AR) are needed at the front-side p-type emitter. It could also be valuable for front-side passivation and AR of rear-emitter and interdigitated back contact p-wafer cells. We achieve high minority carrier lifetimes {approx}1 ms, as well as a nearly 2% decrease in absolute reflectivity, as compared to a standard silicon nitride AR coating.

Lee, B. G.; Skarp, J.; Malinen, V.; Li, S.; Choi, S.; Branz, H. M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Water adsorption, solvation and deliquescence of alkali halide thin films on SiO2 studied by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The adsorption of water on KBr thin films evaporated onto SiO2 was investigated as a function of relative humidity (RH) by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At 30percent RH adsorbed water reaches a coverage of approximately one monolayer. As the humidity continues to increase, the coverage of water remains constant or increases very slowly until 60percent RH, followed by a rapid increase up to 100percent RH. At low RH a significant number of the Br atoms are lost due to irradiation damage. With increasing humidity solvation increases ion mobility and gives rise to a partial recovery of the Br/K ratio. Above 60percent RH the increase of the Br/K ratio accelerates. Above the deliquescence point (85percent RH), the thickness of the water layer continues to increase and reaches more than three layers near saturation. The enhancement of the Br/K ratio at this stage is roughly a factor 2.3 on a 0.5 nm KBr film, indicating a strong preferential segregation of Br ions to the surface of the thin saline solution on SiO2.

Arima, Kenta; Jiang, Peng; Deng, Xingyi; Bluhm, Henrik; Salmeron, Miquel

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Layered Li1+x(Ni0.425Mn0.425Co0.15)1xO2 Positive Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Layered Li1+x(Ni0.425Mn0.425Co0.15)1­xO2 Positive Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries range decreased with overlithiation Keywords : Although LiCoO2 is suitable for the lithium-ion battery by Ohzuku et al. to deliver a high discharge capacity close to 200 mAh/g,21 a lot of research in the lithium-ion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors based on InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures with photo-chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 dielectrics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) based on InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well (MQW) structure has been fabricated with SiO"2 dielectric deposited via photo-chemical vapor deposition (PHCVD) using a deuterium lamp ... Keywords: GaN, HEMT, MQW, Photo-chemical vapor deposition, SiO 2

Kai-Hsuan Lee; Ping-Chuan Chang; Shoou-Jinn Chang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Nanostructured columnar heterostructures of TiO2 and Cu2O enabled by a thin-film self-assembly approach: Potential for photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant efforts are being devoted to the development of semiconductor thin film and nanostructured material architectures as components of solar energy harvesting and conversion devices. In particular, nanostructured assemblies with well-defined geometrical shapes have emerged as possible highly efficient and economically viable alternatives to planar junction thin film architectures , , , . However, fabrication of inorganic nanostructures generally requires complicated and multiple step processing techniques, making them less suitable for large-scale manufacturing. Hence, innovative cell architectures and materials processing schemes are essential to large-scale integration and practical viability in photovoltaic devices. Here we present here a new approach towards nanostructured thin film solar cells, by exploiting phase-separated self-assembly , . Through a single-step deposition by rf magnetron sputtering, we demonstrate growth of an epitaxial, composite film matrix formed as self-assembled, well ordered, phase segregated, and oriented p-n type interfacial nanopillars of Cu2O and TiO2. The composite films were structurally characterized to atomic resolution by a variety of analytical tools, and evaluated for preliminary optical properties using absorption measurements. We find nearly atomically distinct Cu2O-TiO2 interfaces (i.e. a p-n junction), and an absorption profile that captures a wide range of the solar spectrum extending from ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This work opens a novel avenue for development of simple and cost-effective optically active thin film architectures, and offers promise for significantly increased photovoltaic device efficiencies using nanostructured cells that can be optimized for both incident light absorption and carrier collection.

Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Ertugrul, Memhet [Ataturk University; Bogorin, Daniela Florentina [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Surface Modification of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 Cathode for Improved Battery Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis details electrical and physical measurements of pulsed laser deposition-applied thin film coatings of Alumina, Ceria, and Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) on a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC) cathode in a Lithium ion battery. Typical NMC cathodes exhibit problems such as decreased rate performance and an opportunity for increased capacity exists by raising operation voltage beyond the electrolyte stability window. Very thin (~10 nm) coatings of stable oxides provide a pathway to solve both problems. As well, the electrochemical impedance spectra of the uncoated and coated cells were measured after different numbers of cycles to reveal the property variation in the cathode. Further understanding of the mechanism of rate performance enhancement and chemical protection by thin oxide coatings will continue to improve battery capability and open up new applications. Ceria-coated Li-NMC cells show the best capacity and rate performance in battery testing. Through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the surface film resistance was found to remain stable or even drop slightly after repeated cycling at high voltage. CeO2 is proposed as a coating for Lithium ion battery cathodes owing to its high chemical stability and the demonstrated but not yet well understood electrical conductivity. Alumina-coated cathode shows comparable performance as that of the uncoated cell in the early stage of the test, but through the course of testing the rate capability and recoverable capacity is improved. This is possibly due to Al2O3?s well-known abilities as HF scavenger and chemically inert nature. YSZ-coated cathode performs worse than the uncoated ones in terms of capacity, rate capability, and EIS-related figures of merit. The reason for the poor performance is not yet known, and repeatability tests are under way to verify performance. High voltage cycling reveals no obvious difference in irreversible loss between the coated or uncoated cells. The reason for the lack of distinction could be the relatively small percentage of surface coating compared to the thick doctor-blade processed cathode layer.

Lynch, Thomas

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Mathematical Analysis of High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of CO2 and O2 Production in a Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NASA has been evaluating two closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures based on Sabatier and Bosch carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. A number of process models have been developed and analyzed to determine the theoretical power required to recover oxygen, O2, in each case. These models include the current Sabatier and Bosch technologies and combinations of those processes with high-temperature co-electrolysis. The cases of constant CO2 supply and constant O2 production were evaluated. In addition, a process model of the hydrogenation process with co-electrolysis was developed and compared. Sabatier processes require the least amount of energy input per kg of oxygen produced. If co-electrolysis replaces solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolysis within the Sabatier architecture, the power requirement is reduced by over 10%, but only if heat recuperation is used. Sabatier processes, however, require external water to achieve the lower power results. Under conditions of constant incoming carbon dioxide flow, the Sabatier architectures require more power than the other architectures. The Bosch, Boudouard with co-electrolysis, and the hydrogenation with co-electrolysis processes require little or no external water. The Bosch and hydrogenation processes produce water within their reactors, which aids in reducing the power requirement for electrolysis. The Boudouard with co-electrolysis process has a higher electrolysis power requirement because carbon dioxide is split instead of water, which has a lower heat of formation. Hydrogenation with co-electrolysis offers the best overall power performance for two reasons: it requires no external water, and it produces its own water, which reduces the power requirement for co-electrolysis.

Michael G. McKellar; Manohar S. Sohal; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna; Morgan B. Abney

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ubiquitous sensing enabled by Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies cuts across many areas of modern day living. This offers the ability to measure, infer and understand environmental indicators, from delicate ecologies and natural resources to ... Keywords: Cloud computing, Internet of Things, RFID, Smart environments, Ubiquitous sensing, Wireless sensor networks

Jayavardhana Gubbi, Rajkumar Buyya, Slaven Marusic, Marimuthu Palaniswami

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

One-step electrochemical deposition of a graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and application for detection of organophosphorus agents  

SciTech Connect

This paper described the preparation, characterization, and electrochemical properties of a graphene-ZrO2 nanocomposite (GZN) and its application for both the enrichment and detection of methyl parathion (MP). GZN was fabricated using electrochemical deposition and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which showed the successful formation of nanocomposites. Due to the strong affinity to the phosphoric group and the fast electron-transfer kinetics of GZN, both the extraction and electrochemical detection of organophosphorus (OP) agents at the same GZN modified electrochemical sensor was possible. The combination of solid-phase extraction and stripping voltammetric analysis allowed fast, sensitive, and selective determination of MP in garlic samples. The stripping response was highly linear over the MP concentrations ranging from 0.5 ng mL?1 to 100 ng mL?1, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL?1. This new nanocomposite-based electrochemical sensor provides an opportunity to develop a field-deployable, sensitive, and quantitative method for monitoring exposure to OPs.

Du, Dan; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Xiao-Li; Lin, Yuehe

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

223

Probing The Electrode/Electrolyte Interface in The Lithium Excess Layered Oxide Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed surface investigation of the lithium-excess nickel manganese layered oxide Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 structure was carried out using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), total electron yield and transmission x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) during the first two electrochemical cycles. All spectroscopy techniques consistently showed the presence of Mn4+ in the pristine material and a surprising reduction of Mn at the voltage plateau during the first charge. The Mn reduction is accompanied by the oxygen loss revealed by EELS. Upon the first discharge, the Mn at the surface never fully returns back to Mn4+. The electrode/electrolyte interface of this compound consists of the reduced Mn at the crystalline defect-spinel inner layer and an oxidized Mn species simultaneously with the presence of a superoxide species in amorphous outer layer. This proposed model signifies that oxygen vacancy formation and lithium removal result in electrolyte decomposition and superoxide formation, leading to Mn activation/dissolution and surface layer-spinel phase transformation. The results also indicate that the role of oxygen is complex and significant in contributing to the extra capacity of this class of high energy density cathode materials.

Carroll, Kyler J [University of California, San Diego; Qian, Danna [University of California, San Diego; Fell, Chris [University of Florida, Gainesville; Calvin, Scott [Sarah Lawrence College; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Meng, Ying Shirley [University of California, San Diego

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Infrared extinction by homogeneous particle aggregates of SiC, FeO and SiO2: comparison of different theoretical approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle shape and aggregation have a strong influence on the spectral profiles of infrared phonon bands of solid dust grains. Calculating these effects is difficult due to the often extreme refractive index values in these bands. In this paper, we use the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) and the T-matrix method to compute the absorption band profiles for simple clusters of touching spherical grains. We invest reasonable amounts of computation time in order to reach high dipole grid resolutions and take high multi-polar orders into account, respectively. The infrared phonon bands of three different refractory materials of astrophysical relevance are considered - Silicon Carbide (SiC), Wustite (FeO) and Silicon Dioxide (SiO2). We demonstrate that even though these materials display a range of material properties and therefore different strengths of the surface resonances, a complete convergence is obtained with none of the approaches. For the DDA, we find a strong dependence of the calculated band profiles on the exact dipole distribution within the aggregates, especially in the vicinity of the contact points between their spherical constituents. By applying a recently developed method to separate the material optical constants from the geometrical parameters in the DDA approach, we are able to demonstrate that the most critical material properties are those where the real part of the refractive index is much smaller than unity.

Anja C. Andersen; Harald Mutschke; Thomas Posch; Michiel Min; Akemi Tamanai

2005-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

225

Auxiliary Ligand-Dependent Assembly of Several Ni/Ni-Cd Compounds with N2O2 Donor Tetradentate Symmetrical Schiff Base Ligand  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several low-dimensional Ni/Ni-Cd complexes containing N2O2 donor tetradentate symmetrical Schiff base ligand bis(acetylacetone)ethylene-diamine (sy-H2L2), namely, [Ni(sy-L2)]2?HLa?ClO4 (2), (HLa)2?(ClO4)?(NO3) (3), [Ni(sy-L2)X]2](4,4’-bipy) (where La = 5,7-dimethyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,4-diazepine, X = ClO4 (4), X=NO3 (5), [Ni(sy-L2)Cd(SCN)2]n (6) and [Ni(sy-L2)?Cd(N3)2]n (7) have been synthesized from [Ni(sy-L2)]2?H2O (1). Complex 2, is three component discrete assembly generated from (HLa)+ moiety bridged with [Ni(sy-L2)] unit and ClO4- anion. A solution containing complex 2 and Cd(NO3)2 results in a mixture of 1 and 3. Further re-crystallization of 1 and 3 with various auxiliary ligands, provides coordination complexes 4 – 7 stabilized by weak hydrogen bonds in which 6 and 7 represent the first 1D heteronuclear complexes based on symmetric acacen-base Schiff base ligand.

Ge, Ying Ying; Li, Guo-Bi; Fang, Hua-Cai; Zhan, Xu Lin; Gu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Jin Hao; Sun, Feng; Cai, Yue-Peng; Thallapally, Praveen K.

2010-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

226

In Situ Generation of Few-Layer Graphene Coatings on SnO2-SiC Core-Shell Nanoparticles for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Storage  

SciTech Connect

A simple ball-milling method is used to synthesize a tin oxide-silicon carbide/few-layer graphene core-shell structure in which nanometer-sized SnO2 particles are uniformly dispersed on a supporting SiC core and encapsulated with few-layer graphene coatings by in situ mechanical peeling. The SnO2-SiC/G nanocomposite material delivers a high reversible capacity of 810 mA h g?1 and 83% capacity retention over 150 charge/discharge cycles between 1.5 and 0.01 V at a rate of 0.1 A g?1. A high reversible capacity of 425 mA h g?1 also can be obtained at a rate of 2 A g?1. When discharged (Li extraction) to a higher potential at 3.0 V (vs. Li/Li+), the SnO2-SiC/G nanocomposite material delivers a reversible capacity of 1451 mA h g?1 (based on the SnO2 mass), which corresponds to 97% of the expected theoretical capacity (1494 mA h g?1, 8.4 equivalent of lithium per SnO2), and exhibits good cyclability. This result suggests that the core-shell nanostructure can achieve a completely reversible transformation from Li4.4Sn to SnO2 during discharging (i.e., Li extraction by dealloying and a reversible conversion reaction, generating 8.4 electrons). This suggests that simple mechanical milling can be a powerful approach to improve the stability of high-performance electrode materials involving structural conversion and transformation.

Chen, Zhongxue; Zhou, Min; Cao, Yuliang; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Liu, Jun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Negative ion photodetachment spectroscopy of the Al3O2 , Al3O3 , Al4Ox , Al5Ox (x = 35), Al6O5 , and Al7O5 clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Negative ion photodetachment spectroscopy of the Al3O2 , Al3O3 , Al4Ox , Al5Ox (x = 3­5), Al6O5 , and Al7O5 clusters Giovanni Meloni, Michael J. Ferguson and Daniel M. Neumark Department of Chemistry as an Advance Article on the web 9th September 2003 The Al3O2 , Al3O3 , Al4Ox , Al5Ox (x ¼ 3­5), Al6O5 , and Al7

Neumark, Daniel M.

228

Structural and thermal characterization of CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glasses  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the influence of varying CaO/MgO ratio on the structure and thermal properties of CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glasses. A series of eight glass compositions in the glass forming region of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) - fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] - wollastonite (CaSiO3) ternary system have been designed and synthesized by varying diopside/wollastonite ratio in glasses. The as prepared melt-quenched glasses have been characterized for their structure by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and magic angle spinning (MAS)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Silicon is predominantly present as Q2 (Si) species, while phosphorus tends to coordinate in orthophosphate environment in all the investigated glasses. The change in CaO/MgO ratio had an insignificant affect on the structure of glasses. The thermal sintering and crystallization parameters for the studied glasses have been obtained from differential thermal analysis (DTA) while crystalline phase fractions in the sintered glass-ceramics have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction adjoined with Rietveld refinement. Diopside, fluorapatite, wollastonite and pseudowollastonite have crystallized as the main crystalline phases in all the glass-ceramics with their content varying with respect to variation in CaO/MgO ratio in glasses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to shed light on the microstructure of glass-ceramics. The possible implications of structure and sintering behaviour of glasses on their bioactivity have been discussed.

Kansal, Ishu; Goel, Ashutosh; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Ferreira, Jose M.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Electrochemical and rate performance study of high-voltage lithium-richcomposition: Li1.2Mn0.525Ni0.175Co0.1O2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report electrochemical studies of high voltage cathodes composed of lithium rich layeredlayered material having the nominal composition Li1.2Mn0.525Ni0.175Co0.1O2, or equivalently 0.6Li[Li1/3Mn2/3]O2 0.4Li[Mn0.3Ni0.45Co0.25]O2. These aspects were investigated by cyclic voltammetry studies in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to understand the redox reactions involving multiple transition metals and their capacity contribution at higher voltages, up to 4.9 V. Further, cathodes with 1.5 wt.% carbon nanofibers added to the Li1.2Mn0.525Ni0.175Co0.1O2 composite electrode showed stable reversible capacities of about 280 mAh g 1 when cycled to 4.9 V for more than 100 cycles, and almost a factor of two improvements in the rate performance compared to the electrode composition prepared using conventional composition (7.5% carbon black and 7.5% binder).

Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

KINETICS AND VOLATILIZATION OF SiC AND SiO2: IMPLICATIONS FOR METAMORPHISM OF UNEQUILIBRATED ORDINARY CHONDRITES; R.A. Mendybaev1,3, J.R. Beckett3, L. Grossman1,2, and E.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

KINETICS AND VOLATILIZATION OF SiC AND SiO2: IMPLICATIONS FOR METAMORPHISM OF UNEQUILIBRATED the possibility of a more direct indicator based on the observation [1, 2] that abundances of diamond and SiC of volatilization experiments to lay the groundwork necessary to understand the processes by which SiC is destroyed

Grossman, Lawrence

231

Conversion of CH4/CO2 to syngas over Ni-Co/Al2O3-ZrO2 nanocatalyst synthesized via plasma assisted co-impregnation method: Surface properties and catalytic performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ni/Al2O3 catalyst promoted by Co and ZrO2 was prepared by co-impregnation method and treated with glow discharge plasma. The catalytic activity of the synthesized nanocatalysts has been tested toward conversion of CH4/CO2 to syngas. The physicochemical characterizations like XRD EDX

Nader Rahemi; Mohammad Haghighi; Ali Akbar Babaluo; Mahdi Fallah Jafari

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

An experimental investigation of the urea-water decomposition and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxides with urea using V2O5-WO3-TiO2 catalyst.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two flow reactor studies, using an electrically heated laminar flow reactor over Vanadia based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) honeycomb catalyst, were performed at 1 atm pressure and various temperatures. The experiments were conducted using simulated exhaust gas compositions for different exhaust gases. A quartz tube was used in order to establish inert conditions inside the reactor. The experiments utilized a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer in order to perform both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the reaction products. Urea-water solution decomposition was investigated over V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst over the entire SCR temperature range using the temperature controlled flow reactor. The solution was preheated and then injected into pure nitrogen (N2) stream. The decomposition experiments were conducted with a number of oxygen (O2) compositions (0, 1, 10, and 15%) over the temperature range of 227oC to 477oC. The study showed ammonia (NH3), carbon-dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) as the major products of decomposition along with other products such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with urea-water solution over V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor was investigated. Urea-water solution was injected at a temperature higher than the vaporization temperature of water and the flow reactor temperature was varied from 127oC to 477oC. A FTIR spectrometer was used to determine the concentrations of the product species. The major products of SCR reduction were NH3, NO and CO2 along with the presence of other minor products NO2 and N2O. NO removal of up to 87% was observed. The aim of the urea-water decomposition experiments was to study the decomposition process as close to the SCR configuration as possible. The aim of the SCR experiments was to delineate the effect of various parameters including reaction temperature and O2 concentration on the reduction process. The SCR investigation showed that changing parameter values significantly affected the NO removal, the residual NH3 concentration, the temperature of the maximum NO reduction, and the temperature of complete NH3 conversion. In the presence of O2, the reaction temperature for maximum NO reduction was 377?C for ratio of 1.0.

Johar, Jasmeet Singh

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

In situ XRD Studies of Li-ion Cells with Mixed LiMn2O4 and LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 Composite Cathode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structural changes of the composite cathode made by mixing spinel LiMn2O4 and layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 in 1:1 wt% in both Li-half and Li-ion cells during charge/discharge are studied by in situ XRD. During the first charge up to {approx}5.2 V vs. Li/Li+, the in situ XRD spectra for the composite cathode in the Li-half cell track the structural changes of each component. At the early stage of charge, the lithium extraction takes place in the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 component only. When the cell voltage reaches at {approx}4.0 V vs. Li/Li+, lithium extraction from the spinel LiMn2O4 component starts and becomes the major contributor for the cell capacity due to the higher rate capability of LiMn2O4. When the voltage passed 4.3 V, the major structural changes are from the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 component, while the LiMn2O4 component is almost unchanged. In the Li-ion cell using a MCMB anode and a composite cathode cycled between 2.5 V and 4.2 V, the structural changes are dominated by the spinel LiMn2O4 component, with much less changes in the layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 component, comparing with the Li-half cell results. These results give us valuable information about the structural changes relating to the contributions of each individual component to the cell capacity at certain charge/discharge state, which are helpful in designing and optimizing the composite cathode using spinel- and layered-type materials for Li-ion battery research.

Nam, K.; Yoon, W; Shin, H; Chung, K; Choi, S; Yang, X

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Structure and Electrochemistry of LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Ti, Al, Fe) Positive Electrode Materials  

SciTech Connect

A series of materials based on the LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M = Ti,Al,Fe) system has been synthesized and examined structurally and electrochemically. It is found that the changes in electrochemical performance depend highly on the nature of the substituting atom and its effect on the crystal structure. Substitution with small amounts of Ti4+ (y = 1/12) leads to the formation of a high-capacity and high-rate positive electrode material. Iron substituted materials suffer from an increased antisite defect concentration and exhibit lower capacities and poor rate capabilities. Single-phase materials are found for LiNi1/3Co1/3-yAlyMn1/3O2 when y<_ 1/4 and all exhibit decreased capacities when cycled to 4.3 V. However, an increase in rate performance and cycle stability upon aluminum substitution is correlated with an improved lamellar structure.

Wilcox, James; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca

2009-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

235

C-C and C-Heteroatom Bond Dissociation Energies in CH3R?C(OH)2: Energetics for Photocatalytic Processes of Organic Diolates on TiO2 Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The bond energies of a range of gem-diols, CH3R?C(OH)2 (R? = H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO2, CF3, CH3CH2, CH3CH2CH2, CH3CH2CH2CH2, ((CH3)2)CH, (CH3)3C, ((CH3)2CH)CH2, (CH3CH2)(CH3)CH, C6H5 (CH3CH2)(CH3)CH) which serve as models for binding to a surface have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) and the molecular orbital G3(MP2) methods to provide thermodynamic data for the analysis of the photochemistry of ketones on TiO2. The ultraviolet (UV) photon-induced photodecomposition of adsorbed acetone and 3,3-dimethylbutanone on the rutile TiO2 (110) surface have been investigated with photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The C-CH3 and C-C(R?) bond dissociation energies in CH3R?C(OH)2 were predicted, and our calculated bond dissociation energies are in excellent agreement with the available experimental values. We used a series of isodemic reactions to provide small corrections to the various bond dissociation energies. The calculated bond dissociation energies are in agreement with the observed photodissociation processes except for R? = CF3, suggesting that these processes are under thermodynamic control. For R? = CF3, reaction dynamics also play a role in determining the photodissociation mechanism. The gas phase Brönsted acidities of the gem-diols were calculated. For three molecules, R? = Cl, Br, and NO2, loss of a proton leads to the formation of a complex of acetic acid with the anion Cl-, Br-, and NO2-. The acidities of these three species are very high with the former two having acidities comparable to CF3SO3H. The ketones (R?RC(=O)) are weak Lewis acids except where addition of OH- leads to the dissociation of the complex to form an anion bonded to acetic acid, R' = NO2, Cl, and Br. The X-C bond dissociation energies for a number of X-CO2- species were calculated and these should be useful in correlating with photochemical reactivity studies.

Wang, Tsang-Hsiu; Dixon, David A.; Henderson, Michael A.

2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

236

A study of surface film formation on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes u sing attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The surface films formed on commercial LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes (ATD Gen2) charged from 3.75V to 4.2V vs. Li/Li+ in EC:DEC - 1M LiPF6 were analyzed using ex-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with the attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique. A surface layer of Li2CO3 is present on the virgin cathode, probably from reaction of the active material with air during the cathode preparation procedure. The Li2CO3 layer disappeared even after soaking in the electrolyte, indicating that the layer dissolved into the electrolyte possibly even before potential cycling of the electrode. IR features only from the binder (PVdF) and a trace of polyamide from the Al current collector were observed on the surfaces of cathodes charged to below 4.2 V, i.e., no surface species from electrolyte oxidation. Some new IR features were, however, found on the cathode charged to 4.2 V and higher. An electrolyte oxidation product was observed that appeared to contain dicarbonyl anhydride and (poly)ester functionalities. The reaction appears to be an indirect electrochemical oxidation with overcharging (removal of > 0.6 Li ions) destabilizing oxygen in the oxide lattice resulting in oxygen transfer to the solvent molecules.

Song, S.-W.; Zhuang, G.V.; Ross Jr., P.N.

2004-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

237

Influence of strontium on structure, sintering and biodegradation behaviour of CaO-MgO-SrO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glasses  

SciTech Connect

The present study investigates the influence of SrO on structure, apatite forming ability, physico-chemical degradation and sintering behaviour of melt-quenched bioactive glasses with composition: mol.% (36.07 – x) CaO – x SrO - 19.24 MgO – 5.61 P2O5 – 38.49 SiO2 – 0.59 CaF2, where x varies between 0 – 10. The detailed structural analysis of glasses has been made by infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR). Silicon was predominantly present as Q2 (Si) species while phosphorus was found in orthophosphate type environment in all the investigated glasses. The apatite forming ability of glasses was investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h – 7 days. While increasing Sr2+/Ca2+ ratio in glasses did not affect the structure of glasses significantly, their apatite forming ability was decreased considerably. Further, physico-chemical degradation of glasses has been studied in accordance with ISO 10993-14 “Biological evaluation of medical devices – Part 14: Identification and quantification of degradation products from ceramics” in Tris HCl and citric acid buffer and the possible implications of ion release profile from glasses in different solutions has been discussed. The addition of strontium in glasses led to a 7-fold decrease in chemical degradation of glasses in Tris-HCl. The sintering of glass powders rendered glass-ceramics (GCs) with varying degree of crystallinity and good flexural strength (98-131 MPa) where the mechanical properties depend on the nature and amount of crystalline phases present in GCs.

Goel, Ashutosh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Ferreira, Jose M.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Nanocomposites by Phase Separation in TiO2/SnO2 System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

239

Synthesis of TiO2/SnO2 Bifunctional Nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

240

Redox Behavior of Macroporous CeO2 –ZrO2 Solid Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... supporting massive oxygen vacancy, which could improve the lattice oxygen .... of Si3N4-SiC Heat Absorption Ceramic Material Used for Tower Type Solar ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - O2...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of adding oxygen to the combustion process appears counter intuitive due to the higher flame temperatures typically associated with oxy-fuel firing. For example, when small...

242

Catalytic H2O2 decomposition on palladium surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The catalytic decomposition of H?O? at smooth single-crystal and polycrystalline palladium surfaces that had been subjected to various surface modifications has been studied. Monolayer and submonolayer coverages of I, Br and Cl adsorbates were used to pretrial the palladium surfaces. The rate of decomposition was found to be dependent upon the coverage and identity of the halogen adsorbate. Experimental measurements were based upon Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron Diffraction (LEED) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the surface adlayers, redox titration for H?O? concentration determinations, and evolved-O? gas volume measurements for the decomposition rates.

Salinas, S. Adriana

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Nanostructured MnO2 and its Composites for Supercapacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic Properties of Ni3Al Foils for Methane Steam Reforming · Characterization of the Crystallographic Textures and Mechanical Anisotropy Factors in Two ...

244

SiO2 - polyethylene reflected critical assembly  

SciTech Connect

The Planet universal critical assembly machine was used to perform a series of three critical experiments. This experiment used HEU foils reflected by polyethylene and interleaved with plates of SiO{sub 2} glass and polyethylene. Only the experiment performed using the SiO{sub 2} matrix material is evaluated in this report. The assembly was delayed critical with 33 HEU foils or 17 units (sets of HEU foils). The critical assembly has an intermediate neutron spectrum, with 51.2% of the fissions occurring between 0.625 eV and 100 keV. The calculational results show good agreement with the experimental results.

Brewer, R. W. (Roger W.); Sanchez, R. G. (Rene G.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Hydrogenated TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Supercapacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon-Sulfur Nanocomposite Cathode Materials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries · Carbonized Chicken Eggshell Membranes with 3D Architectures as ...

246

Morphological Evaluation of Osteoblast-TiO2 Nanotube Interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Comparative Study of the Compressive Mechanical Properties of Young and ... of Ti-6Al-4V for Medical Applications after Surface Modification by Anodization.

247

Reduction Behavior of TiO 2 during Microwave Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Saccharification Process of Cellulosic Biomass by Microwave Irradiation · Novel Lamination Method for Large Armor Panels · Raman Spectroscopy for ...

248

RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT GRONINGEN NO and O2 Absorption in Aqueous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faculty of Science Biological Sciences Postgraduate Handbook 2012 #12;| 2012 School of Biological Sciences Handbook2 Research School of Biological Sciences Research Topics 35 - Biodiversity, Biosecurity;2012 School of Biological Sciences Handbook | 3 Kia Ora Welcome Message from the Head of School Dear

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

249

Self-AssembledTiO2–GrapheneHybrid ...  

lectrochemical energy storage has been receiving great attention for ... particles. The dark-?eld TEM image (Figure 3g) further con?rms crystalline ...

250

Fluorine Induced Twinned Crystalline SnO2 Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accelerated Light Induced Degradation, ALID, for Monitoring of Defects in PV Silicon ... Silicon Solar Cells Evaluated by LBIC and Equivalent Circuit Model.

251

Thermoelectric Property of Mesoporous TiO2 film  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-KNO3-NaNO2-KNO2 Quaternary Molten Salt System for Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Generation.

252

Nature of =~SiOCrO(2)CI And (=~SiO)(2)CrO(2) Sites Prepared By Grafting CrO(2)CI(2) Onto Silica  

SciTech Connect

The room-temperature reaction between chromyl chloride and Sylopol 952 silicas pretreated at 200, 450, and 800 C was investigated using IR, XANES, and EXAFS spectroscopy, as well as by DFT modeling. On the silicas pretreated at 200 and 450 C, the structurally uniform sites formed by the reaction with one surface hydroxyl group are described as {triple_bond}SiOCrO{sub 2}Cl. Unreacted silanols persist on these silicas even in the presence of excess CrO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, and on the silica pretreated at 200 C some participate in hydrogen bonding with the grafted monochlorochromate sites. On the silica pretreated at 800 C, both {triple_bond}SiOCrO{sub 2}Cl and ({triple_bond}SiO){sub 2}CrO{sub 2} sites are formed. The latter are produced despite the absence of hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl pairs on the support. The origin of the chromate sites is proposed to be the reaction between CrO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and hydroxyl-substituted siloxane 2-rings. These rings are likely formed at 800 C by condensation between a pair of vicinal silanols in which one of the silanols is also a member of a geminal pair.

Demmelmaier, C.A.; White, R.E.; Bokhoven, J.A.van; Scott, S.L.

2009-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

253

001 A Novel Protocol for Synthesis of Pd/TiO2/SiO2 Nanocomposite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with an aqueous solution of nitric acid are mixed with Pd.The latter was previously reduced via a ... 008 Effect of Crystallinity on Dissolution Properties of Plasma Sprayed ... 015 Highly Sensitive Determination of Ascorbic Acid over Polyaniline ... of Strontium Sulfualuminate Sr4Al6O12SO4 with Molten Aluminum Alloys.

254

Thermo-mechanical Properties of Na2O-TiO2-SiO2 Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales · Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts.

255

Water Dissociation on CeO2(100) and CeO2(111) Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study reports and compares the adsorption and dissociation of water on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(100) and CeO{sub 2}(111) thin films. Water adsorbs dissociatively on both surfaces. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(100) the resulting surface hydroxyls are relatively stable and recombine and desorb as water over a range from 200 to 600 K. The hydroxyls are much less stable on oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111), recombining and desorbing between 200 and 300 K. Water produces 30% more hydroxyls on reduced CeO{sub 1.7}(100) than on oxidized CeO{sub 2}(100). The hydroxyl concentration increases by 160% on reduced CeO{sub 1.7}(111) compared to oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111). On reduced CeO{sub 1.7}(100) most of the hydroxyls still recombine and desorb as water between 200 and 750 K. Most of the hydroxyls on reduced CeO{sub 1.7}(111) react to produce H{sub 2} at 560 K, leaving O on the surface. A relatively small amount of H{sub 2} is produced from reduced CeO{sub 1.7}(100) between 450 and 730 K. The differences in the adsorption and reaction of water on CeO{sub X}(100) and CeO{sub X}(111) are attributed to different adsorption sites on the two surfaces. The adsorption site on CeO{sub 2}(100) is a bridging site between two Ce cations. This adsorption site does not change when the ceria is reduced. The adsorption site on CeO{sub 2}(111) is atop a single Ce cation, and the proton is transferred to a surface O in a site between three Ce cations. When the CeO{sub X}(111) is reduced, vacancy sites are produced which allows the water to adsorb and dissociate on the 3-fold Ce cation sites.

Mullins, David R [ORNL; Albrecht, Peter M [ORNL; Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL; Calaza, Florencia C [ORNL; Biegalski, Micahel [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Christen, Hans [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Microelectronically fabricated Li Co O 2 ? Si O 2 /polycrystalline-silicon power cells planarized by chemical mechanical polishing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monolithic integration of different electronic circuit elements onto a single chip is beneficial for the purpose of reducing overall system cost as well as improving performance and reliability. Integrating a power unit onto a silicon chip requires the implementation of a thin-film solid-state battery that is compatible with existing silicon integrated circuit technology in terms of manufacturing methods

Nava Ariel; David M. Isaacson; Eugene A. Fitzgerald

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Dissolution Mechanism of Lime in FeOx-SiO2-V2O3-TiO2 Slag  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nickel Recovery from Sukinda Chromite Overburden Using Shewanella Putrefaciens · Optimization of Process Parameters on the Siffusion Bonding of a ...

258

Preparation and Characterization of Au-ZrO2-SiO2 Nanocomposite Spheres and Their Application in Enrichment and Detection of Organophosphorus Agents  

SciTech Connect

Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite spheres were synthesized and used as selective sorbents for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of orananophosphorous agents. A non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor based on an Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} modified electrode was developed for selective detection of orananophosphorous pesticides (OPs). The Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite spheres were synthesized by hydrolysis and condensation of zirconia n-butoxide (TBOZ) on the surface of SiO{sub 2} spheres and then introduction of gold nanoparticles on the surface. Transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to characterize the formation of the nanocomposite sphere. Fast extraction of OP was achieved by Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} modified electrode within 5 min via the specific affinity between zirconia and phosphoric group. The assay yields a broad concentration range of paraoxon-ethyl from 1.0 to 500 ng/mL{sup -1} with a detection limit 0.5 ng/mL{sup -1}. This selective and sensitive method holds great promise for the enrichment and detection of OPs.

Yang, Yuqi; Tu, Haiyang; Zhang, Aidong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Composition and structure of the RuO2,,110... surface in an O2 and CO environment: Implications for the catalytic formation of CO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the interstitial is Ewf max 19 Ry for the wave functions and Epot max 196 Ry for the potential. With these cutoff

260

Separation of Perovskite Phase from CaO-TiO2-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Pilot-plant Scale Test of Coal-based Rotary Klin Direct Reduction of Laterite ... Influence of Microwave Radiation on Phosphorus-removal Process of Oolitic ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Effect of V2O3 and TiO2 on the Dissolution of Lime in FeO-SiO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential Characterization of Ikperejere Iron shale and Iron Sandstone Deposit · Direct Precipitation of ... High Temperature Exposure of Oil Well Cements.

262

Synthesis of CdSe -- TiO2 Nanocomposites and Their Applications to TiO2 Sensitized Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CdSe-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized via aminolysis of Ti-oleate complexes in the presence of CdSe nanocrystals, and their application as sensitizers for TiO{sub 2} solar cells was investigated. The formation of CdSe-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The emission spectrum of CdSe-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites revealed photoinduced charge separation at the CdSe-TiO{sub 2} interface of the composite. The photocurrent-voltage properties of CdSe-TiO{sub 2}-sensitized TiO{sub 2} particle films compared favorably with those of CdSe-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films. Evidence was also found indicating that the TiO{sub 2} component of the composite protects CdSe against degradation during film annealing.

Kim, J. Y.; Choi, S. B.; Noh, J. H.; HunYoon, S.; Lee, S.; Noh, T. H.; Frank, A. J.; Hong, K. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Characteristics of Desulfation Behavior for Presulfated Pt-BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalyst: The Role of the CeO2 Support  

SciTech Connect

The desulfation of presulfated Pt-BaO/CeO{sub 2} lean NOx trap catalyst was investigated by H{sub 2} TPRX (temperature programmed reaction), in situ TR-XRD (time-resolved X-ray diffraction), and in situ S K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy) techniques. Compared with Pt-BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials, a reductive treatment in H{sub 2} for the CeO{sub 2}-supported sample up to 1073 K removes, at most, only a very small amount of sulfur species. However, the results of in situ TR-XRD measurements demonstrate that the quantity of a BaS phase formed on Pt-BaO/CeO{sub 2} is much smaller than that on Pt-BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, implying that the formation of BaS crystallites, which occurs during the reduction from sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) to sulfide (S{sup 2-}), is significantly suppressed in the CeO{sub 2}-supported catalyst. As the desulfation temperature increases under reducing conditions (in H{sub 2}), in situ S XANES spectra show that, compared with alumina-supported samples, the reduction temperature for sulfates (S{sup 6+}) decreases by about 150 K. Concomitantly, the formation of sulfur species with lower oxidation states (S{sup 2}-S{sup 4+}) is enhanced. The absolute intensities of S XANES spectra before and after desulfation are very similar, implying that the amount of sulfur-containing species removed during the reductive treatment is negligible, in agreement with the results of H{sub 2} TPRX. These results suggest that H{sub 2}S produced by the reduction of BaSO{sub 4} is readily readsorbed on the ceria support to form ceria-sulfur complexes (e.g., Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2}S). The high affinity of ceria for H{sub 2}S, combined with the ease of reducibility of the ceria support material gives rise to various oxidation states of sulfur after high-temperature H{sub 2} treatments. Thus, the results of this study clearly show that the ceria support strongly affects the overall desulfation mechanism. The intrinsic role of the ceria support during desulfation and its effect on the overall NOx storage processes are discussed on the basis of the characterization results obtained here.

Kim, D.; Kwak, J; Szanyi, J; Wang, X; Li, G; Hanson, J; Peden, C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Central metabolism in Mycobacterium smegmatis during the transition from O2-rich to O2-poor conditions as studied by isotopomer-assisted metabolite analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in pyridine (Sigma-Aldrich) (MOX solution) for 90 min at 40°shaking at 200 rpm. The MOX solution was then centrifuged

Tang, Yinjie J.; Shui, Wenqing; Myers, Samuel; Feng, Xueyang; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Keasling, Jay D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Comparison Between Research-Grade SnO2 and Commercial Available SnO2 for Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cell (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparison between research-grade, tin-oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films and those available from commercial sources is performed. The research-grade SnO{sub 2} film is fabricated at NREL by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The commercial SnO{sub 2} films are Pilkington Tec 8 and Tec 15 fabricated by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Optical, structural, and compositional analyses are performed. From the optical analysis, an estimation of the current losses due to the SnO{sub 2} layer and glass is provided. Our analysis indicates that the optical properties of commercial SnO{sub 2} could be improved for PV usage.

Li, X.; Pankow, J.; To, B.; Gessert, T.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic target  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hafnium oxide (HfO?) thin films have been made by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron-sputtering onto Si(100) substrates under varying growth temperature (Ts). HfO? ceramic target has been employed for sputtering while varying the Ts from room temperature to 500?C during deposition. The effect of Ts on the growth and microstructure of deposited HfO? films has been studied using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the effect of Ts is significant on the growth, surface and interface structure, morphology and chemical composition of the HfO? films. Structural characterization indicates that the HfO? films grown at Ts200 ?C are nanocrystalline. An amorphous-to-crystalline transition occurs at Ts=200 ?C. Nanocrystalline HfO? films crystallized in a monoclinic structure with a (-111) orientation. XPS measurements indicated the high surface-chemical quality and stoichiometric nature of the grown HfO? films. An interface layer (IL) formation occurs due to reaction at the HfO?-Si interface for HfO? films deposited at Ts>200 ?C. The thickness of IL increases with increasing Ts. XPS and EDS at the HfO?-Si cross-section indicate the IL is a (Hf, Si)-O compound. The electrical characterization using capacitance-voltage measurements indicate that the dielectric constant decreases from 25 to 16 with increasing Ts.

Aguirre, B.; Vemuri, R. S.; Zubia, David; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kamala Bharathi, K.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Economic Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler  

SciTech Connect

This report determines the capital and operating costs of two different oxygen-based, pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants and compares their economics to that of a comparable, air-based PC plant. Rather than combust their coal with air, the oxygen-based plants use oxygen to facilitate capture/removal of the plant CO{sub 2} for transport by pipeline to a sequestering site. To provide a consistent comparison of technologies, all three plants analyzed herein operate with the same coal (Illinois No 6), the same site conditions, and the same supercritical pressure steam turbine (459 MWe). In the first oxygen-based plant, the pulverized coal-fired boiler operates with oxygen supplied by a conventional, cryogenic air separation unit, whereas, in the second oxygen-based plant, the oxygen is supplied by an oxygen ion transport membrane. In both oxygen-based plants a portion of the boiler exhaust gas, which is primarily CO{sub 2}, is recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature, and the balance of the flue gas undergoes drying and compression to pipeline pressure; for consistency, both plants operate with similar combustion temperatures and utilize the same CO{sub 2} processing technologies. The capital and operating costs of the pulverized coal-fired boilers required by the three different plants were estimated by Foster Wheeler and the balance of plant costs were budget priced using published data together with vendor supplied quotations. The cost of electricity produced by each of the plants was determined and oxygen-based plant CO{sub 2} mitigation costs were calculated and compared to each other as well as to values published for some alternative CO{sub 2} capture technologies.

Andrew Seltzer; Archie Robertson

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

003 Biocompatibility of TiO2 nanotubes on titanium via anodic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of LiMnxFe1-xPO4 Glass and Glass-Ceramics for Lithium Ion Battery .... and Comparing the Inhibition Effect of Chromate, Bromate and Molybdate on the ...

269

Oxygen diffusion in UO2+x and (U,Pu)O2+-x  

SciTech Connect

In the first part of this report we revisit an earlier study of oxygen diffusion in UO{sub 2+x}, in which we used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to parameterize a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. The results from these earlier kMC simulations are reproduced in Fig. 1 and they indicate fairly good agreement with available experiments. This work was later expanded to include a larger temperature range. However, since the publication of this study there have been a number of advancements in DFT methodology for UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2+x} providing increased accuracy. We have also gained better understanding of the oxygen clustering phenomena occurring in UO{sub 2+x}. For these two reasons, the DFT calculations of the migration barriers of single oxygen interstitials and di-interstitial clusters have been repeated using the LDA+U and GGA+U methodologies. The earlier study used regular GGA and, even though this method captures similar trends as the more advanced LDA+U and GGA+U techniques, it does not fulfill the quantitative requirements set by some applications. Additionally, we have identified a mechanism for the most stable quad-interstitial clusters to migrate and here we calculate the corresponding barriers within both the LDA+U and GGA+U methodologies. The new LDA+U and GGA+U data sets are analyzed in terms of available experiments. In the second part of this report we present initial results for the impact of Pu on oxygen diffusion in UO{sub 2}. The first step in understanding this process is to calculate the binding energies of oxygen vacancies and interstitials to a Pu ion in the UO{sub 2} matrix. Possible diffusion mechanisms are discussed for (U,Pu)O{sub 2-x}, (U,Pu)O{sub 2} and (U,Pu)O{sub 2+x}.

Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

270

A1: 3D TiO2 Long Nanotube Arrays Manufactured by Anodization of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A21: First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Chemical ... A3: Investigation on Co-combustion Kinetics of Anthracite Coal and Biomass Char by ... Lithium Redox Process for Thermochemical Water-Splitting as Energy Conversion.

271

Superheating and supercooling of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was supported in part by the Director, Office of Science,Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Synthesis of Nano-structured Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic Properties of Ni3Al Foils for Methane Steam Reforming · Characterization of the Crystallographic Textures and Mechanical Anisotropy Factors in Two ...

273

Phase Studies in the TeO2 - B2O3 System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How to Control Strength and Grain Structure of 304L Stainless Steel during Forging · Improved ... Process Modeling and Reduction of Copper Loss in Smelting Slag ... Use of Polymeric Residues from the Footwear Industry in Layers of Asphalt ...

274

Structur? Silicon Deposits Obtained by Electrolysis SiO2 in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Solar Cell Silicon ... On the Segregation of Impurities in Solar Silicon ... Silicon PV Wafers: Correlation of Mechanical Properties and Crack ...

275

Raman Spectrum of Supercritical C18O2 and Re-Evaluation of the Fermi Resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of its importance to so many processes, CO{sub 2} is one of the most studied molecules in science. However, we report here the discovery of a new phenomenon in the vibrational modes of supercritical CO{sub 2} upon isotopic labeling of both of its oxygens. The Raman spectrum of scC{sup 18}O{sub 2} shows a transposition of the components of the Fermi dyad from their normal positions. Analysis from ab initio molecular dynamics studies shows a previously unknown quantum mechanical influence of the {sup 18}O on the extent of mixing of the two vibrational modes that give rise to the Fermi dyad. This discovery confirms the assignments of the modes comprising the Fermi dyad of scCO{sub 2} and provides the groundwork for further advances in vibrational spectroscopic studies on this important molecule.

Windisch, Charles F.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

276

Assessment of Hydrogen Solubility in the CaO-SiO2-FeOt Based ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Sintering Ore Blending Optimization Model Based on 'Iron Increase and Silicon ... on the Al2O3 Extraction Rate during Acid Leaching Process of Coal Fly Ash.

277

B48: Fast Sintering of SnO 2 Nanoparticles after Chemical Lixiviation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

G8: Low-Cost Corrosion Monitoring Sensors Based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology · G9: The Protection of Iron Reducing Bacteria (

278

Virtual Electrochemical Strain Microscopy of Polycrystalline LiCoO2 Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recently developed technique, electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), utilizes the strong coupling between ionic current and anisotropic volumetric chemical expansion of lithium-ion electrode materials to dynamically probe the sub-one-hundred? nm inter-facial kinetic intercalation properties. A numerical technique based on the finite element method was developed to analyze the underlying physics that govern the ESM signal generation and establish relations to battery performance. The performed analysis demonstrates that the diffusion path within a thin film is tortuous and the extent of lithium diffusion into the electrode is dependent on the SPM-tip-imposed overpotential frequency. The detected surface actuation gives rise to the development of an electromechanical hysteresis loop whose shape is dependent on grain size and overpotential frequency. Shape and tilting angle of the loop are classified into low and high frequency regimes, separated by a transition frequency which is also a function of lithium diffusivity and grain size, f{sub T} = D//{sup 2}. Research shows that the crystallographic orientation of the surface actuated grain has a significant impact on the shape of the loop. The polycrystalline crystallographic orientation of the grains induces a diffusion path network in the electrode which impacts on the mechanical reliability of the battery. Simulations demonstrate that continuous battery cycling results in a cumulative capacity loss as a result of the hysteric non-reversible lithium intercalation. Furthermore, results suggest that ESM has the capability to infer the local out-of-plane lithium diffusivity and the out-of-plane contribution to Vegard tensor.

Chung, Ding-wen [Purdue University; Balke, Nina [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Garcia, R. Edwin [Purdue University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Methods to prepare large quantities of Mesoporous TiO2 B ...  

High power and high energy density are essential to batteries for applications in electric vehicles, stationary energy ... safety and rate capability.

280

Methods to improve the conductivity of Mesoporous TiO2 B ...  

High power and high energy density are essential to batteries for applications in electric vehicles, stationary energy ... safety and rate capability.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Comparison of Dye-Sensitized Rutile- and Anatase-Based TiO2 Solar Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop and optimize the new dye-sensitized solar cell technology. In view of the infancy of rutile material development for solar cells, the PV response of the dye-sensitized rutile-based solar cell is remarkably close to that of the anatase-based cell.

Park, N. G.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Frank, A. J.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Large melting point hysteresis of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

matrix and solid/matrix interface energies. Second, thematrix, and might lead to an overall increase in elastic energy.matrix. However, based on the density change, a 2.5 nm interface interface notes energy (

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Ion-Beam-Induced Chemical Mixing at a Nanocrystalline CeO2 Si Interface  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of nanocrystalline ceria deposited onto a silicon substrate have been irradiated with 3 MeV Au+ ions to a total dose of 34 displacements per atom to examine the film/substrate interfacial response upon displacement damage. Under irradiation, a band of contrast is observed to form that grows under further irradiation. Scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis suggest that this band of contrast is a cerium silicate phase with an approximate Ce:Si:O composition ratio of 1:1:3 in an amorphous nature. The slightly nonstoichiometric composition arises due to the loss of mobile oxygen within the cerium silicate phase under the current irradiation condition. This nonequilibrium phase is formed as a direct result of ion-beam-induced chemical mixing caused by ballistic collisions between the incoming ion and the lattice atoms. This may hold promise in ion beam engineering of cerium silicates for microelectronic applications e.g., the fabrication of blue LEDs.

Edmondson, Dr. Philip [University of Oxford; Young, Neil P. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3PH, UK; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Moll, Sandra [CEA, Saclay, France; Namavar, Fereydoon [University of Nebraska Medical Center; Weber, William J [ORNL; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water/ methanol decomposition using Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methane- steam reforming [5], which consumes energy and produces greenhouse gas emissions, mainly, carbon

285

044 Fabrication of ZrO2-SiC Composites from Natural Zircon Ore by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

005 Calcium Phosphates for Drug Carrier: Adsorption and Release Kinetics of Drugs ... 058 Properties Optimization of Refractory Mineral Resources in China.

286

095 LiAlO2 Solubility Measurement in (Li-K) Carbonate Melt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

005 Calcium Phosphates for Drug Carrier: Adsorption and Release Kinetics of Drugs ... 058 Properties Optimization of Refractory Mineral Resources in China.

287

Electrochemically controlled transport of lithium through ultrathin SiO2 Nava Ariel,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for battery, electronic, and optoelectronic applications. Success- ful transport of lithium ions across Ceramic Society, Columbus, OH, 1991 , p. 51. 11 S. Kondo, in Lithium Ion Batteries, edited by O. Y. M layer in lithium-ion-based devices. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10

288

Formation of Radioactive Citrulline During Photosynthetic C14O2-Fixation by Blue-Green Algae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ClTRULLlNE BY BLUE-GREEN ALGAE TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY This is aC~~O~-FIXATION BLUE-GREEN ALGAE Pekka Linko, 0. Holm-Hansen,C~~O~-FIXATION BLUE-GREEN ALGAE BY Pelcka Linlc~,'~ Holm-

Linko, Pekka; Holm-Hansen, O.; Bassham, J.A.; Calvin, M.

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

W-29: Effect of TiO2 Composite Photoelectrode on the Photovoltaic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). ... in order to improve the electron transfer without costing the high surface area.

290

Glass Formation and Phase Equilibria Studies in the TeO 2 -ZnO ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Glass and ... Glass Formation of LaTiZrO System by Containerless Processing ... Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales.

291

Formation of CdS Nanocrystals in SiO2 by Ion Implantation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a systematic study of the influence of ion dose and post-implantation annealing on the synthesis and growth of CdS nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} matrix. Nanocrystals were obtained after implantation of monoenergetic Cd and S ions and subsequent annealing in a very wide range of annealing temperatures, T{sub a}. The average size, as determined from the blue shift of band gap E{sub g}, varied from 3.5-4.5 to 10 nm, depending on implantation and annealing parameters. For the highest dose, 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}, the synthesis of CdS phase starts already during implantation. For T{sub a} above 700 C, large nanocrystals (9-10 nm) prevail for all doses. High energy optical transitions, identified as the E{sub 1A} and E{sub 1B} transitions of hexagonal CdS, were also observed after annealings at higher temperature.

Desnica, U. V. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Desnica-Frankovic, I. D. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Gamulin, O. [Zagreb University, Zagreb, Croatia; White, Clark W [ORNL; Sonder, Edward [ORNL; Zuhr, Ray A [ORNL

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

In Situ CO2 and O2 Measurements on a Profiling Float  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, profiling floats, which form the basis of the successful international Argo observatory, are also being considered as platforms for marine biogeochemical research. This study showcases the utility of floats as a novel tool for ...

Björn Fiedler; Peer Fietzek; Nuno Vieira; Péricles Silva; Henry C. Bittig; Arne Körtzinger

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Recovery of High Grade SnO2 from Cassiterite Ore by Microwave ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on Extraction Process of Zinc from Zinc Containing Wastewater ... Study on Treatment of Coking Wastewater by Three-Dimensional Fluid Bed ...

294

The Role of Surface Free Energy of Cell Adhesion in TiO2 Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Eileen Gentleman, Kyle Krzywosinski, Matthew Scorsone, Molly Gentleman. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Molly Gentleman. Abstract Scope, Titanium ...

295

Controllable Fabrication of SnO2/SnCo Nanocomposites as Anodes ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3D Nanostructured Bicontinuous Electrodes: Path to Ultra-High Power and Energy ... High Energy Density Lithium Capacitors Using Carbon-Carbon Electrodes.

296

Pseudocapacitive Lithium-Ion Storage in Oriented Anatase TiO2 Nanotube Arrays  

SciTech Connect

We report on the synthesis and electrochemical properties of oriented anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube (NT) arrays as electrodes for Li-ion batteries. The TiO{sub 2} NT electrodes displayed both pseudocapacitive Li{sup +} storage associated with the NT surface and the Li{sup +} storage within the bulk material. The relative contribution of the pseudocapacitive and bulk storages depends strongly on the scan rate. While the charges are stored primarily in the bulk at low scan rates (<< 1 mV/s), the surface storage dominates the total storage capacity at higher scan rates (>1 mV/s). The storage capacity of the NT electrodes as a function of charge/discharge rates showed no dependence on the NT film thickness, suggesting that the Li{sup +} insertion/extraction processes occur homogeneously across the entire length of NT arrays. These results indicated that the electron conduction along the NT walls and the ion conduction within the electrolyte do not cause significant hindering of the charge/discharge kinetics for NT electrode architectures. As a result of the surface pseudocapacitive storage, the reversible Li{sup +} storage capacities for TiO{sub 2} NT electrodes were higher than the theoretical storage capacity for bulk anatase TiO{sub 2} materials.

Zhu, K.; Wang, Q.; Kim, J. H.; Pesaran, A. A.; Frank, A. J.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with Novel Arrangements by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

298

Experiment: Cooked vs. raw food reacting with H2O2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the enzymes is catalase and it is able to join two peroxide molecules together and then split them apart as water and oxygen. The other major enzyme is peroxidase and is able to...

299

Recent Advances in Developing Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for the O2 Reduction Reaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For Pt, the best single-element catalyst for many reactions, the question of content and loading is exceedingly important because of its price and availability. Using platinum as a fuel-cell catalyst in automotive applications will cause an unquantifiable increase in the demand for this metal. This big obstacle for using fuel cells in electric cars must be solved by decreasing the content of Pt, which is a great challenge of electrocatalysis Over the last several years we inaugurated a new class of electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) based on a monolayer of Pt deposited on metal or alloy carbon-supported nanoparticles. The possibility of decreasing the Pt content in the ORR catalysts down to a monolayer level has a considerable importance because this reaction requires high loadings due to its slow kinetics. The Pt-monolayer approach has several unique features and some of them are: high Pt utilization, enhanced (or decreased) activity, enhanced stability, and direct activity correlations. The synthesis of Pt monolayer (ML) electrocatalysts was facilitated by our new synthesis method which allowed us to deposit a monolayer of Pt on various metals, or alloy nanoparticles [1, 2] for the cathode electrocatalyst. In this synthesis approach Pt is laid down by the galvanically displacing a Cu monolayer, which was deposited at underpotentials in a monolayer-limited reaction on appropriate metal substrate, with Pt after immersing the electrode in a K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} solution.

Vukmirovic,M.B.; Sasaki, K.; Zhou, W.-P.; Li, M.; Liu, P.; Wang, J.X.; Adzic, R.R.

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fabrication and Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered CeO2 -YSZ ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling Framework and Associated Simulation Tools for the Prediction of Damage ... Thermochemical Degradation Mechanisms of SiC/BN/SiC Composites.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Synthesis and Characterization of Pt-CeO2 Electrocatalysts by the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Efficient catalysts for the electrooxidation of small organic molecules such as ethanol are needed to prompt the use of direct ethanol fuel cells.

302

Electrophoretic Co-Deposition of TiO2 and ZnO Photoelectrodes for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employing the ... electron lifetime (?n) are examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ( EIS). ... First-Principles-Based Nanomaterials Design for Solar Energy Storage and ...

303

PHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES OF METAL-MEROCYANINE-TiO2 SANDWICH CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used in making the photovoltaic cells. Figure 3. Diagram ofused in making the photovoltaic cells. HO HO ,5 di -t rt.organic compounds in photovoltaic cells. It lies more in the

Skotheim, Terje Asbjorn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

D8: Fabrication and Characterization of Delafossite CuFeO 2 p-n ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A10: Mechanical Properties and Weld-Ability of Laser Welded Metal Bellows ..... J5: Electrical Conductivity of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Evaluated by the ...

305

Chemical Growth and Optoelectronic Characteristics of TiO2 Thin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of harnessing for applications such as window materials, radiation collectors ... A Vertical Core-Shell Nanowire Architecture for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and ...

306

3D TiO2 Nanoarchitecture Fabricated by Pulsed Chemical Vapor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approaching Multimaterial 3D Nanostructured Gas Phase Nanoxerographic Printers · Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements.

307

TiO2 Photocatalyst Thin-Film Coatings on Polyethylene Terephthalate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approaching Multimaterial 3D Nanostructured Gas Phase Nanoxerographic Printers · Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements.

308

Synthesis of TiO2 by an Innovative Atmospheric Mixed Chloride ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recovery of Precious Metals from Chloride Media Using Microalgae Waste from Biofuel Extraction · Segregation Roasting of a Saprolitic Laterite Ore: An ...

309

188- Photocatalytic Degradation of TiO2 Nano Particles Doped in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

086- Improvement in Gas Tightness of YSZ Coatings Produced by Atmospheric Plasma ... 145- The Synergy of XRD and XRF in a Shale and Slate Analysis.

310

Morphology Engineering of 1D, 2D and 3D TiO2 Nanostructures and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design of Light Weight Structure for Wind Turbine Tower by Using Nano- Materials · Development of Highly Active Titania-Based Nanoparticles for Composite ...

311

P-8: Electrochemical Reduction of TiO2-Rich Slag to High-Titanium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biosorption Characteristics of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution onto Poplar Cotton · Characterization of Aluminum Cathode Sheets Used for Zinc Electrowinning.

312

2012 Shri Ram Arora Award: Novel Sensor Structure of SnO2 Thin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Register as a New User ... Symposium, 2012 Symposium on Surfaces and Heterostructures at Nano- or Micro-Scale and Their Characterization, Properties, and Applications ... Localized Plasmon Enhancement at Dopant Sites in Graphene.

313

Compact Combination NOx/O2 Sensors for High-Temperature ...  

Coal-fired plants; Environmental monitoring of exhaust gases; Patents and Patent Applications. ID Number. Title and Abstract. Primary Lab. Date. ...

314

Study of Bamboo Charcoal Load Ce-Doped Nano-TiO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dissolution Kinetics of Steelmaking Slag and Its Promotion for the Growth of Algae · Electrodeposition of PbTe Thermoelectric Materials in NaOH Solutions.

315

Pt-doped TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Degradation of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ISASMELT™ for Recycling of Valuable Elements Contributing to a More Sustainable Society · Leaching of Uranium and Vanadium from Korean Domestic Ore.

316

A Comparison between the Properties of Spray-Pyrolyzed SnO2:F ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury Oxidation and Capture over SCR Catalysts in Simulated Coal Combustion Flue Gas · Microstructural Characterization of Fe-Mn-C Ternary Alloy under ...

317

SESAME 96170, a solid-liquid equation of state for CeO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I describe an equation of state (EOS) for the low-pressure solid phase and liquid phase of cerium (IV) oxide, CeO{sub 2}. The models and parameters used to calculate the EOS are presented in detail, and I compare with data for the full-density crystal. Hugoniot data are available only for high-porosity powders, and I discuss difficulties in comparing with such data. I have constructed SESAME 96170, an EOS for cerium (IV) oxide that includes the ambient solid and liquid phases. The EOS extends over the full standard SESAME range, but should not be used at low temperatures and high densities because of the lack of a high-pressure solid phase. I have described the models used to compute the three terms of the EOS (cold curve, nuclear, and thermal electronic), and I have given the parameters used in the models. They were determined by comparison with experimental data at P = 1 atm, including the constant-pressure specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, and melting and boiling points. The EOS compares well with data in its intended range of validity, but the presence of high-frequency optical modes in its phonon spectrum limits the agreement of our models with thermal data. The next step is to construct a multiphase EOS that includes the low- and high-pressure solid phases and the liquid. The DAC data from Duclos will most strongly constrain the parameters of the high-pressure solid. A remaining issue is the comparison of the crystal-density EOS with experimental Hugoniot data, which are taken at much lower initial data because the samples are porous powders. A satisfactory means of modeling porosity, allowing comparison of theory and experiment, has not yet been produced.

Chisolm, Eric D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

318

EFFECT OF O2 ON SIC VOLATILIZATION RATE. R.A. Mendybaev1,3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

previous work on the volatilization rate of SiC in reducing gases [1, 2] was restricted to IW-2.8 and IW-6 us to estimate lifetimes of interstellar SiC grains (several months at 1200¡C) in a gas of solar lifetimes of inter- stellar SiC grains were significantly different from those we calculated previously

Grossman, Lawrence

319

Synthesis of LiCoO2 Cathodes for Li–Ion Batteries via Solution ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications. Presentation Title ...

320

J-1: Development of CeO2–yttria Stabilized Zirconia Nano ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic -Scale Characterization of Nb-Doped SrTiO¬3 Nanostructures for .... Metal Oxide Nanofibers Produced by a ForceSpinning Method for Battery Electrodes.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes-TiO2 Nanoparticle Composites for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Synthesis and Structural and Functional Characterization of Thin Films and ...

322

B8: Fabrication of ZrO2-Al2O3 Composite Ceramics Having ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

323

Bioinspired Highly Reversible Carbon-coated SnO2-C Based on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene Glycol ... The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and the ...

324

Investigation of Glass Formation and Structural Properties in the TeO 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alkaline oxide containing tungsten-tellurite glasses have a potential to be ... Field Assisted Viscous Flow and Crystallization in a Sodium Aluminosilicate ... Molecular Mechanisms of the Conversion Reaction in FeF2 Cathodes Exposed to Li in ...

325

Phase Equilibria and Glass Formation Studies in the TeO 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Sodium-tellurite glasses are of great interest due to their ... Field Assisted Viscous Flow and Crystallization in a Sodium Aluminosilicate Glass ... Mechanisms of the Conversion Reaction in FeF2 Cathodes Exposed to Li in High

326

Corrosion Behavior of SnO2-Based Ceramics in Soda-Lime Glass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

027- Search for the Rigidity Transition and Intermediate Phase in Lithium Oxide Silicate Glass Systems Using .... 101- Viscous Silicate SOFC Glass Sealants.

327

Fabrication and Characterization of TiO2/ ZnO Nanocomposite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hybrid Aerogel/Nanorod Functional Materials for Energy and Sensing ... Processing and Characterization of Inorganic, High Temperature Nanomaterial Filter.

328

PHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES OF METAL-MEROCYANINE-TiO2 SANDWICH CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

been 0.7% under solar spectrum radiation for merocyaninein the blue end of the solar spectrum with a dye absorbinga larger part of the solar spectrum with a system based on

Skotheim, Terje Asbjorn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Preparation of Solar Grade Silicon Precursor by Electrolysis SiO2 in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Al-Si alloy, a precursor of solar grade silicon, was prepared by direct electrolysis in cryolite molten salt at 950 oC using high purity silica as ...

330

Assessment of existing H2/O2 chemical reaction mechanisms at reheat gas turbine conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides detailed comparisons of chemical reaction mechanisms of H2 applicable at high preheat temperatures and pressures relevant to gas turbine and particularly Alstom's reheat gas turbine conditions. It is shown that the available reaction mechanisms exhibit large differences in several important elementary reaction coefficients. The reaction mechanisms are assessed by comparing ignition delay and laminar flame speed results obtained from CHEMKIN with available data, however, the amount of data at these conditions is scarce and a recommended candidate among the mechanisms can presently not be selected. Generally, the results with the GRI-Mech and Leeds mechanisms deviate from the Davis, Li, O'Conaire, Konnov and San Diego mechanisms, but there are also significant deviations between the latter five mechanisms that altogether are better adapted to hydrogen. The differences in ignition delay times between the dedicated hydrogen mechanisms (O'Conaire, Li and Konnov) range from approximately a maxim...

Weydahl, Torleif; Seljeskog, Morten; Haugen, Nils Erland L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Producing of Composite Layer of TiO2/Al5083 via Friction Stir ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Study on the Stress Test of Truck Frames for Freight Trains · A Study on the ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC · Deformation Field and ...

332

Annealing behavior of TiO2-sheathed Ga2O3 nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Study on the Stress Test of Truck Frames for Freight Trains · A Study on the ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC · Deformation Field and ...

333

Investigation of Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposite by FESEM and TEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles were synthesized using Massart's procedure. Nanocomposites that consist of the synthesized maghemite nanoparticles and silica were produced by dispersing the as-synthesized maghemite nanoparticles into the silica ...

B. C. Ang, I. I. Yaacob, Irwan Nurdin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Iron(II) Oxidation by SO 2 /O 2 in Uranium Leach Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2003 ... Oxidants are added in uranium leaching in acid media to convert iron(II) in solution to iron(III). Iron(III) has an important role in the leaching of ...

335

Ostwald Ripening and Its Effect on PuO2 Particle Size in Hanford Tank Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Between 1944 and 1989, the Hanford Site produced 60 percent (54.5 metric tons) of the United States weapons plutonium and produced an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuels-grade plutonium. High activity wastes, including plutonium lost from the separations processes used to isolate the plutonium, were discharged to underground storage tanks during these operations. Plutonium in the Hanford tank farms is estimated to be {approx}700 kg but may be up to {approx}1000 kg. Despite these apparent large quantities, the average plutonium concentration in the {approx}200 million liter tank waste volume is only about 0.003 grams per liter ({approx}0.0002 wt%). The plutonium is largely associated with low solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of plutonium hydrous oxide, PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through Ostwald ripening in the alkaline tank waste to potentially be separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. It was found that plutonium that entered the alkaline tank waste by precipitation through neutralization from acid solution is initially present as 2- to 3-nm (0.002- to 0.003-{mu}m) scale PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O crystallite particles and grows from that point at exceedingly slow rates, posing no risk to physical segregation. These conclusions are reached by both general considerations of Ostwald ripening and specific observations of the behaviors of PuO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O upon aging in alkaline solution.

Delegard, Calvin H.

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

336

High-precision molecular dynamics simulation of UO2-PuO2: pair potentials comparison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our series of articles is devoted to high-precision molecular dynamics simulation of mixed actinide-oxide (MOX) fuel in the rigid ions approximation using high-performance graphics processors (GPU). In the first article we assess 10 most relevant interatomic sets of pair potentials (SPP) by reproduction of solid phase properties of uranium dioxide (UO2) - temperature dependences of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, enthalpy and heat capacity. Measurements were performed with 1K accuracy in a wide temperature range from 300K up to melting point. The best results are demonstrated by two recent SPPs MOX-07 and Yakub-09, which both had been fitted to the recommended thermal expansion in the range of temperatures 300-3100K. Compared with them, the widely used SPPs Basak-03 and Morelon-03 reproduce the experimental data noticeably worse at temperatures above 2500K.

Potashnikov, S I; Nekrasov, K A; Kupryazhkin, A Ya

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Fabrication of (Sm,Ce)O2-? Interlayer for Yttria-stabilized Zirconia ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nano-structures of ?-SiC Formed by Pyrolosis of Agricultural Waste · Nanothermites: Unconventional Nanomaterials with High Energy Output · Next- generation ...

338

TiO2 SCC Mitigation Technique Implementation in a BWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the in-reactor Cherenkov radiation spectrum profile which includes NPP Biblis Unit A .... Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior near the Fusion Boundary of Dissimilar

339

Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2/BiFeO3 Heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-KNO3-NaNO2-KNO2 Quaternary Molten Salt System for Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Generation.

340

Nanostructured TiO 2 Shells surrounding Microcrystalline ATiO 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-KNO3-NaNO2-KNO2 Quaternary Molten Salt System for Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Generation.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Chemistry of Tantalum Clusters in Solution And on SiO(2) Supports: Analogies And Contrasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tantalum clusters have been synthesized from Ta(CH{sub 2}Ph){sub 5} on the surface of porous fumed SiO{sub 2}. When these clusters are small, incorporating, on average, several Ta atoms, their chemistry is similar to that of molecular tantalum clusters (and other early transition-metal) clusters. For example, The Ta-Ta bonds in these small supported clusters have been characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy, being similar to those in molecular analogues. The redox reactions of the supported clusters, characterized by X-ray absorption near-edge structure, are analogous to those of early transition-metal clusters in solution. In contrast to the largest of these clusters in solution and in the solid state, those supported on SiO{sub 2} are raftlike, facilitating the substantial metal-support-oxygen bonding that is evident in the EXAFS spectra. Samples consisting of tantalum clusters on SiO{sub 2} catalyze alkane disproportionation and the conversion of methane with n-butane to give other alkanes, but catalytic properties of analogous clusters in solution have barely been explored.

Nemana, S.; Okamoto, N.L.; Browning, N.D.; Gates, B.C.

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

342

Thermal Properties of ThO 2 -Based Fuel Using Atomic Level ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thorium-based nuclear fuel cycles are promising for their intrinsic proliferation resistance and greater thorium abundance. In this presentation ...

343

Tuning the Optical Properties of Mesoporous TiO2 Films by Nanoscale Engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Introducing mesoscale pores into spincoated titanium dioxide films, prepared by spincoating different sol-gel precursor solutions on silicon substrates and subsequent annealing at 350 C, 400 C or 450 C, respectively, affects several optical properties of the material. The change in refractive index observed for different mesoporous anatase films directly correlates with changes in pore size, but is also in a more complex manner influenced by the film thickness and the density of pores within the films. Additionally, the band gap of the films is blueshifted by the stress the introduction of pores exerts on the inorganic matrix. The differently sized pores were templated by Pluronic{reg_sign} block copolymers in the solgel solutions and tuned by employing different annealing temperatures for the film preparation. This study focused on elucidating the effect different templating materials (F127 and P123) have on the pore size of the final mesoporous titania film, and on understanding the relation of varying polymer concentration (taking P123 as an example) in the sol-gel solution to the pore concentration and size in the resultant titania film. Titania thin film samples or corresponding titanium dioxide powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, ellipsometery, UV/Vis spectrometry and other techniques to understand the interplay between mesoporosity and optical properties.

Schwenzer, Birgit; Wang, Liang; Swensen, James S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Silverman, Gary; Korotkov, Roman; Gaspar, Daniel J.

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

344

P3-05: 3D Microstructure Construction of Sintered ZrO2 under ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P1-04: 3D Microstructural Characterization of Uranium Oxide as a Surrogate Nuclear ... P1-15: Gating System Optimisation Design Study of a Cast Automobile ... P2-27: Characterization of Carbonate Rocks through X-ray Microtomography.

345

Fabrication of Tungsten, Tungsten-Rhenium and Tungsten-CeO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... kernels such as uranium dioxide (UO2) are encapsulated within a tungsten matrix. ... in the pre-exponential frequency factor for gas diffusion through such materials. ... Functional Composites: Fluorescent Carbon Nanotubes in Silica Aerogel.

346

Author's personal copy Graphene and nanostructured MnO2 composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vehicles and/ or electric cars to meet the requirement of low CO2 emissions. Supercapacitors, which requirements of future energy storage systems, rang- ing from portable electronics to hybrid vehicles and large T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 16 September 2010 Accepted 28 February 2011 Available

Qin, Lu-Chang

347

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of SEI on Porous SnO 2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dendrite Tip Shape in Pivalic Acid-Ethanol and Succinonitrile-Salol Systems · Development of In-Situ Mg-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites with High ...

348

Charge Optimized Many Body (COMB) Potential for the Zr-ZrO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanofluid-Based Coatings to Mitigate Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI ) ... Steel Z3CN20.09M for Primary Coolant Pipe of Nuclear Power Plants and Its ... Changes and Corrosion Resistance of Ti-5Ta-2Nb/304L SS Explosive Clads ...

349

Mechanism of stress relaxation in Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

o the effective energy barrier to matrix interstitialenergy, and D M is the pre-factor of the effective matrix

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Superheating and supercooling of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and liquid Ge/matrix interface free energies govern thematrix, however, alters the interface free energy ofenergy, whereas the relative values of the solid Ge/matrix

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Coal Particle Flow Patterns for O2 Enriched, Low NOx Burners  

SciTech Connect

This project involved a systematic investigation examining the effect of near-flame burner aerodynamics on standoff distance and stability of turbulent diffusion flames and the resultant NO{sub x} emissions from actual pulverized coal diffusion flames. Specifically, the scope of the project was to understand how changes in near-flame aerodynamics and transport air oxygen partial pressure can influence flame attachment and coal ignition, two properties essential to proper operation of low NO{sub x} burners. Results from this investigation utilized a new 2M tall, 0.5m in diameter combustor designed to evaluate near-flame combustion aerodynamics in terms of transport air oxygen partial pressure (Po{sub 2}), coal fines content, primary fuel and secondary air velocities, and furnace wall temperature furnish insight into fundamental processes that occur during combustion of pulverized coal in practical systems. Complementary cold flow studies were conducted in a geometrically similar chamber to analyze the detailed motion of the gas and particles using laser Doppler velocimetry. This final technical report summarizes the key findings from our investigation into coal particle flow patterns in burners. Specifically, we focused on the effects of oxygen enrichment, the effect of fines, and the effect of the nozzle velocity ratio on the resulting flow patterns. In the cold flow studies, detailed measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) were made to determine the details of the flow. In the hot flow studies, observations of flame stability and measurements of NO{sub x} were made to determine the effects of the flow patterns on burner operation.

Jennifer Sinclair Curtis

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Synthesis, Structure, Property Correlations in FeCo-SiO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elements of Power Conversion Integration in Group-III Nitride Heterojunctions · Fabrication of PLZT Dielectric Films for Power Inverters in Electric Drive Vehicles.

353

FischerTropsch synthesis on a model Co/SiO2 catalyst , Zhoujun Wang a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

turbine and electrical generator or 2. to a steam reformer and a modified, carbon-recycling Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, a modified Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process that converts carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid of electricity, steam, and heat needed to power the entire ZEROS facility. The Fischer-Tropsch-like ZEROS FT

Goodman, Wayne

354

Ultra-violet laser processing of graphene on SiO2/Si  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A graphene transparent electrode might be used in industry in the near future instead of indium tin oxide (ITO). For patterning of ITO, the maskless laser process was reported as a simple and fast process. In this paper, effects of ultra-violet laser ... Keywords: Graphene, Maskless laser process, Ultra-violet laser

Fujio Wakaya, Tadashi Kurihara, Satoshi Abo, Mikio Takai

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The e?ect of TiO2 on the wetting behavior of silver ...  

aging to the seals employed in planar solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen concentrators [1–3]. Referred to as air brazing, the technique forms a ...

356

Controlling Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 in Aerogels through Surface Functionalization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report demonstrates a chemical functionalization method for controlling atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} in low-density nanoporous materials. Functionalization of silica aerogel with trimethylsilane is shown to strongly suppress TiO{sub 2} growth via ALD. Subsequent modification of the functionalization through selective removal of the hydrocarbon groups reactivates the aerogel towards TiO{sub 2} deposition. These results demonstrate the potential use of ALD as a selective tool for creating novel nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials present significant technological advantage for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, nanoelectronics to name just a few (1-4). Hence, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic pathways for the fabrication of nanoporous materials with tailored properties. Aerogels (AGs) are unique low-density, open-cell porous materials consisting of submicrometer pores and ligaments that can be used as a robust material platform for designing novel nanoporous materials. In recent years, a synthetic approach based on ALD on AG templates has emerged as a promising method for the directed growth of nanoporous materials (5-11, 18). This approach has been used successfully to prepare millimeter-sized high aspect ratio aerogels coated uniformly with zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten (W) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (10, 11). The ALD process utilizes two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions resulting in a layer-by-layer growth mode. The self limiting nature of the surface reactions makes ALD a particularly suitable technique for uniform deposition onto high aspect ratio porous substrates. Additionally, chemical specificity of the surface reactions in ALD enables one to control the deposition process through selective functionalization of the substrate surface. In fact the functionalization of planar substrates such as silicon wafers with organosilane groups (R{sub n}SiX{sub 4-n} (n = 1-3)) has been shown to deactivate the substrate towards ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, ZnO, and TiO{sub 2} ALD processes (12-16). A possible mechanism for the deactivation effect is the blocking of surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl (OH) moieties, which serve as chemisorption sites for the ALD precursors and hence are essential for nucleating the deposition process. Henceforth, we shall refer to these surface functional groups as nucleation sites for the ALD process.

Ghosal, S; Baumann, T F; King, J S; Kucheyev, S; Wang, Y; Worsley, M A; Biener, J; Bent, S F; Hamza, A V

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

357

Quantum dynamics of the O + OH -> H + O2 reaction at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect

We report quantum dynamics calculations of rate coefficients for the O + OH {yields} H + O{sub 2} reaction on two potential energy surfaces (PESs) using a time-independent quantum formalism based on hyperspherical coordinates. Our calculations show that the rate coefficient remains largely constant in the temperature range 10--39 K, in agreement with the conclusions of a recent experimental study [Carty et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 3101 (2006)]. This is in constrast with the quantum calculations of Xu et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 024304 (2007)] which, using the same PES, predicted two orders of magnitude drop in the rate coefficient value from 39 K to 10 K. Implications of our findings to oxygen chemistry in the interstellar medium are discussed.

Kendrick, Brian Kent [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quemener, Goulven [UNLV; Balakrishnan, Naduvalath [UNLV

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

PHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES OF METAL-MEROCYANINE-TiO2 SANDWICH CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For an applied voltage of 1 volt over 1000 angstroms. or a33 ) and an output voltage of 0.75 Volts (photovoltages ashigh as 1.1 volts have been reported for metal-dye=metal

Skotheim, Terje Asbjorn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Lithium/Manganese Dioxide (Li/MnO(2)) Battery Performance Evaluation: Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In February 1997, under the auspices of the Product Realization Program, an initiative to develop performance models for lithium/manganese dioxide-based batteries began. As a part of this initiative, the performance characteristics of the cells under a variety of conditions were determined, both for model development and for model validation. As a direct result of this work, it became apparent that possible Defense Program (DP) uses for batteries based on this cell chemistry existed. A larger effort aimed at mapping the performance envelope of this chemistry was initiated in order to assess the practicality of this cell chemistry, not only for DP applications, but also for other uses. The work performed included an evaluation of the cell performance as a function of a number of variables, including cell size, manufacturer, current, pulse loads, constant current loads, safety, etc. In addition, the development of new evaluation techniques that would apply to any battery system, such as those related to reliability assessments began. This report describes the results of these evaluations.

Ingersoll, D.; Clark, N.H.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

B5: Forming Mullite-Ceramics Reinforced with ZrO2-t Starting from ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

B17: Characteristics of Liquid Silicon Infiltrated C/C-SiC Composite Using Carbon Nano ... B29: Transport Studies of Electrodes/Electrolytes for Intermediate .... D18: Pure and Doped Ceria Nanoparticles for Green Natural Gas Combustion ... Failure Suspension Knee Bearing Used in Special Belgian Heavy Duty Trailers.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Water adsorption on O(2x2)/Ru(0001) from STM experiments andfirst-principles calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of water adsorption on Ru(0001) pre-covered with 0.25 monolayers (ML) of oxygen forming a (2 x 2) structure. Several structures were analyzed by means of Density Functional Theory calculations for which STM simulations were performed and compared with experimental data. Up to 0.25 monolayers the molecules bind to the exposed Ru atoms of the 2 x 2 unit cell via the lone pair orbitals. The molecular plane is almost parallel to the surface with its H atoms pointing towards the chemisorbed O atoms of the 2 x 2 unit cell forming hydrogen bonds. The existence of these additional hydrogen bonds increases the adsorption energy of the water molecule to approximately 616 meV, which is {approx}220 meV more stable than on the clean Ru(0001) surface with a similar configuration. The binding energy shows only a weak dependence on water coverage, with a shallow minimum for a row structure at 0.125 ML. This is consistent with the STM experiments that show a tendency of the molecules to form linear rows at intermediate coverage. Our calculations also suggest the possible formation of water dimers near 0.25 ML.

Cabrera-Sanfelix, P.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Mugarza, A.; Shimizu,T.K.; Salmeron, M.; Arnau, A.

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

and Rutile TiO2(110) Surfaces at an Atomic Scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

N11: Microbilogically Influenced Corrosion of Pipeline Steels used in Oil & Gas ... Numerical Modelling for Characterising the Flammability of Natural Fibre ...

363

Preparation of Highly Crystalline Mesoporous TiO 2 by Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adsorption of Lead and Cadmium onto Natural and Modified Diatomite ... Mechanical Properties of 5083 Aluminium Welds after Manual and Automatic Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding Using ... Tool Failure Criteria while Drilling Titanium Alloys.

364

Zigbee-based Internet of Things in 3D Terrains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the Zigbee-based Internet of Things (IoTs) in 3D terrains. A novel simulation model for IoT is proposed. The effects of various terrains, node's mobility and traffic loads are investigated in this study. Many comprehensive studies ...

Mu-Sheng Lin, Jenq-Shiou Leu, Kuen-Han Li, Jean-Lien C. Wu

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

IoT-IMS Communication Platform for Future Internet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, Internet of Things (IoT) and Cloud Computing are the hottest issues of Future Internet. However, there is a lack of common fabric for integrating IoT and Cloud. In telecommunications, the IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem), based on the All-IP ... Keywords: Cloud Computing, Future Internet, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Internet of Things, Next Generation Network

Chi-Yuan Chen; Yuh-Shyan Chen; Han-Chieh Chao; Tin-Yu Wu; Chun-I Fan; Jiann-Liang Chen; Jenq-Muh Hsu

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Internet of Things: Applications and Challenges in Technology and Standardization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phrase Internet of Things (IoT) heralds a vision of the future Internet where connecting physical things, from banknotes to bicycles, through a network will let them take an active part in the Internet, exchanging information about themselves and ... Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), Interoperability, Network protoocl, Privacy, Security, Wireless networks

Debasis Bandyopadhyay; Jaydip Sen

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Internet of Things: Applications and Challenges in Technology and Standardization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phrase Internet of Things (IoT) heralds a vision of the future Internet where connecting physical things, from banknotes to bicycles, through a network will let them take an active part in the Internet, exchanging information about themselves and their surroundings. This will give immediate access to information about the physical world and the objects in it leading to innovative services and increase in efficiency and productivity. This paper studies the state-of-the-art of IoT and presents the key technological drivers,potential applications, challenges and future research areas in the domain of IoT. IoT definitions from different perspective in academic and industry communities are also discussed and compared. Finally some major issues of future research in IoT are identified and discussed briefly.

Bandyopadhyay, Debasis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Diopside (CaO-MgO-2SiO2)-fluorapatite (9CaO-3P2O5-CaF2) glass-ceramics: Potential materials for bone tissue engineering  

SciTech Connect

Glass-ceramics in the diopside (CaMgSi2O6) - fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] system are potential candidates for restorative dental and bone implant materials. In the present study, a series of glasses along diopside - fluorapatite binary system have been prepared with varying diopside/fluorapatite ratios for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering. The glasses were obtained from compositions with fluorapatite contents varying between 0-40 wt.%. The sintering ability and crystallization kinetics of as obtained amorphous glasses have been studied through hot-stage microscopy (HSM) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), respectively while crystalline phase evolution in sintered GCs has been followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) adjoined with Rietveld-R.I.R. technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further, biodegradation and apatite forming ability of glass-ceramics were investigated by immersion of glass-ceramic discs in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution while chemical degradation and weight loss of glass-ceramics were studied by immersion in Tris-HCl in accordance with standard ISO 10993-14. The addition of fluorapatite (10-25 wt.%) in diopside glass system significantly enhanced the sintering ability of glass-ceramics and improved their apatite forming ability along with their biodegradation behaviour. Moreover, the in vitro cellular responses to glass-ceramics showed good cell viability and significant stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting the possible use of the glass-ceramics for bone regeneration.

Kansal, Ishu; Goel, Ashutosh; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Pascual, Maria J.; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, Jose M.

2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

369

Thermodynamic Optimization of the K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... steelmaking, geochemistry, petrology, as well as glassmaking technology. ... Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural ...

370

Rhodium Catalysts in the Oxidation of CO by O2 and NO: Shape, Composition, and Hot Electron Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACTIVITY OF PLATINUM CATALYSTS. Journal of Catalysis 1966,SUPPORTED BIMETALLIC-CLUSTER CATALYSTS. Journal of Catalysisnanoparticle heterogeneous catalyst. Chem. Commun. 1999, (

Renzas, James Russell

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Pd/ZrO2 Catalyst for the Oxidation Process of Tritiated Organic Substances Produced in Fusion Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen/Tritium Behavior / Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Fusion Reactor Materials, Part A: Fusion Technology

Yasunori Iwai; Katsumi Sato; Toshihiko Yamanishi

372

017 In Vivo Evaluation of the Spark Plasma Sintered Al2O3-ZrO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of LiMnxFe1-xPO4 Glass and Glass-Ceramics for Lithium Ion Battery .... and Comparing the Inhibition Effect of Chromate, Bromate and Molybdate on the ...

373

Lanthanum diffusion in the TiN/LaOx/HfSiO/SiO2/Si stack  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Band edge Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) devices are obtained by insertion of a thin LaO"x layer between the high-k (HfSiO) and metal gate (TiN). High temperature post deposition anneal induces Lanthanum diffusion across the HfSiO towards ... Keywords: APT, ATR-FTIR, HfSiO, Interfacial dipole, La, Metal/high-k stack, S-XPS, Threshold voltage tuning, TiN, ToF-SIMS

E. Martinez; P. Ronsheim; J. -P. Barnes; N. Rochat; M. Py; M. Hatzistergos; O. Renault; M. Silly; F. Sirotti; F. Bertin; N. Gambacorti

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Growth of tetragonal SnO2 microcubes and their characterization O. Lupan a,b,, L. Chow a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Received in revised form 27 September 2008 Accepted 23 October 2008 Communicated by J.M. Redwing Available

Chow, Lee

375

Strong Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Co2+-Doped TiO2 Made from Colloidal Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Colloidal cobalt-doped TiO{sub 2} (anatase) nanocrystals were synthesized and studied by electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic susceptibility, cobalt K-shell X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The nanocrystals were paramagnetic when isolated by surface-passivating ligands, weakly ferromagnetic (M{sub s} {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup -3} {micro}{sub B}/Co{sup 2+} at 300 K) when aggregated, and strongly ferromagnetic (up to M{sub s} = 1.9 {micro}{sub B}/Co{sup 2+} at 300 K) when spin-coated into nanocrystalline films. X-ray absorption data reveal that cobalt is in the Co{sup 2+} oxidation state in all samples. In addition to providing strong experimental support for the existence of intrinsic ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped TiO{sub 2}, these results demonstrate the possibility of using colloidal TiO{sub 2} diluted magnetic semiconductor nanocrystals as building blocks for assembly of ferromagnetic semiconductor nanostructures with potential spintronics applications.

Bryan, John D.; Heald, Steve M.; Chambers, Scott A.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

2004-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

376

Synthesis of SiC by direct reduction of SiO2 by using a methane gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Solar Cell Silicon. Presentation Title, Synthesis of SiC by direct reduction of ...

377

Viscosity-Structure relationship in the CaO-SiO2-MnO-CaF2 slag ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of quenched samples accompanying with a concept of silicate polymerization index, Q3/Q2 ratio. ... Evolution of the Large Copper Smelter – 1950s to 2013.

378

SnO2 functionalized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor for hydrogen sensing applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Nanocrystalline indium oxide-doped tin oxide thin film as low temperature hydrogen sensor. Sensors and Actuators B Available online 1 May 2012 Keywords: Hydrogen sensor High electron mobility transistors (HEMT) Tin oxide rights reserved. 1. Introduction Hydrogen is a clean, renewable, and sustainable energy carrier

Florida, University of

379

Scanning transmission electron microscopy of gate stacks with HfO2 dielectrics and TiN electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scanning transmission electron microscopy of gate stacksEELS) in scanning transmission electron microscopy were usedWe use scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)

Agustin, Melody P.; Fonseca, Leo R. C.; Hooker, Jacob C.; Stemmer, Susanne

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Facile fabrication of sodium Titanate nanostructures using metatitanic acid (TiO2 ? H2O) and its adsorption property  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluffy sodium titanate nanostructures have been fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method with metatitanic acid as precursor. The obtained nanostructures exhibit as the aggregation of nanosheets, and the surface area of the nanostructure is about 110.59m2/g. ...

Gang Li; Lide Zhang; Ming Fang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Kinetics-controlled growth of aligned mesocrystalline SnO2 nanorod arrays for lithium-ion batteries with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and operating potential, lithium ion batteries have been widely adopted in portable electronics. However in lithium ion batteries.2 The use of a liquid electrolyte restricts battery shape and processing while also and proton conductivity14 have also been reported. While the intercalation of lithium ions

Qi, Limin

382

C6: Thermodynamic Modeling of the La2O3-TiO2 Pseudo-Binary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

B7: Synthesis and Electrical Properties of K2NiF4-Type (Ca2-xLnx)MnO4 (Ln=Nd and Sm) · B8: Monitoring Oxygen Diffusion in Gd-Doped Ceria by Null ...

383

Vo l . 4 4 , N o . 2 , 2 0 1 1 c o n t e n t s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s 5 Nuclear 2.0 8 Catalyzing Reactor Research 11 Designer Fuels 13 Advanced Medical Isotopes 14 efficient nuclear reactors. These achievements, among many others, confirm that the nuclear laboratory Alvin to significant damage to three operating nuclear reactors and one that was shut down for maintenance. Damage

384

Development of Tritium Recovery by Flowing O2 + Ar Gases at Steam Generator in Fast Breeder Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detritiation and Isotope Separation / Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology (Part 2)

Yasuhisa Oya; Takuji Oda; Satoru Tanaka; Kenji Okuno

385

Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar.

Andrew Seltzer

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Thermodynamic Optimization of the Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to resolve discrepancies between experimental data by developing a self-consistent thermodynamic database which reproduces all ...

387

Electronic Structure Theory of Radiation-Induced Defects in Si/SiO2 Andrew C. Pineda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Karna Albuquerque High Performance Computing Center, The University of New Mexico, 1601 Central Avenue sets and are only made possible by the availability of high performance computing resources. Our

388

Vo l . 4 5 , N o . 2 , 2 0 1 2 c o n t e n t s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. ORNL has a long history of collaborating with industry partners who have made use of our distinctive capabilities. We are building on that history and exploiting new facilities and mechanisms to accelerate Sumpter. "It absorbs oil exceptionally well," Sumpter says. "It's also cheap, renewable and can be grown

389

Parallel Adaptive Simulation of Weak and Strong Transverse-Wave Structures in H2-O2 Detonations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two- and three-dimensional simulation results are presented that investigate at great detail the temporal evolution of Mach reflection sub-structure patterns intrinsic to gaseous detonation waves. High local resolution is achieved by utilizing a distributed memory parallel shock-capturing finite volume code that employs block-structured dynamic mesh adaptation. The computational approach, the implemented parallelization strategy, and the software design are discussed.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

PHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES OF AU-MEROCYANINE-TiO2 SANDWICH CELLS. I. DARK ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AND TRANSIENT EFFECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used in making the photovoltaic cells. Figure 2. Diagram oforganic compounds in photovoltaic cells. It lies more in thecalled a dye-sensitized photovoltaic cell. Dye sensitization

Skotheim, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Development of Applicable Benchmark Experiments for (Th,Pu)O2 Power Reactor Designs Using TSUNAMI Analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? When simulating reactor physics experiments, uncertainties in nuclear data result in a bias between simulated and experimental values. For new reactor designs or for… (more)

Langton, Stephanie E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Lighting Enhancement of GaN LEDs by Applying p-Type Ni(P):SnO2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Lighting Enhancement of GaN LEDs ...

393

Investigation of Mid-IR Lasers for Improved Multi-Point Measurement of CO, NO, and O2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern laser absorption sensing schemes have successfully monitored important trace gases in atmospheric research and hold promise for gas monitoring in the power industry. Commercial sensors using near-infrared telecommunications lasers are emerging; however, these near-infrared devices are not sensitive enough to detect small concentrations of CO and NO in the large background of H2O and CO2. This report reviews potential laser-based optical detection schemes for NO and CO using mid-infrared lasers.

2008-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Benefits and technological challenges in the implementation of TiO2-based ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects student health and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent to which filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

Hodgson, Al; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk, William J.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Synthesis and Performance Characterization of a Nanocomposite Ternary Thermite: Al/Fe2O3/SiO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Making solid energetic materials requires the physical mixing of solid fuels and oxidizers or the incorporation of fuel and oxidizing moieties into a single molecule. The former are referred to as composite energetic materials (i.e., thermites, propellants, pyrotechnics) and the latter are deemed monomolecular energetic materials (i.e., explosives). Mass diffusion between the fuel and oxidizer is the rate controlling step for composite reactions while bond breaking and chemical kinetics control monomolecular reactions. Although composites have higher energy densities than monomolecular species, they release that energy over a longer period of time because diffusion controlled reactions are considerably slower than chemistry controlled reactions. Conversely, monomolecular species exhibit greater power due to more rapid kinetics than physically mixed energetics. Reducing the diffusion distance between fuel and oxidizer species within an energetic composite would enhance the reaction rate. Recent advances in nanotechnology have spurred the development of nano-scale fuel and oxidizer particles that can be combined into a composite and effectively reduce diffusion distances to nano-scale dimensions or less. These nanocomposites have the potential to deliver the best of both worlds: high energy density of the physically mixed composite with the high power of the monomolecular species. Toward this end, researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed nano-particle synthesis techniques, based on sol-gel chemistry, for the production of thermite nanocomposites.

Prentice, D; Pantoya, M L; Clapsaddle, B J

2005-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

396

High-Pressure Studies on CeO2 Nano-Octahedrons with a (111)-Terminated Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopies have been performed on well-shaped CeO{sub 2} nano-octahedrons enclosed by eight (111) planes. The CeO{sub 2} nano-octahedrons are shown to be more stable than their bulk counterparts and some other reported CeO{sub 2} nanocrystals of smaller size. The transition pressure from cubic to orthorhombic phase is approximately 10 GPa higher than that of 12 nm CeO{sub 2} nanocrystals even though they have similar volume expansion at ambient conditions. Additionally, the phase transition to {alpha}-PbCl2 phase is very sluggish and uncompleted even up to 55 GPa. The TEM image of the sample after decompression from 55 GPa clearly shows that the nano-octahedrons preserve the starting shape. Such distinct high-pressure behaviors in CeO{sub 2} nano-octahedrons have been discussed in terms of their special exposure surface. Further analysis shows that the lower compressibility of the exposed (111) planes in the nano-octahedrons is believed to be the major factor to the elevation of the phase transition pressure and the sluggishness of the transition.

B Liu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

Measurements of the sum of HO2NO2 and CH3O2NO2 in the remote troposphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of Stratospheric Chlorine and Reactive NitrogenHydrogen, Nitrogen, and Chlorine Radicals – Impli- cations

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Complexation of NpO2+ with N-methyl-iminodiacetic Acid: in Comparison with Iminodiacetic and Dipicolinic Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

element in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing because it couldthe development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles, there is an

Rao, Linfeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Feature Article Negative pressure dependence of mass burning rates of H2/CO/O2/diluent flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and emission data related to conversion of coal, natural gas, biomass and corn grain to methanol and ethanol

Ju, Yiguang

400

Fundamental Investigations of C1O2 Delignification - Final Report - 07/10/1996 - 07/09/1999  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of chlorine dioxide delignification of low kappa kraft pulps and identify new methods of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of this bleaching agent. The approach adopted was to investigate the fundamental structural components of lignin that contribute to delignification reactions with chlorine dioxide. These results were then used to examine new bleaching technologies that will permit enhanced delignification while simultaneously reducing the generation of chlorinated organic compounds.

Ragauskas, Arthur J.; McDonough, T. J.

2001-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Synthesis and electronic structure of low-density monoliths of nanoporous nanocrystalline anatase TiO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monolithic nanocrystalline anatase titania aerogels are synthesized by the epoxide sol-gel method followed by thermal annealing at 550 C. These aerogels are formed by {approx}10-20 nm size anatase nanoparticles which are randomly oriented and interconnected into an open-cell solid network. Aerogel monoliths have an apparent density of {approx}6% and a surface area of {approx} 100 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy reveal good crystallinity of the anatase nanoparticles forming the aerogel skeleton.

Kucheyev, S O; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y M; van Buuren, T; Satcher, J H

2004-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

402

Nano Res (2010) 1: 17 1 Inkjet Printing of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/RuO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vehicles, there has been an increasing demand for next-generation high-power energy sources [1­4]. However fibers, aerogels, and nanostructured carbon materials, have been widely applied in commercial products

Zhou, Chongwu

403

Electrochemical and structural characterization of titanium-substituted manganese oxides based on Na0.44MnO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by heating them in a molten salt- mixture of 68-mol% LiNOtakes place during the molten salt exchange. Because the850° C. c) prepared by molten salt exchange of Na x Ti y Mn

Doeff, Marca M.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Hwang, Kwang-Taek

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Molten Salt Synthesis and High Rate Performance of the ‘‘Desert-Rose’’ form of LiCoO2  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of a novel nanostructure of LiCoO{sub 2}, and its performance as a cathode for a high-rate lithium ion battery, is described. The LiCoO{sub 2} nanostructure resembles the morphology of a known natural mineral: 'desert rose' gypsum. A range of measurement techniques are used to investigate the growth mechanism of this structure and the origin of its high rate charge/discharge properties.

H Chen; C Grey

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

Q-7: Microstructure of Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2 Eutectic In Situ Composite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... mirror is used to obtain two beams with the same quality from one CO2 laser. ... Steel Pipes by Stress-Strain Curves Obtained from Low-Cycle Fatigue Tests ... Q-

406

Transient characteristics of C3H8/O2turbulent mixing in a hypersonic pulse detonation engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the results of a time-dependent three-dimensional numerical simulation of the turbulent mixing characteristics in the mixing chamber of a hypersonic pulse detonation engine (PDE). Fuel (C3H8) was injected through one supersonic injector, while ... Keywords: high altitude aircrafts, hypersonic propulsion, ionospheric flight, pulse detonation engine, supersonic jet, turbulent mixing

Khalid M. Saqr; Ahmed Faiz; Hassan Kassem; Mohsin Sies; Mazlan A. Wahid

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Effects of Hydrogen in the Annealing Environment on Photoluminescence from Si Nanoparticles in SiO(2)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The role of hydrogen in enhancing the photoluminescence (PL) yield observed from Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} has been studied. SiO{sub 2} thermal oxides and bulk fused silica samples have been implanted with Si and subsequently annealed in various ambients including hydrogen or deuterium forming gases (Ar+4%H{sub 2} or Ar+4%D{sub 2}) or pure Ar. Results are presented for annealing at temperatures between 200 and 1100 C. Depth and concentration profiles of H and D at various stages of processing have been measured using elastic recoil detection. Hydrogen or deuterium is observed in the bulk after annealing in forming gas but not after high temperature (1100 C) anneals in Ar. The presence of hydrogen dramatically increases the broad PL band centered in the near-infrared after annealing at 1100 C but has almost no effect on the PL spectral distribution. Hydrogen is found to selectively trap in the region where Si nanocrystals are formed, consistent with a model of H passivating surface states at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface that leads to enhanced PL. The thermal stability of the trapped H and the PL yield observed after a high temperature anneal have been studied. The hydrogen concentration and PL yield are unchanged for subsequent anneals up to 400 C. However, above 400 C the PL decreases and a more complicated H chemistry is evident. Similar concentrations of H or D are trapped after annealing in H{sub 2} or D{sub 2} forming gas; however, no differences in the PL yield or spectral distribution are observed, indicating that the electronic transitions resulting in luminescence are not dependent on the mass of the hydrogen species.

Barbour, J.C.; Budai, J.D.; Hembree, D.M.; Meldrum, A.; White, C.W.; Withrow, S.P.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

408

Fire Retardant Synergetic Effect of a SiO2-B2O3-Na2O Low Melting ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Functional Composites: Fluorescent Carbon Nanotubes in Silica Aerogel · In-Situ Processing of Alumina Reinforced Aluminum Bronze · In-Situ Solidification ...

409

High-precision molecular dynamics simulation of UO2-PuO2: superionic transition in uranium dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our series of articles is devoted to high-precision molecular dynamics simulation of mixed actinide-oxide (MOX) fuel in the rigid ions approximation using high-performance graphics processors (GPU). In this article we assess the 10 most relevant interatomic sets of pair potential (SPP) by reproduction of the Bredig superionic phase transition (anion sublattice premelting) in uranium dioxide. The measurements carried out in a wide temperature range from 300K up to melting point with 1K accuracy allowed reliable detection of this phase transition with each SPP. The {\\lambda}-peaks obtained are smoother and wider than it was assumed previously. In addition, for the first time a pressure dependence of the {\\lambda}-peak characteristics was measured, in a range from -5 GPa to 5 GPa its amplitudes had parabolic plot and temperatures had linear (that is similar to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for melting temperature).

Potashnikov, S I; Nekrasov, K A; Kupryazhkin, A Ya

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

V o l . 4 3 , N o . 2 , 2 0 1 0 c o n t e n t s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Fuel/Cladding Irradiation Experiments in HFIR, ANS Transactions 105, 808 (2011) #12;SCALE Newsletter

411

Electrochemical and structural characterization of titanium-substituted manganese oxides based on Na0.44MnO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of titanium-substituted manganese oxides, Li{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (y = 0.11, 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, and 0.55) with the Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2} structure were prepared from Na{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (x {approx} 0.44) precursors. The electrochemical characteristics of these compounds, which retain the unique double-tunnel structure during ion exchange, were examined in lithium/polymer electrolyte cells operating at 85 C. All of the substituted cathode materials intercalated lithium reversibly, with Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.22}Mn{sub 0.78}O{sub 2} exhibiting the highest capacity in polymer cells, about 10-20% greater than that of unsubstituted Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} made from Na{sub 0.44}MnO{sub 2}. In common with Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2}, the Ti-substituted materials exhibited good capacity retention over one hundred or more cycles, with some compositions exhibiting a fade rate of less than 0.03% per cycle.

Doeff, Marca M.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Hwang, Kwang-Taek

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The Effect of Zn Addition on the Oxidation State of Cobalt in Co/ZrO2 Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of Zn promotion on the activity and selectivity of Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts for ethanol steam reforming was investigated. The catalysts were synthesized by incipient wetness impregnation and characterized using BET measurements, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray electron spectroscopy. Compared to Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, a higher ethanol conversion and a lower CH{sub 4} selectivity were observed for the Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst promoted with Zn. It was found that addition of Zn inhibits the oxidation of metallic cobalt (Co{sup 0}) particles, which results in a higher ratio of Co{sup 0}/Co{sup 2+} present in the Zn promoted Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst. These results suggest that metallic cobalt (Co{sup 0}) is responsible for ethanol conversion via ethanol dehydrogenation whereas Co{sup 2+} plays a role in the CH{sub 4} formation. For both catalysts, the experimental results show that CH4 is mainly produced via CO and/or CO{sub 2} methanation. TPR measurements, on the other hand, show Zn addition inhibits the reduction of Co{sup 2+} and Co{sup 3+}, which would mislead the conclusion that oxidized Co is required to reduce the CH{sub 4} formation. Therefore, TPR may not be appropriate to correlate the degree of metal reducibility (in this case Co{sup 0}) with the catalyst activity for reactions such as ethanol steam reforming where oxidizing conditions exist.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Karim, Ayman M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yu; Xu, Bo-Qing; Petersen, Eric J.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

414

A Designed Functional Metalloenzyme that Reduces O(2) to H(2)O with Over One Thousand Turnovers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rational design of functional enzymes with a high number of turnovers is a challenge, especially those with a complex active site, such as respiratory oxidases. Introducing two His and one Tyr residues into myoglobin resulted in enzymes that reduce O{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O with more than 1000 turnovers and minimal release of reactive oxygen species. The positioning of the Tyr residue is critical for activity.

Miner K. D.; Robinson H.; Mukherjee, A.; Gao, Y.-G.; Null, E. L.; Petrik, I. D.; Zhao, X.; Yeung, N.; Lu, Y.

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

415

Rhodium Catalysts in the Oxidation of CO by O2 and NO: Shape, Composition, and Hot Electron Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopy. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2008,Spectroscopy. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2008,Complex Physics? Angewandte Chemie-International Edition

Renzas, James Russell

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Probing Hot Electron Flow Generated on Pt Nanoparticles with Au/TiO2 Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Schwab, G. M. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 1967,Yang, P. D. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2006,

Park, Jeong Y.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Variation of fundamental and higher-order Raman spectra of ZrO2 nanograins with annealing temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature G. G. Siu and M. J. Stokes Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong- ner in which the structures and properties of a single nan- ograin vary with grain size, from atomic in nanomaterials and cooperative atomic phenomena such as lattice vibration. The size of nanograins can

Chen, Haydn H.

418

Li Diffusion and High-Voltage Cycling Behavior of Thin-Film LiCoO2 Cathodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mass transport and thermodynamic properties of Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} were studied by the potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT) using solid-state thin-film batteries that provide a well-defined diffusion geometry. Both the chemical diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic factor have minima at the phase boundaries of the Li/vacancy ordered phase ''Li{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 2}''. The self-diffusion coefficient of Li has a minimum at x = 0.5 associated with the Li/vacancy ordering. As the degree of ordering increases, the nonmonotonic variations become more pronounced when approaching x = 0.5 in Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2}. We also show that thin-film LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes having grains of sub-micrometer size combined with the Li upon electrolyte exhibit excellent capacity retention when charged up to 4.5 V.

Jang, Y.-I.

2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

419

Electron transport in TiO2 probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy E. Hendry,1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of British Columbia two or three years later, and came across a tutorial entitled The SETL Programming in SETL places its expressive balance closer to al­ gebraic mathematics than is customary for programming parts of programs destined to be coded in SPITBOL, Algol 68, Fortran, or Assembler/360. When I took my M

Heinz, Tony F.

420

Pressure-driven orbital reorientations and coordination-sphere reconstructions in [CuF2(H2O)2(pyz)  

SciTech Connect

Successive reorientations of the Jahn-Teller axes associated with the Cu{sup II} ions accompany a series of pronounced structural transitions in the title compound, as is shown by X-ray crystallography and high-frequency EPR measurements. The second transition forces a dimerization involving two thirds of the Cu{sup II} sites due to ejection of one of the water molecules from the coordination sphere

Prescimone, A.; Morien, C.; Allan, D.; Schlueter, J.; Tozer, S.; Manson, J. L.; Parsons, S.; Brechin, E. K.; Hill, S. (Materials Science Division); (EaStCHEM School of Chem.); (Florida State Univ.); (Harwell Sci. Innovation Campus); (Eastern Washington Univ.)

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Development of a 402.5 MHz 140 kW Inductive Output Tube  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of Phase I of an SBIR to develop a Pulsed Inductive Output Tube (IOT) with 140 kW at 400 MHz for powering H-proton beams. A number of sources, including single beam and multiple beam klystrons, can provide this power, but the IOT provides higher efficiency. Efficiencies exceeding 70% are routinely achieved. The gain is typically limited to approximately 24 dB; however, the availability of highly efficient, solid state drivers reduces the significance of this limitation, particularly at lower frequencies. This program initially focused on developing a 402 MHz IOT; however, the DOE requirement for this device was terminated during the program. The SBIR effort was refocused on improving the IOT design codes to more accurately simulate the time dependent behavior of the input cavity, electron gun, output cavity, and collector. Significant improvement was achieved in modeling capability and simulation accuracy.

R. Lawrence Ives; Michael Read, Robert Jackson

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

422

Retrieving monitoring and accounting information from constrained devices in internet-of-things applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Internet-of-Things (IoT) is envisioned to provide connectivity to a vast number of sensing or actuating devices with limited computational and communication capabilities. For the organizations that manage these constrained devices, the monitoring of ...

Oleksiy Mazhelis, Martin Waldburger, Guilherme Sperb Machado, Burkhard Stiller, Pasi Tyrväinen

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

The nature of the water nucleation sites on TiO2(110) surfaces relvealed by ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

308, 1154 (2005). [6] S. Wendt, J. Matthiesen, R. Schaub,Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, [7] S. Wendt, R. Schaub, J. Matthiesen,

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Special Chemical Properties of RuOx Nanowires in RuOx/TiO2(110): Dissociation of Water and Hydrogen Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding the role of mixed-metal oxides in catalysts used for the production of hydrogen through the splitting of water. Here, we investigate the structural and chemical properties of RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces employing scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density functional calculations. Ruthenium oxide forms unique wirelike structures on top of TiO{sub 2}(110) which are very reactive toward water dissociation, being able to cleave O-H bonds at a temperature as low as 200 K. The calculated barrier for the dissociation of water on RuO{sub 2} nanowires is benchmarks for studying this reaction.

Rodriguez J. A.; Kundu, S.; Vidal, A.B.; Yang, F.; Ramírez, P.J.; Senanayake, S.D.; Stacchiola, D.; Evans, J.; Liu, P.

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

425

Absence of Long-Ranged Charge Order in NaxCa2-xCuO2Cl2 (x=0.08)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent scanning-tunneling spectroscopy (STS) studies of the cupric oxychloride Na{sub x}Ca{sub 2-x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (NCCOC) have uncovered a periodic 4a x 4a density of states (DOS) modulation, termed a 'checkerboard' (T. Hanaguri et al., Nature (London) 430, 1001 (2004)). The periodicity of this phase is the same as that of the 'stripe' charge order observed with neutron scattering in the very similar systems La{sub 1.48}Nd{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 0.12}CuO{sub 4} (LNSCO). This raises the question of whether the stripes are, in fact, actually checkerboards. Unfortunately, NCCOC samples are very small and LBCO and LNSCO samples do not cleave, so neutron and STS measurements cannot be carried out on the same system. To determine the relationship between stripes and checkers, we used resonant soft-x-ray scattering, previously applied to LBCO, to study single crystals of NCCOC. No evidence was seen for a 4a x 4a DOS modulation, indicating that the checkerboard effect is not directly related to the stripe modulation in LBCO. We place an upper bound on the product of the charge amplitude and the square of the in-plane correlation length of 2.3 x 10{sup 3} hole {angstrom}{sup 2}. Our measurements suggest that the checkers in NCCOC are either glassy or are nucleated by the surface, as suggested by Brown et al.

Smadici,S.; Abbamonte, P.; Taguchi, M.; Kohsaka, Y.; Sasagawa, T.; Azuma, M.; Takano, M.; Takagi, H.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Electrochemical Performance of LiMn0.5-xNi0.5-xAl2xO2 by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A21: First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Chemical ... A3: Investigation on Co-combustion Kinetics of Anthracite Coal and Biomass Char by ... Lithium Redox Process for Thermochemical Water-Splitting as Energy Conversion.

427

Composition Control of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 and CaS Inclusions ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How to Control Strength and Grain Structure of 304L Stainless Steel during Forging · Improved ... Process Modeling and Reduction of Copper Loss in Smelting Slag ... Use of Polymeric Residues from the Footwear Industry in Layers of Asphalt ...

428

A High-Yield Hydrothermal Preparation of CuAlO2 Dean Y. Shahriari, Antoine Barnabe`,,, Thomas O. Mason, and Kenneth R. Poeppelmeier*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unreacted Ag2O through treatment of the two-phase product with dilute nitric acid. Later, R. D. Shannon et varied based on x in accordance with Scheme 1. For x ) 0, the reaction is simply a dissolution increases from 0 to 1. The balance of the aluminum species was found * Corresponding author. E-mail: krp

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

429

E13: Thermodynamic Modeling of the Na2O-FeO-Fe2O3-SiO2 System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... on the oxygen partial pressure were reproduced within the experimental error limits. ... Force Microscopy to study the bio-ferroelectric properties in Human.

430

Atomic Control of Conductivity Versus Ferromagnestism in Wide-Gap Oxides via Selective Doping: V, Nb, Ta in Anatase TiO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We identify two general types of electronic behaviors for transition-metal impurities that introduce excess electrons in oxides. (1) The dopants introduce resonant states inside the host conduction band and produce free electrons; (2) the dopants introduce a deep gap state that carries a magnetic moment. By combining electronic structure calculations, thermodynamic simulations, and percolation theory, we quantify these behaviors for the case of column V-B dopants in anatase TiO{sub 2}. Showing behavior (1), Nb and Ta dopants can convert the insulator TiO{sub 2} into a transparent conductor. Showing behavior (2), V dopants could convert nonmagnetic TiO{sub 2} into a ferromagnet. Whether a dopant shows behavior (1) or (2) is encoded in its atomic d orbital energy.

Osorio-Guillen, J.; Lany, S.; Zunger, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Growth and structure of water on SiO2 films on Si investigated byKelvin probe microscopy and in situ X-ray Spectroscopies  

SciTech Connect

The growth of water on thin SiO{sub 2} films on Si wafers at vapor pressures between 1.5 and 4 torr and temperatures between -10 and 21 C has been studied in situ using Kelvin Probe Microscopy and X-ray photoemission and absorption spectroscopies. From 0 to 75% relative humidity (RH) water adsorbs forming a uniform film 4-5 layers thick. The surface potential increases in that RH range by about 400 mV and remains constant upon further increase of the RH. Above 75% RH the water film grows rapidly, reaching 6-7 monolayers at around 90% RH and forming a macroscopic drop near 100%. The O K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption spectrum around 75% RH is similar to that of liquid water (imperfect H-bonding coordination) at temperatures above 0 C and ice-like below 0 C.

Verdaguer, A.; Weis, C.; Oncins, G.; Ketteler, G.; Bluhm, H.; Salmeron, M.

2007-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

432

fiat luxF A L L 2 0 1 1 N O . 2 1 ANNUAL REPORT 2010-11 THE LIBRARY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robinson Furth Dr. Leontina Kelly Gallagher Shelby M. Gans David P. and Sheila S. Gardner Mr.William C Robert C. Herr Bruce and Joan Herriges William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Honorable and Mrs. David M. amd Leslie M. Zomalt HENRY MORSE STEPHENS $500 - $999 Mr.William M. Abbott Nancy and Abraham Adams Mr

California at Berkeley, University of

433

First-principles characterization of a heteroceramic interface: ZrO2,,001... deposited on an -Al2O3,,1102... substrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- gine components found in both aircraft and stationary power plants. The protective coatings allow fuel augmented wave formalism within density functional theory. We present the electronic, structural

Carter, Emily A.

434

PHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES OF AU-MEROCYANINE-TiO2 SANDWICH CELLS. II. PROPERTIES OF ILLUMINATED CELLS AND EFFECTS OF DOPING WITH ELECTRON ACCEPTORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the photovoltaic efficiencies of a sandwich cell made byPHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES OF AU-MEROCYANINE-TiO SANDWICH CELLSPhotovoltaic Properties of Au-Merocyanine-Ti0 2 Sandwich Cells

Skotheim, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

CRITICAL CONFIGURATION AND PHYSICS MEASUREMENTS FOR GRAPHITE REFLECTED ASSEMBLIES OF U(93.15)O2 FUEL RODS (1.506-CM PITCH)  

SciTech Connect

A series of critical experiments were completed in 1962-1965 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Critical Experiments Facility in support of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiments (MPRE) program. In the late 1950’s efforts were made to study “power plants for the production of electrical power in space vehicles”. The MPRE program was a part of those efforts and studied the feasibility of a stainless steel system, boiling potassium 1 MW(t), or about 140 kW(e), reactor. The program was carried out in [fiscal years] 1964, 1965, and 1966. A summary of the program’s effort was compiled in 1967. The delayed critical experiments were a mockup of a small, potassium-cooled space power reactor for validation of reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. Initial experiments, performed in November and December of 1962, consisted of a core of 253 unmoderated stainless steel tubes, each containing 26 UO2 fuel pellets, surrounded by a graphite reflector. Measurements were made to determine critical reflector arrangements, fission-rate distributions, and cadmium ratio distributions. Subsequent experiments used beryllium reflectors and also measured the reactivity for various materials placed in the core. “The [assemblies were built] on [a] vertical assembly machine so that the movable part was the core and bottom reflector.” The first experiment in the series was evaluated in HEU-COMP-FAST-001. It had the 253 fuel tubes packed tightly into a 22.87 cm outside diameter (OD) core tank (References 1 and 2). The second experiment in the series, performed in early 1963, which is studied in this evaluation, had the 253 fuel tubes at a 1.506-cm triangular lattice in a 25.96 cm OD core tank and graphite reflectors on all sides. The experiment has been determined to represent an acceptable benchmark experiment. Information for this evaluation was compiled from published reports on all three parts of the experimental series (Reference 1-5) and the experimental logbook as well as from communication with the experimenter, John T. Mihalczo.

Margaret A. Marshall

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Activities of NbOx in Some CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-“Nb2O5” Melts at 1873K  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... from Municipal Wastewater Using Raw and Wasted Low Grade Iron Ore with High ... Grade Iron Concentrate by Roasting Siderite Ore with Microwave Energy.

437

In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel  

SciTech Connect

In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P.; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M.; Habas, Susan e.; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

438

Special Chemical Properties of RuOx Nanowires in RuOx/TiO2(110): Dissociation of Water and Hydrogen Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding the role of mixed-metal oxides in catalysts used for the production of hydrogen through the splitting of water. Here, we investigate the structural and chemical properties of RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces employing scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density functional calculations. Ruthenium oxide forms unique wirelike structures on top of TiO{sub 2}(110) which are very reactive toward water dissociation, being able to cleave O-H bonds at a temperature as low as 200 K. The calculated barrier for the dissociation of water on RuO{sub 2} nanowires is <0.05 eV. The presence of easily formable O vacancies in the ruthenium oxide nanowires facilitates the dissociation of water. Furthermore, RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces are able to catalyze the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction (H{sub 2}O + CO {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}), exhibiting an activity that compares well with the activity found for extended surfaces of copper typically used as benchmarks for studying this reaction.

Rodriguez J. A.; Kundu, S.; Vidal, A.B.; Yang, F.; Ramírez, P.J.; Senanayake, S.D.; Stacchiola, D.; Evans, J.; Liu, P.

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

439

CRITICAL CONFIGURATION FOR BERYLLIUM REFLECTED ASSEMBLIES OF U(93.15)O2 FUEL RODS (1.506-CM PITCH AND 7-TUBE CLUSTERS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of critical experiments were completed in 1962-1965 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Critical Experiments Facility in support of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiments (MPRE) program. In the late 1950’s efforts were made to study “power plants for the production of electrical power in space vehicles”. The MPRE program was a part of those efforts and studied the feasibility of a stainless steel system, boiling potassium 1 MW(t), or about 140 kW(e), reactor. The program was carried out in [fiscal years] 1964, 1965, and 1966. A summary of the program’s effort was compiled in 1967. The delayed critical experiments were a mockup of a small, potassium-cooled space power reactor for validation of reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. Initial experiments, performed in November and December of 1962, consisted of a core of 253 unmoderated stainless steel tubes, each containing 26 UO2 fuel pellets, surrounded by a graphite reflector. Measurements were made to determine critical reflector arrangements, fission-rate distributions, and cadmium ratio distributions. “The [assemblies were built] on [a] vertical assembly machine so that the movable part was the core and bottom reflector.” The first two experiments in the series were evaluated in HEU-COMP-FAST-001 (SCCA-FUND-EXP-001) and HEU-COMP-FAST-002 (SCCA-FUND-EXP-002). The first experiment had the 253 fuel tubes packed tightly into a 22.87 cm outside diameter (OD) core tank (References 1 and 2). The second experiment in the series, performed in early 1963, had the 253 fuel tubes at a 1.506-cm triangular lattice in a 25.96 cm OD core tank and graphite reflectors on all sides. The third set of experiments in the series, performed in mid-1963, which is studied in this evaluation, used beryllium reflectors. The beryllium reflected system was the preferred reactor configuration for this application because of the small thickness of the reflector. The two core configurations had the 253 fuel tubes at a 1.506-cm triangular lattice and arranged in 7-tube clusters. The experiments have been determined to represent acceptable benchmark experiments. Information for this evaluation was compiled from published reports on all three parts of the experimental series (Reference 1-5) and the experimental logbook as well as from communication with the experimenter, John T. Mihalczo.

Margaret A. Marshall

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 17261732 Optical and structural properties of Ta2O5CeO2 thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1726­1732 Optical and structural properties of Ta2O5

Thirumalai, Devarajan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Effect of CH4 and O2 variations on rates of CH4 oxidation and stable isotope fractionation in tropical rain forest soils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methane-oxidizing bacteria are the primary sink for CH{sub 4} in reduced soils, and account for as much as 90 percent of all CH{sub 4} produced. Methanotrophic bacteria strongly discriminate against the heavy isotopes of carbon, resulting in CH{sub 4} emissions that are significantly more enriched in {sup 13}C than the original source material. Previous studies have used an isotope mass balance approach to quantify CH{sub 4} sources and sinks in the field, based on the assumption that the fractionation factor for CH{sub 4} oxidation is a constant. This study quantifies the effect of systematic variations in CH{sub 4} and O{sub 2} concentrations on rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation and stable isotope fractionation in tropical rain forest soils. Soils were collected from the 0-15 cm depth, and incubated with varying concentrations of CH{sub 4} (100 ppmv, 500 ppmv, 1000 ppmv, and 5000 ppmv) or O{sub 2} (3 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, and 21 percent). The isotope fractionation factor for CH{sub 4} oxidation was calculated for each incubation using a Rayleigh fractionation model. Rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation varied significantly between CH{sub 4} treatments, with the 100 ppmv CH{sub 4} treatment showing the lowest rate of CH{sub 4} uptake, and the other 3 treatments showing similar rates of CH{sub 4} uptake. Rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation did not vary significantly between the different O{sub 2} treatments. The fractionation factor for CH{sub 4} oxidation varied significantly between the different CH{sub 4} treatments, with the 5000 ppmv CH{sub 4} treatment showing the largest {sup 13}C-enrichment of residual CH{sub 4}. In treatments where CH{sub 4} concentration was not rate-limiting (> 500 ppmv CH{sub 4}), the fractionation factor for CH{sub 4} oxidation was negatively correlated with CH{sub 4} oxidation rate (P activity or CH{sub 4} pool size.

Teh, Yit Arn; Conrad, Mark; Silver, Whendee L.; Carlson, Charlotte M.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Effect of CH4 and O2 variations on rates of CH4 oxidation and stable isotope fractionation in tropical rain forest soils  

SciTech Connect

Methane-oxidizing bacteria are the primary sink for CH{sub 4} in reduced soils, and account for as much as 90 percent of all CH{sub 4} produced. Methanotrophic bacteria strongly discriminate against the heavy isotopes of carbon, resulting in CH{sub 4} emissions that are significantly more enriched in {sup 13}C than the original source material. Previous studies have used an isotope mass balance approach to quantify CH{sub 4} sources and sinks in the field, based on the assumption that the fractionation factor for CH{sub 4} oxidation is a constant. This study quantifies the effect of systematic variations in CH{sub 4} and O{sub 2} concentrations on rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation and stable isotope fractionation in tropical rain forest soils. Soils were collected from the 0-15 cm depth, and incubated with varying concentrations of CH{sub 4} (100 ppmv, 500 ppmv, 1000 ppmv, and 5000 ppmv) or O{sub 2} (3 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, and 21 percent). The isotope fractionation factor for CH{sub 4} oxidation was calculated for each incubation using a Rayleigh fractionation model. Rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation varied significantly between CH{sub 4} treatments, with the 100 ppmv CH{sub 4} treatment showing the lowest rate of CH{sub 4} uptake, and the other 3 treatments showing similar rates of CH{sub 4} uptake. Rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation did not vary significantly between the different O{sub 2} treatments. The fractionation factor for CH{sub 4} oxidation varied significantly between the different CH{sub 4} treatments, with the 5000 ppmv CH{sub 4} treatment showing the largest {sup 13}C-enrichment of residual CH{sub 4}. In treatments where CH{sub 4} concentration was not rate-limiting (> 500 ppmv CH{sub 4}), the fractionation factor for CH{sub 4} oxidation was negatively correlated with CH{sub 4} oxidation rate (P < 0.003, r{sup 2} = 0.86). A multiple regression model that included initial CH{sub 4} concentration and CH{sub 4} oxidation rate as independent variables accounted for 94 percent of the variability in the isotope fractionation data, suggesting that both factors are important in determining the extent of isotopic fractionation (P < 0.002, r{sup 2} = 0.94). The fractionation factor for CH{sub 4} oxidation did not vary significantly between the different O{sub 2} treatments. These results challenge the assumption that the isotope fractionation factor for CH{sub 4} oxidation remains constant, regardless of metabolic activity or CH{sub 4} pool size.

Teh, Yit Arn; Conrad, Mark; Silver, Whendee L.; Carlson, Charlotte M.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Direct DNA Photocleavage by a New Intercalating Dirhodium(II/II) Complex: Comparison to Rh2(-O2CCH3)4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.; Akiyama, S.-I.; Pommier, Y. Mol. Cancer Ther. 2002, 1, 1327- 1334. (b) Sodet, O.; Khan, Q. A.; Kohn, K. W-Cancer Agents 2002, 2, 387-401. (3) (a) Kanzaki, A.; Takebayashi, Y.; Ren, X.-Q.; Miyashita, H.; Mori, S of Chemistry, The Ohio State UniVersity, Columbus, Ohio 43210, and Texas A&M UniVersity, College Station, Texas

Turro, Claudia

444

Unveiling N-Protonation and Anion-Binding Effects on Fe/N/C Catalysts for O2 Reduction in Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high cost of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells would be considerably reduced if platinum-based catalysts were replaced by iron-based substitutes, which have recently demonstrated comparable activity for oxygen reduction but whose cause of activity decay in acidic medium has been elusive. Here, we reveal that the activity of Fe/N/C catalysts prepared through a pyrolysis in NH{sub 3} is mostly imparted by acid-resistant FeN{sub 4} sites whose turnover frequency for the O{sub 2} reduction can be regulated by fine chemical changes of the catalyst surface. We show that surface N-groups protonate at pH 1 and subsequently bind anions. This results in decreased activity for the O{sub 2} reduction. The anions can be removed chemically or thermally, which restores the activity of acid-resistant FeN{sub 4} sites. These results are interpreted as an increased turnover frequency of FeN{sub 4} sites when specific surface N-groups protonate. These unprecedented findings provide a new perspective for stabilizing the most active Fe/N/C catalysts known to date.

J Herranz; F Jaouen; M Lefevre; U Kramm; E Proietti; J Dodelet; P Bogdanoff; S Fiechter; I Abs-Wurbach; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

445

The Time-Dependent Specific Heat of Na0.35CoO2 * 1.3H2O ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... RA FisherC, S, N. Oeschler and NE Phillips LBNL and Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA ramdfisher@comcast ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

446

In situ Characterization of Pt Catalysts Supported on Ceria Modified TiO(2) for the WGS reaction: Influence of Ceria Loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work analyzes the influence of cerium content (6-15 wt%) on a TiO{sub 2} support over the structure and water gas shift (WGS) activity of Pt catalysts. The structural properties of these Pt/Ce-TiO{sub 2} catalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM and XANES. Physicochemical characterization of the catalysts showed differences in the structure and dispersion of Ce entities on the support with Ce loading. For the samples with low ceria content (6 wt%), cerium is deposited on the support in the form of CeO{sub x} clusters in a highly dispersed state in close interaction with the Ti atoms. The formation of CeO{sub x} clusters at low Ce-loading on the support facilitates the dispersion of small particles of Pt and improves the reducibility of ceria component at low temperatures. The changes in platinum dispersion and support reducibility with Ce-loading on the TiO{sub 2} support lead to significant differences in the WGS activity. Pt supported on the sample with lower Ce content (6 wt%) shows better activity than those corresponding to catalysts with higher Ce content (15 wt%). Activity measurements coupled with catalysts characterization suggest that the improvement in the reducibility of the support with lower Ce content was associated with the presence of CeO{sub x} clusters of high reducibility that improve the chemical activity of the oxide-metal interfaces at which the WGS reaction takes place.

Rodriguez J. A.; Barrio, L.; Zhou, G.; Gonzalez, I.D.; Estrella, M.; Hanson, J.; Navarro, R.M.; Fierro, J.L.G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Zn-Doped RuO2 Electrocatalyts for Selective Oxygen Evolution: Relationship Between Local Structure and Electrocatalytic Behavior in Chloride Containing Media  

SciTech Connect

Nanocrystalline electrocatalytically active materials of chemical composition Ru{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 2} (0 < x < 0.3) were synthesized by freeze-drying technique. The diffraction patterns of the prepared samples corresponded to single-phase rutile type oxides.Local structure of the Ru{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 2} based on refinement of Ru K and Zn K edge EXAFS functions shows clustering of the Zn ions in the blocks with ilmenite structure intergrowing with Ru-rich rutile blocks. Ru{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 2} oxides are selective catalysts for anodic oxygen evolution. The selectivity toward oxygen evolution in the presence of chlorides is affected by the actual Zn content and can be ascribed to structural hindrance of the formation of the surface peroxo group based active sites for chlorine evolution. The selectivity toward oxygen evolution in presence of chlorides is accompanied by the drop of the total activity, which gets more pronounced with increasing Zn content.

V Petrykin; K Macounova; J Franc; O Shlyakhtin; M Klementova; S Mukerjee; p Krtil

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

448

NaNi0.5Mn0.5O2 for Na-ion Batteries: Effects of Synthesis Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are a promising alternative to lithium ion ... Battery Offgas Behavior under Stress Conditions: Implications for Safety ...

449

In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Microstructure and Phase Evolution in a SnO2 Nanowire during Lithium Intercalation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports development of a lithium-ion battery nanostructure device using a single nanowire for in-stu TEM study of the battery. This prototype lithium ion battery was built using a single SnO? nanowire as the anode, an air stable salt: lithium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) in a hydrophobic ionic liquid: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidium TFSI (P14TFSI) as the electrolyte, and LiCoO? as the cathode. The microstructure evolution of the single nanowire anode was studied using TEM imaging, electron diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy during the operation of the battery. It has been observed that during initial charging, the electrolyte was found to decompose and subsequently be electrodeposited on the anode, leading to the formation of a coating layer on the anode. This coating layer was enriched with Li. Formation of this layer will retard the Li intercalation of SnO?. This in situ TEM observation provides direct evidence that accounts for the observed low capacity and fast fading of the Li battery when LiTFSI-P14TFSI is used as the electrolyte.

Wang, Chong M.; Xu, Wu; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Arey, Bruce W.; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Xiao, Jie; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.

2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

450

HfO2 Gate Dielectric on (NH4)2S Passivated (100) GaAs Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interface between hafnium oxide grown by atomic layer deposition and (100) GaAs treated with HCl cleaning and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S passivation has been characterized. Synchrotron radiation photoemission core level spectra indicated successful removal of the native oxides and formation of passivating sulfides on the GaAs surface. Layer-by-layer removal of the hafnia film revealed a small amount of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed at the interface during the dielectric deposition. Traces of arsenic and sulfur out-diffusion into the hafnia film were observed after a 450 C post-deposition anneal, and may be the origins for the electrically active defects. Transmission electron microscopy cross section images showed thicker HfO{sub 2} films for a given precursor exposure on S-treated GaAs versus the non-treated sample. In addition, the valence-band and the conduction-band offsets at the HfO{sub 2}/GaAs interface were deduced to be 3.18 eV and a range of 0.87-0.97 eV, respectively. It appears that HCl+(NH{sub 4})2{sub S} treatments provide a superior chemical passivation for GaAs and initial surface for ALD deposition.

Chen, P.T.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Y.; /SLAC, SSRL; Kim, E.; McIntyre, P.C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Tsai, W.; Garner, M.; /Intel, Santa Clara; Pianetta, P.; /SLAC, SSRL; Nishi, Y.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept.; Chui, C.O.; /UCLA

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

451

A near-infrared photoluminescence study of GaAs nanocrystals in SiO2 films formed by sequential ion implantation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and these unusual behaviors open new applications including large-gain, low-threshold quan- tum lasers, light-emitting diodes, single-electron transistors, and so on. A number of different techniques have been de- veloped

Heaton, Thomas H.

452

TiO2 Nanotubes with a ZnO Thin Energy Barrier for Improved Current Efficiency of CdSe Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports the formation of a thin ZnO energy barrier between a CdSe quantum dot (Q dots) sensitizer and TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TONTs) for improved current efficiency of Q dot-sensitized solar cells. The formation of a ZnO barrier between TONTs and the Q dot sensitizer increased the short-circuit current under illumination and also reduced the dark current in a dark environment. The power conversion efficiency of Q dot-sensitized TONT solar cells increased by 25.9% in the presence of the ZnO thin layer due to improved charge-collecting efficiency and reduced recombination.

Lee, W.; Kang, S. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Kolekar, G. B.; Sung, Y. E.; Han, S. H.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Electrode Materials with the Na0.44MnO2 Structure: Effect of Titanium Substitution on Physical and Electrochemical Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by heating them in a molten salt mixture of 68 mol % LiNOion-exchanged in molten nitrate salts to yield materials

Saint, Juliette A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C1, suppl6ment au n o2, Tome 40, fgvrier 1979, page cl-324 FAST ION DOUBLE COLLISION SPECTROSCOPY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

been used t o prepare the ions in spe- cific excited or ground states or substates [l]. A second in specific charge states, excited states, or substates. A subsequent second collision, perhaps different from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

455

The investigation of bioactivity and mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements prepared from Al2O3-SiO2 glass and poly(?-glutamic acid)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theglass ionomer cement as one of the dental cements has been subjected to be widespread application in restoring tooth structure. Most of glass ionomer cements employ the poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as the liquid phase, but the presence of PAA inhibits ...

Jinkun Liu, Yoshimitsu Kuwahara, Yuki Shirosaki, Toshiki Miyazaki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Critical Configuration and Physics Measurements for Assemblies of U(93.15)O2 Fuel Rods (1.506-cm Pitch)  

SciTech Connect

A series of critical experiments were completed from 1962–1965 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Critical Experiments Facility (CEF) in support of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiments (MPRE) program. In the late 1950s, efforts were made to study “power plants for the production of electrical power in space vehicles.”(a) The MPRE program was a part of those efforts and studied the feasibility of a stainless-steel system, boiling potassium 1 MW(t), or about 140 kW(e), reactor. The program was carried out in [fiscal years] 1964, 1965, and 1966. A summary of the program’s effort was compiled in 1967.a The delayed critical experiments were a mockup of a small, potassium-cooled space power reactor for validation of reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. Initial experiments, performed in November and December of 1962, consisted of a core of unmoderated stainless-steel tubes, each containing 26 UO2 fuel pellets, surrounded by a graphite reflector. Measurements were performed to determine critical reflector arrangements, relative fission-rate distributions, and cadmium ratio distributions. Subsequent experiments used beryllium reflectors and also measured the reactivity for various materials placed in the core. “The [assemblies were built] on [a] vertical assembly machine so that the movable part was the core and bottom reflector” (see Reference 1). The experiment studied in this evaluation was the second of the series and had the fuel rods in a 1.506-cm-triangular pitch. One critical configuration was found (see Reference 3). Once the critical configuration had been achieved, various measurements of reactivity, relative axial and radial activation rates of 235U,bc and cadmium ratios were performed. The cadmium ratio, reactivity, and activation rate measurements performed on the critical configuration are described in Sections 1.3, 1.4, and 1.7, respectively.

Margaret A. Marshall

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Dependency of Carbon and Nitrogen in the CaF2-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

D8: Study of Rack and Chord Assembly Formability for Jack-up Platforms ... Zone of Zr-Ti Microalloyed High-strength High-toughness Offshore Structural Steels.

458

Partially disordered state and spin-lattice coupling in an S=3/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ag2CrO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 2} is an S = 3/2 frustrated triangular lattice antiferromagnet without an orbital degree of freedom. With decreasing temperature, a four-sublattice spin state develops. However, a long-range partially disordered state with five sublattices abruptly appears at T{sub N} = 24 K, accompanied by a structural distortion, and persists at least down to 2 K. The spin-lattice coupling stabilizes the anomalous state, which is expected to appear only in limited ranges of further-neighbor interactions and temperature. It was found that the spin-lattice coupling is a common feature in triangular lattice antiferromagnets with multiple-sublattice spin states, since the triangular lattice is elastic.

Matsuda, Masaaki [ORNL; Yoshida, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan; Isobe, M. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan; De la cruz, Clarina [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Direct synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from nitrateprecursors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two novel methods for synthesis of the title compound directly from metal nitrates are described. Phase-pure materials are produced when precursors are calcined between 600 and 1000 C, with little to no ion mixing exhibited for products heated to 900 C or above. The electrochemical characteristics of these materials depended upon calcination temperature and synthesis method, with results comparable to a commercial sample for the materials made at high temperatures in a one-step process without combustion. The sample prepared by combustion also exhibited very stable capacity retention upon cycling.

Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca M.

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

460

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 245115 (2011) Electronic structure of dye-sensitized TiO2 clusters from many-body perturbation theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Annual Report 2010­2011 #12;Science at the OLCF Road to Exascale Inside the OLCF 2 Best at the Petascale, First to the Exascale 4 In a League of Its Own 8 4 Southern California 16 OLCF Vis Team Helps Simulate Japanese Crisis 17 Supercomputers Assist Cleanup

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461

The H2O2+OH ? HO2+H2O reaction in aqueous solution from a charge-dependent continuum model of solvation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We applied our recently developed protocol of the conductor-like continuum model of solvation to describe the title reaction in aqueous solution. The model has the unique feature of the molecular cavity being dependent on the atomic charges in the solute, and can be extended naturally to transition states and reaction pathways. It was used to calculate the reaction energetics and reaction rate in solution for the title reaction. The rate of reaction calculated using canonical variational transition state theory CVT in the context of the equilibrium solvation path (ESP) approximation, and including correction for tunneling through the small curvature approximation (SCT) was found to be 3.6 106 M-1 s-1, in very good agreement with experiment, These results suggest that the present protocol of the conductor-like continuum model of solvation with the charge-dependent cavity definition captures accurately the solvation effects at transition states and allows for quantitative estimates of reaction rates in solutions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Ginovska, Bojana; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dupuis, Michel

2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

462

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (2008) 821829 Modeling the optical properties of WO3 and WO3SiO2 thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (2008) 821­829 Modeling the optical properties of WO3 the optical response of the films in the near-UV and visible region: two interband transitions for energies E

Thirumalai, Devarajan

463

Catalytic decomposition of alcohols over size-selected Pt nanoparticles supported on ZrO2: A study of activity, selectivity, and stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, but do not contribute to steady-state catalytic reforming rates. The high reactivity of Pd surfaces in C

Kik, Pieter

464

An In-Situ XAS Study of the Structural Changes in a CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 Catalyst during Total Oxidation of Propane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A CuOx-CeOx/Al2O3 catalyst was studied with in-situ transmission Cu K XAS for the total oxidation of propane as model reaction for the catalytic elimination of volatile organic compounds. The local Cu structure was determined for the catalyst as such, after pre-oxidation and after reduction with propane. The catalyst as such has a local CuO structure. No structural effect was observed upon heating in He up to 600 deg. C or after pre-oxidation at 150 deg. C. A full reduction of the Cu2+ towards metallic Cu0 occurred, when propane was fed to the catalyst. The change in local Cu structure during propane reduction was followed with a time resolution of 1 min. The {chi}(k) scans appeared as linear combinations of start and end spectra, CuO and Cu structure, respectively. However, careful examination of the XANES edge spectra indicates the presence of a small amount of additional Cu1+ species.

Silversmith, Geert; Poelman, Hilde; Poelman, Dirk; Gryse, Roger de [Ghent University, Department of Solid State Sciences, Krijgslaan 281 S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Olea, Maria; Balcaen, Veerle; Heynderickx, Philippe; Marin, Guy B. [Ghent University, Laboratorium voor Petrochemische Techniek, Krijgslaan 281 S5, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

465

PROTECTION OF SiSiO2 INTERFACES FROM DAMP HEAT BY OVERLYING SiNx AND Si3N4 COATINGS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-heat conditions of the standard reliability tests for PV modules. The samples are diffused with phosphorus. These results suggest that high- efficiency silicon cells would fail the damp-heat reliability test if their SiNx. INTRODUCTION Oxide-passivated silicon degrades when exposed to the "damp-heat" reliability test [1­4]. The test

466

Photoelectron spectroscopy of higher bromine and iodine oxide anions: Electron affinities and electronic structures of BrO2,3 and IO2-4 radicals.  

SciTech Connect

This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) investigation on electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO{sub 2}{sup -} and IO{sub 2}{sup -} were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies--355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV--while BrO{sub 3}{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, and IO{sub 4}{sup -} were studied at 193 and 157 nm only due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anion ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. For the first time, EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined (except for IO{sub 2}) to be 2.515 {+-} 0.010 (BrO{sub 2}), 2.575 {+-} 0.010 (IO{sub 2}), 4.60 {+-} 0.05 (BrO{sub 3}), 4.70 {+-} 0.05 (IO{sub 3}), and 6.05 {+-} 0.05 eV (IO{sub 4}). Three low-lying excited states with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO{sub 2} [1.69 (A {sup 2}B2), 1.79 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.99 eV (C {sup 2}A{sub 2})], BrO{sub 3} [0.7 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.6 (B {sup 2}E), 3.1 eV (C {sup 2}E)], and IO{sub 3} [0.60 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.20 (B {sup 2}E), {approx}3.0 eV (C {sup 2}E)], whereas six excited states of IO{sub 2} are determined with the respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A {sup 2}B{sub 2}), 1.73 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.83 (C {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 4.23 (D {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 4.63 (E {sup 2}B{sub 2}), and 5.23 eV (F {sup 2}B{sub 1}). Periodate possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. The obtained EAs and low-lying excited state information are compared with available theoretical calculations and discussed with their atmospheric implications.

Wen, Hui; Hou, Gaolei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue B.

2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

467

Critical Configuration and Physics Mesaurements for Graphite Reflected Assemblies of U(93.15)O2 Fuel Rods (1.27-CM Pitch)  

SciTech Connect

A series of critical experiments were completed in 1962-1965 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Critical Experiments Facility in support of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiments (MPRE) program. In the late 1950's efforts were made to study 'power plants for the production of electrical power in space vehicles'. The MPRE program was a part of those efforts and studied the feasibility of a stainless steel system, boiling potassium 1 MW(t), or about 140 kW(e), reactor. The program was carried out in FY 1964, 1965, and 1966. A summary of the program's effort was compiled in 1967. The delayed critical experiments served as a mockup of a small, potassium-cooled space power reactor for validation of reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. Initial experiments, performed in November and December of 1962, consisted of a core of unmoderated 253 stainless steel tubes, each containing 26 UO2 fuel pellets, surrounded by a graphite reflector. Measurements were made to determine critical reflector arrangements, fission-rate distributions, and cadmium ratio distributions. Subsequent experiments used beryllium reflectors and also measured the reactivity for various materials placed in the core. 'The [assemblies were built] on [a] vertical assembly machine so that the movable part was the core and bottom reflector.' The experiment studied within this evaluation was the first of the series and had the 253 fuel tubes packed tightly into a 22.87 cm outside diameter (OD) core tank. Two critical configurations were found by varying the amount of graphite reflector (References 1 and 2). Information for this evaluation was compiled from Reference 1 and 2, reports on subsequent experiments in the series, and the experimental logbook as well as from communication with the experimenter, John T. Mihalczo.

Margaret A. Marshall

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Shock initiation and detonation study on high concentration H2O2/H2O solutions using in-situ magnetic gauges  

SciTech Connect

Concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been known to detonate for many years. However, because of its reactivity and the difficulty in handling and confining it, along with the large critical diameter, few studies providing basic information about the initiation and detonation properties have been published. We are conducting a study to understand and quantify the initiation and detonation properties of highly concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} using a gas-driven two-stage gun to produce well defined shock inputs. Multiple magnetic gauges are used to make in-situ measurements of the growth of reaction and subsequent detonation in the liquid. These experiments are designed to be one-dimensional to eliminate any difficulties that might be encountered with large critical diameters. Because of the concern of the reactivity of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the confining materials, a remote loading system has been developed. The gun is pressurized, then the cell is filled and the experiment shot within less than three minutes. Several experiments have been completed on {approx}98 wt % H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O mixtures; homogeneous shock initiation behavior has been observed in the experiments where reaction is observed. The initial shock pressurizes and heats the mixture. After an induction time, a thermal explosion type reaction produces an evolving reactive wave that strengthens and eventually overdrives the first wave producing a detonation. From these experiments, we have determined unreacted Hugoniot points, times-to-detonation points that indicate low sensitivity (an input of 13.5 GPa produces detonation in 1 {micro}s compared to 9.5 GPa for neat nitromethane), and detonation velocities of high concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O solutions of over 6.6 km/s.

Sheffield, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stahl, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gibson, L Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 33, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2005 2035 Synthesis of Pt=ZrO2 Catalyst on Fecralloy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The instru- ment used was a Sciex Elan model 250 ICP-MS equipped with a Babington nebulizer, water cooled dioxide in a water gas shift (WGS) reactor in the temperature range 400 C­500 C. Index Terms- cursor materials, substrate, plasma-processing, and calcining. The analysis section describes results

Pedrow, Patrick D.

470

Revealing the Mechanisms behind SnO2 Nanoparticle Formation and Growth during Hydrothermal Synthesis: An In Situ Total Scattering Study  

SciTech Connect

The formation and growth mechanisms in the hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles from aqueous solutions of SnCl{sub 4} {center_dot} 5H{sub 2}O have been elucidated by means of in situ X-ray total scattering (PDF) measurements. The analysis of the data reveals that when the tin(IV) chloride precursor is dissolved, chloride ions and water coordinate octahedrally to tin(IV), forming aquachlorotin(IV) complexes of the form [SnCl{sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6-x}]{sup (4-x)+} as well as hexaaquatin(IV) complexes [Sn(H{sub 2}O){sub 6-y}(OH){sub y}]{sup (4-y)+}. Upon heating, ellipsoidal SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are formed uniquely from hexaaquatin(IV). The nanoparticle size and morphology (aspect ratio) are dependent on both the reaction temperature and the precursor concentration, and particles as small as 2 nm can be synthesized. Analysis of the growth curves shows that Ostwald ripening only takes place above 200 C, and in general the growth is limited by diffusion of precursor species to the growing particle. The c-parameter in the tetragonal lattice is observed to expand up to 0.5% for particle sizes down to 2-3 nm as compared to the bulk value. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles below 3-4 nm do not form in the bulk rutile structure, but as an orthorhombic structural modification, which previously has only been reported at pressures above 5 GPa. Thus, adjustment of the synthesis temperature and precursor concentration not only allows control over nanoparticle size and morphology but also the structure.

Billinge S. J.; Jensen, K.M.O.; Christensen, M.; Juhas, P.; Tyrsted, C.; Bojesen, E.D.; Lock, N.; Iversen, B.B.

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

In situ AFM studies on lithium (de)intercalation-induced morphology changes in a LixCoO2 micro-machined thin film electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structural instability due to intercalation-induced stresses in electrode materials is one of the key degradation mechanisms of Li-ion batteries. Fragmentation of material degrades structural integrity and electrical resistance, and also accelerates harmful side reactions. In situ experiments are the appropriate approach to investigate the actual time dependent nature of behavior changes of an electrode material while it is charged and discharged. In the current work, a unique in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (ECAFM) measurement is made on samples of cylindrical shape, which are micro-machined by focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy. This pre-defined geometry allows the exclusion of secondary, non-active materials from the electrochemically active material as well as the removal of any vagueness coming from the irregular geometry of particles. Also, the experimental results are used to validate a proposed coupled electrochemical and mechanical model for determination of the stress-strain state of active electrode material during electrochemical cycling. The results produced using the model correlate the experimental data rather well. The combined results reveal the key effects of the geometry, kinetics, and mechanics of electrode materials on the stress-strain state, which is a barometer of structural stability of a material.

Park, Jonghuyn [University of Michigan; Kalnaus, Sergiy [ORNL; Han, Sangwoo [University of Michigan; Lee, Yoon Koo [University of Michigan; Less, Greg [University of Michigan; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Sastry, Ann-Marie [University of Michigan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

Harris, E.

474

Quantifying Silica Reactivity in Subsurface Environments: Reaction Affinity and Solute Matrix Controls on Quartz and SiO2 Glass Dissolution Kinetics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the three years of this project, Professor Dove's laboratory made tremendous progress in understanding controls on amorphous silica dissolution kinetics in aqueous solutions. Our findings have already received considerable attention. In hydrothermal and low temperature studies, the work focused on determining quantitative and mechanistic controls on the most abundant silica polymorphs in Earth environments--quartz and amorphous silica. Our studies achieved goals set forth in the original proposal to establish a new quantitative understanding of amorphous silica dissolution. This support has resulted in 10 journal, 12 abstracts and 2 thesis publications. The PI and students were also recognized with 6 awards during this period. The 1998 EMSP conference in Chicago was an important meeting for our project. The symposium, enabled P.I. Dove to establish valuable contacts with ''users'' having specific needs for the findings of our EMSP project related to the urgency of problems in the Tanks Focus Area (TFA). Since that time, our working relations developed as Dove interacted with TFA scientists and engineers on the problems of waste glass properties. These interactions refined our experimental objectives to better meet their needs. Dove presented the results of EMSP research findings to a TFA subgroup at a Product Acceptance Workshop held in Salt Lake City during December 1998. The travel costs to attend this unanticipated opportunity were paid from EMSP project funds. In January 2000, Dove also attended a similar meeting in Atlanta with PNNL, SRL and BNF scientists/engineers to discuss new issues and make another level of decisions on the Product Acceptance goals. Our EMSP-funded research interfaced very well with the ongoing studies of Dr. Pete McGrail and colleagues in the Applied Geochemistry Group at PNNL. The value of our work to ''users'' was further demonstrated when Dove's EMSP-funded Postdoc, Dr. Jonathan Icenhower was hired by the same PNNL group. With the Icenhower move from postdoc in the Dove lab to a senior scientist position at PNNL, we directly facilitated information transfer from the ''university to user'' environment. Icenhower brought experience in silica-water reactivity and the experimental expertise in high-quality methods of mineral-water reaction kinetics to the PNNL waste clean-up effort. In a further interaction, M.S. student Troy Lorier was hired at the Savannah River Laboratory for a staff position with the Bill Holtzcheiter glass group. His research meshed well with on-going efforts at SRL. In short, our EMSP project went well beyond the academic goals of producing high quality scientific knowledge to establish connections with on-site users to solve problems in TFA. This project also produced new talent for the waste immobilization effort. This EMSP project was highly successful and we thank our sponsors for the opportunity to advance scientific knowledge in this important area of research.

Patricia M. Dove

2000-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

475

Characterization of metal clusters (Pd and Au) supported on various metal oxide surfaces (MgO and TiO2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that require bigger conductor, 26.8 mm for the coil of intermediate size and 30.6 mm for the outer coil. Each through the magnet, eddy currents are induced in the mercury, and the resulting J � B force distorts of the target area. · The maximum transverse velocity, 0.4 m/s, induced by shear forces is also small compared

Goodman, Wayne

476

A DFT+U study of structure and reducibility of CenO2n-x (n?4, 0?x?n) nanoclusters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Equilibrium structures, stability and reducibility of Ce{sub n}O{sub 2n-x} (n=1,4, x=0{approx}4) nanoclusters have been studied using first principles DFT+U method. The planar rhombus Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2} structure is found to be the building block for the most stable Ce{sub n}O{sub 2n-x} clusters. The normalized binding energy of the cluster decreases linearly with increasing cluster size. The most stable stoichiometric Ce{sub n}O{sub 2n-x} clusters are electronically in closed-shell configuration (singlet), while the non-stoichiometric Ce{sub n}O{sub 2n-x} clusters are in a high spin state (triplet or quintet). The reduction energy, i.e., the energy required to remove an oxygen atom from a cluster, increases with the size and the extent of reduction. On the other hand, per electron based reduction energy for the cluster to reach the same formal oxidation state is independent of the cluster size.

Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Three-Dimensional Location-Based IPv6 Addressing for Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Grid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smart grid is one of the most important applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) for environmental sustainability and energy efficiency issues in recent years. IP-based wireless sensor networks (IP-WSNs) are considered as one of the promising wireless ... Keywords: Smart grid, Wireless Sensor Networks, Spatial IP, IPv6 address, Three dimensional spaces

Chih-Yung Cheng; Chi-Cheng Chuang; Ray-I Chang

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Managing the upcoming ubiquitous computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a promising theme of research. Covering subjects from micro-electronic to social sciences with a major field in computing, network and telecommunication. It is judged as the future of the today's Internet. The main idea ...

Denis Carvin, Philippe Owezarski, Pascal Berthou

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

A Theoretical Insight into the Catalytic Effect of a Mixed-Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level: The Case of the Highly Active metal/CeOx/TiO2 (110) Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The structural and electronic properties of CeO{sub x} species supported on the rutile TiO{sub 2}(110) surface have been examined by means of periodic density-functional calculations that use a generalized gradient approximation functional including a Hubbard-like type correction. Deposition of Ce atoms leads in a first step to Ce{sup 3+} ions bound to the surface through bridge and in-plane oxygen atoms, the released electrons occupying the Ti 3d empty orbitals. Further addition of Ce and molecular oxygen gives place to Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} dimers diagonally arranged on the surface, in agreement with the spots observed in the scanning tunnel microscope images. The formation process of CeO{sub x} nanoparticles (NPs) on the TiO{sub 2} surface is highly exothermic and our calculations show that the redox properties of the Ce(III)-Ce(IV) couple are significantly altered when it is supported on TiO{sub 2}. In particular the reactivity against CO/O{sub 2} indicates that on the surface the presence of Ce(III) is favored over Ce(IV) species. Our results also indicate that the CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} interface should be seen like a real mixed-metal oxide rather than a supported NP of ceria. Finally, in the context of the high catalytic activity of the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} (M = Au,Cu,Pt) systems in the water-gas shift reaction, we have examined the dissociation of water on the CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} surface and estimated a barrier as small as 0.04 eV, i.e. {approx}8 times smaller than that computed for a TiO{sub 2} oxygen vacancy. This result agrees with the experimental superior catalytic activity of the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} systems over M/TiO{sub 2}.

Rodriguez, J.A.; Graciani, J.; Plata, J.J.; Sanz, J.F.; Liu, P.

2010-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

480

Extremely Durable High-Rate Capability of the LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 Cathode Enabled with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A binder-free LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode fabricated with 5 wt.% single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTS) shows excellent cycling performance at rates of 10C (Charge/discharge in 6 minutes). In contrast, a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} electrode prepared by conventional methods without SWNTs has a significantly lower capacity. Based on the morphology and structural analysis, this exceptional rate capability is due to highly intimate contact between the long crystalline SWNT ropes and the active cathode material, ensuring fast diffusion of ions and electrons during cycling and resulting in sustainable capacity at high rates for 500 cycles.

Ban, Chunmei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Li, Zheng [State University of New York, Binghamton; Wu, Zhuangchun [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Chen, Le [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Jung, Yoonseok [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yan, Yanfa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Whittingham, M. Stanley [State University of New York, Binghamton; Dillon, Anne C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "iot o-2 hurr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Fibrillar beta-amyloid peptide Abeta1-40activates microglial proliferation via stimulating TNF-alpha release and H2O2derived from NADPH oxidase: a cell culture study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Palwinder K Mander1, Anna Tickler2, Martyn Sharpe3 and Guy C Brown*1 Address: 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QW, UK, 2Cavendish laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK and 3... Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Biochemistry Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1319, USA Email: Aiste Jekabsone - aj293@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk; Palwinder K Mander - palwinder.k.mander@gsk.com; Anna Tickler - annatickler...

Jekabsone, Aiste; Mander, Palwinder K; Tickler, Anna; Sharpe, Martyn; Brown, Guy C

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

482

In-situ raman microscopy of individual LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles in the Li-ion battery composite cathode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kinetic characteristics of Li{sup +} intercalation/deintercalation into/from individual LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} particles in a composite cathode were studied in-situ using Raman microscopy during electrochemical charge-discharge in 1.2 M LiPF{sub 6}, ethylene carbonate (EC): ethyl-methyl carbonate (EMC), 3:7 by volume. Spectroscopic analysis of a cathode that was removed from a tested high-power Li-ion cell, which suffered substantial power and capacity loss, showed that the state of charge (SOC) of oxide particles on the cathode surface was highly non-uniform despite deep discharge of the Li-ion cell at the end of the test. In-situ monitoring of the SOC of selected oxide particles in the composite cathode in a sealed spectro-electrochemical cell revealed that the rate at which particles charge and discharge varied with time and location. The inconsistent kinetic behavior of individual oxide particles was attributed to degradation of the electronically conducting matrix in the composite cathode upon testing. These local micro-phenomena are responsible for the overall impedance rise of the cathode and contribute to the mechanism of lithium-ion cell failure.

Lei, Jinglei; McLarnon, Frank; Kostecki, Robert

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Grazing Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies of the Synthesis and Growth of CdS Quantum Dots from Constituent Atoms in SiO2 Matrix  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering was applied to study the synthesis and growth of CdS quantum dots (QDs) from Cd and S atoms implanted in SiO{sub 2}. For a dose of 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}, the partial synthesis of CdS QDs occurred already during implantation, with only moderate size increase upon subsequent annealing up to T{sub a} = 1073 K. The dynamics of QD synthesis and growth were considerably different for just two times lower dose, where synthesis started only if the implanted samples were annealed at T{sub a} = 773 K or higher, with a strong increase of the size of QDs upon annealing at higher T{sub a}. The results suggest that high-dose implantation followed by low-temperature annealing could lead to better defined sizes and narrower size distributions of QDs.

Desnica, U. V. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Dubcek, P. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Desnica-Frankovic, I. D. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Buljan, M. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy; White, Clark W [ORNL

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Momentum-space Electronic Structures and Charge Orders of the High-temperature Superconductors Ca2?xNaxCuO2Cl2 and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+?  

SciTech Connect

We study the electronic structure of Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} samples in a wide range of doping, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, with emphasis on the Fermi surface (FS) in the near antinodal region. The 'nesting wave vector,' i.e., the wave vector that connects two nearly flat pieces of the FS in the antinodal region, reveals a universal monotonic decrease in magnitude as a function of doping. Comparing our results to the charge order recently observed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), we conclude that the FS nesting and the charge order pattern seen in STS do not have a direct relationship. Therefore, the charge order likely arises due to strong-correlation physics rather than FS nesting physics.

Meng, J.Q.; Xu, Z.; Brunner, M.; Kim, K.-H.; Lee, H.-G.; Lee, S.-I.; Wen, J.S.; Gu, G.D.; Gweon, G.-H.

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

485

Comparative Study of the Capacity and Rate Capability of LiNiyMnyCo1-2yO2 (y50.5 0.45 0.4 0.33)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An unresolved question for the layered oxides is: what is the optimum value of y in the formula LiNi{sub y}Mn{sub y}Co{sub 1-2y}O{sub 2} for energy storage at moderate reaction rates? Here we report a systematic study of the specific capacity, rate capability and cycle life of Li{sub x}Ni{sub y}Mn{sub y}Co{sub 1-2y}O{sub 2}(y = 0.5, 0.45, 0.4, and 0.333). The voltage of the Li/y = 0.333 couple crosses over those of lower cobalt content for x < 0.55, as the Co redox begins to get involved. This early involvement of cobalt, rather than just Ni, leads to a slightly smaller specific capacity for y = 0.333 than for LiNi{sub y}Mn{sub y}Co{sub 1-2y}O{sub 2} with y > 0.333 when charging above 4 V. Overall the y = 0.4 material has the optimum properties, having the highest theoretical capacity, less of the expensive cobalt and yet rate capabilities and capacity retention comparable to the y = 0.333 material.

Z Li; N Chernova; M Roppolo; S Upreti; S Petersburg; F Alamgir; M Whittingham

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

486

Biotic and Abiotic Reduction and Solubilization of Pu(IV)O2•xH2O(am) as Affected by Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the presence of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), the synthetic chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and the electron shuttle anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens both reductively solubilized 100% of added 0.5 mM plutonium (IV) hydrous oxide (Pu(IV)O{sub 2} {lg_bullet} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)}) in {approx}24 h at pH 7 in a non-complexing buffer. In the absence of AQDS, bioreduction was much slower ({approx}22 days) and less extensive ({approx}83-94%). In the absence of DMRB but under comparable conditions, 89% (without AQDS) to 98% (with AQDS) of added 0.5 mM PuO{sub 2} {lg_bullet} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)} was reductively solubilized over 418 days. Under comparable conditions but in the absence of EDTA, Pu(aq) increased by as much as an order of magnitude in some EDTA-free treatments, both biotic and abiotic, and increases in solubility were associated with the production of both Pu(OH)3(am) and Pu(III)(aq). Incubation with DMRB in the absence of EDTA increased the polymeric and crystalline content of the PuO{sub 2} {lg_bullet} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)} and also decreased Pu solubility in 6-N HCl. Results from an in vitro assay demonstrated electron transfer to PuO{sub 2} {lg_bullet} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)} from the S. oneidensis outer-membrane c-type cytochrome MtrC, and EDTA increased the oxidation of MtrC by PuO{sub 2} {lg_bullet} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)}. Our results suggest that PuO{sub 2} {lg_bullet} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)} biotic and abiotic reduction and solubilization may be important in anoxic, reducing environments, especially where complexing ligands and electron shuttling compounds are present.

Plymale, Andrew E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Heald, Steve M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Resch, Charles T.; Moore, Dean A.; Bolton, Harvey

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

487

The effect of f[subscript O2] on the partitioning and valence of V and Cr in garnet/melt pairs and the relation to terrestrial mantle V and Cr content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chromium and vanadium are stable in multiple valence states in natural systems, and their distribution between garnet and silicate melt is not well understood. Here, the partitioning and valence state of V and Cr in experimental garnet/melt pairs have been studied at 1.8-3.0 GPa, with variable oxygen fugacity between IW-1.66 and the Ru-RuO{sub 2} (IW+9.36) buffer. In addition, the valence state of V and Cr has been measured in several high-pressure (majoritic garnet up to 20 GPa) experimental garnets, some natural megacrystic garnets from the western United States, and a suite of mantle garnets from South Africa. The results show that Cr remains in trivalent in garnet across a wide range of oxygen fugacities. Vanadium, on the other hand, exhibits variable valence state from 2.5 to 3.7 in the garnets and from 3.0 to 4.0 in the glasses. The valence state of V is always greater in the glass than in the garnet. Moreover, the garnet/melt partition coefficient, D(V), is highest when V is trivalent, at the most reduced conditions investigated (IW-1.66 to FMQ). The V{sup 2.5+} measured in high P-T experimental garnets is consistent with the reduced nature of those metal-bearing systems. The low V valence state measured in natural megacrystic garnets is consistent with f{sub O{sub 2}} close to the IW buffer, overlapping the range of f{sub O{sub 2}} measured independently by Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} techniques on similar samples. However, the valence state of V measured in a suite of mantle garnets from South Africa is constant across a 3 log f{sub O{sub 2}} unit range (FMQ-1.8 to FMQ-4.5), suggesting that the valence state of V is controlled by the crystal chemistry of the garnets rather than f{sub O{sub 2}} variations. The compatibility of V and Cr in garnets and other deep mantle silicates indicates that the depletion of these elements in the Earth's primitive upper mantle could be due to partitioning into lower mantle phases as well as into metal.

Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Schmidt, G.; Yang, H.; Berthet, S.; Newville, M.; Choi, Y.; Downs, R.T.; Malavergne, V. (Paris); (NASA-JSC); (UC); (Ariz)

2011-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

488

Dry etching of a device quality high-k GaxGdyOz gate oxide in CH4/H2-O2 chemistry for the fabrication of III-V MOSFETs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the reactive ion etching of Ga"xGd"yO"z, a device quality high-k gate oxide for the fabrication of III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) based on high mobility channel device layer structures. The ... Keywords: Compound semiconductor, Dry etching, Ga2O3(Gd2O3) RIE, GaxGdyOz, III-V MOSFET

X. Li; H. Zhou; R. J. W. Hill; C. D. W. Wilkinson; I. G. Thayne

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C1,supplkment au n O 2, Tome 40,fkvrier 1979,page Cl-335 l3EEw;u EPEhBENE OF THE POIARISATION IN ZUM-FIELD QUAN?JM BEATS IN Hg EMISSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

substates of the 4s, 4p and 4d levels was derived. The polarisa- tion 11-II averaged over the oscillations by a stepping motor. The protons are collected by a Faraday cup prece- grounded to earth. The magnetic field

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

490

T U F T ST U F T S V O L U M E 4 , N O . 2 W I N T E R 2 0 0 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in successional status (shade- tolerance) and co-occurred at Harvard Forest, Petersham, Mass., USA. Three drought out at the Harvard Forest, Petersham, Mass. (42 30 N, 72 15 W), which has been maintained Forest, Petersham, Mass., USA Species Sample number DBH (cm) Age (years) Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max

Tufts University

491

FTIR and Raman Study of the LixTiyMn1-yO2 (y = 0, 0.11) Cathodes in Methylpropyl Pyrrolidinium Bis(fluoro-sulfonyl)imide, LiTFSI Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

835s 791sh ?CF 3 TFSI ? s SNS FSI Ring mode P 13 Ring mode P13 Ring mode P 13 Ring mode P 13 ?S-F and ? a SNS FSI ?C-STFSI ? s SNS TFSI Ref [7]/ cm -1 Ref [12]/ cm -1 Ref [13]/

Hardwick, L.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z