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1

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01) (See95TI07)Operations2AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

2

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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3

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

H2O electrolysis and H2 oxidation, dense thin-film CeO2-x electrodes with Au current collectors were deposited onto YSZ electrolytes with a thin-film Pt counter electrode. The...

4

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

models of these materials for use in designing more efficient hydrogen gas production processes, like electrolysis, from renewable power sources, like water, allowing for...

5

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01) (See95TI07)Operations2 Print258DepartmentANUDlSiTM-40

6

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01) (See95TI07)Operations2 Print258DepartmentANUDlSiTM-40AP-XPS

7

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01) (See95TI07)Operations2

8

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011Astudies Colorado SteamboatPartnershipsANSER

9

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011Astudies Colorado SteamboatPartnershipsANSERAP-XPS

10

AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011Astudies Colorado

11

Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfidegraphene nanocomposites with small crystal size for high performance lithium ion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfide­graphene nanocomposites with small September 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2jm34864k This study reports a novel strategy of preparing graphene composites by employing graphene oxide as precursor and oxidizer. It is demonstrated that graphene oxide can oxidize

Cao, Guozhong

12

Transition metal-promoted oxygen ion conductors as oxidation catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons was prepared by combining oxygen ion conducting materials with active transition metals. The oxygen ion conductors used were typical fluorite-type oxides, such as ceria, zirconia, and others. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of oxygen ion conductors. The intimate contact of the two kinds of materials gave rise to a highly active oxidation catalyst. On Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts, 95% of carbon monoxide was oxidized by air at {approximately} 100 C. Complete methane oxidation on the same catalyst took place at {approximately} 550 C. When the stoichiometric amount of sulfur dioxide was sued to oxidize carbon monoxide, 96% of sulfur dioxide was reduced to elemental sulfur at temperatures above 460 C with 99% of sulfur dioxide conversion. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water poisoning.

Liu, W.; Sarofim, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C. Kam andusing rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become an

Kam, Kinson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Sodalite ion exchange in polyethylene oxide oligomer solvents Gina M. Canfield,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodalite ion exchange in polyethylene oxide oligomer solvents Gina M. Canfield,a Michael Bizimisb and rare earth ions. Ethylene oxide-based oligomers (polyethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol methyl ether

Latturner, Susan

15

Method for providing oxygen ion vacancies in lanthanide oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for desulfurization of fuel gases resulting from the incomplete combustion of sulfur containing hydrocarbons whereby the gases are treated with lanthanide oxides containing large numbers of oxygen-ion vacancies providing ionic porosity which enhances the ability of the lanthanide oxides to react more rapidly and completely with the sulfur in the fuel gases whereby the sulfur in such gases is reduced to low levels suitable for fuels for firing into boilers of power plants generating electricity with steam turbine driven generators, gas turbines, fuel cells and precursors for liquid fuels such as methanol and the like.

Kay, D. Alan R. (4305 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, CA); Wilson, William G. (820 Harden Dr., Pittsburgh, PA 15229)

1989-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

16

Ion irradiation of Fe-Fe oxide core-shell nanocluster films:...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

irradiation of Fe-Fe oxide core-shell nanocluster films: Effect of interface on stability of magnetic properties. Ion irradiation of Fe-Fe oxide core-shell nanocluster films:...

17

Stochastic model of lithium ion conduction in poly,,ethylene oxide... L. Gitelman,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stochastic model of lithium ion conduction in poly,,ethylene oxide... L. Gitelman,1 A. Averbuch,2,a of LiI salt. The current is due to diffusion and electric interactions with a permanent external field, the PEO charges, and ion-ion interactions. Potential barriers are created in the PEO by loops in structure

Averbuch, Amir

18

Microstructural effects on capacity-rate performance of vanadium oxide cathodes in lithium-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vanadium oxide thin film cathodes were analyzed to determine whether smaller average grain size and/or a narrower average grain size distribution affects the capacity-rate performance in lithium-ion batteries. Vanadium ...

Davis, Robin M. (Robin Manes)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Methane Oxidation to Methanol without CO2 Emission: Catalysis by Atomic Negative Ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The catalytic activities of the atomic Y-, Ru-, At-, In-, Pd-, Ag-, Pt-, and Os- ions have been investigated theoretically using the atomic Au- ion as the benchmark for the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. Dispersion-corrected density-functional theory has been used for the investigation. From the energy barrier calculations and the thermodynamics of the reactions, we conclude that the catalytic effect of the atomic Ag-, At-, Ru-, and Os- ions is higher than that of the atomic Au- ion catalysis of CH4 conversion to methanol. By controlling the temperature around 290K (Os-), 300K (Ag-), 310K (At-), 320K (Ru-) and 325K (Au-) methane can be completely oxidized to methanol without the emission of CO2. We conclude by recommending the investigation of the catalytic activities of combinations of the above negative ions for significant enhancement of the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

Tesfamichael, Aron; Felfli, Zineb; Msezane, Alfred Z

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Ion-modulated nonlinear electronic transport in carbon nanotube bundle/RbAg{sub 4}I{sub 5} thin film composite nanostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have explored the ion-modulated electronic transport properties of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) composite nanostructures made of superionic conductor RbAg{sub 4}I{sub 5} films and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle spiderwebs. Our experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the formation of ion-electron bound states (IEBSs) leads to strong ion-electron interference effect and interesting electronic transport of CNT, such as nonlinear current-voltage (IV) characteristics and novel temperature dependence of the current. With increasing temperature, the hybrid nanostructures show rich phases with different dependence of current on temperature, which is related to the structural phase transition of RbAg{sub 4}I{sub 5} and the transition of dissociation of IEBSs. The ion-modulation of the electric conductivity in such MIEC composite nanostructures with great tunability has been used to design new ionic-electronic composite nano-devices with function like field effect transistor.

Sun, Jia-Lin [State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhang-wei@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009(28), Beijing 100088 (China); Wei, Jinquan [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Education Ministry, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu, Bingfu [State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

22

Oxide shell reduction and magnetic property changes in core-shell Fe nanoclusters under ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion irradiation effects are studied on the Fe-based core-shell nanocluster (NC) films with core as Fe and shell as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Fe{sub 3}N. These NC films were deposited on Si substrates to thickness of ?0.5 ?m using a NC deposition system. The films were irradiated at room temperature with 5.5?MeV Si{sup 2+} ions to ion fluences of 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. It is found that the irradiation induces grain growth, Fe valence reduction in the shell, and crystallization or growth of Fe{sub 3}N. The film retained its Fe-core and its ferromagnetic properties after irradiation. The nature and mechanism of oxide shell reduction and composition dependence after irradiation were studied by synthesizing additional NC films of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeO?+?Fe{sub 3}N and irradiating them under the same conditions. The presence of nanocrystalline Fe is found to be a major factor for the oxide shell reduction. The surface morphologies of these films show dramatic changes in the microstructures due to cluster growth and agglomeration as a result of ion irradiation.

Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You, E-mail: youqiang@uidaho.edu [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Jiang, Weilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); McCloy, John S. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

23

Perchlorate Degradation Using Partially Oxidized Titanium Ions and Ion Exchange Membrane Hybrid System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. To enhance the overall rate of reaction, high concentrations of acid and Ti(III) are needed, but transport of hydrogen ions through the anion permeable membrane was observed and would be greater at higher acid concentrations. The proposed mathematical model...

Park, Sung Hyuk

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

24

Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1?keV and 23.3?keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

El-Said, A. S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa, E-mail: a.s.el-said@hzdr.de [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), 01328 Dresden (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Djebli, M. [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics USTHB, B.P. 32 Bab Ezzour, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

25

Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn.sub.2-y-zLi.sub.yM.sub.zO.sub.4 oxide with NH.sub.4HF.sub.2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wongchang

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electronic structure of nitinol surfaces oxidized by low-energy ion bombardment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the electronic structure of nitinol exposed to low-energy oxygen-ion bombardment, using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. XPS spectra reveal a gradual transformation of nitinol surfaces into TiO{sub 2} with increased dose of implanted oxygen. No oxidation of Ni atoms has been detected. NEXAFS spectra around O K-edge and Ti L{sub 2,3}-edge, reflecting the element-specific partial density of empty electronic states, exhibit features, which can be attributed to the creation of molecular orbitals, crystal field splitting, and the absence of long-range order, characteristic of the amorphous TiO{sub 2}. Based on these results, we discuss the oxidation kinetics of nitinol under low-energy oxygen-ion bombardment.

Petravic, M., E-mail: mpetravic@phy.uniri.hr; Varasanec, M.; Peter, R.; Kavre, I. [Department of Physics and Center for Micro and Nano Sciences and Technologies, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Metikos-Hukovic, M. [Department of Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Yang, Y.-W. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China)

2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

27

Monolithic Nickel (II) Oxide Aerogels Using an Organic Epoxide: The Importance of the Counter Ion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis and characterization of nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials prepared using the epoxide addition method is described. The addition of the organic epoxide propylene oxide to an ethanolic solution of NiCl{sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O resulted in the formation of an opaque light green monolithic gel and subsequent drying with supercritical CO{sub 2} gave a monolithic aerogel material of the same color. This material has been characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The results indicate that the nickel (II) oxide aerogel has very low bulk density (98 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx}98 %porous)), high surface area (413 m{sup 2}/g), and has a particulate-type aerogel microstructure made up of very fine spherical particles with an open porous network. By comparison, a precipitate of Ni{sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 4} is obtained when the same preparation is attempted with the common Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O salt as the precursor. The implications of the difference of reactivity of the two different precursors are discussed in the context of the mechanism of gel formation via the epoxide addition method. The synthesis of nickel (II) oxide aerogel, using the epoxide addition method, is especially unique in our experience. It is our first example of the successful preparation of a metal oxide aerogel using a metal divalent metal ion and may have implications for the application of this method to the preparation of aerogels or nanoparticles of other divalent metal oxides. To our knowledge this is the first report of a monolithic pure nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials.

Gash, A E; Satcher, J H; Simpson, R L

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

28

Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn2-y-zLiyMzO4 oxide with NH4HF2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wonchang

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

29

Graphene-oxide-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries with high energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene-oxide-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries with high Since Sony rst commercialized lithium ion batteries in the early 1990s, the market for lithium ion of the great success of lithium ion battery technology developed for portable electronic devices, higher

Zhou, Chongwu

30

Electronic transport in Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide, a high-voltage cathode material for Lithium-Ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential routes by which the energy densities of lithium-ion batteries may be improved abound. However, the introduction of Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide (LixNi1i/2Mn3/2O4, or LNMO) as a positive electrode material appears ...

Ransil, Alan Patrick Adams

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

32

Observations of Oxygen Ion Behavior in the Lithium-Based Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parametric studies were performed on a lithium-based electrolytic reduction process at bench-scale to investigate the behavior of oxygen ions in the reduction of uranium oxide for various electrochemical cell configurations. Specifically, a series of eight electrolytic reduction runs was performed in a common salt bath of LiCl 1 wt% Li2O. The variable parameters included fuel basket containment material (i.e., stainless steel wire mesh and sintered stainless steel) and applied electrical charge (i.e., 75 150% of the theoretical charge for complete reduction of uranium oxide in a basket to uranium metal). Samples of the molten salt electrolyte were taken at regular intervals throughout each run and analyzed to produce a time plot of Li2O concentrations in the bulk salt over the course of the runs. Following each run, the fuel basket was sectioned and the fuel was removed. Samples of the fuel were analyzed for the extent of uranium oxide reduction to metal and for the concentration of salt constituents, i.e., LiCl and Li2O. Extents of uranium oxide reduction ranged from 43 70% in stainless steel wire mesh baskets and 8 33 % in sintered stainless steel baskets. The concentrations of Li2O in the salt phase of the fuel product from the stainless steel wire mesh baskets ranged from 6.2 9.2 wt%, while those for the sintered stainless steel baskets ranged from 26 46 wt%. Another series of tests was performed to investigate the dissolution of Li2O in LiCl at 650 C across various cathode containment materials (i.e., stainless steel wire mesh, sintered stainless steel and porous magnesia) and configurations (i.e., stationary and rotating cylindrical baskets). Dissolution of identical loadings of Li2O particulate reached equilibrium within one hour for stationary stainless steel wire mesh baskets, while the same took several hours for sintered stainless steel and porous magnesia baskets. Rotation of an annular cylindrical basket of stainless steel wire mesh accelerated the Li2O dissolution rate by more than a factor of six.

Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li; Brenda E. Serrano-Rodriguez

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311(5763), 977-^ for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc.02 for lithium-ion batteries," Chem. Lett. , [3] Yabuuchi,

Doeff, Marca M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Solubility of, and hydrogen ion adsorption on, some metal oxides in aqueous solutions to high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solubility of boehmite (AlOOH), ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2)/magnetite (Fe3O4), zincite (ZnO), and brucite (Mg(OH)2) were measured over a range of temperatures (AlOOH, 100-290 C; Fe(OH)2/Fe3O4, 100-250 C; ZnO, 50-290 C; Mg(OH)2, 60-200 C) using in situ pH measurements. A hydrogen-electrode concentration cell was used; the pH range depended on the oxide. The solubility results for boehmite mainly demonstrate the method viability, while those for zincite are mainly restricted to mildly acidic to neutral pH where Zn{sup 2+} predominates in solution. The magnetite (presumably coated with Fe(OH)2) solubilities extend from pHs > 5 and, because of relevance to water/steam cycles of power plants, are compared in detail with previous studies. The same cell was used to investigate the surface adsorption-desorption thermodynamics of H ions on rutile (TiO2) and zincite to 290 C. Behavior of pH at zero-point-of-charge as function of temperature and application of the Stern-3-layer model were determined for this solid. The zincite study is still incomplete; preliminary results show trends that can be rationalized only qualitatively now with the zero- point-of-charge being apparently affected by hydration of the surface in basic solutions and specific adsorption of Na ions under the same conditions.

Palmer, D.A.; Benezeth, P.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Machesky, M.L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Hayashi, Ken-ichiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology; Hyde, K.E. [State Univ. of New York, Oswego, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent work in our laboratory has been directed towards development of mixed layered transition metal oxides with general composition Li[Ni, Co, M, Mn]O2 (M=Al, Ti) for Li ion battery cathodes. Compounds such as Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 (often called NMCs) are currently being commercialized for use in consumer electronic batteries, but the high cobalt content makes them too expensive for vehicular applications such as electric vehicles (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To reduce materials costs, we have explored partial or full substitution of Co with Al, Ti, and Fe. Fe substitution generally decreases capacity and results in poorer rate and cycling behavior. Interestingly, low levels of substitution with Al or Ti improve aspects of performance with minimal impact on energy densities, for some formulations. High levels of Al substitution compromise specific capacity, however, so further improvements require that the Ni and Mn content be increased and Co correspondingly decreased. Low levels of Al or Ti substitution can then be used offset negative effects induced by the higher Ni content. The structural and electrochemical characterization of substituted NMCs is presented in this paper.

Doeff, Marca M.; Conry, Thomas; Wilcox, James

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

36

X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the local structure of heavy metal ions incorporated into electrodeposited nickel oxide films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The incorporation of heavy metal ions into simulated corrosion films has been investigated using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The films were formed by electrodeposition of the appropriate oxide (hydroxide) onto a graphite substrate. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine the structure and composition of the host oxide film, as well as the local structure of the impurity ion. Results on the incorporation of Ce and Sr into surface films of Ni(OH){sub 2} and NiOOH are reported. Cathodically deposited Ni(OH){sub 2} was found to be mainly in the alpha form while anodically prepared NiOOH showed the presence of Ni{sup +2} and Ni{sup +4}. Cerium incorporated into Ni(OH){sub 2} exists as mixed Ce{sup +3} and Ce{sup +4} phases; a Ce{sup +4} species was found when Ce was codeposited with NiOOH. The structure of the Ce{sup +4} phase in anodic films appears similar to a Ce(OH){sub 4} standard. However, XAS, X-ray diffraction, and laser Raman measurements indicate that the latter chemical formulation is probably incorrect and that the material is really a disordered form of hydrous cerium oxide. The local structure of this material is similar to CeO{sub 2} but has much higher structural disorder. The significance of this finding on the question of the structure of Ce-based corrosion inhibitors in aluminum oxide films is pointed out. Moreover, the authors found it possible to form pure Ce oxide (hydroxide) films on graphite by both cathodic and anodic electrodeposition; their structures have also been elucidated. Strontium incorporated into nickel oxide films consists of Sr{sup +2} which is coordinated to oxygen atoms and is likely to exist as small domains of coprecipitated material.

Balasubramanian, M.; Melendres, C.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Mansour, A.N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bethesda, MD (United States). Carderock Div.] [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bethesda, MD (United States). Carderock Div.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE SECA project focused on both experimental and theoretical understanding of oxygen reduction processes in a porous mixed-conducting cathode in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Elucidation of the detailed oxygen reduction mechanism, especially the rate-limiting step(s), is critical to the development of low-temperature SOFCs (400 C to 700 C) and to cost reduction since much less expensive materials may be used for cell components. However, cell performance at low temperatures is limited primarily by the interfacial polarization resistances, specifically by those associated with oxygen reduction at the cathode, including transport of oxygen gas through the porous cathode, the adsorption of oxygen onto the cathode surface, the reduction and dissociation of the oxygen molecule (O{sub 2}) into the oxygen ion (O{sup 2-}), and the incorporation of the oxygen ion into the electrolyte. In order to most effectively enhance the performance of the cathode at low temperatures, we must understand the mechanism and kinetics of the elementary processes at the interfaces. Under the support of this DOE SECA project, our accomplishments included: (1) Experimental determination of the rate-limiting step in the oxygen reduction mechanism at the cathode using in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, including surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). (2) Fabrication and testing of micro-patterned cathodes to compare the relative activity of the TPB to the rest of the cathode surface. (3) Construction of a mathematical model to predict cathode performance based on different geometries and microstructures and analyze the kinetics of oxygen-reduction reactions occurring at charged mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) using two-dimensional finite volume models with ab initio calculations. (4) Fabrication of cathodes that are graded in composition and microstructure to generate large amounts of active surface area near the cathode/electrolyte interface using a novel combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique. (5) Application of advanced quantum chemical calculations to interpret measured spectroscopic information, as well as to guide design of high efficient cathode materials.

YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

38

Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transition metal oxides. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,

Kam, Kinson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.

He, Yang; Piper, Daniela M.; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J.; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X.; Zhang, Jiguang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

40

Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311 (5763),for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311(5763), 977-M n , ^ for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem.

Doeff, Marca M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Depth distribution of lithium in oxidized binary Al-Li alloys determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and neutron depth profiling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation of binary Al-Li alloys during short exposures at 530 C and long exposures at 200 C was studied with regard to the Li distribution. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) were used to obtain quantitative Li depth profiles across the surface oxide layer and the underlying alloy. The underlying alloy was depleted in Li as a result of oxidation at 530 and 200 C. The SIMS and NDP results showed good mutual agreement and were used to evaluate the oxide thickness, the Li concentration at the oxide-ally interface, and the mass balance between oxide and alloy. The Li depletion profiles in the alloy were also calculated using the interdiffusion coefficients reported in the literature and compared with the measured profiles; the two profiles differed at 530 C but showed good agreement at 200 C.

Soni, K.K. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)); Williams, D.B. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)); Newbury, D.E.; Chi, P.; Downing, R.G.; Lamaza, G. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Preparation of anionic clay-birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}(OH){sub 8}(OAc){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used. - Graphical abstract: Nickel zinc hydroxyoxalate was reacted with potassium permanganate to get nickel zinc hydroxide birnessite composites in which the positive charges on the hydroxide layers are neutralized by the negative charges on birnessite layers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anionic and cationic layered solid composites prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Zn hydroxyoxalate reacted with KMnO{sub 4} to deposit MnO{sub 2} in the interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite layers coexist with anionic clay layers in the composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite/anionic clay ratio controlled by amount of KMnO{sub 4} used and reaction time.

Arulraj, James [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India)] [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India); Rajamathi, Michael, E-mail: mikerajamathi@rediffmail.com [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India)] [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Ab initio screening of lithium diffusion rates in transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Oxide-ion conductivity in Cu {sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-{delta}} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.10)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Up to 10 at.% of copper readily substitutes for cerium in ceria. It is found that at oxygen partial pressures between 0.21 atm and 10{sup -5} atm, Cu {sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-{delta}} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.10) solid solution behave as an oxide-ion electrolyte. Interestingly, Cu{sub 0.10}Ce{sub 0.90}O{sub 2-{delta}} exhibits the oxide-ion conductivity of ca. 10{sup -4} {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} at 600 deg. C at an oxygen partial pressure of 10{sup -5} atm.

Gayen, Arup [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Priolkar, K.R. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206 (India); Shukla, A.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ravishankar, N. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Hegde, M.S. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)]. E-mail: mshegde@sscu.iisc.ernet.in

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

45

Effects of Ion-Exchange Treatment on Bromate Formation and Oxidation Efficiency during Ozonation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water treatment. In this study, we applied several different ion exchangers (i.e., anion exchange resins technologies in advanced drinking water treatment processes along with activated carbon treatment. Ozonation), chlorine-resistant pathogenic organisms, and various micropollutants in drinking water treatment. In Japan

Takada, Shoji

46

Modeling and simulation of Li-ion conduction in poly(ethylene oxide)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/discharge voltage depends on the current and resistance of all battery components. In most solid-state lithium as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) in thin-film batteries and its ionic conductivity is a key parameter-ion batteries, a thin-layer (0.02­0.2 mm) solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) is sandwiched between two electrodes

Averbuch, Amir

47

A relation between surface oxide and oxygen-defect complexes in solid-phase epitaxial Si regrown from ion-beam-amorphized Si layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a direct evidence that ion implantation through thin ({<=}5 nm) surface oxide layers is a source of O impurities, which form O-defect complexes during thermal treatment. The impurity-defect complexes are identified by correlating the results from positron annihilation spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and Monte Carlo simulations. The O atoms are introduced in the bulk by multiple recoil implantation by the primary ions. The signatures of large V{sub m}O{sub n} formations are observed at 800 degree sign C, which implies the existence of smaller species at lower temperatures. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Petkov, Mihail P. [Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163-2814 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163-2814 (United States); Chen, Claudine M. [Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Atwater, Harry A. [Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Rassiga, Stefano [Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163-2814 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163-2814 (United States); Lynn, Kelvin G. [Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163-2814 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163-2814 (United States)

2000-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

48

Stability of nanoclusters in 14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened steel under heavy ion-irradiation by atom probe tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was irradiated with of 5 MeV Ni2+ ions, at 300 C, 450 C, and 600 C to a damage level of 100 dpa. The stability of TiYO nanoclusters was investigated by applying atom probe tomography (APT) in voltage mode, of the samples before and after irradiations. The average size and number density of the nanoclusters was determined using the maximum separation method. These techniques allowed for the imaging of nanoclusters to sizes well below the resolution limit of conventional transmission electron microscopy techniques. The most significant changes were observed for samples irradiated at 300 C where the size (average Guinier radius) and number density of nanoclusters were observed to decrease from 1.1 nm to 0.8 nm and 12 1023 to 3.6 1023, respectively. In this study, the nanoclusters are more stable at higher temperature.

Jianchao He; Farong Wan; Kumar Sridharan; Todd R. Allen; A. Certain; V. Shutthanandan; Y.Q. Wu

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Stability Of Nanoclusters In 14YWT Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Under Heavy Ion-irradiation By Atom Probe Tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was irradiated with of 5 MeV Ni2+ ions, at 300 C, 450 C, and 600 C to a damage level of 100 dpa. The stability of TiYO nanoclusters was investigated by applying atom probe tomography (APT) in voltage mode, of the samples before and after irradiations. The average size and number density of the nanoclusters was determined using the maximum separation method. These techniques allowed for the imaging of nanoclusters to sizes well below the resolution limit of conventional transmission electron microscopy techniques. The most significant changes were observed for samples irradiated at 300 C where the size (average Guinier radius) and number density of nanoclusters were observed to decrease from 1.1 nm to 0.8 nm and 12 1023 to 3.6 1023, respectively. In this study, the nanoclusters are more stable at higher temperature.

He, Jianchao; Wan, F.; Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd R.; Certain, Alicia G.; Shutthanandan, V.; Wu, Yaqiao

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Magnetization measurements and XMCD studies on ion irradiated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

measurements and XMCD studies on ion irradiated iron oxide and core-shell ironiron-oxide nanomaterials. Magnetization measurements and XMCD studies on ion irradiated iron oxide...

51

Enhanced rate capability of LiMn0.9Mg0.1PO4 nanoplates by reduced graphene oxide/carbon double coating for Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coating for Li-ion batteries Sungun Wi a , Jaewon Kim a , Seunghoon Nam a , Joonhyeon Kang a , Sangheon March 2014 Available online 12 March 2014 Keywords: Li-ion battery LiMnPO4 Reduced graphene oxide Charge) nanoplates are intro- duced as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries with excellent rate capability

Park, Byungwoo

52

Ion irradiation of Fe-Fe oxide core-shell nanocluster films: Effect of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigatingAdaptedInvestor|Heavy Ions: Ainterface

53

Roles of Glutamates and Metal ions in a Rationally Designed Nitric Oxide Reductase Based on Myoglobin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A structural and functional model of bacterial nitric oxide reductase (NOR) has been designed by introducing two glutamates (Glu) and three histidines (His) in sperm whale myoglobin. X-ray structural data indicate that the three His and one Glu (V68E) residues bind iron, mimicking the putative FeB site in NOR, while the second Glu (I107E) interacts with a water molecule and forms a hydrogen bonding network in the designed protein. Unlike the first Glu (V68E), which lowered the heme reduction potential by {approx}110 mV, the second Glu has little effect on the heme potential, suggesting that the negatively charged Glu has a different role in redox tuning. More importantly, introducing the second Glu resulted in a {approx}100% increase in NOR activity, suggesting the importance of a hydrogen bonding network in facilitating proton delivery during NOR reactivity. In addition, EPR and X-ray structural studies indicate that the designed protein binds iron, copper, or zinc in the FeB site, each with different effects on the structures and NOR activities, suggesting that both redox activity and an intermediate five-coordinate heme-NO species are important for high NOR activity. The designed protein offers an excellent model for NOR and demonstrates the power of using designed proteins as a simpler and more well-defined system to address important chemical and biological issues.

Y Lin; N Yeung; Y Gao; K Miner; S Tian; H Robinson; Y Lu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Photoluminescence properties of Ho{sup 3+} ion in lithium-fluoroborate glass containing different modifier oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trivalent holmium (0.5 mol%) doped lithium fluoro-borate glasses with the chemical compositions 49.5Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7?}20BaF{sub 2?}10NaF?20MO (where M=Mg, Ca, Cd and Pb), 49.5Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7?}20BaF{sub 2?}10NaF?10MgO?10CaO and 49.5Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7?}20BaF{sub 2?}10NaF?10CdO?10PbO were synthesized and investigated their photoluminescence properties. The variation in chemical composition by varying modifier oxides causes changes in the structural spectroscopic behavior of Ho{sup 3+} ions. These changes are examined by UV-VIS- NIR and luminescence spectroscopic techniques. The visible luminescence spectra were obtained by exciting samples at 409 nm radiation.

Balakrishna, A., E-mail: ratnakaramsvu@gmail.com; Rajesh, D., E-mail: ratnakaramsvu@gmail.com; Ratnakaram, Y. C., E-mail: ratnakaramsvu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, S. V. University, Tirupati-517502 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

55

Properties of tungsten oxide thin films formed by ion-plasma and laser deposition methods for MOSiC-based hydrogen sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin-film structures based on gas-sensitive tungsten oxide and catalytic platinum are fabricated by room-temperature deposition on a silicon carbide wafer using pulsed laser and ion-plasma methods. Oxide layer annealing in air to 600 Degree-Sign C caused the formation of microstructured and nanostructured crystalline states depending on the deposition conditions. Structural differences affect the electrical parameters and the stability of characteristics. The maximum response to hydrogen is detected in the structure fabricated by depositing a low-energy laser-induced flow of tungsten atoms in oxygen. The voltage shift of the currentvoltage curves for 2% H{sub 2} in air at 350 Degree-Sign C was 4.6 V at a current of {approx}10 {mu}A. The grown structures' metastability caused a significant decrease in the shift after long-term cyclic testing. The most stable shifts of {approx}2 V at positive bias on the Pt contact were detected for oxide films deposited by ion-plasma sputtering.

Fominski, V. Y., E-mail: vyfominskij@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University 'MEPhI' (Russian Federation); Grigoriev, S. N. [Moscow State Technological University 'Stankin' (Russian Federation); Romanov, R. I.; Zuev, V. V.; Grigoriev, V. V. [National Research Nuclear University 'MEPhI' (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

THE MICROSTRUCTURAL LOCATION OF THE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I I ntroduct Ion Metal oxide varistors are ceramic semi-SECTION M METAL' OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTORTHE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR

Clarke, D. E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidationreduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chlorideethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup ?1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.

Gu, Changdong, E-mail: cdgu@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

In situ X-ray absorption fine structure studies of foreign metal ions in nickel hydrous oxide electrodes in alkaline electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aspects of the structural and electronic properties of hydrous oxide films of composite (9:1) Ni/Co and (9:1) Ni/Fe, prepared by electrodeposition, have been examined in alkaline electrolytes using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). An analysis of the X-ray absorption near the edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for the Co and Fe K-edges of these composite hydrous oxides revealed that, regardless of the oxidation state of nickel sites in the films, the guest metal ions are present as Co[sup 3+] and Fe[sup 3+] and that the cobalt-oxygen distance d(Co-O) = 1.9 [+-] 0.02 [angstrom] and d(Fe-O) = 1.92 [+-] 0.02 [angstrom]. The latter values are in excellent agreement with d(Me-O) (Me = Co or Fe) in CoOOH and [beta]- and [gamma]-FeOOH, respectively, determined by conventional X-ray diffraction. Two clearly defined Me-Ni first coordination shells could be observed in the Fourier transforms (FT) of the K-edge EXAFS of the guest metal recorded at a potential at which both Ni[sup 2+] and Ni[sup 3+] sites are expected to be present. 28 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, D.A.; Scherson, D. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Antonio, M.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Carr, R. (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States))

1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

59

Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

60

Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

Repasky, John Michael

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Nuclear waste treatment - Studying the mixed ion type effects and concentration on the behaviour of oxide dispersions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to gain good control over a particulate dispersion it is necessary to accurately characterise the strength of inter-particle forces that may be operating. Such control is not routinely used, as yet, in the nuclear industry despite the possible benefits. We are investigating the impact of mixed electrolyte systems, for example NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, on the stability of oxide simulant particle dispersions. The electro-acoustic zeta potentials and shear yield stresses for concentrated dispersions have been measured across a range of pH conditions and electrolyte concentrations (0.001 M - 1.0 M). This paper summarizes initial data from these studies showing how the shear yield stress of concentrated aqueous oxide particle dispersions, can be adjusted through regulation of pH and the addition of background electrolytes (salt). The yield stress as a function of pH for these dispersions in mixed electrolytes showed a direct correlation with corresponding measurements of the zeta potential. Changes in the background electrolyte concentration or type were seen to cause a shift in the position of the isoelectric point (iep). Measurements of the shear yield stress showed a maximum at the iep corresponding to the position of maximum instability in the suspension. The consequences of these data for the efficient treatment of solid-liquid systems will be discussed. (authors)

Omokanye, Qanitalillahi; Biggs, Simon [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Fundamental studies of perovskite related oxide thin films for oxygen electrocatalysis at intermediate temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discovering highly active and stable catalysts for electrochemical energy conversion and storage is essential to envision a new generation of renewable energy applications. Mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIECs) ...

Lee, Dongkyu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Strong reduction of V{sup 4+} amount in vanadium oxide/hexadecylamine nanotubes by doping with Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions: Electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we present a complete characterization and magnetic study of vanadium oxide/hexadecylamine nanotubes (VO{sub x}/Hexa NT's) doped with Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions. The morphology of the NT's has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, while the metallic elements have been quantified by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The static and dynamic magnetic properties were studied by collecting data of magnetization as a function of magnetic field and temperature and by electron paramagnetic resonance. At difference of the majority reports in the literature, we do not observe magnetic dimers in vanadium oxide nanotubes. Also, we observed that the incorporation of metallic ions (Co{sup 2+}, S = 3/2 and Ni{sup 2+}, S = 1) decreases notably the amount of V{sup 4+} ions in the system, from 14-16% (nondoped case) to 2%-4%, with respect to the total vanadium atoms (fact corroborated by XPS experiments) anyway preserving the tubular nanostructure. The method to decrease the amount of V{sup 4+} in the nanotubes improves considerably their potential technological applications as Li-ion batteries cathodes.

Saleta, M. E.; Troiani, H. E.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Ruano, G.; Sanchez, R. D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, (8400) S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Malta, M. [Depto. de Cs. Exatas e da Terra, Univ. do Estado da Bahia, Cabula Salvador CP 2555 (Brazil); Torresi, R. M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo CP 26077, 05513-970 (Brazil)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Stability Of Nanoclusters In 14YWT Oxide Dispersion Strengthened...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stability Of Nanoclusters In 14YWT Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Under Heavy Ion-irradiation By Atom Probe Tomography. Stability Of Nanoclusters In 14YWT Oxide Dispersion...

65

Excitation mechanism and thermal emission quenching of Tb ions in silicon rich silicon oxide thin films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour depositionDo we need silicon nanoclusters?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we will discuss the excitation and emission properties of Tb ions in a Silicon Rich Silicon Oxide (SRSO) matrix obtained at different technological conditions. By means of electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, undoped and doped SRSO films have been obtained with different Si content (33, 35, 39, 50 at.%) and were annealed at different temperatures (600, 900, 1100?C). The samples were characterized optically and structurally using photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation, time resolved PL, absorption, cathodoluminescence, temperature dependent PL, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, we discuss how the matrix modifications influence excitation and emission properties of Tb ions.

Podhorodecki, A., E-mail: artur.p.podhorodecki@pwr.wroc.pl; Golacki, L. W.; Zatryb, G.; Misiewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Wang, J.; Jadwisienczak, W. [School of EECS, Ohio University, Stocker Center 363, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Fedus, K. [Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5/7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Wojcik, J.; Wilson, P. R. J.; Mascher, P. [Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4L7 (Canada)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

66

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

67

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

68

Staged membrane oxidation reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

69

Buried oxide layer in silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Layered Oxides for Lithium Batteries. Nano Lett. 13, 3857O 2 Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energydecomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-principles

Lin, Feng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

A relation between surface oxide and oxygen-defect complexes in solid-phase epitaxial Si regrown from ion-beam-amorphized Si layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Stefano Rassiga and Kelvin positron annihilation spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and Monte Carlo simulations. The O was used to measure the incorporation of O atoms in the Si sub- strate, predicted by Monte Carlo TRIM 8

Atwater, Harry

73

Thin film ion conducting coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated yttrium oxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

copper oxide," G. Srinivasan, Guo-mei Wu, and T. T. Srinivasan, J... frequencies in transition metal ion substituted yttrium barium copper oxide superconductors," G. Srinivasan......

75

Method and reaction pathway for selectively oxidizing organic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of selectively oxidizing an organic compound in a single vessel comprises: a) combining an organic compound, an acid solution in which the organic compound is soluble, a compound containing two oxygen atoms bonded to one another, and a metal ion reducing agent capable of reducing one of such oxygen atoms, and thereby forming a mixture; b) reducing the compound containing the two oxygen atoms by reducing one of such oxygen atoms with the metal ion reducing agent to, 1) oxidize the metal ion reducing agent to a higher valence state, and 2) produce an oxygen containing intermediate capable of oxidizing the organic compound; c) reacting the oxygen containing intermediate with the organic compound to oxidize the organic compound into an oxidized organic intermediate, the oxidized organic intermediate having an oxidized carbon atom; d) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the acid counter ion and higher valence state metal ion to bond the acid counter ion to the oxidized carbon atom and thereby produce a quantity of an ester incorporating the organic intermediate and acid counter ion; and e) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the higher valence state metal ion and water to produce a quantity of alcohol which is less than the quantity of ester, the acid counter ion incorporated in the ester rendering the carbon atom bonded to the counter ion less reactive with the oxygen containing intermediate in the mixture than is the alcohol with the oxygen containing intermediate.

Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Selective ion source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

Leung, K.N.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

77

Selective ion source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Vitrification of ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

80

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Radioactive ion detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

82

Radioactive ion detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

Bower, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Weeks, Donald R. (Saratoga, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Classification of oxide glasses: A polarizability approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A classification of binary oxide glasses has been proposed taking into account the values obtained on their refractive index-based oxide ion polarizability {alpha}{sub O2-}(n{sub 0}), optical basicity {lambda}(n{sub 0}), metallization criterion M(n{sub 0}), interaction parameter A(n{sub 0}), and ion's effective charges as well as O1s and metal binding energies determined by XPS. Four groups of oxide glasses have been established: glasses formed by two glass-forming acidic oxides; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic oxide and modifier's basic oxide; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic and conditional glass-forming basic oxide; glasses formed by two basic oxides. The role of electronic ion polarizability in chemical bonding of oxide glasses has been also estimated. Good agreement has been found with the previous results concerning classification of simple oxides. The results obtained probably provide good basis for prediction of type of bonding in oxide glasses on the basis of refractive index as well as for prediction of new nonlinear optical materials.

Dimitrov, Vesselin [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, The Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-ken 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Ion Colliders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

Fischer, W

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Reversible photodeposition and dissolution of metal ions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cyclic photocatalytic process for treating waste water containing metal and organic contaminants. In one embodiment of the method, metal ions are photoreduced onto the photocatalyst and the metal concentrated by resolubilization in a smaller volume. In another embodiment of the method, contaminant organics are first oxidized, then metal ions removed by photoreductive deposition. The present invention allows the photocatalyst to be recycled until nearly complete removal of metal ions and organic contaminants is achieved.

Foster, Nancy S. (Boulder, CO); Koval, Carl A. (Golden, CO); Noble, Richard D. (Boulder, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

EMSL - oxides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxides en Influence of Adsorption Site and Wavelength on the Photodesorption of NO from the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) Mixed Oxide Surface. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

88

Paper-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Nojan Aliahmad, Mangilal Agarwal, Sudhir Shrestha, and Kody Varahramyan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Paper-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Nojan Aliahmad, Mangilal Agarwal, Sudhir Shrestha, and Kody Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN 46202 Lithium-ion batteries have a wide range of applications including devices. Lithium titanium oxide (Li4Ti5O12), lithium magnesium oxide (LiMn2O4) and lithium cobalt oxide

Zhou, Yaoqi

89

EMSL - ions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ions en Reorientation of the free OH group in the top-most layer of airwater interface of sodium fluoride aqueous http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

90

Ion transport membrane module and vessel system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

91

Ion transport membrane module and vessel system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

92

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

94

Ion exchange purification of scandium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity. 2 figs.

Herchenroeder, L.A.; Burkholder, H.R.

1990-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

95

E-Print Network 3.0 - area perovskite-type oxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of perovskite-type;it has... to understandwhy certain perovskite-type and rutile-type electrochromic oxides become absorbing under ion insertion... such as spectral and angular...

96

E-Print Network 3.0 - active complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium Summary: wavelength spectrum allowing optoelectronic integra- tion to enhance complementary-metal-oxide- semiconductor... lim- its in...

97

Oxide Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell Fe Nanoclusters under Ion Irradiation. Oxide Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell Fe Nanoclusters...

98

Characterization of Ion Dynamics in Structures for Lossless Ion...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ion Dynamics in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations. Characterization of Ion Dynamics in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations. Abstract: Structures for Lossless Ion...

99

Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir City, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

secondary ion detection | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ion detection secondary ion detection Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Investigating Iron Ions | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigating Iron Ions Investigating Iron Ions Computer code provides detailed predictions of highly charged ions in water Using resources at EMSL, scientists obtained...

102

NO.sub.x sensing devices having conductive oxide electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A NO.sub.x sensing device includes at least one pair of spaced electrodes, at least one of which is made of a conductive oxide, and an oxygen-ion conducting material in bridging electrical communication with the electrodes.

Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); West, David L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

103

Surface kinetics modeling of silicon oxide etching in fluorocarbon plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluorocarbon plasma for silicon oxide etching is a complicated system involving many ion and neutral species. Depending on the plasma condition, many difficulties arise such as RIE lag, etch stop, and low selectivity to ...

Kwon, Ohseung, 1969-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Electrochemical Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Nanostructured Electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

microstructures called aerogels in the case of supercritical or freeze-drying and ambigels in the case of solvent for intercalated ions.7 When cycled between 4.0 and 1.5 V, vanadium oxide aerogels achieved capaci- ties of 410 mAh/g at C/40.6 Baudrin et al. have used the vanadium oxide aerogel structure to access a metastable phase

Sadoway, Donald Robert

105

GeOx/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite as an Anode for Li-ion Batteries: Enhanced Capacity via Reversible Utilization of Li2O along with Improved Rate Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A self-assembled GeOx/reduced graphene oxide (GeOx/RGO) composite, where GeOx nanoparticles were grown directly on reduced graphene oxide sheets, was synthesized via a facile one-step reduction approach and studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy elemental mapping, and other techniques. Electrochemical evaluation indicates that incorporation of reduced graphene oxide enhances both the rate capability and reversible capacity of GeOx, with the latter being due to the RGO enabling reversible utilization of Li2O. The composite delivers a high reversible capacity of 1600 mAhg-1 at a current density of 100 mAg-1, and still maintains a capacity of 410 mAhg-1 at a high current density of 20 Ag-1. Owing to the flexible reduced graphene oxide sheets enwrapping the GeOx particles, the cycling stability of the composite was also improved significantly. To further demonstrate its feasibility in practical applications, the synthesized GeOx/RGO composite anode was successfully paired with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode to form a full cell, which showed good cycling and rate performance.

Lv, Dongping; Gordin, Mikhail; Yi, Ran; Xu, Terrence (Tianren); Song, Jiangxuan; Jiang, Yingbing; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

107

Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxidizing agent than SVI ions (Eo = 1.5 V SeO4 2 /H2SeO3, Eo = 0.17 V SO4 2 /H2SO3, respec- tively) and, critically, the hydrated form, selenic acid (H2SeO4), is known to oxidize gold metal.[7] Equally impor- tant

Goddard III, William A.

108

Polyoxometalate water oxidation catalysts and methods of use thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The hydrogen ions are subsequently reduced to form hydrogen gas, for example, using a hydrogen evolution catalyst (HEC). The hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in combustion reactions and/or in hydrogen fuel cells. The catalysts described herein exhibit higher turn over numbers, faster turn over frequencies, and/or higher oxygen yields than prior art catalysts.

Hill, Craig L.; Gueletii, Yurii V.; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Yin, Qiushi; Botar, Bogdan

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

109

Solubility Behavior and Phase Stability of Transition Metal Oxides in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility behavior of transition metal oxides in high temperature water is interpreted by recognizing three types of chemical reaction equilibria: metal oxide hydration/dehydration, metal oxide dissolution and metal ion hydroxocomplex formation. The equilibria are quantified using thermodynamic concepts and the thermochemical properties of the metal oxides/ions representative of the most common constituents of construction metal alloys, i.e., element shaving atomic numbers between Z = 22 (Ti) and Z = 30 (Zn), are summarized on the basis of metal oxide solubility studies conducted in the laboratory. Particular attention is devoted to the uncharged metal ion hydrocomplex, M{sup Z}(OH){sub Z}(aq), since its thermochemical properties define minimum solubilities of the metal oxide at a given temperature. Experimentally-extracted values of standard partial molal entropy (S{sup 0}) for the transition metal ion neutral hydroxocomplex are shown to be influenced by ligand field stabilization energies and complex symmetry.

S.E. Ziemniak

2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

110

Cycle Life Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Gang Ning* and Branko N. Popov**,z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cycle Life Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Gang Ning* and Branko N. Popov**,z Department and Newman4 made a first attempt to model the parasitic reactions in lithium-ion batteries by incorporating a solvent oxidation into a lithium-ion battery model. Spotnitz5 developed polynomial expressions

Popov, Branko N.

111

Oxidation kinetics of by-product calcium sulfite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

constant and order of reaction for calcium sulfite oxidation using succinic acid as an additive 6. Corrosion behavior of metals and alloys in contact with sulfuric and acetic acid . 7. Maximum operating temperature for lining material . . . 8. Costs... of sodium thiosulfate required to inhibit the oxidation was very sma11 The second mechanism suggests that the thiosulfate reacts with the metal ions which were considered to catalyze the sulfite oxidation. The third possible mechanism involves...

Othman, Hasliza

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Secondary...

113

MINOR ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS USING ION EXCHANGERS OR IONIC LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project seeks to determine if (1) inorganic-based ion exchange materials or (2) electrochemical methods in ionic liquids can be exploited to provide effective Am and Cm separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of inorganic-based ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. Furthermore, we seek to determine whether ionic liquids can serve as the electrolyte that would enable formation of higher oxidation states of Am and other actinides. Experiments indicated that pH, presence of complexants and Am oxidation state exhibit significant influence on the uptake of actinides and lanthanides by layered sodium titanate and hybrid zirconium and tin phosphonate ion exchangers. The affinity of the ion exchangers increased with increasing pH. Greater selectivity among Ln(III) ions with sodium titanate materials occurs at a pH close to the isoelectric potential of the ion exchanger. The addition of DTPA decreased uptake of Am and Ln, whereas the addition of TPEN generally increases uptake of Am and Ln ions by sodium titanate. Testing confirmed two different methods for producing Am(IV) by oxidation of Am(III) in ionic liquids (ILs). Experimental results suggest that the unique coordination environment of ionic liquids inhibits the direct electrochemical oxidation of Am(III). The non-coordinating environment increases the oxidation potential to a higher value, while making it difficult to remove the inner coordination of water. Both confirmed cases of Am(IV) were from the in-situ formation of strong chemical oxidizers.

Hobbs, D.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Composite oxygen ion transport element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

116

Oxygen ion-beam microlithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

Tsuo, Y. Simon (Lakewood, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Ion Monitoring  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

118

Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

120

Ion funnel ion trap and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Oxidative particle mixtures for groundwater treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method and a composition of a mixture for degradation and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The oxidative particle mixture and method includes providing a material having a minimal volume of free water, mixing at least one inorganic oxidative chemical in a granular form with a carrier fluid containing a fine grained inorganic hydrophilic compound and injecting the resulting mixture into the subsurface. The granular form of the inorganic oxidative chemical dissolves within the areas of injection, and the oxidative ions move by diffusion and/or advection, therefore extending the treatment zone over a wider area than the injection area. The organic contaminants in the soil and groundwater are degraded by the oxidative ions, which form solid byproducts that can sorb significant amounts of inorganic contaminants, metals, and radionuclides for in situ treatment and immobilization of contaminants. The method and composition of the oxidative particle mixture for long-term treatment and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater provides for a reduction in toxicity of contaminants in a subsurface area of contamination without the need for continued injection of treatment material, or for movement of the contaminants, or without the need for continuous pumping of groundwater through the treatment zone, or removal of groundwater from the subsurface area of contamination.

Siegrist, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Murdoch, Lawrence C. (Clemson, SC)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Heavy Ion Event Displays  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

simulated collisions of lead ions in the LHC experiments. Additional photos, video and information are available at these links: Lead-ion collision images from the ALICE...

123

ion microprobe | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

microprobe ion microprobe Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a candidate...

124

EMSL - secondary ion detection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

secondary-ion-detection en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmagnesium-behavior-and-struc...

125

Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

High Performance ReductionOxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage Project Profile: High Performance ReductionOxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy...

126

Ion chromatographic analysis of oil shale leachates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work an investigation of the use of ion chromatography to determine environmentally significant anions present in oil shale leachates was undertaken. Nadkarni et al. have used ion chromatography to separate and quantify halogen, sulfur and nitrogen species in oil shales after combustion in a Parr bomb. Potts and Potas used ion chromatography to monitor inorganic ions in cooling tower wastewater from coal gasification. Wallace and coworkers have used ion chromatography to determine anions encountered in retort wastewaters. The ions of interest in this work were the ions of sulfur oxides including sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionite (S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionate (S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), peroxyodisulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}}), and tetrathionate (S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), and thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}) hydrosulfide (HS{sup {minus}}), cyanide (CN{sup {minus}}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), and cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}). A literature search was completed and a leaching procedure developed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Butler, N.L.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Microfabricated ion frequency standard  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Biedermann, Grant (Albuquerque, NM); Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stick, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Serkland, Darwin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Olsson, III, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

128

Synthesis of carbon coated Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide composite for high-performance lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Carbon coated LVP nanoparticles strongly anchored on rGO surface are prepared. ? LVP@C/rGO exhibits high electrical conductivity. ? LVP@C/rGO shows excellent cycleability and rate capability between 3.0 and 4.8 V. -- Abstract: The carbon coated Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide (LVP@C/rGO) composite is successfully synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, which is easily scaled up. LVP grains coated with a thin layer (?8 nm) of carbon are adhered to the surface of the rGO layer and/or enwrapped into the rGO sheets, which can facilitate the fast charge transfer within the whole electrode and to the current collector. As a cathode material, the LVP@C/rGO electrode delivers an initial discharge capacity of 177 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.5 C with capacity retention of 96% during the 50th cycle in a wide voltage range of 3.04.8 V. A superior rate capability is also achieved, e.g., exhibiting a discharge capacity of 96 mAh g{sup ?1} at a high C rate of 10 C.

Wu, Keliang, E-mail: linxin66@126.com [Department of Petroleum and Chemical, Bayingolin Vocational and Technical College, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 841000 (China)] [Department of Petroleum and Chemical, Bayingolin Vocational and Technical College, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 841000 (China); Yang, Jinpeng [Department of Petroleum and Chemical, Bayingolin Vocational and Technical College, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 841000 (China)] [Department of Petroleum and Chemical, Bayingolin Vocational and Technical College, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 841000 (China)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

Jin, Xin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

130

Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

Sakai, Shigeki, E-mail: sakai-shigeki@nissin.co.jp; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)] [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Microfabricated Ion Traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions within ion traps, which becomes an important factor in the miniaturization of ion traps.

Marcus D. Hughes; Bjoern Lekitsch; Jiddu A. Broersma; Winfried K. Hensinger

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

132

Ion Distribution And Electronic Stopping Power For Au ions In...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distribution And Electronic Stopping Power For Au ions In Silicon Carbide. Ion Distribution And Electronic Stopping Power For Au ions In Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Accurate...

133

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO2.(1-x)Li2M'O3 in which 0ion with an average trivalent oxidation state and with at least one ion being Ni, and where M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

134

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with an average trivalent oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

135

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with an average trivalent oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

136

Broad beam ion implanter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Liners for ion transport membrane systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Miller, Christopher Francis (Macungie, PA)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

138

E-Print Network 3.0 - active trivalent ions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

trivalent. 1.INTRODUCTION It is well known that the compoundsRBa2Cu307 (RY or rare earth ion... are redox active, and can be found in their trivalent and tetravalent oxidation...

139

amicrowave-assisted h ion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Edward T. 58 Effects of Fe(II)H2O2 Oxidation on Ubiquitin Conformers Measured by Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Chemistry Websites Summary: modifications to proteins, lipids,...

140

Experimental Findings On Minor Actinide And Lanthanide Separations Using Ion Exchange  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project seeks to determine if inorganic or hybrid inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective americium and curium separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of the tested ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. During FY13, experimental work focused in the following areas: (1) investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium and (2) synthesis, characterization and testing of ion-exchange materials. Ion-exchange materials tested included alkali titanates, alkali titanosilicates, carbon nanotubes and group(IV) metal phosphonates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of Am(III). Experimental findings indicated that Pu(IV) is oxidized to Pu(VI) by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of plutonium affects the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used. Tests also explored the influence of nitrite on the oxidation of Am(III). Given the formation of Am(V) and Am(VI) in the presence of nitrite, it appears that nitrite is not a strong deterrent to the oxidation of Am(III), but may be limiting Am(VI) by quickly reducing Am(VI) to Am(V). Interestingly, additional absorbance peaks were observed in the UV-Vis spectra at 524 and 544 nm in both nitric acid and perchloric acid solutions when the peroxydisulfate was added as a solution. These peaks have not been previously observed and do not correspond to the expected peak locations for oxidized americium in solution. Additional studies are in progress to identify these unknown peaks. Three titanosilicate ion exchangers were synthesized using a microwave-accelerated reaction system (MARS?) and determined to have high affinities for lanthanide ions in dilute nitric acid. The K-TSP ion exchanger exhibited the highest affinity for lanthanides in dilute nitric acid solutions. The Ge-TSP ion exchanger shows promise as a material with high affinity, but additional tests are needed to confirm the preliminary results. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes exhibited low, but measureable affinities for lanthanide ions in dilute nitric acid solutions (pH 3 and 6). The MWCNT exhibited much lower affinities than the K-TSP in dilute nitric acid solutions. However, the MWCNT are much more chemically stable in concentrated nitric acid solutions and, therefore, may be candidates for ion exchange in more concentrated nitric acid solutions.

Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.; Clearfield, A.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Photo-oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

142

Superconducting microfabricated ion traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single [superscript 88]Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the ...

Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

143

Single Ion Implantation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the equipment needed to implant ions in silicon and other materials. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/f...

Thomas Schenkel

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

144

Single Ion Implantation  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

On the equipment needed to implant ions in silicon and other materials. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/f...

Thomas Schenkel

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

145

Lithium Ion Production NDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations David Wood, Debasish Mohanty, Jianlin Li, and Claus Daniel 12/9/13 EERE Quality Control Workshop #12;2 Presentation name Lithium Ion Electrode to be meaningful and provide electrode and cell QC. #12;3 Presentation name New Directions in Lithium Ion Electrode

146

Lithium ion sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. RoyUSA Abstract A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion

Roy, Prabir K.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

work on other phases of this project concerning cata- lytic oxidation of hydrocarbons has been described by Sanderson (59), Looney (34), Burns (11), Dunlop (17), Woodham (71), and Perkins (49). The early work of Sanderson indicated that chromia-alumina... and pro- moted chromia?alumina agents possessed the ability to catalyze the oxidation of propane by air. Subsequent work of Looney suggested that propylene was a primary product of this oxidation; hence most investigations since then have been confined...

Billingsley, David Stuart

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi2-yHyO.xM'O2.(1-x)Li1-zHzMO2 in which 0ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi2-yHy.xM'O2.(1-x)Li1-zHzMO2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi2M'O3.(1-x)LiMO2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

149

Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential...

150

Superconducting microfabricated ion traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

Shannon X. Wang; Yufei Ge; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Eric Dauler; Karl Berggren; Isaac L. Chuang

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

151

Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Microfabricated ion trap array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

153

A study of the formation of cluster ions from metal acetates using plasma desorption mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mainly metal oxides. On the other hand, positive clusters ions from the group IIB of the periodic table were mainly mirror images of the negative spectra. These differences suggest that the bonding characteristics of the metal ion play an important role...

Mendez Silvagnoli, Winston Reinaldo

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more tetravalent ion. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

155

Total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane over transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalysts. I. Catalyst composition and activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane was prepared by combining fluorite oxides with active transition metals. The fluorite oxides, such as ceria and zirconia, are oxygen-ion-conducting materials having catalytic properties usually at high temperatures. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of these oxides. The contact of the two types of materials gave rise to a high active oxidation catalyst. At a space velocity of about 42,000 h{sup {minus}1}, complete carbon monoxide oxidation in air occurred at room temperature on the Au{sub 0.05}[Ce(La)]{sub 0.95}L{sub x} catalyst and at ca. 100{degrees}C on Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts. At the same space velocity, total oxidation of methane on the Cu-Ce-O catalyst doped with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SrO took place at ca. 550{degrees}C. The specific carbon monoxide oxidation activity of the Cu-Ce-O catalyst was several orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional copper-based catalysts and comparable or superior to platinum catalysts. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water vapor poisoning. The enhanced catalyst activity and stability resulted from strong interaction of the transition metal and fluorite oxide materials. 44 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, F. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)] [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

High-capacity Li2Sgraphene oxide composite cathodes with stable cycling performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxide onto the surface of Li2S through favorable lithiumoxygen interactions helps to minimize and grid energy storage applica- tions.16 Although rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are widely used-mentioned applications.16 The major limiting factor in lithium-ion batteries today is the low theoretical capacity

Cui, Yi

158

Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

159

Niobium oxide compositions and methods for using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates a niobium oxide useful in anodes of secondary lithium ion batteries. Such niobium oxide has formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.3, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and M represents Ti or Zr. The niobium oxide may be in the form of particles, which may be carbon coated. The disclosure also relates to an electrode composition containing at least one or more niobium oxides of formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7. The disclosure further relates to electrodes, such as anodes, and batteries containing at least one or more niobium oxides of formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7. Furthermore, the disclosure relates to methods of forming the above.

Goodenough, John B; Han, Jian-Tao

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

160

Ion photon emission microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Collection of ions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus and method provide an improved technique for detecting ions as the area from which ions are attracted to a detector is increased, consequently increasing the number of ions detected. This is achieved by providing the outer electrodes of the detector connected to the electrical potential, together with alternate intermediate electrodes. The other intermediate electrodes and preferably the housing are grounded. The technique renders such detection techniques more sensitive and gives them a lower threshold at which they can function.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

EMSL - ion microprobe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

microprobe en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmagnesium-behavior-and-structural-defects...

163

Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rohde, Steven B. (Corrales, NM)

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

164

THE MICROSTRUCTURAL LOCATION OF THE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MICROSI'RUCTIJRALMETAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR David R. Clarke

Clarke, D. E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Reversible Sodium Ion Insertion in Single Crystalline Manganese Oxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource Program September 2010 B O N N Ewebfor

166

Magnetization measurements and XMCD studies on ion irradiated iron oxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration -Lowell L.FallUfilms. | EMSL andand

167

Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic oxidation of methane to partial oxidation products, primarily formaldehyde and C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, was found to be directed by the catalyst used. In this project, it was discovered that a moderate oxidative coupling catalyst for C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, zinc oxide, is modified by addition of small amounts of Cu and Fe dopants to yield fair yields of formaldehyde. A similar effect was observed with Cu/Sn/ZnO catalysts, and the presence of a redox Lewis acid, Fe[sup III] or Sn[sup IV], was found to be essential for the selectivity switch from C[sub 2] coupling products to formaldehyde. The principle of double doping with an oxygen activator (Cu) and the redox Lewis acid (Fe, Sn) was pursued further by synthesizing and testing the CuFe-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. The Cu[sup II](ion exchanged) Fe[sup III](framework)-ZSM-5 also displayed activity for formaldehyde synthesis, with space time yields exceeding 100 g/h-kg catalyst. However, the selectivity was low and earlier claims in the literature of selective oxidation of methane to methanol over CuFe-ZSM-5 were not reproduced. A new active and selective catalytic system (M=Sb,Bi,Sn)/SrO/La[sub 2]O[sub 3] has been discovered for potentially commercially attractive process for the conversion of methane to C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, (ii) a new principle has been demonstrated for selectivity switching from C[sub 2] hydrocarbon products to formaldehyde in methane oxidations over Cu,Fe-doped zinc oxide and ZSM-5, and (iii) a new approach has been initiated for using ultrafine metal dispersions for low temperature activation of methane for selective conversions. Item (iii) continues being supported by AMOCO while further developments related to items (i) and (ii) are the objective of our continued effort under the METC-AMOCO proposed joint program.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.; DiCosimo, J.I.; DeTavernier, S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Applied Surface Science 323 (2014) 7177 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.8O3-i (LSCF-6428) were investigated. (0 0 1)-oriented LSCF-6428 thin films were deposited on lattice-i (LSCF-6428), is a commonly used perovskite-type material for cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The advantages of LSCF-6428 lie in its mixed ionic and electronic conductor (MIEC) behavior

Lin, Xi

169

Study of Ion Cooling and Ejection from Two Stage Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap consisted of RFQ ion guides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline Gallium Oxide ThinIon Cooling and Ejection from Two Stage Linear

170

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

Kim, Sehun

171

Ion-beam technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

Blain, Matthew G.

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

173

Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

W. Windes; R. Smith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Ion mobility sensor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

176

Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

177

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150?mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400?MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 610?nm, we measure less than 1 at.% oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4?K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

David Henry, M., E-mail: mdhenry@sandia.gov; Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert [Sandia National Labs, MESA Fabrication Facility PO Box 5800 MS 1084, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1084 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

179

Mixed oxide solid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Influence of pH condition on colloidal suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide by electrostatic repulsion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A facile chemical process is described to produce graphene oxide utilizing a zwitterions amino acid intermediate from graphite oxide sheets. 11-aminoundecanoic acid molecules were protonated to intercalate molecules into the graphite oxide sheets to achieve ion exchange, and the carboxyl groups were then ionized in a NaOH solution to exfoliate the graphite oxide sheets. In this way, the produced graphene oxide nanosheets were stably dispersed in water. The delaminated graphene nanosheets were confirmed by XRD, AFM, and TEM. XRD patterns indicated the d{sub 002}-spacing of the graphite greatly increased from 0.380 nm and 0.870 nm. AFM and TEM images showed that the ordered graphite crystal structure of graphene nanosheets was effectively exfoliated by this method. The prepared graphene nanosheets films showed 87.1% transmittance and a sheet resistance of 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} {Omega}/square. - Graphical abstract: A stable graphene oxide suspension could be quickly prepared by exfoliating a graphite oxide suspension by a host-guest electrostatic repulsion in aqueous solution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphene nanosheets were prepared by a zwitterions amino acid intermediate from graphite oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 11-aminoundecanoic acid was protonated to intercalate molecules into the graphene oxide to achieve ion exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The d{sub 002}-spacing of the graphite oxide greatly increased from 0.330 nm to 0.415 nm after 11-aminoundecanoic acid treatment.

Meng, Long-Yue [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Relating to ion detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus and method provide a technique for improving detection of alpha and/or beta emitting sources on items or in locations using indirect means. The emission forms generate ions in a medium surrounding the item or location and the medium is then moved to a detecting location where the ions are discharged to give a measure of the emission levels. To increase the level of ions generated and render the system particularly applicable for narrow pipes and other forms of conduits, the medium pressure is increased above atmospheric pressure. STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Transformation of carbon monoxide dimer surface structures on yttrium oxide modified by silver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been established that introducing ions of silver(II) in yttrium(III) oxide leads to the formation of a significant concentration of a paramagnetic dimer species (CO)/sub 2/-in the course of the adsorption of carbon monoxide, and that these dimers exhibit high thermal stability and reactivity. Reactions are proposed for the formation of the dimer species (CO)/sub 2//sup 2 -/ and (CO)/sub 2//sup -/ on the surface of the Ag/Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst that involve the reduction of the anion vacancies and a change in the oxidation state of the silver ions. Modifying the yttrium oxide with ionic silver leads to a marked decrease in the strength of the oxidative ability of the surface of the catalyst for CO, while the nature of the active sites of the yttrium oxide, which adsorbs CO in three forms, remains unchanged.

Vydrin, S.N.; Bobolev, A.V.; Loginov, A.Yu.

1987-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

183

Recent developments in zinc oxide target chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zinc oxide targets irradiated with high energy protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) contain a number of radioactive spallation products in quantities large enough to warrant recovery. This paper describes methods for recovering {sup 7}Be, {sup 46}Sc, and {sup 48}V from such targets and offers suggestions on possible ways to recover additional isotopes. The proposed methods are based on traditional precipitation and ion exchange techniques, are readily adaptable to hot cell use, and produce no hazardous waste components. The products are obtained in moderate to high yields and have excellent radiopurity.

Heaton, R.C.; Taylor, W.A.; Phillips, D.R.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Garcia, J.B.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Performance study of commercial LiCoO2 and spinel-based Li-ion cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ion cells and Sony 18650 cells using non-stoichiometric spinel and LiCoO2, respectively, as positive at the cathode and loss of active material at both electrodes due to electrolyte oxidation. For the Sony cells Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Li-ion cells; LiCoO2; Cell-Batt1 ; Capacity fade; Sony 18650

Popov, Branko N.

185

Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Hailiang Wang,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries Hailiang Wang hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn3O4 nanoparticles

Cui, Yi

186

Computational studies of polysiloxanes : oxidation potentials and decomposition reactions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon-containing solvents have tremendous potential for application as electrolytes for electrical energy storage devices such as lithium-ion (air) batteries and supercapacitors. Quantum chemical methods were employed to investigate trends in oxidation potentials and decomposition reactions of a series of polysiloxanes. Various electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents can be used to tune the oxidation potential in shorter chain siloxanes but not in longer ones. Decomposition reactions of siloxanes in their oxidized states were investigated and compared against their carbon analogues. These studies suggest that the Si-O group provides added stability for siloxanes over their carbon analogues. Computational studies have also been performed for various disiloxanes and siloxanes with spacer groups to understand their thermochemical stability and oxidation potentials.

Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Zhang, Z.; Amine, K. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( CSE); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

187

Ion exchange phenomena  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Ion sensing method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.

Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

189

Ion manipulation device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Baker, Erin M

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

190

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

Greenly, John B. (Lansing, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

An embryo of protocell membrane: The capsule of graphene oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many signs indicate that the graphene could widely occur on the early Earth. Here, we report a new theory that graphene might be an embryo of protocell membrane, and found several evidences. Firstly, the graphene oxide and phospholipid-graphene oxide composite would curl into capsules in strongly acidic saturated solution of Pb(NO3)2 at low temperature, providing a protective space for biochemical reactions. Secondly, L-animi acids exhibit higher reactivity than D-animi acids for graphene oxides in favor of the formation of left-handed proteins. Thirdly, monolayer graphene with nanopores prepared by unfocused 84Kr25+ has high selectivity for permeation of the monovalent metal ions (Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+), but does not allow Cl- through, which could be attributed to the ion exchange of oxygen-containing groups on the rim of nanopores. It is similar to K+ channels, which would cause efflux of some ions from capsule of graphene oxides with the decrease of pH in the primitive ocean, creating a suitable inner...

Li, Zhan; Tian, Longlong; Bai, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Cao, Shiwei; Qi, Wei; Qiu, Hongdeng; Wang, Suomin; Shi, Keliang; Xu, Youwen; Mingliang, Zhang; Liu, Bo; Yao, Huijun; Liu, Jie; Wu, Wangsuo; Wang, Xiaoli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

An embryo of protocell membrane: The capsule of graphene oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many signs indicate that the graphene could widely occur on the early Earth. Here, we report a new theory that graphene might be an embryo of protocell membrane, and found several evidences. Firstly, the graphene oxide and phospholipid-graphene oxide composite would curl into capsules in strongly acidic saturated solution of Pb(NO3)2 at low temperature, providing a protective space for biochemical reactions. Secondly, L-animi acids exhibit higher reactivity than D-animi acids for graphene oxides in favor of the formation of left-handed proteins. Thirdly, monolayer graphene with nanopores prepared by unfocused 84Kr25+ has high selectivity for permeation of the monovalent metal ions (Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+), but does not allow Cl- through, which could be attributed to the ion exchange of oxygen-containing groups on the rim of nanopores. It is similar to K+ channels, which would cause efflux of some ions from capsule of graphene oxides with the decrease of pH in the primitive ocean, creating a suitable inner condition for the origin of life. Consequently, the strongly acidic, high salinity and strong radiation as well as temperature changes in the early Earth, regarded as negative factors, would be indispensable for the origin of protocell. In short, graphene bred life, but digested gradually by the evolution.

Zhan Li; Chunmei Wang; Longlong Tian; Jing Bai; Yang Zhao; Xin Zhang; Shiwei Cao; Wei Qi; Hongdeng Qiu; Suomin Wang; Keliang Shi; Youwen Xu; Zhang Mingliang; Bo Liu; Huijun Yao; Jie Liu; Wangsuo Wu; Xiaoli Wang

2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

193

Secondary ion collection and transport system for ion microprobe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A secondary ion collection and transport system, for use with an ion microprobe, which is very compact and occupies only a small working distance, thereby enabling the primary ion beam to have a short focal length and high resolution. Ions sputtered from the target surface by the primary beam's impact are collected between two arcuate members having radii of curvature and applied voltages that cause only ions within a specified energy band to be collected. The collected ions are accelerated and focused in a transport section consisting of a plurality of spaced conductive members which are coaxial with and distributed along the desired ion path. Relatively high voltages are applied to alternate transport sections to produce accelerating electric fields sufficient to transport the ions through the section to an ion mass analyzer, while lower voltages are applied to the other transport sections to focus the ions and bring their velocity to a level compatible with the analyzing apparatus.

Ward, James W. (Canoga Park, CA); Schlanger, Herbert (Simi Valley, CA); McNulty, Jr., Hugh (Santa Monica, CA); Parker, Norman W. (Camarillo, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

195

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Reducible oxide based catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Mechanical and Tribological Properties or Ion Implanted Ceramics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Wei et al (1987a. b) has shown that ion beam mixing of some ceramic discs with Ti, Ni or Co can result in reduced coefficients of friction at 800C in a simulated diesel exhaust environment. 1.1.3 Oxidation and Corrosion Surface films have long... the nuclear cross section will begin to dominate, the probability of scattering increases, and the ion will lose more of its energy in elastic atomic collisions. The collisions may result in "knock-on" of the target atoms, a process which requires...

Bull, Stephen John

1988-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

198

Ion electric propulsion unit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) thruster is disclosed having a plasma chamber which is electrically biased with a positive voltage. The chamber bias serves to efficiently accelerate and expel the positive ions from the chamber. Electrons follow the exiting ions, serving to provide an electrically neutral exhaust plume. In a further embodiment, a downstream shaping magnetic field serves to further accelerate and/or shape the exhaust plume.

Light, Max E; Colestock, Patrick L

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ion-beam-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron instabilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results of numerical simulations on the electrostatic ion cyclotron instabilities driven by the ion beam parallel to the magnetic field. For the beam speed exceeding the thermal speed of background ions and the beam temperature much lower than the background ion temperature, it is found that the instability results in strong perpendicular heating and slowing down of parallel drift of the beam ions, leading to the saturation of the instability. Applications to plasma heating and space plasma physics are discussed.

Miura, A.; Okuda, H.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Oxide Heterogrowth on Ion-exfoliated Thin-film Complex Oxide Substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fabrication of a bilayer HfO{sub 2}/single-crystal LiNbO{sub 3} film is demonstrated using deep high-energy He{sup +} implantation in a LiNbO{sub 3} wafer, followed by HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition, and, then, selective etching exfoliation from the bulk LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. The properties and morphology of these exfoliated bilayer films are characterized using a set of thin-film probes. Pre-exfoliation film patterning and one model application, in surface-refractive-index tuning of guided waves in a free-standing LiNbO{sub 3} film, are also demonstrated.

Gang, O.; Chen, T.-L.; Kou, A.; Ofan, A.; Gaathon, O.; Osgood Jr., R.M.; Vanamurthy, L.; Bakhru, S.; Bakhru, H.

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Radiation effects on the electrical properties of hafnium oxide based MOS capacitors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hafnium oxide-based MOS capacitors were investigated to determine electrical property response to radiation environments. In situ capacitance versus voltage measurements were analyzed to identify voltage shifting as a result of changes to trapped charge with increasing dose of gamma, neutron, and ion radiation. In situ measurements required investigation and optimization of capacitor fabrication to include dicing, cleaning, metalization, packaging, and wire bonding. A top metal contact of 200 angstroms of titanium followed by 2800 angstroms of gold allowed for repeatable wire bonding and proper electrical response. Gamma and ion irradiations of atomic layer deposited hafnium oxide on silicon devices both resulted in a midgap voltage shift of no more than 0.2 V toward less positive voltages. This shift indicates recombination of radiation induced positive charge with negative trapped charge in the bulk oxide. Silicon ion irradiation caused interface effects in addition to oxide trap effects that resulted in a flatband voltage shift of approximately 0.6 V also toward less positive voltages. Additionally, no bias dependent voltage shifts with gamma irradiation and strong oxide capacitance room temperature annealing after ion irradiation was observed. These characteristics, in addition to the small voltage shifts observed, demonstrate the radiation hardness of hafnium oxide and its applicability for use in space systems.

Petrosky, J. C. (Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH); McClory, J. W. (Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH); Bielejec, Edward Salvador; Foster, J. C. (Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Minford, Eric (Laurys Station, PA); Waldron, William Emil (Whitehall, PA)

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

203

Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1996 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrochemical method for metal ion separations, called Electrically Switched Ion Exchange, is described. Direct oxidation and reduction of an electroactive film attached to an electrode surface is used to load and unload the film with alkali metal cations. The electroactive films under investigation are Ni hexacyanoferrates, which are deposited on the surface by applying an anodic potential to a Ni electrode in a solution containing the ferricyanide anion. Reported film preparation procedures were modified to produce films with improved capacity and stability. Electrochemical behavior of the derivatized electrodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The films show selectivity for Cs in concentrated sodium solutions. Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in oxidation state of the film and imaging experiments have demonstrated that the redox reactions are spatially homogenous across the film. Requirements for a bench scale unit were identified.

Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Genders, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped ion resonance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theory to describe basic characterization of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped ion resonance is presented. The role of trapped ion granulations, clusters of trapped ions correlated by precession resonance, is the focus. Microscopically, the presence of trapped ion granulations leads to a sharp (logarithmic) divergence of two point phase space density correlation at small scales. Macroscopically, trapped ion granulations excite potential fluctuations that do not satisfy dispersion relation and so broaden frequency spectrum. The line width from emission due only to trapped ion granulations is calculated. The result shows that the line width depends on ion free energy and electron dissipation, which implies that non-adiabatic electrons are essential to recover non-trivial dynamics of trapped ion granulations. Relevant testable predictions are summarized.

Kosuga, Y., E-mail: kosuga@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Advanced Study, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, S.-I. [Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Diamond, P. H. [CASS and CMTFO, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Itoh, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Lesur, M. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Electronuclear ion fusion in an ion cyclotron resonance reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for generating nuclear fusion by ion cyclotron resonance in an ion trap reactor. The reactor includes a cylindrical housing having an axial axis, an internal surface, and first and second ends. First and second end plates that are charged are respectively located at the first and second ends of the cylindrical housing. A gas layer is adsorbed on the internal surface of the cylindrical housing. Ions are desorbed from the gas layer, forming a plasma layer adjacent to the cylindrical housing that includes first ions that have a same charge sign as the first and second end plates. A uniform magnetic field is oriented along the axial axis of the cylindrical housing. Second ions, that are unlike the first ions, but have the same charge sign, are injected into the cylindrical housing along the axial axis of the cylindrical housing. A radio frequency field resonantly accelerates the injected second ions at the cyclotron resonance frequency of the second ions. The second ions circulate in increasing helical orbits and react with the first ions, at the optimum energy for nuclear fusion. The amplitude of the radio frequency field is adjusted to accelerate the second ions at a rate equal to the rate of tangential energy loss of the second ions by nuclear scattering in the first ions, causing the ions to continually interact until fusion occurs.

Cowgill, Donald F.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

207

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

208

Asymmetric ion trap  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

209

Asymmetric ion trap  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Alexander, Michael L. (Richland, WA); Follansbee, James C. (Pasco, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

211

Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Oriented conductive oxide electrodes on SiO2/Si and glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin film structure is provided including a silicon substrate with a layer of silicon dioxide on a surface thereof, and a layer of cubic oxide material deposited upon the layer of silicon dioxide by ion-beam-assisted-deposition, said layer of cubic oxide material characterized as biaxially oriented. Preferably, the cubic oxide material is yttria-stabilized zirconia. Additional thin layers of biaxially oriented ruthenium oxide or lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide are deposited upon the layer of yttria-stabilized zirconia. An intermediate layer of cerium oxide is employed between the yttria-stabilized zirconia layer and the lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide layer. Also, a layer of barium strontium titanium oxide can be upon the layer of biaxially oriented ruthenium oxide or lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide. Also, a method of forming such thin film structures, including a low temperature deposition of a layer of a biaxially oriented cubic oxide material upon the silicon dioxide surface of a silicon dioxide/silicon substrate is provided.

Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r {yields} -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t {yields} -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function {Psi} is given by the phase factor e{sup -iEt/{h_bar}} with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin operator changes sign with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as {Psi} {yields} e{sup i{theta}}{Psi}. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

Hwang, H.Y.

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

214

Advances in lithium-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanpuzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book beginssuch importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that

Kerr, John B.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1 to 50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 +- 3 and 2204 +- 1 cm/sup -1/, which are ascribed to CO adsorbed on copper(II) oxide and on isolated copper(II) ions in the silica surface, respectively. Reduction and reoxidation removed the band at 2204 cm/sup -1/ with all samples and raised the intensity of the 2136-cm/sup -1/ band with the precipitated catalysts but not with the impregnation catalyst. Evidence is brought forward that the isolated copper ions are mobilized during reduction and generate new copper (oxide) surface. The change in background transmission of the samples could be used to obtain further information about the interaction of O/sub 2/ and CO with copper oxide.

De Jong, K.P.; Geus, J.W.; Joziasse, J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Pulsed ion beam source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

Greenly, J.B.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

217

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

219

PII S0016-7037(98)00136-7 The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al hydroxide formation on clay and aluminum oxide minerals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PII S0016-7037(98)00136-7 The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al hydroxide formation on clay and aluminum. This finding indicates that the dissolution of clay and aluminum oxide minerals can be promoted by metal ions

Sparks, Donald L.

220

Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction. 3 figs.

McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction.

McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Miller, Philip E. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStanding Friedel Waves,TheoryParliament'v0,MixturesCerium Oxide

223

Photoabsorption by Ions and Atoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of photoabsorption by atoms and ions is presented. Specifically, examples of near-chaotic behavior in photoionization of positive ions, low-energy manifestations of nondipole effects, high-energy breakdown of the single particle picture and new phenomenology uncovered in the inner-shell photoabsorption by negative ions are discussed.

Manson, Steven T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Unusual behavior of poly(ethylene-oxide) in aqueous mixtures.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The model system of poly(ethylene-oxide) or PEO, where the changing hydrogen-bond connectivity of the water has large effect on the conformation of the polymer chain, in mixtures of water and acetonitrile, is experimentally studied. The results show the existence of a threshold water content in the system at which the 3d connectivity of the water network begins. Unusual expansion of the polymer chain, an effect larger than that observed in either of the pure solvents, is seen. Upon addition of small amounts of a monovalent salt, binding of ion to polymer takes place in pure acetonitrile solutions. Salt ions begin to co-ordinate with water molecules at the same solvent ratio as the threshold for water network formation. Ions now no longer complex to PEO; instead, hydrogen bonding of water to the polymer strongly dictates conformation in this regime.

Lal, J.; Hakem, I. F.; IPNS

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

228

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

229

Fabrication of catalyzed ion transport membrane systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Process for fabricating a catalyzed ion transport membrane (ITM). In one embodiment, an uncatalyzed ITM is (a) contacted with a non-reducing gaseous stream while heating to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM possessing anion mobility; (b) contacted with a reducing gaseous stream for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM having anion mobility and essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry; (c) cooled while contacting the ITM with the reducing gaseous stream to provide an ITM having essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry and no anion mobility; and (d) treated by applying catalyst to at least one of (1) a porous mixed conducting multicomponent metallic oxide (MCMO) layer contiguous with a first side of a dense layer of MCMO and (2) a second side of the dense MCMO layer. In another embodiment, these steps are carried out in the alternative order of (a), (d), (b), and (c).

Carolan, Michael Francis; Kibby, Charles Leonard

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

230

Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Molecular water oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

Gratzel, Michael (St. Sulpice, CH); Munavalli, Shekhar (Bel Air, MD); Pern, Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

233

Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z (n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher than NMC) and the DDB is useful for lithium ion cells with LFP cathodes (potential that is lower than NMC). A 4.5 V class redox shuttle provided by Argonne National Laboratory was evaluated which provides a few cycles of overcharge protection for lithium ion cells containing NMC cathodes but it is not stable enough for consideration. Thus, a redox shuttle with an appropriate redox potential and sufficient chemical and electrochemical stability for commercial use in larger format lithium ion cells with NMC cathodes was not found. Molecular imprinting of the redox shuttle molecule during solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation likely contributes to the successful reduction of oxidized redox shuttle species at carbon anodes. This helps to understand how a carbon anode covered with an SEI layer, that is supposed to be electrically insulating, can reduce the oxidized form of a redox shuttle.

Patterson, Mary

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

236

Ion Chromatograph | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for and ApplicationNuclearLeaoInvestingsolubilityIon

237

Hydrogen Reduction of Ferric Ions for Use in Copper Electrowinning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conventional copper electrowinning process uses the water hydrolysis reaction as the anodic source of electrons. However this reaction generates acid mist and requires large quantities of energy. In order to improve energy efficiency and avoid acid mist, an alternative anodic reaction of ferrous ion oxidation has been proposed. This reaction does not involve evolution of acid mist and can be carried out at a lower cell voltage than the conventional process. However, because ferrous ions are converted to ferric ions at the anode in this process, there is a need for reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions to continue this process. The most promising method for this reduction is the use of hydrogen gas since the resulting byproduct acid can be used elsewhere in the process and, unlike other reductants, hydrogen does not introduce other species that need subsequent removal. Because the hydrogen reduction technology has undergone only preliminary lab scale testing, additional research is needed to evaluate its commercial potential. Two issues for this research are the potentially low mass transfer rate of hydrogen into the electrolyte stream because of its low solubility in water, and whether other gaseous reductants less expensive than hydrogen, such as natural gas or syngas, might work. In this study various reductants were investigated to carry out the reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions using a simulated electrolyte solution recycled through a trickle bed reactor packed with catalyst. The gases tested as reductants were hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and a 50/50 mixture of H2 and CO. Nitrogen was also tested as an inert control. These gases were tested because they are constituents in either natural gas or syngas. The catalysts tested were palladium and platinum. Two gas flow rates and five electrolyte flow rates were tested. Pure hydrogen was an effective reductant of ferric ion. The rates were similar with both palladium and platinum. The ferric iron reduction increased with both the flow rate of gas as well as the liquid flow rate (up to ~0.1 g/L/min). Pure carbon monoxide also reduced the ferric ion, but at a rate about one tenth that of pure hydrogen at similar conditions. The syngas mixture of equimolar hydrogen and carbon monoxide reacted at a rate intermediate between each gas as a pure stream (up to ~ 0.06 g/L/min). This gas mixture shows that some form of unpurified reformer gas could be used to reduce the ferric ion in the electrolyte solution. Nitrogen was inert causing very little to no reduction of ferric ion.

Karl S. Noah; Debby F. Bruhn; John E. Wey; Robert S. Cherry

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Abstract: Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) was investigated to determine the...

239

Synthesis of Na1.25V3O8 Nanobelts with Excellent Long-Term Stability for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the calcination temperatures. As cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, the Na1.25V3O8 nanobelts synthesized.25V3O8 nanobelts are promising cathode materials for secondary lithium batteries. KEYWORDS: sodium vanadium oxide, nanobelts, sol-gel, lithium-ion batteries, long-term stability 1. INTRODUCTION Because

Cao, Guozhong

240

Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

242

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach: Individual simulation modules for each fuel cell type Tubular SOFC Planar SOFC MCFC PEM Reformer Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions H2 electrochemically oxidized only CO consumed

Mease, Kenneth D.

243

Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su University INTRODUCTION Energy consumption continues to skyrocket worldwide. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel as potential feedstock in solid oxide fuel cells. Petroleum based fuels become scarcer daily, and biodiesel

Collins, Gary S.

244

Improving Corrosion Behavior in SCWR, LFR and VHTR Reactor Materials by Formation of a Stable Oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to understand the influence of the alloy microstructure and composition on the formation of a stable, protective oxide in the environments relevant to the SCWR and LFR reactor concepts, as well as to the VHTR. It is proposed to use state-of-the art techniques to study the fine structure of these oxides to identify the structural differences between stable and unstable oxide layers. The techniques to be used are microbeam synchrotron radiation diffraction and fluorescence, and cross-sectional transmission electron microcopy on samples prepared using focused ion beam.

Arthur T. Motta; Robert Comstock; Ning Li; Todd Allen; Gary Was

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

245

Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

246

Highly oxidized superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Highly oxidized superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known synthesis in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

248

Optically transparent yttrium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A body is described comprising at least 99.9% yttrium oxide having a density of at least 99% of theoretically density, a sample of the body having a in-line transmission of at least 73%, over a wavelength range of 2-5 microns with the sample having a thickness of 0.375 inches.

Hartnett, T.; Greenberg, M.; Gentilman, R.L.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

249

Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage Properties Laifa Shen,, Evan Uchaker, Changzhou Yuan, Ping Nie, Ming Zhang, Xiaogang Zhang,*, and Guozhong into the channels of surface- oxidized mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) by means of electrostatic interaction, followed

Cao, Guozhong

250

Microstructural changes induced by low energy heavy ion irradiation in titanium silicon carbide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microstructural changes induced by low energy heavy ion irradiation in titanium silicon carbide, and it was validated on irradiated silicon carbide. The swelling of Ti3SiC2 was estimated to 2.2 ±0 to these working conditions, non-oxide refractory ceramics are required as fuel cladding. Thus, carbides turn out

Boyer, Edmond

251

Indoor air quality implications of using ion generators in residences Michael S. Waring*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(IAQ). Positively, ion generators remove the charged particle contaminants to collector plates, Denmark - Paper ID: 598 #12;mortality and exposures to indoor ozone and its oxidation products. Ozone and Shields, 1999). Terpenes are common indoors and are emitted from consumer products such as air fresheners

Siegel, Jeffrey

252

REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

Korinko, P.

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

253

Development of Nitric Oxide Oxidation Catalysts for the Fast SCR Reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was undertaken in order to assess the potential for oxidizing NO to NO{sub 2} in flue gas environments, with the aim of promoting the so-called fast SCR reaction. In principle this can result in improved SCR kinetics and reduced SCR catalyst volumes. Prior to commencing experimental work, a literature study was undertaken to identify candidate catalysts for screening. Selection criteria comprised (1) proven (or likely) activity for NO oxidation, (2) low activity for SO2 oxidation (where data were available), and (3) inexpensive component materials. Catalysts identified included supported base metal oxides, supported and unsupported mixed metal oxides, and metal ion exchanged ZSM-5 (Fe, Co, Cu). For comparison purposes, several low loaded Pt catalysts (0.5 wt% Pt) were also included in the study. Screening experiments were conducted using a synthetic feed gas representative of flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers: [NO] = 250 ppm, [SO{sub 2}] = 0 or 2800 ppm, [H{sub 2}O] = 7%, [CO{sub 2}] = 12%, [O{sub 2}] = 3.5%, balance = N{sub 2}; T = 275-375 C. Studies conducted in the absence of SO{sub 2} revealed a number of supported and unsupported metal oxides to be extremely active for NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}. These included known catalysts (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, FeMnO{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}), as well as a new one identified in this work, CrFeO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}. However, in the presence of SO{sub 2}, all the catalysts tested were found to be severely deactivated with respect to NO oxidation. Of these, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZSM-5 and Pt/CeO{sub 2} showed the highest activity for NO oxidation in the presence of SO{sub 2} (based on peak NO conversions to NO{sub 2}), although in no cases did the NO conversion exceed 7%. Reactor studies indicate there are two components to SO{sub 2}-induced deactivation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, corresponding to an irreversible deactivation due to sulfation of the surface of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, together with a reversible inhibition due to competitive adsorption of SO{sub 2} with NO on the catalyst. In an effort to minimize the deactivating effect of SO{sub 2} on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, two synthetic approaches were briefly examined. These consisted of (1) the incorporation of highly dispersed Co(II) ions in silica, as a non-sulfating matrix, via the sol-gel preparation of CoO-SiO{sub 2}; and (2) the sol-gel preparation of a mixed metal oxide, CoO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2}, with the aim of exploiting the acidity of the niobium oxide to minimize SO2 adsorption. While both catalysts showed almost no activity for NO oxidation in the absence of SO{sub 2}, when SO{sub 2} was present low activity was observed, indicating that SO{sub 2} acts as a promoter for NO oxidation over these materials. The kinetics of NO oxidation over Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} were also examined. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} was found to exhibit a higher apparent activation energy for NO oxidation than the Pt catalysts, while the combined reaction order in NO and O{sub 2} for the three catalysts was very close to one. CO{sub 2} was found to have no effect on the kinetics of NO oxidation over these catalysts. The presence of H{sub 2}O caused a decrease in NO conversion for both Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, while no effect was observed for Pt/SiO{sub 2}. The inhibiting effect of water was reversible and is attributed to competitive adsorption with the reactants. In sum, this study has shown that a variety of base metal catalysts are very active for NO oxidation. However, all of the catalysts studied are strongly deactivated in the presence of 2800 ppm SO{sub 2} at typical flue gas temperatures; consequently improving catalyst resistance to SO{sub x} will be a pre-requisite if the fast SCR concept is to be applied to coal-fired flue gas conditions.

Mark Crocker

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

254

4, 23012331, 2004 Nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) were performed simul- taneously with aerosolACPD 4, 2301­2331, 2004 Nitrogen oxides measurements in an Amazon site A. M. Cordova et al. Title and Physics Discussions Nitrogen oxides measurements in an Amazon site and enhancements associated with a cold

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

255

Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

256

A novel planar ion funnel design for miniature ion optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The novel planar ion funnel (PIF) design presented in this article emphasizes simple fabrication, assembly, and operation, making it amenable to extreme miniaturization. Simulations performed in SIMION 8.0 indicate that ion focusing can be achieved by using a gradient of electrostatic potentials on concentric metal rings in a plane. A prototype was fabricated on a 35 35 mm custom-designed printed circuit board (PCB) with a center hole for ions to pass through and a series of concentric circular metal rings of increasing diameter on the front side of the PCB. Metal vias on the PCB electrically connected each metal ring to a resistive potential divider that was soldered on the back of the PCB. The PIF was tested at 5.5 10{sup ?6} Torr in a vacuum test setup that was equipped with a broad-beam ion source on the front and a micro channel plate (MCP) ion detector on the back of the PIF. The ion current recorded on the MCP anode during testing indicated a 23 increase in the ion transmission through the PIF when electric potentials were applied to the rings. These preliminary results demonstrate the functionality of a 2D ion funnel design with a much smaller footprint and simpler driving electronics than conventional 3D ion funnels. Future directions to improve the design and a possible micromachining approach to fabrication are discussed in the conclusions.

Chaudhary, A.; Amerom, Friso H. W. van; Short, R. T. [Space and Marine Technology Laboratory, SRI International, 450 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, Florida 33701 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Atomic Scale Picture of the Ion Conduction Mechanism in Tetrahedral Network of Lanthanum Barium Gallate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combined experimental study of impedance spectroscopy, neutron powder diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering was performed to shed light into the atomic scale ion migration processes in proton and oxide ion conductor; La0.8Ba1.2GaO3.9 . This material consist of tetrahedral GaO4 units, which are rather flexible and rocking motion of these units promotes the ionic migration process. The oxide ion (vacancy) conduction takes place on channels along c axis, involving a single elementary step, which occurs between adjacent tetrahedron (inter-tetrahedron jump). The proton conduction mechanism consists of intra-tetrahedron and inter-tetrahedron elementary processes. The intra-tetrahedron proton transport is the rate-limiting process, with activation energy of 0.44 eV. The rocking motion of the GaO4 tetrahedron aids the inter-tetrahedral proton transport, which has the activation energy of 0.068 eV.

Jalarvo, Niina H [ORNL] [ORNL; Gourdon, Olivier [ORNL] [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL] [ORNL; Gout, Delphine J [ORNL] [ORNL; Ohl, Michael E [ORNL] [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Preparation of amorphous electrochromic tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary experiments have been performed to probe the feasibility of using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE--CVD) to prepare electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma reaction of WF/sub 6/, W(CO)/sub 6/, and Mo(CO)/sub 6/ with oxygen. Thin films produced in a 300 W, electrodeless, radio-frequency (rf), capacitive discharge were found to be electrochromic when tested with either liquid or solid electrolytes. Optical spectroscopy was performed on two electrochromic coatings after Li/sup +/ ion insertion from a propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte. Broad absorption peaks at --900 nm for WO/sub 3/ and 600 nm for MoO/sub 3/ were observed. Optical results for PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films differ from those reported for evaporated MoO/sub 3/ films which have an absorption peak at --800 nm. The shorter wavelength absorption in the PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films offers the potential for fabricating electrochromic devices with higher contrast ratios and less color change. Optical emission spectroscopy, Auger, and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate these thin film deposits to be predominantly amorphous tungsten and molybdenum oxides.

Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Controlling ion fluxes during reactive sputter-deposition of SnO{sub 2}:F  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetron sputtering of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is a scalable deposition method for large-area transparent conducting films used in fenestration, photovoltaics, and other applications. The electrical conductivity of sputtered FTO is, however, lower than that of spray-pyrolized FTO because of the ion damage induced by high energy ions leading to a reduction of the crystal quality in sputtered FTO films. In this study, various ion species present during the reactive sputtering of a metallic tin target in a mixed Ar/O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} atmosphere are systematically characterized by energy and mass spectrometry, and possible ways of controlling the ion fluxes are explored. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) of the negative ions F{sup ?} and O{sup ?} exhibit large peaks at an energy corresponding to the full target voltage. Although the applied partial pressure of CF{sub 4} is about 1/30 than that of O{sub 2}, the obtained IEDFs of F{sup ?} and O{sup ?} have comparable peak height, which can be attributed to a higher electronegativity of F. The IEDFs of positively charged O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and Sn{sup +} species have their peaks around 28?eV. To control ion fluxes a solenoid or permanent magnets were placed between the target and the mass spectrometer. The flux of positive ions could be varied by several orders of magnitude as a function of the applied current through the solenoid, whereas the high-energy (>100?eV) negative F{sup ?} and O{sup ?} ions were not notably deflected. By using permanent magnets with the B-field orthogonal to the ion trajectory, the flux of O{sup ?} ions could be decreased by two orders and the exposure to the high-energy F{sup ?} ions was completely suppressed.

Jger, Timo, E-mail: timo.jaeger@empa.ch; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Tiwari, Ayodhya N. [EmpaSwiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, berlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dbendorf (Switzerland); Anders, Andr [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

260

Lithium manganese oxide films fabricated by electron beam directed vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

material for high energy den- sity battery applications.7,8 Lithium­transition metal oxide films can.2. After annealing in air at 700 °C, thin films grown with a low jet speed had a cubic spinel structure Li/Li-ion batteries. © 2008 American Vacuum Society. DOI: 10.1116/1.2823488 I. INTRODUCTION Thin film

Wadley, Haydn

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

Parallel Polarization EPR Characterization of the Mn(III) Center of Oxidized Manganese Superoxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parallel Polarization EPR Characterization of the Mn(III) Center of Oxidized Manganese Superoxide polarization CW-EPR to investigate the paramagnetic Mn3+ ion of the MnSOD enzyme from Escherichia coli with a positive axial zero-field splitting value, D, are arranged as shown in Figure 1. An EPR signal from the Mn

Miller, Anne-Frances

262

Compact ion accelerator source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

263

Helium Ion Microscope | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2M HILL SecretaryHazmat workFAQsHelium Ion Microscope

264

Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology. Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology. Abstract: Graphene...

265

Tributylphosphate Extraction Behavior of Bismuthate-Oxidized Americium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Higher oxidation states of americium have long been known; however, options for their preparation in acidic solution are limited. The conventional choice, silver-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, is not useful at nitric acid concentrations above about 0.3 M. We investigated the use of sodium bismuthate as an oxidant for Am3+ in acidic solution. Room-temperature oxidation produced AmO2 2+ quantitatively, whereas oxidation at 80 C produced AmO2+ quantitatively. The efficacy of the method for the production of oxidized americium was verified by fluoride precipitation and by spectroscopic absorbance measurements. We performed absorbance measurements using a conventional 1 cm cell for high americium concentrations and a 100 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell for low americium concentrations. Extinction coefficients for the absorbance of Am3+ at 503 nm, AmO2+ at 514 nm, and AmO2 2+ at 666 nm in 0.1 M nitric acid are reported. We also performed solvent extraction experiments with the hexavalent americium using the common actinide extraction ligand tributyl phosphate (TBP) for comparison to the other hexavalent actinides. Contact with 30% tributyl phosphate in dodecane reduced americium; it was nevertheless extracted using short contact times. The TBP extraction of AmO2 2+ over a range of nitric acid concentrations is shown for the first time and was found to be analogous to that of uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl ions.

Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Nicholas C. Schmitt

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

DIVALENT ION EXCHANGE WITH ALKALI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery - A Status Report," SPEDOE Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery, Tulsa, OK, Apri120-ions is important enhanced oil recovery with chemical addi-

Bunge, A.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times. Auto-thermal oxidation for conversion of propane to propylene and acrylic acid promises energy savings of 20 trillion Btu per year by 2020. In addition to reducing energy consumption, this technology can reduce manufacturing costs by up to 25 percent, and reduce a variety of greenhouse gas emissions.

270

Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

271

Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic oxidation of methane to partial oxidation products, primarily formaldehyde and C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, was found to be directed by the catalyst used. In this project, it was discovered that a moderate oxidative coupling catalyst for C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, zinc oxide, is modified by addition of small amounts of Cu and Fe dopants to yield fair yields of formaldehyde. A similar effect was observed with Cu/Sn/ZnO catalysts, and the presence of a redox Lewis acid, Fe{sup III} or Sn{sup IV}, was found to be essential for the selectivity switch from C{sub 2} coupling products to formaldehyde. The principle of double doping with an oxygen activator (Cu) and the redox Lewis acid (Fe, Sn) was pursued further by synthesizing and testing the CuFe-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. The Cu{sup II}(ion exchanged) Fe{sup III}(framework)-ZSM-5 also displayed activity for formaldehyde synthesis, with space time yields exceeding 100 g/h-kg catalyst. However, the selectivity was low and earlier claims in the literature of selective oxidation of methane to methanol over CuFe-ZSM-5 were not reproduced. A new active and selective catalytic system (M=Sb,Bi,Sn)/SrO/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been discovered for potentially commercially attractive process for the conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, (ii) a new principle has been demonstrated for selectivity switching from C{sub 2} hydrocarbon products to formaldehyde in methane oxidations over Cu,Fe-doped zinc oxide and ZSM-5, and (iii) a new approach has been initiated for using ultrafine metal dispersions for low temperature activation of methane for selective conversions. Item (iii) continues being supported by AMOCO while further developments related to items (i) and (ii) are the objective of our continued effort under the METC-AMOCO proposed joint program.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.; DiCosimo, J.I.; DeTavernier, S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Efficient reversible electrodes for solid oxide electrolyzer cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyzer cell is disclosed which includes a cathode to reduce an oxygen-containing molecule, such as H2O, CO.sub.2, or a combination thereof, to produce an oxygen ion and a fuel molecule, such as H.sub.2, CO, or a combination thereof. An electrolyte is coupled to the cathode to transport the oxygen ion to an anode. The anode is coupled to the electrolyte to receive the oxygen ion and produce oxygen gas therewith. In one embodiment, the anode may be fabricated to include an electron-conducting phase having a perovskite crystalline structure or structure similar thereto. This perovskite may have a chemical formula of substantially (Pr(.sub.1-x)La.sub.x)(z-y)A'.sub.yBO(3-.differential.), wherein 0oxide intermixed with magnesium oxide.

Elangovan, S.; Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Zhao, Feng

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Efficient reversible electrodes for solid oxide electrolyzer cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyzer cell is disclosed which includes a cathode to reduce an oxygen-containing molecule, such as H2O, CO2, or a combination thereof, to produce an oxygen ion and a fuel molecule, such as H2, CO, or a combination thereof. An electrolyte is coupled to the cathode to transport the oxygen ion to an anode. The anode is coupled to the electrolyte to receive the oxygen ion and produce oxygen gas therewith. In one embodiment, the anode may be fabricated to include an electron-conducting phase having a perovskite crystalline structure or structure similar thereto. This perovskite may have a chemical formula of substantially (Pr(1-x)Lax)(z-y)A'yBO(3-.differential.), wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.0.5, and 0.8.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.1.1. In another embodiment, the cathode includes an electron-conducting phase that contains nickel oxide intermixed with magnesium oxide.

Elangovan, Singaravelu (South Jordan, UT); Hartvigsen, Joseph J. (Kaysville, UT)

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

274

Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relationships in the Li-Ion Battery Electrode Material LiNiAl foil may be used for Li ion battery cathode materials andElectrode materials, Li ion battery, Na ion battery, X-ray

Doeff, Marca M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Apparatus and method of dissociating ions in a multipole ion guide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of dissociating ions in a multipole ion guide is disclosed. A stream of charged ions is supplied to the ion guide. A main RF field is applied to the ion guide to confine the ions through the ion guide. An excitation RF field is applied to one pair of rods of the ion guide. The ions undergo dissociation when the applied excitation RF field is resonant with a secular frequency of the ions. The multipole ion guide is, but not limited to, a quadrupole, a hexapole, and an octopole.

Webb, Ian K.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Anderson, Gordon A.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

276

Identification and characterization of a bacterial hydrosulphide ion channel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrosulphide ion (HS{sup -}) and its undissociated form, hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), which are believed to have been critical to the origin of life on Earth, remain important in physiology and cellular signalling. As a major metabolite in anaerobic bacterial growth, hydrogen sulphide is a product of both assimilatory and dissimilatory sulphate reduction. These pathways can reduce various oxidized sulphur compounds including sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate. The dissimilatory sulphate reduction pathway uses this molecule as the terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, in which process it produces excess amounts of H{sub 2}S. The reduction of sulphite is a key intermediate step in all sulphate reduction pathways. In Clostridium and Salmonella, an inducible sulphite reductase is directly linked to the regeneration of NAD{sup +}, which has been suggested to have a role in energy production and growth, as well as in the detoxification of sulphite. Above a certain concentration threshold, both H{sub 2}S and HS{sup -} inhibit cell growth by binding the metal centres of enzymes and cytochrome oxidase, necessitating a release mechanism for the export of this toxic metabolite from the cell. Here we report the identification of a hydrosulphide ion channel in the pathogen Clostridium difficile through a combination of genetic, biochemical and functional approaches. The HS{sup -} channel is a member of the formate/nitrite transport family, in which about 50 hydrosulphide ion channels form a third subfamily alongside those for formate (FocA) and for nitrite (NirC). The hydrosulphide ion channel is permeable to formate and nitrite as well as to HS{sup -} ions. Such polyspecificity can be explained by the conserved ion selectivity filter observed in the channel's crystal structure. The channel has a low open probability and is tightly regulated, to avoid decoupling of the membrane proton gradient.

Czyzewski, Bryan K.; Wang, Da-Neng (NYUSM)

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

277

asymmetric ion mobility: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High-Field Ion Mobility ions, including isotopomers and isobars, using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), specifically, the field) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS).1,2 Though both...

278

Molecular dynamics simulations of ion range profiles for heavy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

simulations of ion range profiles for heavy ions in light targets. Molecular dynamics simulations of ion range profiles for heavy ions in light targets. Abstract: The determination...

279

Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in chemical carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced through a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources. Overwhelming of antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms in the cell by ROS may result in oxidative stress and oxidative damage to the cell. This resulting oxidative stress can damage critical cellular macromolecules and/or modulate gene expression pathways. Cancer induction by chemical and physical agents involves a multi-step process. This process includes multiple molecular and cellular events to transform a normal cell to a malignant neoplastic cell. Oxidative damage resulting from ROS generation can participate in all stages of the cancer process. An association of ROS generation and human cancer induction has been shown. It appears that oxidative stress may both cause as well as modify the cancer process. Recently association between polymorphisms in oxidative DNA repair genes and antioxidant genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and human cancer susceptibility has been shown.

Klaunig, James E., E-mail: jklauni@indiana.edu; Wang Zemin; Pu Xinzhu; Zhou Shaoyu

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

Michael Niedermayr; Kirill Lakhmanskiy; Muir Kumph; Stefan Partel; Johannes Edlinger; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

283

Laser acceleration of ion beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider methods of charged particle acceleration by means of high-intensity lasers. As an application we discuss a laser booster for heavy ion beams provided, e.g. by the Dubna nuclotron. Simple estimates show that a cascade of crossed laser beams would be necessary to provide additional acceleration to gold ions of the order of GeV/nucleon.

I. A. Egorova; A. V. Filatov; A. V. Prozorkevich; S. A. Smolyansky; D. B. Blaschke; M. Chubaryan

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Metal vapor arc ion plating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for ion plating are described. The apparatus uses more negative than a first electrode voltage in a vacuum arc remelt system to attract low energy ions from the anode electrode to the article to be plated. 2 figs.

Bertram, L.A.; Fisher, R.W.; Mattox, D.M.; Zanner, F.J.

1986-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

285

Review of ion accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here.

Alonso, J.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Nonlinear integrable ion traps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quadrupole ion traps can be transformed into nonlinear traps with integrable motion by adding special electrostatic potentials. This can be done with both stationary potentials (electrostatic plus a uniform magnetic field) and with time-dependent electric potentials. These potentials are chosen such that the single particle Hamilton-Jacobi equations of motion are separable in some coordinate systems. The electrostatic potentials have several free adjustable parameters allowing for a quadrupole trap to be transformed into, for example, a double-well or a toroidal-well system. The particle motion remains regular, non-chaotic, integrable in quadratures, and stable for a wide range of parameters. We present two examples of how to realize such a system in case of a time-independent (the Penning trap) as well as a time-dependent (the Paul trap) configuration.

Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab; Danilov, V.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Study of Ion Specific Interactions of Alkali Cations with Dicarboxylate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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288

Solenoid and monocusp ion source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures. 6 figs.

Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

289

Ion chamber based neutron detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

290

Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

291

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

292

Challenges for Na-ion Negative Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Na-ion batteries have been proposed as candidates for replacing Li-ion batteries. In this paper we examine the viability of Na-ion negative electrode materials based on Na alloys or hard carbons in terms of volumetric ...

Chevrier, V. L.

293

4th Generation ECR Ion Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4th Generation ECR Ion Sources Claude M Lyneis, D. Leitner,to developing a 4 th generation ECR ion source with an RFover current 3 rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate

Lyneis, Claude M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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296

Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation of a reactor-scale FRC, and the FIREX program was intended to test the ideas behind this approach. We will describe in this report the technological development path and advances in physics understanding that allowed FIREX to reach a regime in which ion rings were reproducibly created with up to about half the current necessary to produce field reversal. Unfortunately, the experiments were limited to this level by a fundamental, unanticipated aspect of the physics of strong ion rings in plasma. The FIREX ring is a strongly anisotropic, current-carrying population of ions moving faster than the Alfven speed in the background plasma. The rapidly changing ring current excites very large-amplitude Alfven waves in the plasma, and these waves strongly affect the ring, causing rapid energy loss in a way that is not compatible with the success of the ring trapping scenario around which FIREX was designed. The result was that FIREX rings were always very short-lived. We will discuss the implication of these results for possible future use of large-orbit ions in FRCs. In short, it appears that a certain range of the parameters characterizing the ring Alfven mach number and distribution function must be avoided to allow the existence of a long-lived energetic ion component in an FRC. This report will explain why FIREX experimental results cannot be directly scaled to quantitatively predict this range for a particular FRC configuration. This will require accurate, three-dimensional simulations. FIREX results do constitute a very good dataset for validating such a code, and simulations already carried out during this program provide a guide to the important physics involved.

Greenly, John, B.

2005-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

Kwan, Joe W.

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Ion/Surface Reactions and Ion Soft-Landing. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions and Ion Soft-Landing. Ion/Surface

299

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

300

Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); List, III, Frederick A. (Andersonville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Ion transport through cell membrane channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss various models of ion transport through cell membrane channels. Recent experimental data shows that sizes of ion channels are compared to those of ions and that only few ions may be simultaneously in any single channel. Theoretical description of ion transport in such channels should therefore take into account interactions between ions and between ions and channel proteins. This is not satisfied by macroscopic continuum models based on Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. More realistic descriptions of ion transport are offered by microscopic Brownian and molecular dynamics. One should also take into account a dynamical character of the channel structure. This is not yet addressed in the literature

Jan Gomulkiewicz; Jacek Miekisz; Stanislaw Miekisz

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

302

Precise and ultrafast molecular sieving through graphene oxide membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There has been intense interest in filtration and separation properties of graphene-based materials that can have well-defined nanometer pores and exhibit low frictional water flow inside them. Here we investigate molecular permeation through graphene oxide laminates. They are vacuum-tight in the dry state but, if immersed in water, act as molecular sieves blocking all solutes with hydrated radii larger than 4.5A. Smaller ions permeate through the membranes with little impedance, many orders of magnitude faster than the diffusion mechanism can account for. We explain this behavior by a network of nanocapillaries that open up in the hydrated state and accept only species that fit in. The ultrafast separation of small salts is attributed to an 'ion sponge' effect that results in highly concentrated salt solutions inside graphene capillaries.

R. K. Joshi; P. Carbone; F. C. Wang; V. G. Kravets; Y. Su; I. V. Grigorieva; H. A. Wu; A. K. Geim; R. R. Nair

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

303

Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor manufacturing industry by lowering power consumption by as much as 30 kW per ion implanter. Major problem w

Hershcovitch, Ady

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Udovich, Carl A. (Joliet, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Iron Oxide Waste Form for Stabilizing 99Tc. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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307

Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide filmsdeposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amorphous and partially crystalline WO3 thin films wereprepared by reactive dual magnetron sputtering and successively implantedby erbium ions with a fluence in the range from 7.7 x 1014 to 5 x 1015ions/cm2. The electrical and optical properties were studied as afunction of the film deposition parameters and the ion fluence. Ionimplantation caused a strong decrease of the resistivity, a moderatedecrease of the index of refraction and a moderate increase of theextinction coefficient in the visible and near infrared, while theoptical band gap remained almost unchanged. These effects could belargely ascribed to ion-induced oxygen deficiency. When annealed in air,the already low resistivities of the implanted samples decreased furtherup to 70oC, whereas oxidation, and hence a strong increase of theresistivity, was observed at higher annealing temperatures.

Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

308

Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 {micro}m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25 mm) at 25 keV beam voltage. Such an integrated FIB/SEM dual-beam system will not only improve the accuracy and reproducibility when performing ion beam sculpting and direct implantation processes, but will also enable researchers to perform cross-sectioning, imaging, and analysis with the same tool. A major advantage of this approach is the ability to produce a wide variety of ion species tailored to the application.

Ji, Lili

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Ion beam extractor with counterbore  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extractor system for a plasma ion source has a single (first) electrode with one or more apertures, or a pair of spaced electrodes, a first or plasma forming electrode and a second or extraction electrode, with one or more aligned apertures. The aperture(s) in the first electrode (or the second electrode or both) have a counterbore on the downstream side (i.e. away from the plasma ion source or facing the second electrode). The counterbored extraction system reduces aberrations and improves focusing. The invention also includes an ion source with the counterbored extraction system, and a method of improving focusing in an extraction system by providing a counterbore.

Ji, Qing; Standiford, Keith; King, Tsu-Jae; Leung, Ka-Ngo

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Three chamber negative ion source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

1983-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

311

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Advanced quadrupole ion trap instrumentation for low level vehicle emissions measurements. CRADA final report for number ORNL93-0238  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amenable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of sensitivity, specificity, speed, and flexibility with respect to the technical requirements of the top 15 analyzer.

McLuckey, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Goeringer, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dearth, M.A. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Environmental Research Consortium

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Semiconductor Ion Implanters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

MacKinnon, Barry A. [Isys, 2727 Walsh Ave., Suite 103, Santa Clara, CA 95051 (United States); Ruffell, John P. [Group 3, LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Communication: CO oxidation by silver and gold cluster cations: Identification of different active oxygen species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of carbon monoxide with nitrous oxide on mass-selected Au{sub 3}{sup +} and Ag{sub 3}{sup +} clusters has been investigated under multicollision conditions in an octopole ion trap experiment. The comparative study reveals that for both gold and silver cations carbon dioxide is formed on the clusters. However, whereas in the case of Au{sub 3}{sup +} the cluster itself acts as reactive species that facilitates the formation of CO{sub 2} from N{sub 2}O and CO, for silver the oxidized clusters Ag{sub 3}O{sub x}{sup +} (n= 1-3) are identified as active in the CO oxidation reaction. Thus, in the case of the silver cluster cations N{sub 2}O is dissociated and one oxygen atom is suggested to directly react with CO, whereas a second kind of oxygen strongly bound to silver is acting as a substrate for the reaction.

Popolan, Denisia M.; Bernhardt, Thorsten M. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

316

Photooxidation of tetraanionic sensitizer ions by dihexadecyl phosphate vesicle-bound viologens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Triplet state lifetimes of several photoredox-active anions were shortened by adding N-alkyl-N-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/) ions in the presence of dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles. Optical spectroscopic measurements indicate that the predominant reaction mechanism is one-electron oxidative quenching. For (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPPS/sup 4 -/) ion, yields of charge-separated product ions are high, so that overall quantum yields exceeding 0.5 redox pairs per photon absorbed can be realized; for tetrakis(diphosphito)diplatinate(II), tris(4,7-bis(4-sulfonato-benzyl)-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenate(II), and tris(4,4'-dicarboxylato-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenate(II) yields are markedly less, a consequence of their shorter intrinsic triplet lifetimes and poor cage escape yields. In the absence of vesicles, product formation is negligible because ion pairing of viologens with sensitizers is extensive, giving rise to static quenching of the photoexcited states. The ionic strength dependence of the kinetics of /sup 3/ZnTPPS/sup 4 -/ ion oxidation by C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/-DHP particles suggests a diffusion-controlled mechanism with electron transfer occurring over a distance of separation approximating the hard-sphere collision diameter of sensitizer and viologen.

Hurst, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.P.; Connolly, J.S.

1987-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

317

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

METHANE OXIDATION (AEROBIC) Helmut Brgmann  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METHANE OXIDATION (AEROBIC) Helmut Bürgmann Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland Synonyms Methanotrophy Definition Methane oxidation is a microbial metabolic process for energy generation and carbon assimilation from methane that is carried out by specific

Wehrli, Bernhard

319

Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Surface trap for ytterbium ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We conducted an experiment to load a shallow planar ion trap from a cold atom source of Ytterbium using photoionization. The surface trap consisted of a three-rod radio frequency Paul trap fabricated using standard printed ...

Campbell, Jonathan A. (Jonathan Alan)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Improving the Performance of Lithium Ion Batteries at Low Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability for Li-ion batteries to operate at low temperatures is extremely critical for the development of energy storage for electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Currently, Li-ion cells have limited success in operating at temperature below 10 deg C. Electrolyte conductivity at low temperature is not the main cause of the poor performance of Li-ion cells. Rather the formation of a tight interfacial film between the electrolyte and the electrodes has often been an issue that resulted in a progressive capacity fading and limited discharge rate capability. The objective of our Phase I work is to develop novel electrolytes that can form low interfacial resistance solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films on carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes. From the results of our Phase I work, we found that the interfacial impedance of Fluoro Ethylene Carbonate (FEC) electrolyte at the low temperature of 20degC is astonishingly low, compared to the baseline 1.2M LiPFEMC:EC:PC:DMC (10:20:10:60) electrolyte. We found that electrolyte formulations with fluorinated carbonate co-solvent have excellent film forming properties and better de-solvation characteristics to decrease the interfacial SEI film resistance and facilitate the Li-ion diffusion across the SEI film. The very overwhelming low interfacial impedance for FEC electrolytes will translate into Li-ion cells with much higher power for cold cranking and high Regen/charge at the low temperature. Further, since the SEI film resistance is low, Li interaction kinetics into the electrode will remain very fast and thus Li plating during Regen/charge period be will less likely to happen.

Trung H. Nguyen; Peter Marren; Kevin Gering

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

322

P-31 / Schlott P-31: Nodule Formation on Indium-Oxide Tin-Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P-31 / Schlott P-31: Nodule Formation on Indium-Oxide Tin-Oxide Sputtering Targets M. Schlott, M from indium-oxide tin-oxide (ITO) targets [1]. Unfor- tunately, black growths, or nodules, commonly isostatic pressing partly reduced powder mixtures of 90 wt.% indium-oxide and 10 wt.% tin-oxide [4

323

Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

Holmes, Michael Jerome (Thompson, ND); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh (Allentown, PA)

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

324

Turbulent transport of energetic ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approaching ITER operation, the issue of anomalous transport of fast particles becomes more and more important. This is partly because the ITER heating and current drive system relies heavily on neutral beam injection. Moreover burning plasmas are heated by fast fusion {alpha} particles.Fusion {alpha} particles are characterised by a fixed energy and an isotropic velocity distribution. Therefore they have gyroradii one magnitude larger than the thermal ions. The dependency of the particle diffusion of {alpha} test particles on the Kubo number K = VExB{tau}c/{lambda}c (VExB mean E x B velocity, {tau}c, {lambda}c correlation time and length of the turbulent potential) is presented. For different turbulent regimes, different dependency of the diffusion on the gyroradius is found. For large Kubo numbers, the transport is found to remain constant for gyroradii up to the correlation length of the potential, whereas it is drastically reduced in the small Kubo number regime.In the second part, a model for beam ions injected along the equilibrium magnetic field is described. The beam ions are treated gyrokinetically in a self-consistent way with the equilibrium distribution function taken as a shifted Maxwellian. The implications of such a model for the Vlasov equation, the field equations, and the calculation of moments and fluxes are discussed. Linear and nonlinear results, obtained with the gyrokinetic flux tube code GENE show the existence of a new instability driven by fast beam ions. The instability has a maximum growth rate at perpendicular wave numbers of ky{rho}s {approx} 0.15 and depends mainly on the beam velocity and the density gradient of the beam ions. This instability leads to a replacement of bulk ion particle transport by fast ion particle transport, connected to a strongly enhanced heat flux. In the presence of this instability, the turbulent particle and heat transport is dominated by fast ions.

Dannert, Tilman; Hauff, Thilo; Jenko, Frank; Guenter, Sibylle [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

325

Detection of oxidation in human serum lipoproteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method for the oxidation of lipoproteins in vitro was developed using the free radical initiator, 2,2?-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Following in vitro oxidation, the susceptibility to oxidation of the serum samples...

Myers, Christine Lee

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

Improving high-capacity Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2-based lithium-ion cells by modifiying the positive electrode with alumina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and EVs), they must meet a range of stringent criteria: for instance, energy densities high enoughImproving high-capacity Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2-based lithium-ion cells by modifiying the positive-ion Atomic layer deposition Al2O3 Coating Secondary ion mass spectrometry Layered oxide a b s t r a c

Spila, Timothy P.

327

Perspective Ion Channels: From Conductance to Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

membrane is an essen- tially insurmountable barrier for the flow of ions; therefore, ion transport is carried out by membrane-embedded specialized proteins in the form of transporters and ion channels a purely electrical concept to a structural dynamics view of ions in- teracting with a membrane protein

Bezanilla, Francisco

328

Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

330

Dual mode ion mobility spectrometer and method for ion mobility spectrometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion mobility spectrometer apparatus may include an ion interface that is operable to hold positive and negative ions and to simultaneously release positive and negative ions through respective positive and negative ion ports. A first drift chamber is operatively associated with the positive ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A first ion detector operatively associated with the first drift chamber detects positive ions from the first drift chamber. A second drift chamber is operatively associated with the negative ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A second ion detector operatively associated with the second drift chamber detects negative ions from said second drift chamber.

Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Carla J [Idaho Falls, ID; Tremblay, Paul L [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

331

Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of stoves that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the final products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of stoves that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the final products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Chapter 6: Thallium-Oxide Superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter has 2 sections titled: (1) Spray-Deposited, TI-Oxide Films, and (2) Electrodeposited Ti-Oxide Superconductors.

Bhattacharya, R. N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Technology available for licensing: New transparent conducting oxide...

334

New manganese catalyst for light alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aluminophosphates containing manganese in the structural framework are employed for the oxidation of alkanes, for example the vapor phase oxidation of methane to methanol.

Durante, Vincent A. (West Chester, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Walker, Darrell W. (Visalia, CA); Marcus, Bonita K. (Radnor, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ?3 solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9?keV created by molybdenum He-? emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4{sup ?1}. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.

Ma, T., E-mail: ma8@llnl.gov; Pak, A.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Turnbull, D.; Dppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fletcher, L.; Galtier, E.; Hastings, J.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)] [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Chapman, D. A. [Plasma Physics Group, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom) [Plasma Physics Group, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Falcone, R. W. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fortmann, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States) [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Gericke, D. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gregori, G.; White, T. G. [University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)] [University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Neumayer, P. [Extreme Matter Institute, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] [Extreme Matter Institute, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Vorberger, J. [Max Planck Institut fr Physik komplexer Systeme, Ntthnizer Strae 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Max Planck Institut fr Physik komplexer Systeme, Ntthnizer Strae 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); and others

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Correlation among electronegativity, cation polarizability, optical basicity and single bond strength of simple oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements in different valence states and with the most common coordination numbers has been searched on the basis of the similarity in physical nature of both quantities. In general, the cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. A systematic periodic change in the polarizability against the electronegativity has been observed in the isoelectronic series. It has been found that generally the optical basicity increases and the single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. The observed trends have been discussed on the basis of electron donation ability of the oxide ions and type of chemical bonding in simple oxides. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the single bond strength of simple oxides as a function of element electronegativity. A remarkable correlation exists between these independently obtained quantities. High values of electronegativity correspond to high values of single bond strength and vice versa. It is obvious that the observed trend in this figure is closely related to the type of chemical bonding in corresponding oxide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements was searched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed trends were discussed on the basis of type of chemical bonding in simple oxides.

Dimitrov, Vesselin, E-mail: vesselin@uctm.edu [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria)] [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)] [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Role of oxygen vacancies in water vapor chemisorption and CO oxidation on titania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titanium dioxide is widely used as support for various important catalysts. Although nonstoichiometric titania behaves as an n-type semiconductor, the nature of the defect sites is not yet fully understood. In the present investigation the water vapor adsorption and carbon monoxide oxidation on TiO[sub 2] is explained considering oxygen vacancies as the major defect. It is also shown that incorporation of an Al[sup 3+] ion in TiO[sub 2] reduces the concentration of oxygen ion vacancies and inhibits the transformation of anatase to rutile.

Sengupta, G.; Chatterjee, R.N.; Maity, G.C. (Project and Development India Ltd. Sindri, Dhanbad, Bihar (India)); Satyanarayna, C.V.V. (RSIC, Bombay (India). Indian Inst. of Tech. Powai)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of electrochemically deposited thin oxide films.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have utilized ''in situ'' X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy to investigate the structure and composition of thin oxide films of nickel and iron that have been prepared by electrodeposition on a graphite substrate from aqueous solutions. The films are generally disordered. Structural information has been obtained from the analysis of the data. We also present initial findings on the local structure of heavy metal ions, e.g. Sr and Ce, incorporated into the electrodeposited nickel oxide films. Our results are of importance in a number of technological applications, among them, batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic and ferroelectric materials, corrosion protection, as well as environmental speciation and remediation.

Balasubramanian, M.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

339

In situ examination of tin oxide atomic layer deposition using quartz crystal microbalance and Fourier transform infrared techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-type semiconductor metal oxide that has many applications in various fields due to its special optical, electrical capacity anode for next gen- eration lithium ion batteries.3,4 SnO2 can also be used as a catalyst typically around 10-2 cm. The adsorp- tion of O2 from air removes the electron charge carriers from

George, Steven M.

340

Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Ruscic, Katarina J. (Chicago, IL); Sears, Devin N. (Spruce Grove, CA); Smith, Luis J. (Natick, MA); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFPs Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)39H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

342

Theoretical overview: Light ion lessons, heavy ion hopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments using light ion beams of atomic masses A {approximately} 30 have been underway since 1986 at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS at the respective energies {radical}s {approximately} 5 A GeV and 20 A GeV. The first truly heavy ion runs with a gold beam began this spring at the AGS. In this talk I will survey our progress towards an understanding of nuclear collision dynamics, focusing on those issues that are relevant to Au+Au at the AGS. In view of what we have already learned from the light ion data, I will argue that the prospects for producing matter at extreme density in these experiments are excellent.

Gavin, S.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Theoretical overview: Light ion lessons, heavy ion hopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments using light ion beams of atomic masses A [approximately] 30 have been underway since 1986 at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS at the respective energies [radical]s [approximately] 5 A GeV and 20 A GeV. The first truly heavy ion runs with a gold beam began this spring at the AGS. In this talk I will survey our progress towards an understanding of nuclear collision dynamics, focusing on those issues that are relevant to Au+Au at the AGS. In view of what we have already learned from the light ion data, I will argue that the prospects for producing matter at extreme density in these experiments are excellent.

Gavin, S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

Nash, C.

2012-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

345

Corrosion of lithium-ion battery current collectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary current-collector materials being used in lithium-ion cells are susceptible to environmental degradation: aluminum to pitting corrosion and copper to environmentally assisted cracking. Localized corrosion occurred on bare aluminum electrodes during simulated ambient-temperature cycling in an excess of electrolyte. The highly oxidizing potential associated with the positive-electrode charge condition was the primary factor. The corrosion mechanism differed from the pitting typically observed in aqueous electrolytes because each site was filled with a mixed metal/metal-oxide product, forming surface mounds or nodules. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was shown to be an effective analytical tool for characterizing the corrosion behavior of aluminum under these conditions. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, little difference existed in the composition of the surface film on aluminum and copper after immersion or cycling in LiPF{sub 6} electrolytes made with two different solvent formulations. Although Li and P were the predominant adsorbed surface species, the corrosion resistance of aluminum may simply be due to its native oxide. Finally, copper was shown to be susceptible to environmental cracking at or near the lithium potential when specific metallurgical conditions existed (work hardening and large grain size).

Braithwaite, J.W.; Gonzales, A.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Lucero, S.J.; Peebles, D.E.; Ohlhausen, J.A.; Cieslak, W.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Chemistry of heavy ion reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs.

Hoffman, D.C.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Evidence of the ion's impact position effect on SEB in N-channel power MOSFETs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Triggering of Single Event Burnout (SEB) in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) is studied by means of experiments and simulations based on real structures. Conditions for destructive and nondestructive events are investigated through current duration observations. The effect of the ion's impact position is experimentally pointed out. Finally, further investigation with 2D MEDICI simulations show that the different regions of the MOSFET cell indeed exhibit different sensitivity with respect to burnout triggering.

Dachs, C.; Roubaud, F.; Palau, J.M.; Bruguier, G.; Gasiot, J. (Univ. Montpellier II (France). Centre d'Electronique de Montpellier); Tastet, P. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France))

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Voltage, Stability and Diffusion Barrier Differences between Sodium-ion and Lithium-ion Intercalation Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To evaluate the potential of Na-ion batteries, we contrast in this work the difference between Na-ion and Li-ion based intercalation chemistries in terms of three key battery propertiesvoltage, phase stability and diffusion ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

350

Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alternatives to Current Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. EnergyMaterials for Lithium Ion Batteries. Materials Matters. 7 4.to the Study of Lithium Ion Batteries. J. Solid State

Doeff, Marca M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Thermal oxidation procedure PREPARATION........................................................................................................................................... 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

procedure - 2 - Preparation. The preparation procedure sets up the power, gas supplies, cooling water, (DI to check all the supplies. Cooling water Gas supplies Routing DI water for wet oxidation We start........................................................................................................................................... 2 Step 1 Turn on the cooling water

Hochberg, Michael

352

Oxides having high energy densities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

353

High Resolution Ion Mobility Spectrometry with Increased Ion Transmission: Exploring the Analytical Utility of Periodic-Focusing DC Ion Guide Drift Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful, post-ionization separation that yields structural information of ions through an ion-neutral collision cross section. The ion-neutral collision cross section is governed by the collision...

Blase, Ryan Christopher

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

The catalytic oxidation of propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

Sanderson, Charles Frederick

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Trapped-ion Lissajous trajectories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we present a protocol for generating Lissajous curves with a trapped ion by engineering Rashba- and the Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit interactions in a Paul trap. The unique anisotropic Rashba $\\alpha_{x}$, $\\alpha_{y}$ and Dresselhaus $\\beta_{x}$, $\\beta_{y}$ couplings afforded by our setup also enables us to obtain an "unusual" Zitterbewegung, i.e., the semiconductor analog of the relativistic trembling motion of electrons, with cycloidal trajectories in the absence of magnetic fields. We have also introduced bounded SO interactions, confined to an upper-bound vibrational subspace of the Fock states, as an additional mechanism to manipulate the Lissajous motion of the trapped ion. Finally, we accounted for dissipative effects on the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and find that the Lissajous trajectories are still robust and well defined for realistic parameters.

R. F. Rossetti; G. D. de Moraes Neto; J. Carlos Egues; M. H. Y. Moussa

2015-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

356

Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Witten, William B. (Lancing, TN); Kornienko, Oleg (Lansdale, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Tachyon Physics with Trapped Ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has been predicted that particles with imaginary mass, called tachyons, would be able to travel faster than the speed of light. So far, there has not been any experimental evidence for tachyons in either natural or engineered systems. Here, we propose how to experimentally simulate Dirac tachyons with trapped ions. Quantum measurement on a Dirac particle simulated by a trapped ion causes it to have an imaginary mass so that it may travel faster than the effective speed of light. We show that a Dirac tachyon must have spinor-motion entanglement in order to be superluminal. We also show that it exhibits significantly more Klein tunneling than a normal Dirac particle. We provide numerical simulations with realistic ion systems and show that our scheme is feasible with current technology.

Lee, Tony E; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bilayer electrolyte consisting of acceptor-doped ceria (on the fuel/reducing side) and cubic-stabilized bismuth oxide (on the oxidizing side) was developed. The bilayer electrolyte that was developed showed significant improvement in open-circuit potential versus a typical ceria based SOFC. Moreover, the OCP of the bilayer cells increased as the thickness of the bismuth oxide layer increased relative to the ceria layer. Thereby, verifying the bilayer concept. Although, because of the absence of a suitable cathode (a problem we are still working assiduously to solve), we were unable to obtain power density curves, our modeling work predicts a reduction in electrolyte area specific resistance of two orders of magnitude over cubic-stabilized zirconia and projects a maximum power density of 9 W/m{sup 2} at 800 C and 0.09 W/m{sup 2} at 500 C. Towards the development of the bilayer electrolyte other significant strides were made. Among these were, first, the development of a, bismuth oxide based, oxide ion conductor with the highest conductivity (0.56 S/cm at 800 C and 0.043 S/cm at 500 C) known to date. Second, a physical model of the defect transport mechanisms and the driving forces for the ordering phenomena in bismuth oxide and other fluorite systems was developed. Third, a model for point defect transport in oxide mixed ionic-electronic conductors was developed, without the typical assumption of a uniform distribution of ions and including the effect of variable loads on the transport properties of an SOFC (with either a single or bilayer electrolyte).

Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

359

Ion Sources for High Energy Ion Implantation at BNL | U.S. DOE...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Ion Sources for High Energy Ion Implantation at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science...

360

Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Yu (Saline, MI); Banerjee, Debasish (Ann Arbor, MI)

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

Scott Han

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

Pionic Fusion of Heavy Ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the first experimental observation of the pionic fusion of two heavy ions. The 12C(12C,24Mg)pi0 and 12C(12C,24Na)pi+ cross sections have been measured to be 208 +/- 38 and 182 +/- 84 picobarns, respectively, at E_cm = 137 MeV. This cross section for heavy-ion pion production, at an energy just 6 MeV above the absolute energy-conservation limit, constrains possible production mechanisms to incorporate the kinetic energy of the entire projectile-target system as well as the binding energy gained in fusion.

D. Horn; G. C. Ball; D. R. Bowman; W. G. Davies; D. Fox; A. Galindo-Uribarri; A. C. Hayes; G. Savard; L. Beaulieu; Y. Larochelle; C. St-Pierre

1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

363

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxbille, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

365

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

1997-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

366

Central collisions of heavy ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. During this period, our program focuses on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus central collisions. We participated in the preparation of letters of intent for two RHIC experiments -- the OASIS proposal and the Di-Muon proposal -- and worked on two RHIC R D efforts -- a silicon strip detector project and a muon-identifier project. A small fraction of time was also devoted to physics programs outside the realm of heavy ion reactions by several individuals.

Fung, Sun-yiu.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Relating to monitoring ion sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Heavy Ions - 88-Inch Cyclotron  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. TheEPSCIResearchGulfCenterHeavy Ions Heavy ions

369

Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rumpf, Arthur N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

370

Oxide Film Aging on Alloy 22 in Halide Containing Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Passive and corrosion behaviors of Alloy 22 in chloride and fluoride containing solutions, changing the heat treatment of the alloy, the halide concentration and the pH of the solutions at 90 deg. C, was investigated. The study was implemented using electrochemical techniques, which included open circuit potential monitoring over time, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements carried out at open circuit and at passivity potentials. Corrosion rates obtained by EIS measurements after 24 h immersion in naturally aerated solutions were below 0.5 {mu}m/year. The corrosion rates were practically independent of solution pH, alloy heat treatment and halide ion nature and concentration. EIS low frequency resistance values increased with applied potential in the passive domain and with polarization time in pH 6 - 1 M NaCl at 90 deg. C. This effect was attributed to an increase in the oxide film thickness and oxide film aging. High frequency capacitance measurements indicated that passive oxide on Alloy 22 presented a double n-type/p-type semiconductor behavior in the passive potential range. (authors)

Rodriguez, Martin A.; Carranza, Ricardo M. [Dept. Materiales, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, Villa Maipu, 1650 (Argentina); Rebak, Raul B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, L-631, Livermore, CA, 94550-9698 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Engineering properties of superhard films with ion energy and post-deposition processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments in plasma synthesis of hard materials using energetic ions are described. Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (MePIIID) has been used to prepare several hard films: from diamondlike carbon (DLC) to carbides, from nitrides to oxides. The energy of the depositing species is controlled to maximize adhesion as well as to change the physical and chemical properties of the films. Adhesion is promoted by the creation of a graded interface between the film and the substrate. The energy of the depositing ions is also used to modify and control the intrinsic stresses and the microstructure of the films. The deposition is carried out at room temperature, which is important for temperature sensitive substrates. A correlation between intrinsic stresses and the energetics of the deposition is presented for the case of DLC films, and means to reduce stress levels are discussed.

Monteiro, Othon R.; Delplancke-Ogletree, Mari-Paule

2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

372

Mechanisms for covalent immobilization of horseradish peroxi-dase on ion beam treated polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanism that provides the observed strong binding of biomolecules to polymer sur-faces modified by ion beams is investigated. The surface of polyethylene (PE) was modified by plasma immersion ion implantation with nitrogen ions. Structure changes including car-bonization and oxidation were observed in the modified surface layer of PE by Raman spec-troscopy, FTIR ATR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, surface energy measurement and XPS spectroscopy. An observed high surface energy of the modified polyethylene was attributed to the presence of free radicals on the surface. The surface energy decay with stor-age time after PIII treatment was explained by a decay of the free radical concentration while the concentration of oxygen-containing groups increased with storage time. Horseradish per-oxidase was covalently attached onto the modified PE surface. The enzymatic activity of co-valently attached protein remained high. A mechanism based on the covalent attachment by the reaction of protein with free r...

Kondyurin, Alexey V; Tilley, Jennifer M R; Nosworthy, Neil J; Bilek, Marcela M M; McKenzie, David R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Pushing the Frontier of High-Definition Ion Mobility Spectrometry...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Frontier of High-Definition Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using FAIMS. Pushing the Frontier of High-Definition Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using FAIMS. Abstract: Differential ion...

374

Are Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen Depth...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry? Are Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen...

375

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Abstract: Sodium ion (Na+) batteries...

376

ambient ion sources: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an...

377

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

378

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

379

The positive ion temperature effect in magnetized electronegative plasma sheath with two species of positive ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of a magnetized multi-component (two species of positive ions, negative ions and electrons) plasma sheath with finite positive ion temperature are studied. By using three fluid hydrodynamic model and some dimensionless variables, the ion (both lighter and heavier positive ions, and negative ions) densities, the ion (only for positive ions) velocities, and electric potential inside the sheath are investigated. In addition, the absence and presence of magnetic field and the orientation of magnetic field are considered. It is noticed that, with increase of positive ion temperature, the lighter positive ion density peaks increase only at the sheath edge and shift towards the sheath edge for both absence and presence of magnetic field. For heavier positive ions, in the absence of magnetic field, the density peaks increase at the sheath edge. But in the presence of magnetic field, the density fluctuations increase at the sheath edge. For both the cases, the density peaks shift towards the sheath edge.

Shaw, A. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur-782 402, Guwahati, Assam (India); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428, Gujarat (India); Kar, S. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428, Gujarat (India); Goswami, K. S. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur-782 402, Guwahati, Assam (India)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

6 Ion Transport, Osmoregulation, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

177 6 Ion Transport, Osmoregulation, and Acid­Base Balance W.S. Marshall and M. Grosell CONTENTS I)............................................................................182 5. Skin and Opercular Membrane..................................................................................................183 2. Sea-Water Transport Mode -- Na+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+, 2Cl­ Co-transport

Grosell, Martin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM); Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

383

Nonlinear ion concentration polarization : fundamentals and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ion exchange membrane (IEM) is a functional material that has a permselectivity of ions. Two types of IEMs - anion exchange membrane (AEM) and cation exchange membrane (CEM) - are used in a variety of electrochemical ...

Kwak, Rhokyun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Laser ion source with solenoid field  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

Kanesue, Takeshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fuwa, Yasuhiro [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); RIKEN (Japan); Kondo, Kotaro [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

385

Title Quantum Optics and Heavy Ion Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I shall try to say a few words about two particular ways in which my own work has a certain relation to your work with heavy ions. My title is therefore "Quantum Optics and Heavy Ion Physics".

Roy J. Glauber

2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

Brookhaven Lab

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

387

Adsorption of Cu21 Ions with Poly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-scale particles showed much improved Cu ion adsorption efficiency, compared with the micro hydro- gels. The amountAdsorption of Cu21 Ions with Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) Micro

388

Oxidation State Changes of the Mn(4)Ca Cluster in Photosystem II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed electronic structure of the Mn{sub 4}Ca cluster is required before two key questions for understanding the mechanism of photosynthetic water oxidation can be addressed. They are whether all four oxidizing equivalents necessary to oxidize water to O{sub 2} accumulate on the four Mn ions of the oxygen-evolving complex, or do some ligand-centered oxidations take place before the formation and release of O{sub 2} during the S{sub 3} {yields} [S{sub 4}] {yields} S{sub 0} transition, and what are the oxidation state assignments for the Mn during S-state advancement. X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy of Mn, including the newly introduced resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy have been used to address these questions. The present state of understanding of the electronic structure and oxidation state changes of the Mn{sub 4}Ca cluster in all the S-states, particularly in the S{sub 2} to S{sub 3} transition, derived from these techniques is described in this review.

Yano, J.; Yachandra, V.K.

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

389

Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Modeling of surface oxidation and oxidation induced damage in metal matrix composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface oxidation in metal matrix composites (MMC's) is modeled by Fickian diffusion of oxygen in both the oxide layer and metal matrix. The oxidation process and the resulting immobilized oxygen at the interface is accounted for by the introduction...

Ma, Xinzheng

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Strangeness signals in heavy ion collisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental data on strange meson and strange baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions are reviewed.

Remsberg, L.P.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Strangeness signals in heavy ion collisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental data on strange meson and strange baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions are reviewed.

Remsberg, L.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Solution dewatering with concomitant ion removal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

One of the biggest needs in the separations and waste handling and reduction area is a method for dewatering ion-containing solutions. Unexpectedly, it has been found that phosphazene polymers can discriminate between water and metal ions, allowing water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. This unexpected result, along with the inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers, yields a powerful tool for separating and dewatering metal-ion-containing solutions.

Peterson, Eric S.; Marshall, Douglas W.; Stone, Mark L.

2003-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

394

Biaxially aligned buffer layers of cerium oxide, yttria stabilized zirconia, and their bilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biaxially aligned cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were deposited on Ni-based metal (Hastelloy C276) substrates held at room temperature using ion beam assisted (IBAD) magnetron deposition with the ion beam directed at 55{degree} to the normal of the film plane. In addition, we achieved, room-temperature epitaxial growth of CeO{sub 2} by bias sputtering to form biaxially aligned CeO{sub 2}/YSZ bilayers. The crystalline structure and in-plane orientation of films was investigated by x-ray diffraction techniques. Both the IBAD CeO{sub 2} and YSZ films, and the CeO{sub 2}/YSZ bilayers have a (111) pole in the ion beam direction. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Gnanarajan, S.; Katsaros, A.; Savvides, N. [CSIRO Telecommunications and Industrial Physics, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)] [CSIRO Telecommunications and Industrial Physics, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Three-phase model for the reversible lithiation/delithiation of SnO anodes in Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using first-principles calculations, we propose a microscopic model to explain the reversible lithiation/delithiation of tin-oxide anodes in lithium-ion batteries. When the irreversible regime ends, the anode grains consist of layers of Li-oxide separated by Sn bilayers. During the following reversible lithiation, the Li-oxide undergoes two phase transformations that give rise to a Li-enrichment of the oxide and the formation of a SnLi composite. The anode grain structure stays layered and ordered with an effective theoretical reversible capacity of 4.5 Li per Sn atom. The predicted anode volume expansion and voltage profile agree well with experiments, contrary to existing models.

Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component containing at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji Won; Rondinone, Adam J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

397

Protective coating on positive lithium-metal-oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell comprising a LiMn2-xMxO4 spinel structure in which M is one or more metal cations with an atomic number less than 52, such that the average oxidation state of the manganese ions is equal to or greater than 3.5, and in which 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.15, having one or more lithium spine oxide LiM'2O4 or lithiated spinel oxide Li1+yM'2O4 compounds on the surface thereof in which M' are cobalt cations and in which 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1.

Johnson, Christopher S.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

398

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

399

The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Status of heavy-ion-beam-driven  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-see http://videos.komando.com/2008/08/19/water-painting/]. #12;12/7/08 The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual12/7/08 The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory 1 Status of heavy-ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and fusion* Presented by B. Grant Logan on behalf of the U.S. Heavy Ion

400

Isotopic Effect on Ion Mobility and Separation of Isotopomers...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect on Ion Mobility and Separation of Isotopomers by High-Field Ion Mobility Spectrometry . Isotopic Effect on Ion Mobility and Separation of Isotopomers by High-Field Ion...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the assembled Li-ion battery, such as the operating1-4: Schematic of a Li-ion battery. Li + ions are shuttledprocessing of active Li-ion battery materials. Various

Conry, Thomas Edward

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Study on space charge effect in an electrostatic ion analyzer applied to measure laser produced ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The abundance of different ions produced by laser ion sources is usually analyzed by an electrostatic ion analyzer (EIA). Ion current intensities in the range of several mA/cm{sup 2} at the position of the EIA have been achieved from the laser ion source developed by the Institute of Modern Physics; this indicates that a noticeable influence of space charge effect during the ion transmission will occur. Hence, while the parameters of the EIA or the beams are changed, such as ion species, current intensity, the ions transmission efficiency through the EIA is different, which will result in an uncertainty in the estimation of the ions yields. Special attention is focused on this issue in this paper. Ion's transmissions through the EIA under different circumstances are studied with simulations and experiments, the results of which are consistent with each other.

Jin, Q. Y.; Li, Zh. M.; Liu, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China) [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H. Y., E-mail: zhaohy@impcas.ac.cn; Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, X. Zh.; Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Distribution of ion current density on a rotating spherical cap substrate during ion-assisted deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The uniformity of ion density is critical for applications relying on the ion assisted deposition technique for the fabrication of the high quality thin films. The authors propose and describe here a method allowing one to calculate the ion density distribution on spherical substrate holders under stationary and rotating conditions for different positions of the ion source. The ion beam shape was approximated by a cos{sup n} function, and the ion current density was represented by a function inversely proportional to the distance from the ion source in accordance with our experimental results. As an example, a calculation of the current density distribution on the spherical cap substrate was performed for a broad beam ion source operated with an anode current of 3?A. The authors propose an approach for process optimization with respect to the ion source position and its inclination, in terms of uniformity and absolute value of the ion current density.

Marushka, Viktor; Zabeida, Oleg, E-mail: oleg.zabeida@polymtl.ca; Martinu, Ludvik [Engineering Physics Department, Polytechnique Montral, P.O. Box 6079, Downtown station, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada)

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Ion dip spectroscopy of cold molecules and ions. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past year, the main emphasis in this research program has been on multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of aromatic clusters. This is being pursued in addition to continuing work in areas of ion dip spectroscopy and ion fragmentation spectroscopy. The program has the overall objective of developing improved ultrasensitive molecular detection methods based on multiphoton laser spectroscopy. Photoionization techniques are employed due to their extreme sensitivity combined with mass selectivity. The combination of these two features has led to the current capability to study molecular clusters of specific sizes with high spectral resolution. Clusters are formed in abundance in a supersonic expansion, where they are excited and ionized by an ultraviolet laser beam. The studies reported here are principally based on simple resonant excitation of clusters, followed by one-photon ionization. For the naphthalene clusters, a single laser wavelength suffices for both excitation steps. Additional investigations have been carried out to measure excited state cluster ionization spectra and cluster ion fragmentation spectra. Results from these measurements are not yet sufficiently advanced to report in detail, however the preliminary data support the importance of recently proposed new fundamental ionization mechanisms in clusters. This brief report summarizes results described in more detail in the preprint titled: Resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy of naphthalene clusters and the preprint titled: Resonance interactions in naphthalene clusters. It also briefly describes preliminary undisclosed results of current investigations.

Wessel, J.E.

1988-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

405

Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

407

Nanostructuring superconductors by ion beams: A path towards materials engineering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper deals with nanostructuring of superconducting materials by means of swift heavy ion beams. The aim is to modify their structural, optical and electromagnetic properties in a controlled way, to provide possibility of making them functional for specific applications. Results are presented concerning flux pinning effects (implantation of columnar defects with nanosize cross section to enhance critical currents and irreversibility fields), confined flux-flow and vortex guidance, design of devices by locally tailoring the superconducting material properties, analysis of disorder-induced effects in multi-band superconductors. These studies were carried out on different kinds of superconducting samples, from single crystals to thin films, from superconducting oxides to magnesium diboride, to recently discovered iron-based superconductors.

Gerbaldo, Roberto; Ghigo, Gianluca; Gozzelino, Laura; Laviano, Francesco [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino c.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy and INFN Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Amato, Antonino; Rovelli, Alberto [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Cherubini, Roberto [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell'Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

408

Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Latent ion tracks in amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present experimental evidence for the formation of ion tracks in amorphous Si induced by swift heavy ion irradiation. An underlying core-shell structure consistent with remnants of a high density liquid structure was revealed by small-angle x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. Ion track dimensions dier for as-implanted and relaxed Si as attributed to dierent microstructures and melting temperatures. The identication and characterisation of ion tracks in amorphous Si yields new insight into mechanisms of damage formation due to swift heavy ion irradiation in amorphous semiconductors.

Bierschenk, Thomas [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia] [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Giulian, Raquel [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia] [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Afra, Boshra [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia] [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Rodriguez, Matias D [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia] [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Schauries, D [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia] [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Mudie, Stephen [Australian Synchrotron] [Australian Synchrotron; Pakarinen, Olli H [ORNL] [ORNL; Djurabekova, Flyura [University of Helsinki] [University of Helsinki; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki] [University of Helsinki; Osmani, Orkhan [University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany] [University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; Medvedev, Nikita [University of Kaiserslautern, Germany] [University of Kaiserslautern, Germany; Rethfield, Baerbel [University of Kaiserslautern, Germany] [University of Kaiserslautern, Germany; Ridgway, Mark C [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia] [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Kluth, Patrick [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia] [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical...

412

MICROSTRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL Pamelaresistors, and zinc oxide varistors are semiconductorRELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL CONTENTS

Williama, Pamela Louise

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

414

Central collisions of heavy ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

Fung, Sun-yiu.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The ion pairs and superconducting bosons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

First, it is shown that the creation of the spinless ion pairs in the lattice, which are hold by the binding with neighbor ion pairs together regarded as covalent. These ion pairs are created by the repulsive potential interaction of two ions which is bound as linear oscillator. The repulsive S-wave scattering between ion pairs and electrons is transformed to the attractive effective interaction between electrons which leads to a creation of electron pairs by a binding energy depending on the condensate fraction of ion pairs $\\frac{N_0}{N}$. In this respect, the absence of ion pairs in the condensate destroys a binding energy of electron pairs and in turn so-called superconductimg phase. As new result presented theory is that the number of the superconducting bosons is not changed in the superconducting phase.

V. N. Minasyan

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

416

Laser photoelectron spectroscopy of ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This enterprise uses photoelectron spectroscopy to study the properties of negative ions and radicals. The essence of our experiment is to cross a 0.6 keV mass-selected ion beam (M{sup {minus}}) with the output of a CW laser, {Dirac h}{omega}{sub o}. The resultant detached photoelectrons with kinetic energy, KE, are energy analyzed by means of a set of electrostatic hemispherical analyzers. Analysis of the photoelectron spectra enables us to extract molecular electron affinities, vibrational frequencies and electronic splittings of the final radical, M, as well as the relative molecular geometries of ions (M{sup {minus}}) and radicals (M). We have scrutinized the two simplest nitrenes: methylnitrene (CH{sub 3}N) and phenylnitrene (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}N). By preparing the corresponding anions, CH{sub 3}N{sup {minus}} and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}N{sup {minus}}, we have studied these nitrene biradicals. Singlet methylnitrene is especially interesting since it is formally a transition state.''

Ellison, G.B.

1992-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

417

The rheology of oxide dispersions and the role of concentrated electrolyte solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stability control of particulate dispersions is critical to a wide range of industrial processes. In the UK nuclear industry, significant volumes of waste materials arising from the corrosion products of Magnox fuel rods currently require treatment and storage. The majority of this waste is present as aqueous dispersions of oxide particulates. Treatment of these dispersions will require a variety of unit operations including mobilisation, transport and solid- liquid separation. Typically these processes must operate across a narrow optimal range of pH and the dispersions are, almost without exception, found in complex electrolyte conditions of high overall concentration. Knowledge of the behaviour of oxides in various electrolyte conditions and over a large pH range is essential for the efficient design and control of any waste processing approach. The transport properties of particle dispersions are characterised by the rheological properties. It is well known that particle dispersion rheology is strongly influenced by particle-particle interaction forces, and that particle-particle interactions are strongly influenced by adsorbed ions on the particle surfaces. Here we correlate measurements of the shear yield stress and the particle zeta potentials to provide insight as to the role of ions in moderating particle interactions. The zeta potential of model TiO{sub 2} suspensions were determined (Colloidal Dynamics Zeta Probe) over a range of pH for a series of alkali metal halides and quaternary ammonium halides at a range of solution concentrations (0.001 M - 1 M). The results show some surprising co-ion effects at high electrolyte concentrations (>0.5 M) and indicate that even ions generally considered to be indifferent induce a shift in iso-electric point (i.e.p.) which is inferred as being due to specific adsorption of ions. The shear yield stress values of concentrated titania dispersions were measured using a Bohlin C-VOR stress controlled rheometer. The shear yield stress of a material is defined as the minimum applied shear stress required to induce flow. The yield stress vs. pH curves obtained reflected the shifts in i.e.p. seen in the zeta potential results. Interestingly, specific ion adsorption results in an unexplained increase in the value of the yield stress over that expected for simple systems with no such interfacial ion adsorption. Possible reasons for this effect such as ion-ion correlation effects are discussed. The importance of this increased attraction for the mobilisation of settled solids in an aqueous environment and especially the likely effects on the treatment of Magnox fuel waste materials is discussed. (authors)

Biggs, Simon; Tindley, Amy [Leeds University/Nexis Solutions URA in Particle Science and Technology, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Formulations for iron oxides dissolution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, K.D.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

420

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

422

Characterization of polymeric films subjected to lithium ion beam irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two different polymeric materials that are candidate materials for use as binders for mixed uraniumplutonium oxide nuclear fuel pellets were subjected to Li ion beam irradiation, in order to simulate intense alpha irradiation. The materials (a polyethylene glycol 8000 and a microcrystalline wax) were then analyzed using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) approaches and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples of the irradiated PEG materials were dissolved in H2O and then analyzed using electrospray ionization-MS, which showed the formation of a series of small oligomers in addition to intact large PEG oligomers. The small oligomers were likely formed by radiation-induced homolytic scissions of the CO and CC bonds, which furnish radical intermediates that react by radical recombination with Hradical dot and OHradical dot. Surface analysis using SIMS revealed a heterogeneous surface that contained not only PEG-derived polymers, but also hydrocarbon-based entities that are likely surface contaminants. XPS of the irradiated PEG samples indicated the emergence of different carbon species, with peak shifts suggesting the presence of sp2 carbon atoms. Analysis of the paraffinic film using XPS showed the emergence of oxygen on the surface of the sample, and also a broadening and shifting of the C1s peak, demonstrating a change in the chemistry on the surface. The paraffinic film did not dissolve in either H2O or a H2Omethanol solution, and hence the bulk of the material could not be analyzed using electrospray. However a series of oligomers was leached from the bulk material that produced ion series in the ESI-MS analyses that were identified octylphenyl ethoxylate oligomers. Upon Li ion bombardment, these shifted to a lower average molecular weight, but more importantly showed the emergence of three new ion series that are being formed as a result of radiation damage. Surface analysis of the paraffinic polymers using SIMS produced spectra that were wholly dominated by hydrocarbon ion series, and no difference was observed between unirradiated and irradiated samples. The studies demonstrate that for the PEG-based polymers, direct evidence for radiolytic scission can be observed using ESI-MS, and suggests that both radiolytic pathways and efficiencies as a function of dose should be measurable by calibrating instrument response to the small oligomeric degradation products.

Gary S. Groenewold; W. Roger Cannon; Paul A. Lessing; Recep Avci; Muhammedin Deliorman; Mark Wolfenden; Doug W. Akers; J. Keith Jewell

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

424

NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

"Green" metal oxides ... Water and nano-sized particles isolated from trees, plants and algae are the ingredients of a new recipe for low-cost metal oxides that are widely used in...

425

Genomic consequences of DNA oxidation by peroxynitrite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The radicals nitric oxide and superoxide are produced endogenously by activated macrophages and neutrophils and combine in a diffusion-limited reaction to form peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidizing and nitrating agent capable ...

Neeley, William Louis

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) in LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salts through measurement of the potential difference between a reference and working electrode.

Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

Landingham, R.L.

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

430

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide, Self-regulating phenomena in materials science: Self-assembly of nanopores during anodic oxidation of aluminum (AAO) Self combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

Rubloff, Gary W.

431

Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid oxide fuel cell. I. Methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of Cu cermets as anodes for the direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} in solid oxide fuel cells was examined. Mixtures of Cu and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YAZ) were found to give similar performance to Ni-YSZ cermets when H{sub 2} was used as the fuel, but did not deactivate in dry CH{sub 4}. While Cu-YSZ was essentially inert to methane, the addition of ceria to the anode gave rise to reasonable power densities and stable operation over a period of at least 3 days. Proof of direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} came from chemical analysis of the products leaving the cell. The major carbon-containing product was CO{sub 2}, with only traces of CO observed, and there was excellent agreement between the actual cell current and that predicted by the methane conversion. These results demonstrate that direct, electrocatalytic oxidation of dry methane is possible, with reasonable performance.

Park, S.; Craciun, R.; Vohs, J.M.; Gorte, R.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Ion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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433

Ion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigatingAdaptedInvestor Flowsheating

434

Robust Collimation Control of Laser-Generated Ion Beam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The robustness of a structured collimation device is discussed for an intense-laser-produced ion beam. In this paper the ion beam collimation is realized by the solid structured collimation device, which produces the transverse electric field; the electric field contributes to reduce the ion beam transverse velocity and collimate the ion beam. Our 2.5 dimensional particle-in cell simulations demonstrate that the collimation device is rather robust against the changes in the laser parameters and the collimation target sizes. The intense short-pulse lasers are now available, and are used to generate an ion beam. The issues in the laser ion acceleration include an ion beam collimation, ion energy spectrum control, ion production efficiency, ion energy control, ion beam bunching, etc. The laser-produced ion beam tends to expand in the transverse and longitudinal directions during the ion beam propagation. The ion beam collimation is focused in this paper.

Kawata, S; Kamiyama, D; Nagashima, T; Barada, D; Gu, Y J; Li, X; Yu, Q; Kong, Q; Wang, P X

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Synthesis and characterization of a nanocomposite of goethite nanorods and reduced graphene oxide for electrochemical capacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a one-step synthesis of a nanocomposite of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) nanorods and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using a solution method in which ferrous cations serve as a reducing agent of graphite oxide (GO) to graphene and a precursor to grow goethite nanorods. As-prepared goethite nanorods have an average length of 200 nm and a diameter of 30 nm and are densely attached on both sides of the RGO sheets. The electrochemical properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) charge-discharge tests. The results showed that goethite/RGO composites have a high electrochemical capacitance of 165.5 F g{sup -1} with an excellent recycling capability making the material promising for electrochemical capacitors. - Graphical abstract: The reduced graphene oxide sheets are decorated with goethite nanorods. The as-prepared composite exhibits a high electrochemical capacitance with good recycling capability, which is promising for supercapacitor applications. Higlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrous ions act as reductant of graphite oxide and precursor of goethite nanorods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Goethite nanorods are attached on both sides of the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite exhibits a high specific capacitance and a good recycling capability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite is promising for supercapacitor applications.

Shou Qingliang [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng Jipeng, E-mail: chengjp@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang Li, E-mail: lizhang@ethz.ch [Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Nelson, Bradley J. [Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Zhang Xiaobin [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

active material for Li-ion battery, Fe2OF4. ElectrochemistryIron Fluoride, in a Li Ion Battery: A Solid-State NMR, X-raymaterials for Li-ion battery133 8.2. P2 type

Lee, Dae Hoe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Deep Reactive Ion Etching | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOffice ofINL isSeparationsRelevantDeep Reactive Ion

438

ION Engineering | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:PhotonHolyName HousingIIIDrive LtdINDEX Jump to: navigation,ION

439

Sample inlet tube for ion source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved inlet tube is positioned within an aperture through the device to allow the passage of ions from the ion source, through the improved inlet tube, and into the interior of the device. The inlet tube is designed with a larger end and a smaller end wherein the larger end has a larger interior diameter than the interior diameter of the smaller end. The inlet tube is positioned within the aperture such that the larger end is pointed towards the ion source, to receive ions therefrom, and the smaller end is directed towards the interior of the device, to deliver the ions thereto. Preferably, the ion source utilized in the operation of the present invention is a standard electrospray ionization source. Similarly, the present invention finds particular utility in conjunction with analytical devices such as mass spectrometers.

Prior, David [Hermiston, OR; Price, John [Richland, WA; Bruce, Jim [Oceanside, CA

2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

440

Anisotropic reactive ion etching of vanadium dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Weichold Vanadium dioxide (V02) was anisotropically reactive ion etched using carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) . CF4, as an etch gas, provided the chemistry along with the control needed to achieve an anisotropic etch. This chemistry was practically inert... with vanadium quite easily. This leads to interest in using a fluorine- based chemistry. The goal of this research is to produce a selective anisotropic reactive ion etch for VO2 /photoresist using only carbon tetrafluoride (CFq) . Reactive ion etching...

Radle, Byron K

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

Lucht, Brett L

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

442

Coal combustion by wet oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

1980-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

2008-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

444

Romanian ECR ion source project RECRIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 14.5 GHz ECR ion source is in an advanced stage of construction at the Institute of Atomic Physics of Bucharest, Romania. This ECR multicharge heavy ion source (RECRIS) is designed to be independently used in atomic physics research as well as an injector into the existing rf heavy ion postaccelerator of the Bucharest FN tandem accelerator. The general design and main characteristics of RECRIS are presented as well as the present status and the schedule of this project. A research program and facility was started in order to study physical ways to improve the ECR ion source performances. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Dobrescu, S.; Schaechter, L.; Badescu-Singureanu, A.I.; Zoran, V. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P. O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania)] [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P. O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Perpendicular ion acceleration in whistler turbulence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Whistler turbulence is an important contributor to solar wind turbulence dissipation. This turbulence contains obliquely propagating whistler waves at electron scales, and these waves have electrostatic components perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. In this paper, a full kinetic, two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation shows that whistler turbulence can accelerate ions in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. When the ions pass through wave-particle resonances region in the phase space during their cyclotron motion, the ions are effectively accelerated in the perpendicular direction. The simulation results suggest that whistler turbulence contributes to the perpendicular heating of ions observed in the solar wind.

Saito, S. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Nariyuki, Y. [Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)] [Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

Low Energy Ion Implantationin Semiconductor Manufacturing | U...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Low Energy Ion Implantation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science...

447

Ion Acceleration by Short Chirped Laser Pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct laser acceleration of ions by short frequency-chirped laser pulses is investigated theoretically. We demonstrate that intense beams of ions with a kinetic energy broadening of about 1 % can be generated. The chirping of the laser pulse allows the particles to gain kinetic energies of hundreds of MeVs, which is required for hadron cancer therapy, from pulses of energies of the order of 100 J. It is shown that few-cycle chirped pulses can accelerate ions more efficiently than long ones, i.e. higher ion kinetic energies are reached with the same amount of total electromagnetic pulse energy.

Li, Jian-Xing; Keitel, Christoph H; Harman, Zoltn

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

RECENT PROGRESS IN HEAVY ION SOURCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydrogen into thermonuclear fusion reactors. A summary ofFusion Plasma Sources Other sources of high charge state ions include the dense plasma in magnetic confinement thermonuclear

Clark, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Characterization of ionic liquid ion sources for focused ion beam applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique, a beam of ions is reduced to nanometer dimensions using dedicated optics and directed to a substrate for patterning. This technique is widely used in micro- and nanofabrication for ...

Perez Martinez, Carla S. (Carla Sofia)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

diffusion of the positive ions into the oxide layerisslow,takingminutestocomplete.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

becontainedinarelativelysmallarea. Cummins et al.1 have developed this con- cept and assembled an electrochromic cell that uses two. 1b). The electrochromic cellisfilledwithanelectrolyteandsealed. The device can be switched from, is higherforthesesystemsthanforconvention- al electrochromic layers. This is because an electric charge injected into an organic mol- ecule

California at Santa Barbara, University of

451

Facile synthesis of nanostructured vanadium oxide as cathode materials for efficient Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approximately 100 nm in width and 1­2 mm in length have been fabricated via the hydrothermal process microspheres;10 hydrothermal synthesis of VO2 (B) nanobelts,11,12 nanorods,13 nanoflakes and nanoflowers.14 materials, long fabrication times and complicated processing methods, which in turn result in a high cost

Cao, Guozhong

452

Nitrate Ion Photochemistry at Interfaces: A New Mechanism for Oxidation of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNationalNewport NewsWayne Hurlbert!M-22UJefferson Lab on Fig.

453

Excited level anisotropy produced by ion-solid and ion-liquid surface interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXCITED LEPEL ANISOTPOPY PRODUCED BY ION-SOLID AND ION-LIQUID SURFACE INTERACTIONS A Thesis CHIN SHUANG LEE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Physics EXCITED LEVEL ANISOTROPY PRODUCED BY ION-SOLID AND ION-LIQUID SURFACE 'INTERACTIONS A Thesis by CHIN SHUANG LEE Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Departmert Member...

Lee, Chin Shuang

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

454

Ion acoustic solitons/double layers in two-ion plasma revisited  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion acoustic solitons and double layers are studied in a collisionless plasma consisting of cold heavier ion species, a warm lighter ion species, and hot electrons having Boltzmann distributions by Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. In contrast to the previous results, no double layers and super-solitons are found when both the heavy and lighter ion species are treated as cold. Only the positive potential solitons are found in this case. When the thermal effects of the lighter ion species are included, in addition to the usual ion-acoustic solitons occurring at M?>?1 (where the Mach number, M, is defined as the ratio of the speed of the solitary wave and the ion-acoustic speed considering temperature of hot electrons and mass of the heavier ion species), slow ion-acoustic solitons/double layers are found to occur at low Mach number (M?ion-acoustic mode is actually a new ion-ion hybrid acoustic mode which disappears when the normalized number density of lighter ion species tends to 1 (i.e., no heavier species). An interesting property of the new slow ion-acoustic mode is that at low number density of the lighter ion species, only negative potential solitons/double layers are found whereas for increasing densities there is a transition first to positive solitons/double layers, and then only positive solitons. The model can be easily applicable to the dusty plasmas having positively charged dust grains by replacing the heavier ion species by the dust mass and doing a simple normalization to take account of the dust charge.

Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: gslakhina@gmail.com; Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Kakad, A. P., E-mail: amar@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai 410218 (India)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Ion dip spectroscopy of cold molecules and ions. Progress report and renewal proposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A research program is underway with the objective of developing techniques of high resolution multiphoton spectroscopy for selective, ultrasensitive molecular detection. Methods under study include various forms of ion dip spectroscopy and new methods of ion fragmentation spectroscopy. The studies are providing a new understanding of the fundamental spectroscopy and photophysics of large molecular ions. Dimer and cluster ions of polynuclear aromatics and related species are also being investigated, with potential detection applications.

Wessel, J.

1987-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

456

On the phase formation of sputtered hafnium oxide and oxynitride films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hafnium oxynitride films are deposited from a Hf target employing direct current magnetron sputtering in an Ar-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} atmosphere. It is shown that the presence of N{sub 2} allows for the stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and the compound sputtering mode enabling deposition of films at well defined conditions of target coverage by varying the O{sub 2} partial pressure. Plasma analysis reveals that this experimental strategy facilitates control over the flux of the O{sup -} ions which are generated on the oxidized target surface and accelerated by the negative target potential toward the growing film. An arrangement that enables film growth without O{sup -} ion bombardment is also implemented. Moreover, stabilization of the transition sputtering zone and control of the O{sup -} ion flux without N{sub 2} addition is achieved employing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. Structural characterization of the deposited films unambiguously proves that the phase formation of hafnium oxide and hafnium oxynitride films with the crystal structure of HfO{sub 2} is independent from the O{sup -} bombardment conditions. Experimental and theoretical data indicate that the presence of vacancies and/or the substitution of O by N atoms in the nonmetal sublattice favor the formation of the cubic and/or the tetragonal HfO{sub 2} crystal structure at the expense of the monoclinic HfO{sub 2} one.

Sarakinos, K.; Music, D.; Mraz, S.; Baben, M. to; Jiang, K.; Nahif, F.; Braun, A.; Zilkens, C.; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 16, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Konstantinidis, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Analytique, Universite de Mons, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Renaux, F.; Cossement, D. [Materia Nova Research Center, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Munnik, F. [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

60 keV Ar{sup +}-ion induced modification of microstructural, compositional, and vibrational properties of InSb  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room temperature irradiation of InSb(111) by 60?keV Ar{sup +}-ions at normal (0) and oblique (60) angles of incidence led to the formation of nanoporous structure in the high fluence regime of 1??10{sup 17} to 3??10{sup 18} ions cm{sup ?2}. While a porous layer comprising of a network of interconnected nanofibers was generated by normal ion incidence, evolution of plate-like structures was observed for obliquely incident ions. Systematic studies of composition and structure using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman mapping, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a high degree of oxidation of the ion-induced microstructures with the presence of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases and presence of nanocrystallites within the nanoporous structures. The observed structural evolution was understood in terms of processes driven by ion-induced defect accumulation within InSb.

Datta, D. P.; Garg, S. K.; Som, T., E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [SUNAG Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Satpati, B. [Surface Physics and Materials Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sahoo, P. K. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751005, Odisha (India); Kanjilal, A. [Department of Physics, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 203207 (India); Dhara, S. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

458

Surface Analysis by Highly Charged Ion Based Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Analysis by Highly Charged Ion Based Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry T. Schenkel,1 A high vacuum (10^8 torr). In posi- tive polarity, HCI can be decelerated to an impact energy of $1 ke in the interaction of slow (u highly charged ions (e.g., Au69+ ) with solid surfaces increases secondary

459

The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory The Heavy Ion Path to Fusion Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-consistent power plant design for a multi- beam induction linac, final focus and chamber propagationThe Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory The Heavy Ion Path to Fusion Energy Grant Logan Director Heavy-Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory Presented to FESAC Workshop on Development Paths

460

The uses of electron beam ion traps in the study of highly charged ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is a relatively new tool for the study of highly charged ions. Its development has led to a variety of new experimental opportunities; measurements have been performed with EBITs using techniques impossible with conventional ion sources or storage rings. In this paper, I will highlight the various experimental techniques we have developed and the results we have obtained using the EBIT and higher-energy Super-EBIT built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The EBIT employs a high-current-density electron beam to trap, ionize, and excite a population of ions. The ions can be studied in situ or extracted from the trap for external experiments. The trapped ions form an ionization-state equilibrium determined by the relative ionization and recombination rates. Ions of several different elements may simultaneously be present in the trap. The ions are nearly at rest, and, for most systems, all in their ground-state configurations. The electron-ion interaction energy has a narrow distribution and can be varied over a wide range. We have used the EBIT devices for the measurement of electron-ion interactions, ion structure, ion-surface interactions, and the behavior of low-density plasmas.

Knapp, D.

1994-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ions miec oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

atom-probe field ion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by High-Field Ion Mobility ions, including isotopomers and isobars, using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), specifically, the field) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS).1,2...

462

Vibronic fine structure in high-resolution x-ray absorption spectra from ion-bombarded boron nitride nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have applied high-resolution near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements around the nitrogen K-edge to study the effects of ion-bombardment on near-surface properties of boron nitride nanotubes. A notable difference has been observed between surface sensitive partial electron yield (PEY) and bulk sensitive total electron yield (TEY) fine-structure measurements. The authors assign the PEY fine structure to the coupling of excited molecular vibrational modes to electronic transitions in NO molecules trapped just below the surface. Oxidation resistance of the boron nitride nanotubes is significantly reduced by low energy ion bombardment, as broken B-N bonds are replaced by N-O bonds involving oxygen present in the surface region. In contrast to the PEY spectra, the bulk sensitive TEY measurements on as-grown samples do not exhibit any fine structure while the ion-bombarded samples show a clear vibronic signature of molecular nitrogen.

Petravic, Mladen; Peter, Robert; Varasanec, Marijana [Department of Physics and Center for Micro and Nano Sciences and Technologies, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Li Luhua; Chen Ying [Institute for Technology Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds Campus, 3217 (Australia); Cowie, Bruce C. C. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Exchange bias in polycrystalline magnetite films made by ion-beam assisted deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron oxide films were produced using ion-beam-assisted deposition, and Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction indicate single-phase magnetite. However, incorporation of significant fractions of argon in the films from ion bombardment is evident from chemical analysis, and Fe/O ratios are lower than expected from pure magnetite, suggesting greater than normal disorder. Low temperature magnetometry and first-order reversal curve measurements show strong exchange bias, which likely arises from defects at grain boundaries, possibly amorphous, creating frustrated spins. Since these samples contain grains ?6?nm, a large fraction of the material consists of grain boundaries, where spins are highly disordered and reverse independently with external field.

Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Jiang, Weilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Burks, Edward C.; Liu, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 98163 (United States)

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

464

Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

Krylov, P. N., E-mail: ftt@uni.udm.ru; Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V. [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)] [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Beam current controller for laser ion source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

Okamura, Masahiro

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

466

Uniform insulation applied-B ion diode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An applied-B field extraction ion diode has uniform insulation over an anode surface for increased efficiency. When the uniform insulation is accomplished with anode coils, and a charge-exchange foil is properly placed, the ions may be focused at a point on the z axis.

Seidel, David B. (Albuquerque, NM); Slutz, Stephen A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

SMALL FREE NEGATIVE IONS R. STEPHEN BERRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are those pertinent to gaseous discharge physics, to radiation damage problems, and to the study of ion. Electron Affinities A. The Hydride Ion B. Optical Methods C. Thresholds and Excited States D. Other, and optical properties, and the experi- mental and theoretical methods for studying these properties. We

Berry, R. Stephen

468

Laser cooling of trapped ions Jurgen Eschner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the art is reported, and several new cooling techniques are outlined. The principles of ion trapping by elucidating several milestone experiments. In addition, a number of special cooling techniques pertainingLaser cooling of trapped ions Jurgen Eschner Institut fu r Experimentalphysik, Universita

Blatt, Rainer

469

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a Strontium ion are determined and a Strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions. PACS numbers: 31.15.AR,31

470

Heavy ion fusion physics issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple systems model has been used to determine the sensitivity of the cost of electricity and the total cost of a power plant to the various uncertainties expressed in the following six issues. (1) can, at reasonable cost, an accelerator be built that puts more than 1 MJ of energy into a small 6-D phase space volume. (2) Can the beam be focused over a distance of several meters onto a small target in a reaction chamber. (3) Do present calculations adequately describe ion energy deposition. (4) Do current numerical simulations adequately describe the hydrodynamic and thermonuclear behavior of targets. (5) Can targets be cheaply mass produced. (6) Can an economical, tritium-breeding reactor be built.

Bangerter, R.O.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Rechargeable lithium-ion cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were measured and analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 as a function of temperature enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies for motion of both the polymer and lithium ions in the samples with lower ion content indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated in these samples, even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample with 100% lithium sulfonation due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details of the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.

Roach, David J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Dou, Shichen [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Colby, Ralph H. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

473

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Dynamics in Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Based Lithium Polyether-ester-sulfonate Ionomers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies of both the polymer and lithium ions in the lower ion content samples indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details about the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.

Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

2012-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

474

Novel oxide-oxide fiber reinforced hot gas filter development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to fabricate and test oxide fiber reinforced composite hot gas filter elements for advanced power generation systems. The level of mechanical durability exhibited by the currently available filters in field tests indicates that more rugged filters are required to meet the demands of large power generation systems. Furthermore, long term corrosion resistance of currently available filters has yet to be demonstrated in PFBC systems. The essential requirements of a composite material designed to meet the program objective for a toughened hot gas filter include the following: Stable continuous fiber; rigid porous matrix; engineered fiber-matrix interface; and cost effectiveness. Based on properties, availability, and cost, Mitsui`s ALMAX alumina fiber and 3M`s NEXTEL 610 alumina fiber were selected as the oxide reinforcement fibers. In order to meet the economic goals of the program it is essential that the cost and amount of continuous fiber be minimized. A four axis filament winder will be used to fabricate filter Preforms in a variety of fiber architectures. Carbon was used as the initial fiber coating because it was known to be resistant to the Processing chemicals. The coating was produced by pyrolysis of the resin based sizings on the continuous fibers. The matrix of the composite filter is comprised of chopped ceramic fiber. Saffil fiber was used for all compositions in this program.

Wagner, R.A.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

NA61/SHINE ion program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN covers one of the most interesting regions of the phase diagram (T - \\mu_{B}) of strongly interacting matter. The study of central Pb+Pb collisions by NA49 indicate that the threshold for deconfinement is reached already at the low SPS energies. Theoretical considerations predict a critical point of strongly interacting matter at energies accessible at the SPS. The NA61/SHINE experiment, a successor of the NA49 project, will study hadron production in p+p, p+A, h+A, and A+A reactions at various energies. The broad physics program includes the investigation of the properties of strongly interacting matter, as well as precision measurements of hadron spectra for the T2K neutrino experiment and for the Pierre Auger Observatory and KASCADE cosmic-ray projects. The main physics goals of the NA61/SHINE ion program are to study the properties of the onset of deconfinement at low SPS energies and to find signatures of the critical point of strongly interacting matter. To achieve these goals a broad range in the (T - \\mu_{B}) phase diagram will be covered by performing an energy (10A-158A GeV/c) and system size (p+p, B+C, Ar+Ca, Xe+La) scan. The first data for this 2-D scan were taken in 2009, i.e. p+p interactions at 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 GeV/c beam energy. This contribution will summarize physics arguments for the NA61/SHINE ion program, show the detector performance and present the current status of the experiment and plans for the next years.

Maja Mackowiak for the NA61 Collaboration

2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

476

Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

Dahl, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

477

Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

Dahl, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McJunkin, Timothy R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

478

Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Ion acceleration processes at reforming collisionless shocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The identification of pre-acceleration mechanisms for cosmic ray ions in supernova remnant shocks is an important problem in astrophysics. Recent particle