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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Oligonucleotide microarray analysis of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...health risk due to low-dose ionizing radiation is still debated. Functional...pathways that are induced by ionizing irradiation (IR...transcriptionally regulated by low-dose IR in occupationally...and showed different ranges of accumulated doses...

Paola Silingardi; Elena Morandi; Cinzia Severini; Daniele Quercioli; Monica Vaccari; Wolfango Horn; Maria Concetta Nucci; Vittorio Lodi; Francesco Violante; Sandro Grilli; and Annmaria Colacci

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes, Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, and Breast Cancer Risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the role of DSB repair in response to low-dose radiation, particularly the range experienced by women from mammograms and other...breast cancer associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Although we specifically designed our questionnaire...

Robert C. Millikan; Jon S. Player; Allan Rene deCotret; Chiu-Kit Tse; and Temitope Keku

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Risks from ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... RADON indoors now accounts for nearly half of the average UK population exposure to ionizing radiation ... exposure to ionizing radiation. We believe that the extent of the variation in exposure to radon in the United Kingdom and else-where and its magnitude in relation to exposures from ...

R. H. Clarke; T. R. E. Southwood

1989-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

4

Escherichia coli Genes and Pathways Involved in Surviving Extreme Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...doses of ionizing radiation does not depend on...the effects of high doses of ionizing radiation (IR). The repair...IR resistance. A range of modern screening...survive increasing doses of ionizing radiation in comparison to...

Rose T. Byrne; Stefanie H. Chen; Elizabeth A. Wood; Eric L. Cabot; Michael M. Cox

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

5

Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation from Medical Imaging Procedures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...did not use measures of radiation dose that are specific to the subjects we studied but instead relied on estimates of effective doses, which are neither precisely measured nor subject-specific. The effective dose is a calculated estimate designed to provide a sex-averaged dose for a reference subject... Experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked exposure to low-dose, ionizing radiation with the development of solid cancers and leukemia.1 As a result, persons at risk for repeated radiation exposure, such as workers in health care and the nuclear ...

Fazel R.; Krumholz H.M.; Wang Y.

2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

6

Exposure assessment: implications for epidemiological studies of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......et al. (4) used average doses to birth cohorts...were made in the homes of 58% of the interviewed...histories (e.g. consumption of milk) in order...exposure to radon in homes and lung cancer have...controls on radon in homes are often based on...exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET......

Colin R. Muirhead

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

The similar effects of low-dose ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation from background environmental levels of exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The meltdown and release of radioactivity (ionizing radiation) from four damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Nuclear Facility in Japan in March 2011 continues to contaminate air and ocean water even 1 year ...

Cindy Sage

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Cumulative exposure to medical sources of ionizing radiation in the first year after pediatric heart transplantation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background Pediatric heart transplant recipients undergo a variety of radiologic tests with the attendant risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. We sought to quantify and describe the cumulative exposure to all forms of medical radiation during the first year after pediatric heart transplantation and identify factors associated with higher exposure. Methods Pediatric patients who received a heart transplant between January 2009 and May 2012 with follow-up at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were included if they survived through 1 year and the first coronary angiography. All medical testing using ionizing radiation performed during follow-up was compiled, and exposures were converted to effective dose (mSv). Results Included were 31 patients who underwent heart transplantation at a median age of 13.6 years (range, 0.3–18.3 years). The median number of radiologic tests performed was 38 (range, 18–154), including 8 catheterizations (range, 2–12), and 28 X-ray images (range, 11–135). Median cumulative effective dose was 53.5 mSv (range, 10.6–153.5 mSv), of which 91% (range, 34%–98%) derived from catheterizations, 31% (range, 8%–89%) of the exposure occurred during the transplant admission, 59% (range, 11%–88%) during planned follow-up, and 3% (0%–56%) during unplanned follow-up. Older age at transplant was a risk factor for increased exposure (p = 0.006). When adjusted for age, a trend toward increased exposure was shown for congenital heart disease as the indication for transplant (p = 0.08), pre-sensitization (p = 0.12), and positive crossmatch (p = 0.09). Conclusions Pediatric heart transplant patients are exposed to significant amounts of ionizing radiation during the first post-transplant year, most during scheduled catheterization. As survival improves, considering the long-term risks associated with these levels of exposure is important.

Alicia McDonnell; Tacy E. Downing; Xiaowei Zhu; Rachel Ryan; Joseph W. Rossano; Andrew C. Glatz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Discovering Clinical Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure with Serum Proteomic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with a wide range of diagnoses and radiation treatment...and during ionizing radiation...from low dose-volume...of a wide range of diagnoses...volume, and dose of radiotherapy...exposed to ionizing radiation between the...with a wide range of diagnoses and radiation treatment...and during ionizing radiation...from low dose-volume...

Cynthia Ménard; Donald Johann; Mark Lowenthal; Thierry Muanza; Mary Sproull; Sally Ross; James Gulley; Emanuel Petricoin; C. Norman Coleman; Gordon Whiteley; Lance Liotta; and Kevin Camphausen

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biotinylated nucleotide analogue/ribonucleotide mix. The biotinylated cRNA targets were then...dose-response to controlled, low-dose low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation exposure. | The effect of low doses of low-linear energy transfer (photon) ionizing radiation...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jörg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Physical and biological properties of U.S. standard endotoxin EC after exposure to ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in the UV range, radiation treatment...pattern. Dose-related...effects of the ionizing radiation...milligram-per-milliliter range) (13...in the UV range, we found...ioniz- ing radiation. Regarding...effective, dose- dependent...EXPOSED TO IONIZING RADIATION...

G Csako; R J Elin; H D Hochstein; C M Tsai

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

Nicolay, Nils H., E-mail: n.nicolay@dkfz.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Trinh, Thuy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sisombath, Sonevisay [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 - Ionizing Radiation 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays Radiation Decay chain Half-life Dose Radiation measurements Sources of radiation Average annual exposure Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation.pptx More Documents & Publications DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2007

14

Discovering Clinical Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure with Serum Proteomic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation treatment plans provided serum...long-established gold standard biomarker of radiation...Institutional Review Board-approved...using visual data mining techniques showed...exposure, gold standard lymphocyte assays...through visual data mining activities that...radiation treatment plans provided serum...

Cynthia Ménard; Donald Johann; Mark Lowenthal; Thierry Muanza; Mary Sproull; Sally Ross; James Gulley; Emanuel Petricoin; C. Norman Coleman; Gordon Whiteley; Lance Liotta; and Kevin Camphausen

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Escherichia coli Genes and Pathways Involved in Surviving Extreme Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...doses of ionizing radiation does not depend on a single mechanism...metabolism (2). This listing does not include a few gene products...from Deinococcus radiodurans R1 does not restore radioresistance...genetics: a laboratory manual and handbook for Escherichia coli and related...

Rose T. Byrne; Stefanie H. Chen; Elizabeth A. Wood; Eric L. Cabot; Michael M. Cox

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

16

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effects of low-dose low-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation (LDIR) in humans...direct evidence that doses in the range of 1 to 10 cGy...the intentional radiation of healthy tissue...the response to ionizing radiation. Attempts...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jörg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Ionizing Radiation Activates the Nrf2 Antioxidant Response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Scientific). Results Ionizing radiation does not activate ARE-reporter...determine if exposure to varying doses of ionizing radiation would activate the Nrf2-ARE pathway. The radiation dose range was extended below that used...

J. Tyson McDonald; Kwanghee Kim; Andrew J. Norris; Erina Vlashi; Tiffany M. Phillips; Chann Lagadec; Lorenza Della Donna; Josephine Ratikan; Heather Szelag; Lynn Hlatky; and William H. McBride

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes, Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, and Breast Cancer Risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Session Abstracts Treatment Radiation Therapy CTRC-AACR San...breast-conserving therapy in Japan: comparison of the treatment...Mitsumori 1 1 Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied...Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 2 Department of Radiology...

Robert C. Millikan; Jon S. Player; Allan Rene deCotret; Chiu-Kit Tse; and Temitope Keku

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Discovering Clinical Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure with Serum Proteomic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Libby Morimoto Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson...the mutagenic effect of depleted uranium exposure in Gulf War...research, and public health impact. Nicholas Lang...the impact on public health, asking What are we...

Cynthia Ménard; Donald Johann; Mark Lowenthal; Thierry Muanza; Mary Sproull; Sally Ross; James Gulley; Emanuel Petricoin; C. Norman Coleman; Gordon Whiteley; Lance Liotta; and Kevin Camphausen

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Proteasome Structures Affected by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Effect of ionizing radiation on 26S but...radiation doses, and immediately...the dose range 1 to 20 Gy...ionizing radiation induced a...38), ionizing radiation (39...over a wide range of radiation doses and further...

Milena Pervan; Keisuke S. Iwamoto; and William H. McBride

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Polymorphisms in Apoptosis- and Proliferation-Related Genes, Ionizing Radiation Exposure, and Risk of Breast Cancer among U.S. Radiologic Technologists  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation and breast cancer dose-response relationship...controls and quantified radiation breast doses in the low-to-moderate range. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers...Breast Cancer|SNPs|Ionizing radiation|Interaction|Radiobiological...

Alice J. Sigurdson; Parveen Bhatti; Michele M. Doody; Michael Hauptmann; Laura Bowen; Steven L. Simon; Robert M. Weinstock; Martha S. Linet; Marvin Rosenstein; Marilyn Stovall; Bruce H. Alexander; Dale L. Preston; Jeffrey P. Struewing; and Preetha Rajaraman

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Enhanced Sensitivity of the RET Proto-Oncogene to Ionizing Radiation In vitro  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the RET sensitivity to ionizing radiation exposure, and to elucidate...were first exposed to ionizing radiation, electrophoresed in...Table 1 Table 1. Range of tail moment in non...for comet Radiation dose Cell line Range of tail...

Claudia Béu Volpato; Minerva Martínez-Alfaro; Raffaella Corvi; Coralie Gabus; Sylvie Sauvaigo; Pietro Ferrari; Elena Bonora; Alessandro De Grandi; and Giovanni Romeo

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with radiation exposure (1). Ionizing radiation at moderate and higher doses (0.1-10 Gy) can produce DNA strand...death. Studies of mutants sensitive to ionizing radiation at this range of doses have revealed that the responsible genes...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Translocation analysis by the FISH-painting method for retrospective dose reconstruction in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation 10 years after exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method largely used for detecting chromosomal rearrangements, translocations in particular, which are important biomarkers for dose assessment in case of human exposure to ionizing radiation. To test the possibility of using the translocation analysis by FISH-painting method in retrospective dose assessment, we carried out in vitro experiments in irradiated human lymphocytes, in parallel with the analysis of translocations in lymphocytes from 10 individuals, who were exposed to 137cesium in the Goiânia (Brazil) accident (samples collected 10 years after exposure). The in vitro dose–response curve for the genomic translocation frequencies (FGs) fits a linear quadratic model, according to the equation: Y=0.0243X2+0.0556X. The FG values were also calculated for the individuals exposed to 137cesium, ranging from 0.58 to 5.91 per 100 cells, and the doses were estimated and compared with the results obtained by dicentric analysis soon after the accident, taking the opportunity to test the validity of translocation analysis in retrospective biodosimetry. A tentative of retrospective dosimetry was performed, indicating that the method is feasible only for low level exposure (below 0.5 Gy), while for higher doses there is a need to apply appropriate correction factors, which take into consideration mainly the persistence of chromosomal translocations along with time, and the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors determining the inter-individual variability in the cellular responses to radiation.

Marjori L. Camparoto; Adriana T. Ramalho; Adayapalam T. Natarajan; Maria P. Curado; Elza T. Sakamoto-Hojo

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Ionizing Radiation Injury (South Carolina)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation applies to employers that have more than one employee who engages in activities which involve the presence of ionizing radiation. Employers with less than three employees can...

27

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

28

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...format from the National Center for Biotechnology Information...most peoples lives by industrial exposures and medical...California Davis Cancer Center, UCDHS. The authors...implications for risk assessment in both therapeutic...California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, 95817...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jörg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Globus Ruth NASA Ames Research Center Abstract Osteoporosis profoundly affects the aging U.S. population and exposure to high doses of radiation causes bone loss similar to age-related osteoporosis, although the influence of low dose radiation exposures is not known. The central hypothesis of our DOE project (NASA supplement) is that low doses of radiation modulate subsequent skeletal degeneration via oxidative pathways. Our working hypothesis is that a prior exposure to low dose radiation regulates oxidative metabolism within bone and contributes to bone loss caused either by subsequent high, challenge doses of radiation or by aging. HZE source: Because astronauts are exposed to radiation from GCR and solar

30

Toxicity of Pasteurella tularensis Killed by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to 106 r of y-radiation. When injected...suspension. Lethal doses of newly prepared...by exposure to ionizing radia- tion induced...to 106 r of y-radiation from a 60Co source at a dose rate of approximately...only in a limited range of dilutions...

Marshall E. Landay; George G. Wright; James D. Pulliam; Milton J. Finegold

1968-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Device for detecting ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to ionizing radiation sensors, and , more particularly, to semiconductor spectrometers with thermoelectric cooling, and can most advantageously be used in mineral raw material exploration and evaluation under field conditions. The spectrometer comprises a vacuum chamber with an entrance window for passing the radiation therethrough. The vacuum chamber accommodates a thermoelectric cooler formed by a set of peltier elements. A heat conducting plate is mounted on the cold side of the thermoelectric cooler, and its hot side is provided with a radiator. Mounted on the heat conducting plate are sets of peltier elements, integral with the thermoelectric cooler and independent of one another. The peltier elements of these sets are stacked so as to develop the minimum temperature conditions on one set carrying a semiconductor detector and to provide the maximum refrigeration capacity conditions on the other set provided with the field-effect transistor mounted thereon.

Anatychuk, L.I.; Kharitonov, J.P.; Kusniruk, V.F.; Meir, V.A.; Melnik, A.P.; Ponomarev, V.S.; Skakodub, V.A.; Sokolov, A.D.; Subbotin, V.G.; Zhukovsky, A.N.

1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

32

Targeted and Nontargeted Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Delayed Genomic Instability in Human Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...humans receive some radiation exposure, mostly...risks associated with radiation exposure come from populations exposed to ionizing radiation, primarily from epidemiologic...However, those doses, in the range of 0.2 to 2.5...

Lei Huang; Perry M. Kim; Jac A. Nickoloff; and William F. Morgan

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports September 24, 2013 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2012 Report...

34

Occupational Radiation Exposure | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Radiation Exposure Welcome The Occupational Radiation Exposure Information page on this web page is intended to provide the latest available information on radiation exposure to...

35

Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) repository.

36

Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Estimate of Secondary Cancers in the Era of High-Speed CT Scanning: Projections From the Medicare Population  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose The aims of this study were to analyze the distribution and amount of ionizing radiation delivered by CT scans in the modern era of high-speed CT and to estimate cancer risk in the elderly, the patient group most frequently imaged using CT scanning. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Medicare claims spanning 8 years (1998-2005) to assess CT use. The data were analyzed in two 4-year cohorts, 1998 to 2001 (n = 5,267,230) and 2002 to 2005 (n = 5,555,345). The number and types of CT scans each patient received over the 4-year periods were analyzed to determine the percentage of patients exposed to threshold radiation of 50 to 100 mSv (defined as low) and >100 mSv (defined as high). The National Research Council's Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII models were used to estimate the number of radiation-induced cancers. Results CT scans of the head were the most common examinations in both Medicare cohorts, but abdominal imaging delivered the greatest proportion (43% in the first cohort and 40% in the second cohort) of radiation. In the 1998 to 2001 cohort, 42% of Medicare patients underwent CT scans, with 2.2% and 0.5% receiving radiation doses in the low and high ranges, respectively. In the 2002 to 2005 cohort, 50% of Medicare patients received CT scans, with 4.2% and 1.2% receiving doses in the low and high ranges. In the two populations, 1,659 (0.03%) and 2,185 (0.04%) cancers related to ionizing radiation were estimated, respectively. Conclusions Although radiation doses have been increasing along with the increasing reliance on CT scans for diagnosis and therapy, using conservative estimates with worst-case scenario methodology, the authors found that the risk for secondary cancers is low in older adults, the group subjected to the most frequent CT scanning. Trends showing increasing use, however, underscore the importance of monitoring CT utilization and its consequences.

Aabed B. Meer; Pat A. Basu; Laurence C. Baker; Scott W. Atlas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

ATM Requirement in Gene Expression Responses to Ionizing Radiation in Human Lymphoblasts and Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...St. Charles, MO) software program. A two-dimensional...analysis was done using software and methods as described...ATM kinase by ionizing radiation and phosphorylation...toxicology, and drug safety evaluation. Cancer...exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiat Res 2000...

Cynthia L. Innes; Alexandra N. Heinloth; Kristina G. Flores; Stella O. Sieber; Paula B. Deming; Pierre R. Bushel; William K. Kaufmann; and Richard S. Paules

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

6 - Industrial Applications of Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chapter summarizes the industrial applications of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation finds use in a variety of industrial applications such as wire and cable insulation, tire manufacturing, production of polymeric foams, heat-shrinkable films and tubings, curing of coatings, adhesives and composites, printing, and other technological development. It provides extensive information on EB process in wire and cable and tire technology. The chapter also provides discussion on EB process in the manufacture of polyolefin foams and heat-shrinkable materials. Detailed discussion on cross-linked PE pipes (PEX) including methods for production, irradiation, and its advantages, is presented. Other applications for ionizing radiation include sterilization of medical devices, hydrogels, radiation curing of polymeric composites, production of fluoroadditives, radiation-cured flexography, coatings, adhesives, paints, and printing inks. Keywords Ionizing radiation; tire manufacturing; wire and cable insulations; printing inks; polyolefin foams; heat-shrinkable materials; cross-linked PE pipes (PEX); hydrogels; flexography

Jiri George Drobny

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Detoxification of Salmonella typhimurium Lipopolysaccharide by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...efficiency of ionizing radiation in detoxifying...decreased with doses above 1 Mrad...efficiency of ionizing radiation in detoxifying...decreased with doses above 1 Mrad...the visible range. After radiation, the general...radiation doses through 20...

Joseph J. Previte; Y. Chang; H. M. El-Bisi

1967-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

available on the U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Program Web Site at: http:energy.govehssoccupational-radiation-exposure Foreword iii MATTHEW B....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2008 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2008.

42

ANNUAL DOE OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE | 2013 REPORT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2013.

43

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2004 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE 2004 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2004.

44

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2000 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE 2000 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2000.

45

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1999 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1999 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at DOE facilities during the calendar year 1999.

46

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1974 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Seventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for AEC & AEC Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its contractor employees during 1974.

47

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1997 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1997 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1997.

48

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1995 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1995 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1995.

49

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1996 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1996.

50

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1998 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1998 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at DOE facilities during the calendar year 1998.

51

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2001 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE 2001 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2001.

52

Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects...Volume 46, 2005] 3096 Low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) in the 1-10 cGy range has largely unknown biological...the effect and risk at low dose by extrapolation from measured...

Zelanna Goldberg; Chad W. Schwietert; Maggie Isbell; Joerg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Christine Hartmann Siantar; and David M. Rocke

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Epidemiological Studies of Leukemia in Persons Exposed to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to ionizing radiation, the author...the higher dose range regardless...low dose range, it is emphasized...possibility of radiation hazards existing at low doses should not...exposed to ionizing radiation...exposed to ionizing radiation, the author...the higher dose range regardless...

L. H. Hempelmann

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator having enhanced transparency for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a material having optical transparency wherein said material comprises nano-sized objects having a size in at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of light emitted by the composite scintillator wherein the composite scintillator is designed to have selected properties suitable for a particular application.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew Curtis (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Suree S. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Wallace, Steven A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Rondinone, Adam J [Knoxville, TN

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

55

Assessing exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect

Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project.

Walter, K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Molecular mechanisms and cellular consequences of low-dose exposure to ionizing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mechanisms and cellular consequences of low-dose exposure to ionizing mechanisms and cellular consequences of low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation Andrew J. Wyrobek 1 , Francesco Marchetti 1 , Xiu Lowe 1 , Xiaochen Lu 2 , Terumi Kohwi- Shigematsu 1 , Brian Davy 1 , Thomas E. Schmid 1 , Sylvia Ahn 1 , Tarlochan Nijjar 1 Matthew A. Coleman 2 , Contact information: ajwyrobek@gmail.com 1 Life Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 2 BioSciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA. The objectives of this research are to characterize the genome-wide molecular responses to low-dose ionizing radiation (<10cGy), to identify tissue and cell-type specific differences in pathways responses, and to identify the pivotal molecular pathway responses that control risks to genome integrity and health. This project utilizes mouse in

57

Quantitative estimation of UV light dose concomitant to irradiation with ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple mathematical model for biological estimation of UV light dose concomitant to ionizing radiation was suggested. This approach was applied to determine the dependency of equivalent UV light dose accompanied by 100 Gy of ionizing radiation on energy of sparsely ionizing radiation and on volume of the exposed cell suspension. It was revealed that the relative excitation contribution to the total lethal effect and the value of UV dose was greatly increased with an increase in energy of ionizing radiation and volume of irradiated suspensions. It is concluded that these observations are in agreement with the supposition that ?erenkov emission is responsible for the production of UV light damage and the phenomenon of photoreactivation observed after ionizing exposure of bacterial and yeast cells hypersensitive to UV light. A possible synergistic interaction of the damages produced by ionizations and excitations as well as a probable participation of UV component of ionizing radiation in the mechanism of hormesis and adaptive response observed after ionizing radiation exposure is discussed.

Vladislav G. Petin; Ivan I. Morozov; Jin Kyu Kim; Maria A. Semkina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview Gregory Nelson Loma Linda University Abstract The immune system provides the first line of defense for exposures to environmental hazards. Protective immunity mechanisms using innate or adaptive responses are employed to mitigate acute challenges or amplify the readiness of the system to respond to future challenges. Some stimuli lead to amplified inflammatory reactions such as delayed hypersensitivity which is required for immunity to parasites and can also lead to adverse consequences such as contact dermatitis. Radiation exposure has the potential to aggravate hypersensitivity reactions as well as to suppress protective immunity. Ionizing radiation at high doses has long been recognized as highly effective in destroying cells of the immune system,

59

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1990 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Twenty-third Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1990.

60

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1991 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Twenty-fourth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1991.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1989 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Twenty-second Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1989.

62

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1986 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Nineteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1986.

63

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1982 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Fifteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1982.

64

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1983 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Sixteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1983.

65

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1980 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Thirteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1980.

66

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1979 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Twelfth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1979.

67

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1987 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Twentieth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1987.

68

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1985 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Eighteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1985.

69

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1984.

70

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1981 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Fourteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1981.

71

Ionizing radiation and atherosclerosis: Current knowledge and future challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The evaluation of the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation has always been a focus of debate and investigation within the scientific community. During the last decade, epidemiological studies provided evidence that an excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) can be associated with moderate and low dose radiation. The precise quantification of CVD risk in the low-dose radiation range (dose below which there is no risk. A limited number of studies with imaging surrogate endpoints and cardiovascular biomarkers in asymptomatic patients revealed early signs of cardiovascular alterations, even at a low dose. In vitro studies have shown that several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, alterations of coagulation and platelet activity may have a relevant role in radiation-induced cardiovascular effects. Exposure to high-dose data in experimental models accelerates the development of atherosclerosis, predisposing to the formation of an inflammatory, thrombotic plaque phenotype, especially in animals that are genetically predisposed to this disease. On the contrary, low dose exposure produced both protective and detrimental effects, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may influence radiation-induced atherosclerosis. However, only very limited and specific information can be obtained from cell cultures and animal models. Planned studies of radiation-exposed cohorts need to be conducted to explore biological mechanisms of low-dose radiation-associated cardiovascular disease. Further investigations with functional imaging to assess vascular function and cardiovascular biomarkers have great potential for providing new insights into low-dose radiation cardiovascular risk, especially in occupational exposure and modern medicine.

Andrea Borghini; Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo; Eugenio Picano; Maria Grazia Andreassi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation in Primary Haemopoietic Cells.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation in Primary Haemopoietic Cells. Munira Kadhim 1 , Stefania Militi 1 , Debbie Bowler 1 , Denise Macdonald 1 and Kevin Prise 2 1 Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, MRC, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0RD, UK 2 Gray Cancer Institute ,PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK Because the human population is genetically heterogeneous, it is important to understand the role that heterogeneity may play in radiation response. Exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to a suite of changes, including increased mutation rate, delayed reproductive cell death, and delayed chromosomal aberrations, all of which are manifestations of the complex genomic instability (GI) phenotype. Following exposure to either high LET

73

The Degradation of Solid Polymethylmethacrylate by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Polymethylmethacrylate by Ionizing Radiation P. Alexander A. Charlesby...inversely proportional to the radiation dose (plus a small quantity of...of measuring high-energy radiation doses in the range of about 1 million rontgens...

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Ionizing Radiation Induces Delayed Hyperrecombination in Mammalian Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...instability is critical to radiation risk assessment and for determining...the many delayed effects of radiation, chromosomal instability is...detrimental effects over a range of doses of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, a rapid and...

Lei Huang; Suzanne Grim; Leslie E. Smith; Perry M. Kim; Jac A. Nickoloff; Olga G. Goloubeva; William F. Morgan

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the Avy Mouse  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the A Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the A vy Mouse Autumn Bernal 1,2,3 , Dale Huang 1 , Yue Li 4 , Dana Dolinoy 5 , and Randy Jirtle 1 Department of Radiation Oncology 1 , University Program in Genetics and Genomic 2 , Integrated Toxicology & Environmental Health Program 3 , Department of Community and Family Medicine 4 , Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA, Department of Environmental and Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA 4 Background: Humans have evolved and thrived amidst constant low-dose (0-10 cGy) background radiation exposure from natural sources. Currently, however, the frequency of exposures to low doses of radiation is increasing due to man-made sources such as diagnostic imaging and nuclear power. This increased exposure has led to concerns amongst the general public and the government about the

76

Low Dose Radiation Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo. 1 Blyth, B.J., 1 Sykes, P.J. 1 Department of Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, 5042, The general population is daily exposed to chronic, low doses of ionizing radiation from both natural and artificial sources. The shape of the radiation dose-response curve at these low doses is currently linearly extrapolated from data obtained after high dose exposure due to the low sensitivity of traditional biological assays after near-background exposures. At odds with this Linear No-Threshold model, are the phenomena collectively referred to as the radiation-induced bystander effect. The bystander effect describes a collection of in vitro

77

Identification of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin Feng Yang, Katrina M. Waters, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Lye-Meng Markillie, Rachel M. Wirgau, Shawna M. Hengel, Ljiljana Pasa-Tolic, and David L. Stenoien. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Our focus has been on identifying the early events that occur after low dose ionizing radiation exposure that precede and often regulate downstream events such as altered transcription, protein secretion and epigenetic regulation. Phosphorylation is one of the earliest detectible events that occurs following radiation exposure and plays important roles in multiple biological pathways including DNA damage repair, transcription, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. Very robust

78

22.01 Introduction to Ionizing Radiation, Fall 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to basic properties of ionizing radiations and their uses in medicine, industry, science, and environmental studies. Discusses natural and man-made radiation sources, energy deposition and dose calculations, ...

Coderre, Jeffrey A.

79

Radiation Exposure from CT Examinations in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computed tomography (CT) is the largest source of medical radiation exposure to the general population, and is ... assess the current situation of CT use in Japan, and to investigate variations in radiation expos...

Yoshito Tsushima; Ayako Taketomi-Takahashi; Hiroyuki Takei…

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

1. Introduction Alanine-based ionizing radiation dosimetry is firmly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. Introduction Alanine-based ionizing radiation dosimetry is firmly woven into the fabric of high-dose System and Its Implications in High-Dose Ionizing Radiation Metrology Volume 113 Number 2 March.g., radiochromic dosimetry). From the NMI's perspective, the broad absorbed- dose range of the alanine system

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

INSTRUCTION CONCERNING PRENATAL RADIATION EXPOSURE A. INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/fetus exposed to radiation, a dose limit for the embryo/fetus, and suggestions for reducing radiation exposure and the Radiation Control Officer in writing that she is pregnant and the estimated date of conception.311, FAC, places different radiation dose limits on declared pregnant workers than on adult workers

Slatton, Clint

82

Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on Spore Core Components and DNA Repair, with Minor Effects of Oxygen Radical Detoxification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...samples for radiation exposure has...different types of ionizing radiation: X rays...mum, and a range of 301 mm in...mum, and a range of 99 mm in...dosimetry, and dose calculations...the dose of ionizing radiation killing 90...

Ralf Moeller; Marina Raguse; Günther Reitz; Ryuichi Okayasu; Zuofeng Li; Stuart Klein; Peter Setlow; Wayne L. Nicholson

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

83

ORISE: DOE's Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring System (REMS) Monitoring System (REMS) ORISE maintains large database of radition exposure records for the U.S. Department of Energy ORISE staff monitoring radiation data for DOE Rule 10 CFR 835 establishes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) occupational protection rule and requires assessment and recording of radiation doses to individuals who are exposed to sources of radiation or contamination. The Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) database is the radiation exposure data repository for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors and members of the public. REMS maintains dose records for all monitored individuals dating back to 1969. Aggregated, site-specific data are available on the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System website for all years since 1986. Currently,

84

9.01 - Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this chapter is to give an overview and try to show how the different interaction probabilities will influence the transport of ionizing radiation through matter. This knowledge is important in different aspects of medical applications of radiation. It has an impact in designing an optimal treatment gantry, in the choice of radiation quality, and of course when determining the absorbed dose distribution in the body. It is also important in diagnostic radiology when optimizing the image quality. Knowledge of the interaction of radiation with matter is also fundamental for understanding the biological effect of radiation and its variation with ionization density. The focus will not be on the basic physics and deriving the different cross sections but on the impact of these cross sections on imaging and therapy in medical physics applications. Ionizing radiation is normally divided into charged particles (previously called directly ionizing radiation) such as leptons, ?-particles, protons and other light ions, and uncharged particles (previously called indirectly ionizing radiation) such as photons (x-rays or ?-rays) and neutrons. This chapter will concentrate on radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, and the main part will be dedicated to electrons and photons with energies up to around 50 MeV and light ions with energies up to 900 MeV per nucleon. The presentation is divided into two main sections, charged particles and photons.

B. Nilsson; A. Brahme

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Health The Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation are the Arkansas state laws made in accordance the federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission Rules. Any contractor with the US DOE or US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is exempt from the state laws. This set of rules and regulations basically restates the federal policy to ensure that Arkansas is in compliance with the federal standards governing nuclear energy. Specifically the State rules are equivalent to Nuclear Regulatory

86

Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at Earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the TUV radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radi...

Thomas, Brian C; Snyder, Brock R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Reporting Occupational Radiation Exposure Data  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

IMPORTANT NOTICE: Due to increasing security concerns for the protection of Personnally Identifiable Information (PII), AU-23 has issued a policy statement regarding the submission of radiation...

88

Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

Azzam, Edouard I

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

89

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

90

Cell cycle responses to low-dose ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...47, 2006] 5178 Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity...radiosensitivity of cells to doses of ionizing radiation less than 0.5 Gy...connection between low-dose HRS survival, Ataxia...the low dose radiation range (0-1 Gy). MR4 cells...

Sarah A. Krueger; George D. Wilson; Michael C. Joiner; and Brian Marples

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

92

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Krassimira Botcheva, John J. Dunn and Carl W. Anderson Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA The effects of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on humans results largely from changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins (transcription factors) as well as changes to other chromosomal proteins and perhaps to DNA. To develop a molecular understanding of the consequences of exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation, it will be necessary to understanding where radiation-activated transcription factors bind in whole genomes and how

93

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

94

Ionic Liquids and Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Species James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3225-3231 (2010). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request View the video on this Perspective article at The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (5:03) Selected for the ACS Special Virtual Issue on Ionic Liquids (March 2011). Abstract: Due to their unique properties, ionic liquids present many opportunities for basic research on the interactions of radiation with materials under conditions not previously available. At the same time, there are practical applied reasons for characterizing, understanding, and being able to predict how ionic-liquid-based devices and industrial-scale systems will perform under conditions of extreme reactivity, including radiation. This

95

Low dose diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice K Taylor, N Phan, ME Cybulski, L Laframboise, DR Boreham Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton ON L8S 4K1 The cancer risk associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation has traditionally been extrapolated from effects observed at high doses and high dose rates using a linear no threshold model. Based on this approach, it has been postulated that human exposure to medical imaging involving low doses of x-rays and gamma rays increase an individual's risk of developing cancer throughout their lifetime. Conversely, there is evidence that low doses of gamma radiation increase the latency period of cancer depending upon genotype, cancer type, and the magnitude of

96

The Inactivation of $\\alpha$-Chymotrypsin by Ionizing Radiations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Chymotrypsin by Ionizing Radiations J. A. V. Butler...studied over a range of concentrations...where D is the dose required to cause...air over a wide range of concentrations...by varying the dose rate of the electron...over a very wide range. An enhanced...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Sensitivity of aflatoxin b1 to ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...activity with respective doses of 2.5, 5, 10...irradiation aflatoxin B1 dose of: in upper layediteionre...in foodstuffs may range from levels of 0...with an irradiation dose of10 kGy (the maximum...its sensitivity to ionizing radiation. When aflatoxin...

P J Van Dyck; P Tobback; M Feyes; H van de Voorde

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

production under ionizing radiation in aluminoborosilicate glasses by EPR spectroscopy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Ti3+ production under ionizing radiation in aluminoborosilicate glasses by EPR spectroscopy. P irradiation of Ti4+ ions in aluminoborosilicate glasses have been studied by EPR spectroscopy at 20 K of the Ti3+ ion EPR spectra has shown three different Ti3+ environment attributed to one [VI] Ti3+ and two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Preservation of food by ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

This study is presented in three volumes. Vol. I: Presents a concise description of the philosophy of radiation, protection for people working with irradiation processes, including problems associated with the design and operation of a large facility and solutions to problems encountered. Radiation dosimetry and radiolytic effects in foods are also presented. Vol. II: Effects of radiation on bacteria and viruses are discussed as well as the lethal effect on microorganisms and insects. Also presented are the effects of irradiated food on packaging materials. Vol. III: The effects of radurization on meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and spices. Also included are the effects of irradiation for the use of shelf-life extension.

Josephson, E.S.; Peterson, M.S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Characterization of Cell Cycle Checkpoint Responses after Ionizing Radiation in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...events leading to G, and G2 arrests following ionizing radiation is abnormal in cells from AT patients. p53 protein up- regulation following low doses of ionizing radiation ranges from delayed and reduced to completely absent...

Vikky Yamazaki; Rolf-Dieter Wegner; and Cordula U. Kirchgessner

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Ionizing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Affects Cancer Frequency and Characteristics by Acting Affects Cancer Frequency and Characteristics by Acting on the Microenvironment Background: For more than a quarter century the scientific rationale for extrapolating radiation health effects has been underpinned by biophysical target theory. Fundamental to target theory is that the effect (e.g., DNA damage, mutation, cancer) is proportional to dose based on interaction of energy with biological targets, specifically DNA. However, the biology following ionizing radiation is more than just DNA damage, repair, or misrepair. Cellular responses to ionizing radiation can affect phenotype, cell interactions, lineage commitment, differentiation and genomic stability, all of which have been widely documented in cultured cells and many observed in vivo. This class of non-targeted effects induced

102

Ionizing radiation effects on silicon test structures  

SciTech Connect

The effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation on MOSCAPS and special junction diode detectors have been studied. The capacitors were used to ellicit the charge accumulation and anneal in two types of thermally grown oxides representative of those used in routine detector processing. Ion implanted, oxide passivated junction detectors having 0.25 and 1 cm{sup 2} areas and perimeter to area ratios of 1 (a square), 2 and 5 were designed and constructed to amplify the ionizing effects expected to largely affect junction edges through changes in fixed oxide charges. Detectors were exposed to over 4 Mrad and showed clear increases in leakage current in proportion to the junction edge length. Annealing schedules were determined to provide a continuous response to incremental irradiations and subsequent room temperature anneals of leakage current. Besides an increase in gate threshold, little effect on the C(V) response was found. PISCES simulation of the edge fields using different fixed oxide charge revealed regions of very high lateral fields near the junction edges for fixed charges in the 2 {times} 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} range expected from the capacitor studies which could be responsible for the observed leakage currents.

Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Chen, W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dou, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1992- 1994 Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994.

104

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland as a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer Antoine M. Snijders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: Our goal is to develop an in vivo mechanistic model of genetic variation in the low-dose damage responses of mammary glands using inbred mice known to vary in their sensitivity to low-dose induced mammary gland cancer, and to develop molecular predictors for susceptibility or resistance to low-dose induced breast cancer. Background and Significance: It is increasingly believed that individuals differ in their genetic susceptibilities to environmental insults for diseases such as cancer. This concern is especially important for the large numbers of individuals receiving low-dose exposures in the nuclear energy

105

Physiological Responses of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon “Pyrococcus abyssi” to DNA Damage Caused by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Damage Caused by Ionizing Radiation Edmond Jolivet 1 Corresponding...Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan The mechanisms by which...temperature and/or ionizing radiation. The hyperthermophilic...Matsunaga thanks the Japan Society for the Promotion...resistant to ionizing radiation? Trends Microbiol...

Edmond Jolivet; Fujihiko Matsunaga; Yoshizumi Ishino; Patrick Forterre; Daniel Prieur; Hannu Myllykallio

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Ionizing Radiation-induced, Mitochondria-dependent Generation of Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposing cells to ionizing radiation. In the 1-10 Gy dose range, the amount...demonstrated that ionizing radiation in the therapeutic dose range stimulates a...exposing cells to ionizing radiation. In the 1-10 Gy dose range, the amount...

J. Kevin Leach; Glenn Van Tuyle; Peck-Sun Lin; Rupert Schmidt-Ullrich; and Ross B. Mikkelsen

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

MACHINE LEARNING FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION DURING SPACE MISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MACHINE LEARNING FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION DURING SPACE MISSIONS Ricardo for the automated identification and classification of tracks of ionizing radiation during space missions. The tracks of ionizing radiation are mea- sured by the hybrid semiconductor Medipix2 pixel de- tector system

Vilalta, Ricardo

108

Ionizing Radiation Effects on CMOS Imagers Manufactured in Deep Submicron Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, ionizing radiation, total dose, dark current, STI, hardening by design, RHDB 1. INTRODUCTION IonizingIonizing Radiation Effects on CMOS Imagers Manufactured in Deep Submicron Process Vincent Goiffona a large dynamic range. This can significantly impact the radiation hardness of "in-pixel" devices which

Mailhes, Corinne

109

Interactive visual intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation is omnipresent. It has many interesting applications: in medicine, where it allows curing and diagnosing patients; in communication, where modern communication systems make use of electromagnetic radiation; and in science, where it is used to discover the structure of materials; to name a few. Physically, radiation is a process in which particles or waves travel through any kind of material, usually air. Radiation can be very energetic, in which case it can break the atoms of ordinary matter (ionization). If this is the case, radiation is called ionizing. It is known that ionizing radiation can be far more harmful to living beings than non-ionizing radiation. In this dissertation, we are concerned with ionizing radiation. Naturally occurring ionizing radiation in the form of radioactivity is a most natural phenomenon. Almost everything is radioactive: there is radiation emerging from the soil, it is in the air, and the whole planet is constantly undergoing streams of energetic cosmic radiation. Sinc...

Fabry, Thomas

110

Low dose ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in stress-induced premature senescent fibroblasts David Boothman University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Abstract Recent evidence suggest that the causes of cancer development are not limited to mutations within cancer cells, but also involve in alterations of cancer microenvironment. Senescent cells are irreversibly growth arrested, but remain metabolically active. Senescent cells, especially senescent fibroblasts in the stroma may provide a beneficial environment for tumor growth through secretion of certain factors. Accumulation of senescent cells in the stroma of patients repeatedly exposed to low doses of IR or low dose rates of IR, could be an important factor, causing alteration of the microenvironment that ultimately benefits tumor

111

Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials  

SciTech Connect

We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included.

Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009  

SciTech Connect

A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

PP2A regulates ionizing radiation–induced apoptosis through Ser46 phosphorylation of p53  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Articles PP2A regulates ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis through Ser46...virginia.edu 1 Department of Radiation Oncology and 2 Center for Cell...and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan). Radiation Treatment Cell cultures were irradiated...

Jun Mi; Elzbieta Bolesta; David L. Brautigan; and James M. Larner

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Calicivirus Inactivation by Nonionizing (253.7-Nanometer-Wavelength [UV]) and Ionizing (Gamma) Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...7-nm-wavelength [UV]) radiation, inactivation by ionizing (gamma) radiation was studied as a process...constituents on inactivation by radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Viruses...Shoji Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was propagated in MDCK...

Ana Maria de Roda Husman; Paul Bijkerk; Willemijn Lodder; Harold van den Berg; Walter Pribil; Alexander Cabaj; Peter Gehringer; Regina Sommer; Erwin Duizer

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Authors: B.E. Lehnert, R. Cary, D. Gadbois, and G. Gupta. Institutions: Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The scientific literature presents a confusing picture concerning health risks due to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR), e.g., <1-10 cGy. Some effects of LDIR such as enhanced rates of cell proliferation and the induction of radioadaptation may be benign under some circumstances. Other evidence suggests LDIR can be hazardous and that a threshold for potentially detrimental responses, e.g., increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), increases in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), alterations in gene or protein expression profiles, and increased

116

Optical remote diagnostics of atmospheric propagating beams of ionizing radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Data is obtained for use in diagnosing the characteristics of a beam of ionizing radiation, such as charged particle beams, neutral particle beams, and gamma ray beams. In one embodiment the beam is emitted through the atmosphere and produces nitrogen fluorescence during passage through air. The nitrogen fluorescence is detected along the beam path to provide an intensity from which various beam characteristics can be calculated from known tabulations. Optical detecting equipment is preferably located orthogonal to the beam path at a distance effective to include the entire beam path in the equipment field of view.

Karl, Jr., Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Densely Ionizing Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary Carcinomas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary...changes from radiation contribute strongly to carcinogenic potential. Densely ionizing...radiation chimera in which mice were exposed to densely ionizing 350 MeV/amu Si-particles...

Irineu Illa-Bochaca; Haoxu Ouyang; Jonathan Tang; Christopher Sebastiano; Jian-Hua Mao; Sylvain V. Costes; Sandra Demaria; Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Physiological Responses of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon “Pyrococcus abyssi” to DNA Damage Caused by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...before and after radiation and was in good...performed at a sublethal dose of 2,000 Gy to...our preliminary estimation reveals that 0...been observed for radiation-resistant Chroococcidiopsis...caused by ionizing radiation. | The mechanisms...furiosus, survive high doses of ionizing gamma...

Edmond Jolivet; Fujihiko Matsunaga; Yoshizumi Ishino; Patrick Forterre; Daniel Prieur; Hannu Myllykallio

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report ALARA Activities...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

disconnection allows termination of correction elements to be conducted in a lower dose rate area and in less time. This innovation will greatly reduce radiation exposures to...

120

A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This pamphlet is intended to provide a short summary of the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program and DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A Basic Overview of the Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for...

122

extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in normal human fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2006 Abstract Tumor Biology 32: Radiation Biology 2 Proc Amer Assoc Cancer...Volume 47, 2006 extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in...biological effects of this low dose range have not been established. We...

Akira Fujimori; Katsutoshi Suetomi; Keiji Kinoshita; Ayako Kojima; Yaqun Fang; Ayako Egusa; and Ryuichi Okayasu

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

E-Print Network 3.0 - astrophysical ionizing radiation Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Perturbations and level splittings 8-3 Ionization and the Saha equation 2. Textbook Radiative processes... the following chapters: Chapter 1 Basic concepts 1-1 Radiative flux and...

124

DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Retinal Degeneration and Ionizing Radiation Hypersensitivity in a Mouse Model for Cockayne Syndrome  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sensitive to a single dose of ionizing radiation at doses up to 10 Gy. In marked...least within the age range investigated, the...photoreceptor cells for ionizing radiation. This finding underscores...experiment (cumulative dose, 35 kJ/m2). The...

Theo G. M. F. Gorgels; Ingrid van der Pluijm; Renata M. C. Brandt; George A. Garinis; Harry van Steeg; Gerard van den Aardweg; Gerard H. Jansen; Jan M. Ruijter; Arthur A. B. Bergen; Dirk van Norren; Jan H. J. Hoeijmakers; Gijsbertus T. J. van der Horst

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

126

Chromosome translocations and cosmic sources of ionizing radiation: The NIOSH-NCI airline pilot biomarker study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and cosmic sources of ionizing radiation: The NIOSH-NCI airline...are exposed to cosmic ionizing radiation, an efficient inducer...bone marrow absorbed dose in cGy from personal...SD; 46.7 5.3, range 37-55 vs. 45.8...

Lee Yong; Alice Sigurdson; Elizabeth Ward; Martha Waters; Elizabeth Whelan; Martin Petersen; Elaine Ron; Marilyn Ramsey; Parveen Bhatti; and James Tucker

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Use of the Tetrazolium Assay in Measuring the Response of Human Tumor Cells to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...irradiation dose rate was...demonstrated a range of absorbance...RESPONSE TO IONIZING RADIATION with 1 mg...with graded doses of irradiation...each with a range of seeded...MGHU1 0 5 10 DOSE (Gy) RT112...RESPONSE TO IONIZING RADIATION 150000 FF...

Patricia Price and Trevor J. McMillan

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

ORISE: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Radiation Exposure Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information and Reporting System (REIRS) Information and Reporting System (REIRS) ORISE maintains large database of radiation exposure records for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is required by federal mandate to maintain and evaluate radiation protection data for workers at facilities that it licenses. As part of its mission of safety, the NRC operates the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS), a database system containing all occupational radiation exposure records that have been submitted to the NRC under 10 CFR Part 20. REIRS encompasses 1,800-plus NRC licensees and contains more than five million records for more than one million monitored individuals.

129

Patient radiation exposure during different kyphoplasty techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......could reduce dose and radiation-associated risk...the risk of developing radiation-induced stochastic...specific computer software is available, providing...developed at the Medical Radiation Laboratory of the Finnish...Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK)(12). The......

Denis Panizza; Massimo Barbieri; Francesco Parisoli; Luca Moro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Ionizing-Radiation Resistance in the Desiccation-Tolerant CyanobacteriumChroococcidiopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...differences between radiation-resistant and radiation-susceptible microorganisms...after exposure to high doses of X rays ranging...cultures used for radiation experiments were 3-month-old...Goleta, Calif.). Estimation of survival. To determine...

Daniela Billi; E. Imre Friedmann; Kurt G. Hofer; Maria Grilli Caiola; Roseli Ocampo-Friedmann

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

132

UNSCEAR Report 2000: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since its inception in 1955 the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has periodically undertaken a broad review of the sources and the effects of ionising radiation. This latest report is in two concurrently published separate volumes. Volumes I and II provide updated reviews of sources and effects of ionising radiation respectively. A considerable amount of new material supports the review of sources. The review of biological effects takes on board various contemporary issues raised by the `linear-no-threshold' controversy. Particular emphasis has been given to the evaluation of exposures and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. As usual the report has an extended summary (17 pages) backed up by a number of technical annexes (A-J). The annexes have a wealth of basic data, extensive tables and voluminous reference lists. The two volumes are available separately from the United Nations and cost £60 per volume. They are also available from the Stationery Office, but only as a two volume set. If you are interested only in `sources' then you should be aware that the source-related aspects of the Chernobyl accident are largely covered in volume II on effects. Annex A of volume I provides a description of the methodologies used for the assessment of doses from natural, man-made environmental, medical and occupational radiation exposures, which are presented in subsequent annexes B, C, D and E respectively. The components of natural radiation (cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, inhalation and ingestion) have been evaluated and added to provide an estimate of the global average exposure. Since there are wide distributions of exposures from each source, the consequent effective doses combine in various ways at each location, depending on the specific concentration of radionuclides in the environment and in the body, the latitude and altitude of the location, and many other factors. The total annual global per caput effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv. A typical range of individual doses is considered to be 1-10 mSv. In any large population about 65% would be expected to have annual effective doses between 1 and 3 mSv, about 25% of the population would have annual effective doses less than 1 mSv and 10% would have annual effective doses greater than 3 mSv. The main man-made contribution to the environmental exposure of the world's population has come from the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere that occurred mainly between 1945-1980. Since the previous UNSCEAR review of this topic in 1982 new information, previously classified, has become available on the numbers and yields of nuclear tests. An updated listing of atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at each of the test sites is included in this report. Although the total explosive yields of each test have been divulged, the fission and fusion yields are still mostly suppressed. Some general assumptions have been made to allow the evaluation of fission and fusion yields of each test in order to estimate the amounts of radionuclides produced in the explosions. The estimated total of fission yields of individual tests is in agreement with the global deposition of the main fission radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs, as determined by worldwide monitoring networks. It has been calculated that the world average annual effective dose reached a peak of 150 ?Sv in 1963 and has since decreased to about 5 ?Sv in 2000, from residual radionuclides in the environment, mainly of 14C, 90Sr and 137Cs. The contribution to man-made exposures from the generation of electrical energy by nuclear power reactors has been estimated using a collective (100 year truncated) dose of 6 man-Sv per GW year. Assuming the present annual generation of 250 GW years continues, the truncated collective dose per year of practice is 1500 man-Sv to the world population, giving an estimated maximum per caput dose of less than 0.2 ?Sv per year. UNSCEAR has assessed the exposures from medical radiation procedures based on information obtaine

Monty Charles

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides an overview summary of radiation doses from occupational exposures at the Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration for the year 2013.

134

Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Paclitaxel (Taxol) and Docetaxel (Taxotere) in HeLa and SQ20B Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...drawn from survival to radiation alone. Therefore...large decrease of the radiation susceptibility among...fraction over the whole range of radiation doses investigated. Interestingly...1844 TAXOIDS AND IONIZING RADIATION 70 TAX or...

Christophe Hennequin; Nicole Giocanti; and Vincent Favaudon

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scheme is proposed for detecting a concealed source of ionizing radiation by observing the occurrence of breakdown in atmospheric air by an electromagnetic wave whose electric field surpasses the breakdown field in a limited volume. The volume is chosen to be smaller than the reciprocal of the naturally occurring concentration of free electrons. The pulse duration of the electromagnetic wave must exceed the avalanchebreakdown time (10–200 ns) and could profitably be as long as the statistical lag time in ambient air (typically microseconds). Candidate pulsed electromagnetic sources over a wavelength range 3 ? mm > ? > 10.6 ? ? m are evaluated. Suitable candidate sources are found to be a 670 GHz gyrotron oscillator with 200 kW 10 ? ? s output pulses and a Transversely Excited Atmospheric-Pressure (TEA) CO 2 laser with 30 MW 100 ns output pulses. A system based on 670 GHz gyrotron would have superior sensitivity. A system based on the TEA CO 2 laser could have a longer range > 100 ? m .

Victor L. Granatstein; Gregory S. Nusinovich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air  

SciTech Connect

A scheme is proposed for detecting a concealed source of ionizing radiation by observing the occurrence of breakdown in atmospheric air by an electromagnetic wave whose electric field surpasses the breakdown field in a limited volume. The volume is chosen to be smaller than the reciprocal of the naturally occurring concentration of free electrons. The pulse duration of the electromagnetic wave must exceed the avalanche breakdown time (10-200 ns) and could profitably be as long as the statistical lag time in ambient air (typically, microseconds). Candidate pulsed electromagnetic sources over a wavelength range, 3 mm>{lambda}>10.6 {mu}m, are evaluated. Suitable candidate sources are found to be a 670 GHz gyrotron oscillator with 200 kW, 10 {mu}s output pulses and a Transversely Excited Atmospheric-Pressure (TEA) CO{sub 2} laser with 30 MW, 100 ns output pulses. A system based on 670 GHz gyrotron would have superior sensitivity. A system based on the TEA CO{sub 2} laser could have a longer range >100 m.

Granatstein, Victor L.; Nusinovich, Gregory S. [Center for Applied Electromagnetics, Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Radiation Environments and Exposure Considerations for the Multi?Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Multi?Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE to provide reliable long?life electric power for NASA’s planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and projected flyby orbital and planet landing missions. This is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a design envelope around “all possible missions”. These multi?mission requirements include internal and external radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles ejected by decaying Pu?238 and its daughters plus particles resulting from the interaction of these particles with other MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the results of investigations into the environments outlined above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel. Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total integrated dose and to project potential shielding requirements for materials. Much of the information on mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation exposure during ground handling are also provided.

William M. Kelly; Nora M. Low; Andrew Zillmer; Gregory A. Johnson; Eugene Normand

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Radiation Environments and Exposure Considerations for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE to provide reliable, long-life electric power for NASA's planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed by Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and projected flyby, orbital and planet landing missions. This is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a design envelope around 'all possible missions'. These multi-mission requirements include internal and external radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles ejected by decaying Pu-238 and its daughters plus particles resulting from the interaction of these particles with other MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the results of investigations into the environments outlined above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel. Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total integrated dose and to project potential shielding requirements for materials. Much of the information on mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation exposure during ground handling are also provided.

Kelly, William M.; Low, Nora M.; Zillmer, Andrew; Johnson, Gregory A. [Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, 6633 Canoga Avenue, Canoga Park, CA 91309 (United States); Normand, Eugene [Boeing Radiation Effects Laboratory, P.O. Box 3707, M/S 2T-50, Seattle, WA 98124-22079 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

139

Assessment of the Technologies for Molecular Biodosimetry for Human Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Symposium  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to ionizing radiation produces few immediate outwardly-visible clinical signs, yet, depending on dose, can severely damage vital physiological functions within days to weeks and produce long-lasting health consequences among survivors. In the event of a radiological accident, the rapid evaluation of the individual absorbed dose is paramount to discriminate the worried but unharmed from those individuals who must receive medical attention. Physical, clinical and biological dosimetry are usually combined for the best dose assessment. However, because of the practical limits of physical and clinical dosimetry, many attempts have been made to develop a dosimetry system based on changes in biological parameters, including techniques for hematology, biochemistry, immunology, cytogenetics, etc. Lymphocyte counts and chromosome aberrations analyses are among the methods that have been routinely used for estimating radiation dose. However, these assays require several days to a week to be completed and therefore cannot be used to obtain a fast estimate of the dose during the first few days after exposure when the information would be most critical for identifying victims of radiation accidents who could benefit the most by medical intervention. The steadily increasing sophistication in our understanding of the early biochemical responses of irradiated cells and tissues provides the opportunity for developing mechanism-based biosignatures of exposure. Compelling breakthroughs have been made in the technologies for genome-scale analysis of cellular transcriptional and proteomic profiles. There have also been major strides in the mechanistic understanding of the early events in DNA damage and radiation damage products, as well as in the cellular pathways that lead to radiation injury. New research with genomic- and proteomic-wide tools is showing that within minutes to hours after exposure to ionizing radiation protein machines are modified and activated, and large-scale changes occur in the gene expression profile involving a broad variety of cell-process pathways after a wide range of both low (<10 cGy) and high dose (>10 cGy) exposures. Evaluation of these potential gene and protein biomarkers for early and late diagnostic information will be critical for determining the efficacy of the signatures to both low and high dose IR exposures. Also needed are approaches that enable rapid handling and processing for mass-casualty and population triage scenarios. Development of in vivo model system will be crucial for validating both the biological and the instrumentation for biodosimetry. Such studies will also help further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the biological effects of radiation and the differences of responses due to individual genetic variation.

Matthew A. Coleman Ph.D.; Narayani Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.; Sally A. Amundson; James D. Tucker, Ph.D.; Stephen D. Dertinger, Ph.D.; Natalia I. Ossetrova, Ph.D.; Tao Chen

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

140

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...263-8555 Chiba, Japan. Phone: 81-43-206-3159...doses of ionizing radiation (5). A recent...study showed that Japan has the worlds highest...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...Inage, Chiba, Japan. fujimora@nirs...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Transcriptome Analysis Applied to Survival of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Exposed to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation (IR) dose that yields 20...its response to UV radiation (254 nm), which...sensitivity to IR. Ionizing radiation (IR) is potentially...damage caused by given doses of IR for different...similar, although the range of IR resistance...

Xiaoyun Qiu; Michael J. Daly; Alexander Vasilenko; Marina V. Omelchenko; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Liyou Wu; Jizhong Zhou; George W. Sundin; James M. Tiedje

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The Polyamine Catabolic Enzyme SAT1 Modulates Tumorigenesis and Radiation Response in GBM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Introduction Exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-established...moderate to high-dose radiation exposure. Examples include...atomic bomb survivors in Japan, women treated with repeated exposure to radiation from fluoroscopic chest...

Adina Brett-Morris; Bradley M. Wright; Yuji Seo; Vinay Pasupuleti; Junran Zhang; Jun Lu; Raffaella Spina; Eli E. Bar; Maneesh Gujrati; Rebecca Schur; Zheng-Rong Lu; and Scott M. Welford

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Monitoring records are required to be reported to the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiation Records Repository by March 31 under DOE Order 231.1B and in accordance with the REMS Reporting Guide.

144

A radiation exposure index for CT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......metrics provided to operators at the completion of each examination relate to the amount...for each scan, whereas current CTDI indices only quantify the radiation incident...requires manufacturers to generate these indices for clinical examinations. With this......

Walter Huda

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Occupational Radiation Exposures at the Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Occupational Radiation Exposures at the Department of Energy Nimi Rao*, U.S. Department of Energy ; Derek Hagemeyer, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Abstract: The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) project began in 1969 under the AEC and has undergone significant evolutions since inception. The system serves as the central repository for occupational radiation exposure records for all individuals monitored at DOE facilities. One of the primary purposes of the REMS database is to gather the information needed to produce the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. The report provides analysis of monitoring results over the past 5 years, as well as a historical perspective. The presentation will include the latest information collected for the 2013 monitoring year. Tables and graphics will provide an overview of trends and areas of interest. In addition to the traditional static tables and graphs from the annual report, DOE has initiated a data visualization effort to offer more interactive e-products for the data in REMS. An interactive dashboard tool will be presented, as well as an interactive report on the major impacts on occupational radiation exposure at DOE over the last 10 years.

146

RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC CT IN SUDAN: CT DOSE, ORGAN AND EFFECTIVE DOSES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Paper RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC...Energy Commission, Radiation Safety Institute, PO Box 3001...assess the magnitude of radiation exposure during paediatric...CT-Expo 2.1 dosimetry software. Doses were evaluated......

I. I. Suliman; H. M. Khamis; T. H. Ombada; K. Alzimami; M. Alkhorayef; A. Sulieman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

IONIZING RADIATION RISKS TO SATELLITE POWER SYSTEMS (SPS) WORKERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dose-Response Relationships for Radiation-Induced Cancer EstimationDose-Response Relationships for Radiation-Induced Cancer A general hypothesis for estimationof the total dose. Estimation of Space Radiation Induced

Lyman, J.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Telomerase-Dependent Oncolytic Adenovirus Sensitizes Human Cancer Cells to Ionizing Radiation via Inhibition of DNA Repair Machinery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...surgical resection, radiation, and cytotoxic...the threshold for radiation-induced tumor cell death; the safety and efficacy of...1-3). Ionizing radiation primarily targets...with the CalcuSyn software (BioSoft), and...

Shinji Kuroda; Toshiya Fujiwara; Yasuhiro Shirakawa; Yasumoto Yamasaki; Shuya Yano; Futoshi Uno; Hiroshi Tazawa; Yuuri Hashimoto; Yuichi Watanabe; Kazuhiro Noma; Yasuo Urata; Shunsuke Kagawa; and Toshiyoshi Fujiwara

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

Strom, Daniel J.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

151

Functional proteomic pattern identification under low dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective: High dose radiation has been well known for increasing the risk of carcinogenesis. However, the understanding of biological effects of low dose radiation is limited. Low dose radiation is reported to affect several signaling pathways including ... Keywords: Feature selection, Jumping emerging identification, Low dose radiation, Proteomic signaling patterns

Young Bun Kim; Chin-Rang Yang; Jean Gao

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Molecular stress response in the CNS of mice after systemic exposureto interferon-alpha, ionizing radiation and ketamine  

SciTech Connect

We previously showed that the expression of troponin T1 (Tnnt 1) was induced in the central nervous system (CNS) of adultmice 30 min after treatment with ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. We hypothesized that Tnnt 1 expression may be an early molecular biomarker of stress response in the CNS of mice. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the regional expression of Tnnt 1 in the mouse brain using RNA in situ hybridization 4 h after systemic exposure to interferon-a (IFN-a) and gamma ionizing radiation, both of which have be associated with wide ranges of neuropsychiatric complications. Adult B6C3F1 male mice were treated with either human IFN-a (a single i.p. injection at 1 x 105 IU/kg) or whole body gamma-radiation (10 cGy or 2 Gy). Patterns of Tnnt 1 transcript expression were compared in various CNS regions after IFN-a, radiation and ketamine treatments (previous study). Tnnt 1 expression was consistently induced in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus after all treatment regimens including 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Regional expression of Tnnt 1 was induced in Purkinje cells of cerebellum after ionizing radiation and ketamine treatment; but not after IFN-a treatment. None of the three treatments induced Tnnt 1 expression in glial cells. The patterns of Tnnt 1 expression in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex andhippocampus, which are both known to play important roles in cognitive function, memory and emotion, suggest that the expression of Tnnt 1 may be an early molecular biomarker of induced CNS stress.

Lowe, Xiu R.; Marchetti, Francesco; Lu, Xiaochen; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

153

The Relative Effects of Direct and Indirect Actions of Ionizing Radiations on Deoxyribonucleic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...determined over a range of concentrations...means that over this range of concentration...independent of the dose rate and of the hardness of the radiations within the ranges used and identical...indirect actions of ionizing radiations on deoxyribonucleic...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

p53-Mediated Regulation of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in Cells Exposed to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to increasing doses of IR at 24 h posttransfection...cellular response to ionizing radiation in which p53-mediated...IR at 12 Gy, a dose that induced maximal...the 1- to 4-Gy range does not effectively...because a high radiation dose is used and the...

Jin Xu; Gilbert F. Morris

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium Salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium...of 1.3 duration and over a range of dose rates from 0.5 to 20 000 rads/pulse. Radiation yields at constant dose rate...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Inactivation of 14-3-3? Influences Telomere Behavior and Ionizing Radiation-Induced Chromosomal Instability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...per dish was chosen to ensure that about 50 colonies would survive a particular radiation dose treatment. Cells were exposed to ionizing radiation in the dose range of 0 to 8 Gy at room temperature using a 137Cs ray at a dose rate of 1.1 Gy...

Sonu Dhar; Jeremy A. Squire; M. Prakash Hande; Raymund J. Wellinger; Tej K. Pandita

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Assessing protection against radiation exposure after prostate 125I brachytherapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractPurpose To expand the radiation dose rate measurement data set by measuring radiation under various prostate 125I brachytherapy situations. Methods and Materials Measurements were obtained from 63 consecutive unselected patients at Tokyo Medical Center, Japan. Differences in factors during measurements, such as body postures, distances from the skin surface, and measurement directions were considered. Furthermore, shielding effects of lead-lined underwear, consisting mainly of 0.1-mm thickness of lead, were also assessed. Results Radiation exposure varies according to the patient's body posture, with results differing as much as approximately 40.0% in measured radiation dose rates at 30 cm from the anterior skin surface. Weight, body mass index, and tissue thickness showed good correlations with measured radiation dose rates. The magnitude of radiation exposure attenuation by shielding was approximately 95.8%, similar to the attenuation ratio based on tissue measurements made in the lateral direction. The respective mean times required to reach 1 mSv were 1.2, 7.6, and 65.4 days in the standing position and 0.6, 4.6, and 40.4 days in the supine position at the site of contact, and at 30 and 100 cm from the anterior skin surface. Conclusions This study obtained supplemental information pertaining to radiological protection and confirmed that shielding can be an effective tool for reducing exposures.

Takashi Hanada; Atsunori Yorozu; Riki Kikumura; Toshio Ohashi; Naoyuki Shigematsu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update  

SciTech Connect

This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

159

Radiation exposure assessment for portsmouth naval shipyard health studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of radiation worker cohorts employed...Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory...Canada (AECL) workers from the Chalk...squares) between 1950 and 1996. DISCUSSION...for 13,468 workers with PNS exposure...assignments before and after adjustments......

R. D. Daniels; T. D. Taulbee; P. Chen

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

MMTF DISCOVERY OF GIANT IONIZATION CONES IN MR 2251-178: IMPLICATIONS FOR QUASAR RADIATIVE FEEDBACK  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of giant ionization cones in the 140 kpc nebula around quasar MR 2251-178 based on deep [O III] {lambda}5007/H{beta} and [N II] {lambda}6583/H{alpha} flux ratio maps obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter on the Baade-Magellan 6.5 m Telescope. These cones are aligned with the weak double-lobed radio source observed on smaller scale (<30 kpc). They have an opening angle {approx}120 Degree-Sign {+-} 10 Degree-Sign and subtend {approx}65%-90% of 4{pi} sr, where the uncertainty takes into account possible projection effects. The material in the outer ionization cones is matter-bounded, indicating that all ionizing photons emitted through the cones escape from the system. The quasar ionizing flux is {approx}2-3 times fainter outside of these cones, despite the largely symmetric geometry of the nebula in [O III]. Overall, adding up the contributions from both inside and outside the cones, we find that {approx}65%-95% of the quasar ionizing radiation makes its way out of the system. These results emphasize the need for line ratio maps to quantify the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from quasars and the importance of quasar radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium.

Kreimeyer, Kory; Veilleux, Sylvain, E-mail: kory@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Zebrafish as a “Biosensor”? Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Amifostine on Embryonic Viability and Development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Environmental Health and Radiation Safety at the University...LabSpectrum v2.0.1 software (Scanalytics...and exposed to radiation at 4 hpf. Immediately...minutes before radiation exposure. For...Molecular Imaging Software, version 4.0...

Geoffrey A. Geiger; Sharon E. Parker; Andrew P. Beothy; Jennifer A. Tucker; Mary C. Mullins; and Gary D. Kao

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Investigation of non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland utilizing three-dimensional culture models of mammary cells derived from mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to tumorigenesis Joni D. Mott, Antoine M. Snijders, Alvin Lo, Dinah Levy-Groesser, Bahram Parvin, Andrew J. Wyrobek, Jian-Hua Mao, and Mina J. Bissell Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 Goal: Within the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's SFA, Project 2, our studies focus on utilizing three dimensional (3D) cell culture models as surrogates for in vivo studies to determine how low doses of ionizing radiation influence mammary gland tissue architecture and how this may relate both to tumor progression and/or adaptive response.

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - atm radiation exposure Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

O'Connell Summary: tissues) 12;Sources of Background Radiation Exposure Naturally occurring radioactive materials... . Cosmic radiation. Fall-out from nuclear weapons...

164

Directed Evolution of Ionizing Radiation Resistance in Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...repeated. The dose of radiation administered was adjusted...day at 37C, with the dose increasing as radioresistance...source until the desired dose was achieved. Irradiated...Genomic DNA from the radiation-sensitive E. coli...reads, respectively. Estimation of the level of sequencing...

Dennis R. Harris; Steve V. Pollock; Elizabeth A. Wood; Reece J. Goiffon; Audrey J. Klingele; Eric L. Cabot; Wendy Schackwitz; Joel Martin; Julie Eggington; Timothy J. Durfee; Christina M. Middle; Jason E. Norton; Michael C. Popelars; Hao Li; Sarit A. Klugman; Lindsay L. Hamilton; Lukas B. Bane; Len A. Pennacchio; Thomas J. Albert; Nicole T. Perna; Michael M. Cox; John R. Battista

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

165

Altered Telomere Nuclear Matrix Interactions and Nucleosomal Periodicity in Ataxia Telangiectasia Cells before and after Ionizing Radiation Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mean P/mean S Mean () Range () Mean () Range () RKO 71 67-75 29 25-33...significant. Influence of ionizing radiation on telomere-nuclear matrix...cells were treated with a dose of 5 Gy of ionizing radiation, and proportions of S...

Lubomir B. Smilenov; Sonu Dhar; Tej K. Pandita

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Densely Ionizing Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary Carcinomas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...charged particle species from protons through uranium at varying energies of up to tens of GeV/amu (7). Estimating the cancer risk...cancer than sparsely ionizing radiation. The unique pattern of energy deposition incurred by particle traversal is considered to...

Irineu Illa-Bochaca; Haoxu Ouyang; Jonathan Tang; Christopher Sebastiano; Jian-Hua Mao; Sylvain V. Costes; Sandra Demaria; Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Densely Ionizing Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary Carcinomas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ionizing radiation. The unique pattern of energy deposition incurred by particle traversal...epithelial cells were positive for K18 (green).Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI...positive either for K18 or K14 (n = 20, green; D), K14+18 type with K14 and K18...

Irineu Illa-Bochaca; Haoxu Ouyang; Jonathan Tang; Christopher Sebastiano; Jian-Hua Mao; Sylvain V. Costes; Sandra Demaria; and Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The effects of diet and ionizing radiation on azoxymethane induced colon carcinogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cancer, by suppressing apoptosis and upregulating proliferation in colonocytes. Diets contained a combination of fish oil or corn oil and either pectin or cellulose. We exposed 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats to 1 Gy ionizing radiation (1 GeV Fe) 10 d prior...

Mann, John Clifford

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Ionizing Radiation as an Initiator: Effects of Proliferation and Promotion Time on Tumor Incidence in Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...portion of the dose-response curve these two doses reside, we cannot accu rately say that the...cell carcinomas did not appear to depend on dose. A wider range of doses of ionizing radiation needs to be studied. A representative basal...

Deborah Jaffe and G. Tim Bowden

1987-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Escape of Ionizing Photons from OB Associations in Disk Galaxies Radiation Transfer Through Superbubbles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By solving the time-dependent radiation transfer problem of stellar radiation through evolving superbubbles within a smoothly varying H I distribution, we have estimated the fraction of ionizing photons emitted by OB associations that escapes the H I disk of our Galaxy. We considered a coeval star-formation history and a Gaussian star-formation history with a time spread sigma_t = 2 Myr. We find that the shells of the expanding superbubbles quickly trap or attenuate the ionizing flux, such that most of the escaping radiation escapes shortly after the formation of the superbubble. Superbubbles of large associations can blowout of the H I disk and form dynamic chimneys, which allow the ionizing radiation directly to escape the H I disk. However, blowout occurs when the ionizing photon luminosity has dropped well below the association's maximum luminosity. For the coeval star-formation history, the fraction of photons that escape each side of the disk in the solar vicinity is f_esc approx 6% (the total fraction ...

Dove, J B; Ferrara, A; Dove, James B.; Ferrara, Andrea

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Extreme resistance of bdelloid rotifers to ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of IR or high-energy electrons required...that the measured efficiency of IR...where the decreased efficiency of repair is more...dilatata are free-swimming and may easily be...geothermalis: The pool of extreme radiation...International Atomic Energy Agency Final Research...

Eugene Gladyshev; Matthew Meselson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Extremely Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Causes Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway and Enhances Proliferation of Normal Human Diploid Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...

Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama; and Masami Watanabe

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Roles of the Major, Small, Acid-Soluble Spore Proteins and Spore-Specific and Universal DNA Repair Mechanisms in Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spores to Ionizing Radiation from X Rays and High-Energy Charged-Particle Bombardment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mutagenic effects induced by ionizing radiation are thought to be the result...of DNA damage caused by given doses of ionizing radiation for different bacteria are very similar, although the range of ionizing-radiation resistance...

Ralf Moeller; Peter Setlow; Gerda Horneck; Thomas Berger; Günther Reitz; Petra Rettberg; Aidan J. Doherty; Ryuichi Okayasu; Wayne L. Nicholson

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

174

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Deok-Jin Jang 1 , Mingquan Guo 1 , Julia S.F.Chu 2 , Kyle T. Kurpinski 2 , Bjorn Rydberg 1 , Song Li 2 , and Daojing Wang 1 1. Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 2. Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 We will present data obtained during the first year of our DOE/NASA Low Dose Radiation Research program. We utilized a comprehensive approach including transcriptomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and biochemistry to characterize human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in response to low dose ionizing radiation. We first determined the cell survival, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of

175

Molecular Pathways: Targeted ?-Particle Radiation Therapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and profibrotic cytokines. Radiation-induced malignancy can...1-5 Gy). Kyoji Furukawa (Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan) reviewed the Japanese atomic...late effects of ionizing radiation exposure at low/moderate...

Kwamena E. Baidoo; Kwon Yong; and Martin W. Brechbiel

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Bikini Atoll ionizing radiation survey, May 1985-May 1986  

SciTech Connect

Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 23 nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, which resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of a number of islands in the atoll and prevented the timely resettlement of the native population. Although the external dose rates from beta and gamma radiation have been previously determined by aerial survey and a variety of ground measurement techniques, technical constraints limited the assessment of external beta dose rates that result from the /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y contamination on the islands. Now, because of the recent development of very thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), the external beta dose rates can be measured. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Shingleton, K.L.; Cate, J.L.; Trent, M.G.; Robison, W.L.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

On the Use of SRIM for Computing Radiation Damage Exposure  

SciTech Connect

The SRIM (formerly TRIM) Monte Carlo simulation code is widely used to compute a number of parameters relevant to ion beam implantation and ion beam processing of materials. It also has the capability to compute a common radiation damage exposure unit known as atomic displacements per atom (dpa). Since dpa is a standard measure of primary radiation damage production, most researchers who employ ion beams as a tool for inducing radiation damage in materials use SRIM to determine the dpa associated with their irradiations. The use of SRIM for this purpose has been evaluated and comparisons have been made with an internationally-recognized standard definition of dpa, as well as more detailed atomistic simulations of atomic displacement cascades. Differences between the standard and SRIM-based dpa are discussed and recommendations for future usage of SRIM in radiation damage studies are made. In particular, it is recommended that when direct comparisons between ion and neutron data are intended, the Kinchin-Pease option of SRIM should be selected.

Stoller, Roger E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.; Toloczko, Mychailo B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Was, Gary S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Certain, Alicia G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dwaraknath, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Garner, Frank A. [Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

178

Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

SciTech Connect

The biological effects on the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to initial-irradiation exposure during the nuclear attacks of World War II was recognized immediately as an important source of information. After the war, an extensive effort gathered data concerning the locations of individuals at the time of the attack and their subsequent medical histories. The data from personnel located in reinforced concrete buildings are particularly significant, since large groups of occupants received radiation injury without complications due to blast and thermal effects. In order to correlate the radiation dose with physiological effects, the dose to each individual must be calculated. Enough information about the construction of the buildings was available after the war to allow a radiation transport model to be constructed, but the accurate calculation of penetration into such large, thick-walled three dimensional structures was beyond the scope of computing technology until recently. Now, the availability of Cray vector computers and the development of a specially-constructed discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, have combined to allow the successful completion of such a study. This document describes the radiation transport calculations and tabulates the resulting doses by source component and individual case location. An extensive uncertainty analysis is also included. These data are to be used in another study as input to a formal statistical analysis, resulting in a new value for the LD50 dose, i.e., the dose at which the mortality risk is 50%. 55 refs., 67 figs., 70 tabs.

Rhoades, W.A.; Childs, R.L.; Ingersoll, D.T.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Effects of ionizing radiation on the response of certain photosensitive seeds to red light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and molecular oxygen. Studies of phosphate metabolism (Surrey and Gordon, 1962) and phosphorylation (Gordon and Surrey, 1961) indicate that energy transfer through phosphate esterification plays an important role and may be the key enzymatic reaction in red... spectrum promoting the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seed. Smithsonian Inst. Pubis. Misc. Collections 96: 1-8 ~ 11. Gordon, S. A. , and K. Surrey. 1961. Phosphorylation and red-spectrum photomorphogenesis. ~n Effects of ionizing radiations...

Richardson, Billy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

180

Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen species to directly affect antioxidant concentrations in cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiolysis products and internal dose distribution - Calculation of...products and internal distribution of doses Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen...stress is the mechanism for a wide range of negative impacts on biota living...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Hypothesis regarding a membrane-associated mechanism of biological action due to low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel theory is proposed regarding the action of ionizing radiation in the range of very low doses. The basic premise of the theory presented is that the low-dose effect cannot be explained by direct damage ......

Lazar Kh. Eidus

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

rev November 2004 Radiation Safety Manual Section 6 -Personnel Exposure and Monitoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Estimating Fetal Dose Equivalent .................................................6-10 a. Positionrev November 2004 Radiation Safety Manual Section 6 - Personnel Exposure and Monitoring Page 6-1 Contents .............................................................................6-1 A. Radiation

Wilcock, William

183

Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This pamphlet is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE, Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) and Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS)

184

Comparison of radiation exposure and associated radiation-induced cancer risks from mammography and molecular imaging of the breast  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Recent studies have raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures. Little has been published regarding the relative exposure and risks associated with breast imaging techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI), molecular breast imaging (MBI), or positron emission mammography (PEM). The purpose of this article was to estimate and compare the risks of radiation-induced cancer from mammography and techniques such as PEM, BSGI, and MBI in a screening environment. Methods: The authors used a common scheme for all estimates of cancer incidence and mortality based on the excess absolute risk model from the BEIR VII report. The lifetime attributable risk model was used to estimate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality. All estimates of cancer incidence and mortality were based on a population of 100 000 females followed from birth to age 80 and adjusted for the fraction that survives to various ages between 0 and 80. Assuming annual screening from ages 40 to 80 and from ages 50 to 80, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality attributed to digital mammography, screen-film mammography, MBI, BSGI, and PEM was calculated. The corresponding cancer incidence and mortality from natural background radiation was calculated as a useful reference. Assuming a 15%-32% reduction in mortality from screening, the benefit/risk ratio for the different imaging modalities was evaluated. Results: Using conventional doses of 925 MBq Tc-99m sestamibi for MBI and BSGI and 370 MBq F-18 FDG for PEM, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality were found to be 15-30 times higher than digital mammography. The benefit/risk ratio for annual digital mammography was >50:1 for both the 40-80 and 50-80 screening groups, but dropped to 3:1 for the 40-49 age group. If the primary use of MBI, BSGI, and PEM is in women with dense breast tissue, then the administered doses need to be in the range 75-150 MBq for Tc-99m sestamibi and 35 MBq-70 MBq for F-18 FDG in order to obtain benefit/risk ratios comparable to those of mammography in these age groups. These dose ranges should be achievable with enhancements to current technology while maintaining a reasonable examination time. Conclusions: The results of the dose estimates in this study clearly indicate that if molecular imaging techniques are to be of value in screening for breast cancer, then the administered doses need to be substantially reduced to better match the effective doses of mammography.

O'Connor, Michael K.; Li Hua; Rhodes, Deborah J.; Hruska, Carrie B.; Clancy, Conor B.; Vetter, Richard J. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Radiation Safety, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Response of intracerebral human glioblastoma xenografts to multifraction radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We investigated the effects of fractionated radiation treatments on the life spans of athymic rats bearing intracerebral brain tumors. Methods and Materials: U-251 MG or U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells were implanted into the brains of athymic rats, and the resulting tumors were irradiated once daily with various doses of ionizing radiation for 5 consecutive days or for 10 days with a 2-day break after Day 5. Results: Five daily doses of 1 and 1.5 Gy, and 10 doses of 0.75 and 1 Gy, cured some U-251 MG tumors. However, five daily doses of 0.5 Gy increased the survival time of animals bearing U-251 MG tumors 5 days without curing any animals of their tumors. Ten doses of 0.3 Gy given over 2 weeks extended the lifespan of the host animals 9 days without curing any animals. For U-87 MG tumors, 5 daily doses of 3 Gy produced an increased lifespan of 8 days without curing any animals, and 10 doses of 1 Gy prolonged lifespan 5.5 days without curing any animals. The differences in extension of life span between the 5- and 10-fraction protocols were minor for either tumor type. Conclusion: The finding that the U-251 MG tumors are more sensitive than U-87 MG tumors, despite the fact that U-251 MG tumors contain many more hypoxic cells than U-87 MG tumors, suggests the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivities of these cell lines are more important than hypoxia in determining their in vivo radiosensitivities.

Ozawa, Tomoko [Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Faddegon, Bruce A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hu, Lily J. [Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Bollen, Andrew W. [Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lamborn, Kathleen R. [Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Deen, Dennis F. [Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)]. E-mail: ddeen@itsa.ucsf.edu

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Radiation Exposure in Nonvascular Fluoroscopy-Guided Interventional Procedures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the radiation exposure in non-vascular fluoroscopy guided interventions and to search strategies for dose reduction. Materials and Methods: Dose area product (DAP) of 638 consecutive non-vascular interventional procedures of one year were analyzed with respect to different types of interventions; gastrointestinal tract, biliary interventions, embolizations of tumors and hemorrhage. Data was analyzed with special focus on the fluoroscopy doses and frame doses. The third quartiles (Q3) of fluoroscopy dose values were defined in order to set a reference value for our in-hospital practice. Results: Mean fluoroscopy times of gastrostomy, jejunostomy, right and left sided percutaneous biliary drainage, chemoembolization of the liver and embolization due to various hemorrhages were 5.9, 8.6, 13.5, 16.6, 17.4 and 25.2 min, respectively. The respective Q3 total DAP were 52.9, 73.3, 155.1, 308.4, 428.6 and 529.3 Gy*cm{sup 2}. Overall, around 66% of the total DAP originated from the radiographic frames with only 34% of the total DAP applied by fluoroscopy (P < 0.001). The investigators experience had no significant impact on the total DAP applied, most likely since there was no stratification to intervention-complexity. Conclusion: To establish Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), there is a need to establish a registry of radiation dose data for the most commonly performed procedures. Documentation of interventional procedures by fluoroscopy 'grabbing' has the potential to considerably reduce radiation dose applied and should be used instead of radiographic frames whenever possible.

Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: kloeckner@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Bersch, Anton [Kreuznacher Diakonie, Department of Trauma Surgery and Orthopedics (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens; Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael Bernhard [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7 mGy/h) and low (3.95 mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1?, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-?. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of naïve T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose ?-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

Suk Chul Shin; Kyung-Mi Lee; Yu Mi Kang; Kwanghee Kim; Cha Soon Kim; Kwang Hee Yang; Young-Woo Jin; Chong Soon Kim; Hee Sun Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on Spore Core Components and DNA Repair, with Minor Effects of Oxygen Radical Detoxification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on...Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology Department, Cologne...Radiological Sciences, Chiba-shi, Japan c University of Florida, Proton...different types of ionizing radiation including X rays, protons...

Ralf Moeller; Marina Raguse; Günther Reitz; Ryuichi Okayasu; Zuofeng Li; Stuart Klein; Peter Setlow; Wayne L. Nicholson

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

189

Ionizing Radiation Causes a Dose-Dependent Release of Transforming Growth Factor ? In vitro from Irradiated Xenografts and during Palliative Treatment of Hormone-Refractory Prostate Carcinoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Preclinical Pharmacology Ionizing Radiation Causes a Dose-Dependent Release of...linear function of the radiation dose over the range 0-10 Gy with r2 0...20: 91-5, 2000. Ionizing radiation causes a dose-dependent release of...

Michael Hagan; Adly Yacoub; and Paul Dent

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Abstract #2302: NVP-BEZ235 a dual inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3 Kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) potently enhances the effects of ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ionizing radiation. Benjamin...effects of ionizing radiation in vitro...BEZ235 at doses of 50 nM...radiation dose range from 0-8...NVP-BEZ235 doses of 1microM...damage after radiation.-H2AX...effect of ionizing radiation in a range of epithelial...

Benjamin Solomon; Anthony Natoli; Jim Hagekyriakou; Carleen Cullinane; and Grant McArthur

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Human Heterochromatin Protein 1 Isoforms HP1Hs? and HP1Hs? Interfere with hTERT-Telomere Interactions and Correlate with Changes in Cell Growth and Response to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...subsequently exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). The...a particular dose of radiation. The cells...to IR in the dose range of 0 to 8 Gy...treatment. Dose response curves...treated with ionizing radiation while growing...

Girdhar G. Sharma; Kyu-kye Hwang; Raj K. Pandita; Arun Gupta; Sonu Dhar; Julie Parenteau; Manjula Agarwal; Howard J. Worman; Raymund J. Wellinger; Tej K. Pandita

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Theory of Multiphoton Multielectron Ionization of Xenon under Strong 93-eV Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a theoretical interpretation of recent experimental results on multiphoton multiple ionization of xenon by soft-x-ray radiation of photon energy ?93??eV and intensity up to 1016??W/cm2 [A.?A Sorokin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213002 (2007)]. The data are interpreted within multiphoton perturbation theory, taking into account the spatiotemporal distribution of the radiation. Multiphoton cross sections have been obtained through a technique of scaling, with occasional adjustment to the data, provided the two prove to be compatible. Whatever discrepancies between theory and experiment persist can be reasonably attributed to some uncertainty in the experimental conditions and possibly to the value of some cross sections, without, however, any evidence for nonperturbative behavior.

M. G. Makris; P. Lambropoulos; A. Miheli?

2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

193

Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 450–1000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280–450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

194

Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by extremely low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray irradiation at very low doses, between 2 and 5 cGy, stimulated activity of a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in normal human diploid cells. Higher doses of irradiation at more than 1 Gy induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and accumulated p53 protein. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased with doses down to 50 cGy, however, doses of between 2 and 5 cGy phosphorylated ERK1/2 as efficiently as higher doses of X-rays, while the p53 protein level was no longer changed by doses below 50 cGy. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-dependent phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 and histone H2AX at Ser139 was only observed at higher doses of more than 10 cGy of X-rays. We found that the MEK1 inhibitor, PD98059, and the specific epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1478, decreased phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 proteins induced by 2 cGy or 6 Gy of X-rays. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates ERK1/2 kinases via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and MAP kinase–ERK kinase, which mediates various effects of cells receiving very low doses of ionizing radiation.

Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama; Masami Watanabe

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray{trademark} (RGX{trademark}) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging. 5 figs.

Majewski, S.; Kross, B.J.; Zorn, C.J.; Majewski, L.A.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

196

Reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} in aluminoborosilicate glasses under ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped aluminoborosilicate glasses were prepared by melting in air at high temperature ({approx}1500 {sup o}C). It was shown by luminescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements that both Eu{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 2+} ions can exist simultaneously in the glass matrix studied after glass synthesis as well as after exposure to ionizing radiation. Increase of total Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration leads to the increase of Eu{sup 3+} luminescence intensity while the luminescence intensity of Eu{sup 2+} ions tends to decrease. In contrast the EPR indicates that the amount of Eu{sup 2+} ions in the glass increases with total Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The difference in the results of the two spectroscopies is explained in terms of energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} leading to an Eu{sup 2+} luminescence quenching. Irradiation results in the increase of reduced Eu{sup 2+} quantity detected by EPR measurements. It was shown that Eu{sup 2+} ions are located in both high (g {approx} 4.6) and low symmetry ('U' spectrum) sites in the structure of aluminoborosilicate glasses. The increase of Eu{sup 2+} content by the increase of the irradiation dose manifests the strong reduction process Eu{sup 3+} {yields} Eu{sup 2+}.

Malchukova, E., E-mail: genia@poly.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642 CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Boizot, B. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642 CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642 CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and mRNA Expression Kerry O'Banion University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry Abstract Most of our knowledge about low dose radiation effects relates to DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations that result in cell death or alterations in genetic programs leading to malignancy. In addition To direct DNA damage, there is accumulating evidence that radiation induced alterations in the microenvironment can have significant effects on programs of cell replication and differentiation such as neurogenesis in adult mammalian brain. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is postulated to play an important role in learning and memory and manipulations that alter neurogenesis, including inhibition following radiation exposure, have been

198

Ionizing Radiation Damage to the Folded Chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12: Repair of Double-Strand Breaks in Deoxyribonucleic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cell survival Dose (krad) % Recovery...it is in the range of sedimentation...that direct, radiation-induced cross-linking...during repair of ionizing radiation damage (3...is within the range ofsedimentation...biologically significant dose range. Unfortu...

Kevin M. Ulmer; Reinaldo F. Gomez; Anthony J. Sinskey

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Effects of gamma radiation on Serratia marcescens; a comparison of effects of two different exposure rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

'Donovan, Effect of gamma radiation on Serratia marcescens: Comparison of the radiosensi- tivity of pigmented and nonpigmented cells. Radiation Res, 48, 40-52 (1971). 18. Alison P. Casarett, Radiation ~Biolo . p. 159. Prentice-Hall, Inc. , Englewood Cliffs... EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON SL'RNATIA MARCESCENS A COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT EXPOSURE RATES A Thesis by CHRISTY ANNETTE MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Moore, Christy Annette

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Radiation Exposure to Patient and Staff in Hepatic Chemoembolization: Risk Estimation of Cancer and Deterministic Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to calculate the organ doses, we used only the dosemeter values measured ... negligible compared to the direct and significantly longer radiation exposure to the liver region. When one wishes to keep the...

Nico Hidajat; Peter Wust; Roland Felix…

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

E-Print Network 3.0 - accidental radiation exposures Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

many uses, x-rays are the single largest source of man-made radiation exposure. X... -occurring radium and is a major ... Source: Yucca Mountain Project, US EPA Collection:...

202

Modelling of radiation exposure at high altitudes during solar storms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with a different energy spectrum. To estimate...exposure due to solar flares, a model...measuring the flux of solar and galactic particles...and the high-energy proton and alpha...Exposure during Solar Maximum) project. One flight from......

H. Al Anid; B. J. Lewis; L. G. I. Bennett; M. Takada

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Ionizing radiation damage to the folded chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12: sedimentation properties of irradiated nucleoids and chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation listed in Table 2 were calculated...4, 5). For this reason, doses of ionizing radiation in excess of 10 krads were used...the biologically significant dose range of less than 10 krads suggested...

K M Ulmer; R F Gomez; A J Sinskey

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Enhancement of Antitumor Activity of Ionizing Radiation by Combined Treatment with the Selective Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor ZD1839 (Iressa)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Table 1 Effect of ionizing radiation or of ZD1839 treatment on the...were calculated by performing dose-response experiments. Cancer cells were exposed to different doses of ionizing radiation (range, 10-250 cGy) or to different...

Cataldo Bianco; Giampaolo Tortora; Roberto Bianco; Roberta Caputo; Bianca Maria Veneziani; Rosa Caputo; Vincenzo Damiano; Teresa Troiani; Gabriella Fontanini; David Raben; Stefano Pepe; A. Raffaele Bianco; and Fortunato Ciardiello

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on levels of reactive oxygen species in neuronal cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......typical CDMA signal of 837 MHz and a WCDMA signal of 1950 MHz were applied to the RTL...incubator with a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2. Analysis...exposure to UMTS 1950 MHz radiation and co-exposure...reaction of menadione with plasma thiols: enhancement......

Kyoung Ah Kang; Hyung Chul Lee; Je-Jung Lee; Mi-Na Hong; Myung-Jin Park; Yun-Sil Lee; Hyung-Do Choi; Nam Kim; Young-Gyu Ko; Jae-Seon Lee

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

TWO-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF PARTIAL IONIZATION IN THE CHROMOSPHERE  

SciTech Connect

The bulk of the solar chromosphere is weakly ionized and interactions between ionized particles and neutral particles likely have significant consequences for the thermodynamics of the chromospheric plasma. We investigate the importance of introducing neutral particles into the MHD equations using numerical 2.5D radiative MHD simulations obtained with the Bifrost code. The models span the solar atmosphere from the upper layers of the convection zone to the low corona, and solve the full MHD equations with non-gray and non-LTE radiative transfer, and thermal conduction along the magnetic field. The effects of partial ionization are implemented using the generalized Ohm's law, i.e., we consider the effects of the Hall term and ambipolar diffusion in the induction equation. The approximations required in going from three fluids to the generalized Ohm's law are tested in our simulations. The Ohmic diffusion, Hall term, and ambipolar diffusion show strong variations in the chromosphere. These strong variations of the various magnetic diffusivities are absent or significantly underestimated when, as has been common for these types of studies, using the semi-empirical VAL-C model as a basis for estimates. In addition, we find that differences in estimating the magnitude of ambipolar diffusion arise depending on which method is used to calculate the ion-neutral collision frequency. These differences cause uncertainties in the different magnetic diffusivity terms. In the chromosphere, we find that the ambipolar diffusion is of the same order of magnitude or even larger than the numerical diffusion used to stabilize our code. As a consequence, ambipolar diffusion produces a strong impact on the modeled atmosphere. Perhaps more importantly, it suggests that at least in the chromospheric domain, self-consistent simulations of the solar atmosphere driven by magnetoconvection can accurately describe the impact of the dominant form of resistivity, i.e., ambipolar diffusion. This suggests that such simulations may be more realistic in their approach to the lower solar atmosphere (which directly drives the coronal volume) than previously assumed.

Martinez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo, E-mail: j.m.sykora@astro.uio.no [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

207

Nitric Acid Deposition following an Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Event is below Critical Loads for Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitric acid rainout is one of the effects of an astrophysical ionizing radiation event. The predicted values of nitrate rainout from previous work for a typical gamma ray burst (GRB) within our galaxy serve as an extreme example and are shown to be below critical loads of eutrophication and acidification for ecoregions in Europe and the US.

Melott, Ben Neuenswander Adrian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Excitational energy transfer enhancing ionization and spatial-temporal evolution of air breakdown with UV laser radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with UV laser radiation Jason S. Hummelta and John E. Scharer Department of Electrical and Computer of oxygen has on the ionization of nitrogen in laser air breakdown. Plasma is created by focusing a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using an 18 cm focal length lens, producing a cylindrical 540 m wide spot

Scharer, John E.

209

Radon in context of natural radiation exposure: the Czech experience  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......doses from ingestion of water are reasonably avertable...and intervention (remediation of existing exposure...effective dose caused by water containing 1000 Bq l1...radon concentrations in ground water vary from some Becquerel......

J. Hulka

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

PARP-1, PARP-2, and the cellular response to low doses of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is rapidly and directly activated by single-strand breaks and is required for efficient base excision repair. These properties indicate that inhibition of PARP-1 might enhance the cellular response to low doses of radiation. We tested the effect of chemical inhibition of PARP-1 on low-dose clonogenic survival in a number of cell lines and the low-dose radiation response of a PARP-1 knockout murine cell line. Methods and materials Clonogenic cell survival of V79-379A and CHO-K1 hamster fibroblasts, T98G and U373-MG human glioma cells, and 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblast PARP-1 knockout cells was measured using a precise flow cytometry-based plating assay. Chemical inhibitors of PARP enzymes were tested for their effect on clonogenic survival after a range of ionizing radiation doses. Results Chemical inhibition of PARP activity induced marked radiosensitization of V79, CHO, and exponentially growing T98G cells in the 0.05–0.3-Gy range. This effect was not seen in U373 cells or in confluent T98G populations. Low-dose radiosensitization was not apparent in PARP-1 knockout cells. Conclusion Low-dose radiosensitization of actively dividing tumor cells by PARP-1 inhibitors suggests that they may have a role in enhancing the efficacy of ultrafractionated or low-dose-rate radiotherapy regimens. We hypothesize that PARP-2 compensates for the absence of PARP-1 in the knockout cell line.

Anthony Chalmers; Peter Johnston; Mick Woodcock; Michael Joiner; Brian Marples

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Extensive Diversity of Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Sonoran Desert Soil and Description of Nine New Species of the Genus Deinococcus Obtained from a Single Soil Sample  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ionizing radiation on Earth...the acute doses to which...damage of ionizing radiation but rather...from a wide range of environments...showing the range of morphological...to various doses of gamma ionizing radiation Dose (kGy...

Fred A. Rainey; Keren Ray; Margarida Ferreira; Bridget Z. Gatz; M. Fernanda Nobre; Danielle Bagaley; Brian A. Rash; Mie-Jung Park; Ashlee M. Earl; Nicole C. Shank; Alanna M. Small; Margaret C. Henk; John R. Battista; Peter Kämpfer; Milton S. da Costa

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Radiation and Uranium Resources Exposure Control (South Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The public policy of South Dakota is to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, the proper development of uranium resources, and the control of any associated harmful effects. The disposal of...

213

Indoor exposure to radiation in the case of an outdoorrelease  

SciTech Connect

This report quantifies the effectiveness of ''sheltering in place'' in a commercial building in the event of an outdoor radiological release. The indoor exposure to airborne particles is calculated by solving the mass balance equation that accounts for the loss of particles due to deposition, filtration and exhaust. Quantitative estimates of shelter-inplace effectiveness are provided for typical commercial buildings.

Price, Phillip N.; Jayaraman, Buvana

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging Time to Regulate?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

smaller population exposure. The current US situation is that quality control and qual- ity assurance modern medical imaging, there are serious is- sues of quality control, training, and, particularly of different standards and rules are in place; accreditation programs, through the American College

Brenner, David Jonathan

215

Light scattering apparatus and method for determining radiation exposure to plastic detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved system and method of analyzing cumulative radiation exposure registered as pits on track etch foils of radiation dosimeters. The light scattering apparatus and method of the present invention increases the speed of analysis while it also provides the ability to analyze exposure levels beyond that which may be properly measured with conventional techniques. Dosimeters often contain small plastic sheets that register accumulated damage when exposed to a radiation source. When the plastic sheet from the dosimeter is chemically etched, a track etch foil is produced wherein pits or holes are created in the plastic. The number of these pits, or holes, per unit of area (pit density) correspond to the amount of cumulative radiation exposure which is being optically measured by the apparatus. To measure the cumulative radiation exposure of a track etch foil a high intensity collimated beam is passed through foil such that the pits and holes within the track etch foil cause a portion of the impinging light beam to become scattered upon exit. The scattered light is focused with a lens, while the primary collimated light beam (unscattered light) is blocked. The scattered light is focused by the lens onto an optical detector capable of registering the optical power of the scattered light which corresponds to the cumulative radiation to which the track etch foil has been exposed.

Hermes, Robert E. (White Rock, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

73Exploring Radiation in your Life Our exposure to many unavoidable sources of radiation is a fact of life, and one  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and determine the consequences of human radiation impacts, have estimated that the average human accumulates to the daily radiation dose change when the Fukushima source is included in terms of microSeiverts/day? Space73Exploring Radiation in your Life Our exposure to many unavoidable sources of radiation is a fact

217

European Integrated Project RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Project RISC-RAD Integrated Project RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiations Laure Sabatier 1 , L.H.F Mullenders 2 , Mike Atkinson 3 , Simon Bouffler 4 , Herwig Paretzke 5 1 Laboratory of Radiobiology and Oncology, CEA, 18 route du panorama BP6 92265 Fontenay-aux- Roses, France 2 LUMC, Department of Toxicogenetics, Postal Zone S-4-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands 3 GSF- Institute of Pathology, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg Germany 4 HPA Radiation Protection Division, Centre for Radiation Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, UK 5 GSF- Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg, D-85764 Germany In radiological protection, the risks of inducing stochastic health effects (largely cancer) by a

218

Ionizing Radiation Activates AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): A Target for Radiosensitization of Human Cancer Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is a molecular energy sensor regulated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. Starvation and growth factors activate AMPK through the DNA damage sensor ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We explored the regulation of AMPK by ionizing radiation (IR) and its role as a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Lung, prostate, and breast cancer cells were treated with IR (2-8 Gy) after incubation with either ATM or AMPK inhibitors or the AMPK activator metformin. Then, cells were subjected to either lysis and immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, clonogenic survival assays, or cell cycle analysis. Results: IR induced a robust phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in all tumor cells, independent of LKB1. IR activated AMPK first in the nucleus, and this extended later into cytoplasm. The ATM inhibitor KU-55933 blocked IR activation of AMPK. AMPK inhibition with Compound C or anti-AMPK {alpha} subunit small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked IR induction of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21{sup waf/cip} as well as the IR-induced G2/M arrest. Compound C caused resistance to IR, increasing the surviving fraction after 2 Gy, but the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhanced IR activation of AMPK and lowered the surviving fraction after 2 Gy further. Conclusions: We provide evidence that IR activates AMPK in human cancer cells in an LKB1-independent manner, leading to induction of p21{sup waf/cip} and regulation of the cell cycle and survival. AMPK appears to (1) participate in an ATM-AMPK-p21{sup waf/cip} pathway, (2) be involved in regulation of the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint, and (3) may be targeted by metformin to enhance IR responses.

Sanli, Toran; Rashid, Ayesha; Liu Caiqiong [Department of Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Discovering Clinical Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure with Serum Proteomic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...American Association for Cancer Research 1 May 2009...their ability to chelate uranium. Depleted uranium (DU) is used in military...nitrogen-containing BP, can chelate uranium at high doses. The...In: Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res; 2009 Apr 18-22...

Cynthia Ménard; Donald Johann; Mark Lowenthal; Thierry Muanza; Mary Sproull; Sally Ross; James Gulley; Emanuel Petricoin; C. Norman Coleman; Gordon Whiteley; Lance Liotta; and Kevin Camphausen

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Measurement of the radiation field surrounding the Collider Detector at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

We present here the first direct and detailed measurements of the spatial distribution of the ionizing radiation surrounding a hadron collider experiment. Using data from two different exposures we measure the effect of additional shielding on the radiation field around the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). Employing a simple model we parameterize the ionizing radiation field surrounding the detector.

K. Kordas et al.

2004-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

222

Natural radioactivity and radiation exposure at the Minjingu phosphate mine in Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the results of studies on activity and ambient radiation background around the Minjingu phosphate mine in Tanzania are presented. The outdoor dose rate in air and the activity levels of samples from and outside the mine were determined by thermoluminiscent dosimeters and a gamma spectrometer system with a Hyper Pure germanium detector system respectively. The determination of activity was made for the 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K radionuclides. High concentrations of radium-226 were observed in phosphate rock (5760±107 Bq kg-1 ), waste rock (4250±98 Bq kg-1 ), wild leaf vegetation (650±11 Bq kg-1 ), edible leaf vegetation (393±9 Bq kg-1 ), surface water (4.7±0.4 mBq l-1 ) and chicken feed (4±0.1 Bq kg-1 ) relative to selected control sites. These findings suggest a radiation health risk particularly when the samples are ingested, because the internal exposure may give rise to an effective dose exceeding 20 mSv which is the annual limit of intake of natural radionuclides recommended by the ICRP. On the other hand, the radiation dose from ambient air over five years at the phosphate mine ranges from 1375 to 1475 nGy h-1 with an average of 1415 nGy h-1 . The average is about 28 times that of the global average background radiation from terrestrial sources, and about 12 times the allowed average dose limit for public exposure over five consecutive years. Future investigations on the occupancy factor, external dose rate and radon and radon progeny exposure in drinking water, buildings and activity content in the locally grown foodstuffs are proposed, for the realistic quantification of the overall exposure of workers and public at Minjingu, and remedial measures for future radiation safety.

Firmi P Banzi; Leonard D Kifanga; Felician M Bundala

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

On the Use of SRIM/TRIM for Computing Radiation Damage Exposure  

SciTech Connect

The SRIM (formerly TRIM) Monte Carlo simulation code is widely used to compute a number of parameters relevant to ion beam implantation and ion beam processing of materials. It also has the capability to compute a common radiation damage exposure unit known as atomic displacements per atom (dpa). Since dpa is a standard measure of primary radiation damage production, most researchers who employ ion beams as a tool for inducing radiation damage in materials use SRIM to determine the dpa associated with their irradiations. The use of SRIM for this purpose has been evaluated and comparisons with an internationally-recognized standard definition of dpa, as well as more detailed atomistic simulations of atomic displacement cascades have been made. Differences between the standard and SRIM-based dpa are discussed and recommendations for future usage of SRIM in radiation damage studies are made.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Toloczko, M [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Was, Gary [University of Michigan; Certain, Alicia [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dwaraknath, Shyam [University of Michigan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

Jolyon H Hendry; Steven L Simon; Andrzej Wojcik; Mehdi Sohrabi; Werner Burkart; Elisabeth Cardis; Dominique Laurier; Margot Tirmarche; Isamu Hayata

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Standard Test Method for Application of Ionization Chambers to Assess the Low Energy Gamma Component of Cobalt-60 Irradiators Used in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 Low energy components in the photon energy spectrum of Co-60 irradiators lead to absorbed dose enhancement effects in the radiation-hardness testing of silicon electronic devices. These low energy components may lead to errors in determining the absorbed dose in a specific device under test. This method covers procedures for the use of a specialized ionization chamber to determine a figure of merit for the relative importance of such effects. It also gives the design and instructions for assembling this chamber. 1.2 This method is applicable to measurements in Co-60 radiation fields where the range of exposure rates is 7 × 10 ?6 to 3 × 10?2 C kg ?1 s?1 (approximately 100 R/h to 100 R/s). For guidance in applying this method to radiation fields where the exposure rate is >100 R/s, see Appendix X1. Note 1—See Terminology E170 for definition of exposure and its units. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information onl...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Effects of Mn and Fe Levels on Bacillus subtilis Spore Resistance and Effects of Mn2+, Other Divalent Cations, Orthophosphate, and Dipicolinic Acid on Protein Resistance to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to ionizing radiation in vitro display...response to dose, with increasing...doses of gamma radiation increase...within a narrow range of Mn concentrations...from gamma ray doses (15 kGy...resistance to ionizing radiation, desiccation...

Amanda C. Granger; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Vera Y. Matrosova; Michael J. Daly; Peter Setlow

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

227

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute x-ray exposure Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

late effects of acute ionizing radiation exposures in atomic bomb survivors" initiated October 2009... X-ray Yes Yes No No Retesting required 2 X-ray Yes Yes No No Retesting...

228

End group characterization in DNA of thymocytes after low doses of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigations into the configuration of the radiation induced strand breaks in the low dose range are presented. DNA sections containing the radiation induced strand breaks were separated from the undamaged s...

Th. Coquerelle; C. Sexauer

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Influence of organs in the ICRP's remainder on effective dose equivalent computed for diagnostic radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

The ICRP effective dose equivalent has been compared with a weighted dose equivalent, computed by treating the entire remainder instead of the sample of five remainder organs in the ICRP method as uniformly radiosensitive, for dose distributions from three common diagnostic exposures: chest, dental full-mouth and dental panoramic. Complete dose distributions were computed by a Monte Carlo model. In all three cases the effective dose equivalent was greater than the weighted dose equivalent. The difference was only 20% for the chest exam but was more than fivefold for both dental exposures. Dose distributions for the dental exposures were less homogeneous than for the chest examination. Selection of organs to be included in the remainder markedly affects the effective dose equivalent. In the case of highly inhomogeneous dose distributions, the effective dose equivalent probably significantly over-estimates radiation detriment.

Gibbs, S.J.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with low linear energy transfer (LET...Obviously, the challenge of understanding...but the stable integration of viral DNA...activation should be sustainable for a long period...SA. Directed integration of viral DNA...adeno-associated virus DNA integration. Proc Natl...high linear energy transfer ionizing......

Masao S. Sasaki; Akira Tachibana; Shunichi Takeda

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Specific gene expression by extremely low-dose ionizing radiation which related to enhance proliferation of normal human diploid cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrated that X-ray irradiation at low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy stimulated proliferation of a normal human diploid. At low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy, ERK1/2 was phosphorylated as efficiently as at higher doses between 50 and 100 cGy of X-rays, while the p53 protein level was not increased by doses below 50 cGy. On the other hand, the p53 protein was efficiently accumulated at higher doses of X-ray more than 100 cGy. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated by doses over 50 cGy with increasing doses. We found that activated ERK1/2 augmented phosphorylation of the Elk-1 protein. Furthermore, over expression of ERK2 in NCI-H1299, and human lung carcinoma cells, potentiated enhanced proliferation, while down-regulation of ERK2 using the anti-sense ERK2 gene abrogated the stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activate ERK1/2 kinases, which causes enhanced proliferation of cells receiving very low doses of ionizing radiation.

Masami Watanabe; Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Uncertainties in estimating health risks associated with exposure to ionising radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The information for the present discussion on the uncertainties associated with estimation of radiation risks and probability of disease causation was assembled for the recently published NCRP Report No. 171 on this topic. This memorandum provides a timely overview of the topic, given that quantitative uncertainty analysis is the state of the art in health risk assessment and given its potential importance to developments in radiation protection. Over the past decade the increasing volume of epidemiology data and the supporting radiobiology findings have aided in the reduction of uncertainty in the risk estimates derived. However, it is equally apparent that there remain significant uncertainties related to dose assessment, low dose and low dose-rate extrapolation approaches (e.g. the selection of an appropriate dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), the biological effectiveness where considerations of the health effects of high-LET and lower-energy low-LET radiations are required and the transfer of risks from a population for which health effects data are available to one for which such data are not available. The impact of radiation on human health has focused in recent years on cancer, although there has been a decided increase in the data for noncancer effects together with more reliable estimates of the risk following radiation exposure, even at relatively low doses (notably for cataracts and cardiovascular disease). New approaches for the estimation of hereditary risk have been developed with the use of human data whenever feasible, although the current estimates of heritable radiation effects still are based on mouse data because of an absence of effects in human studies. Uncertainties associated with estimation of these different types of health effects are discussed in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner as appropriate. The way forward would seem to require additional epidemiological studies, especially studies of low dose and low dose-rate occupational and perhaps environmental exposures and for exposures to x rays and high-LET radiations used in medicine. The development of models for more reliably combining the epidemiology data with experimental laboratory animal and cellular data can enhance the overall risk assessment approach by providing biologically refined data to strengthen the estimation of effects at low doses as opposed to the sole use of mathematical models of epidemiological data that are primarily driven by medium/high doses. NASA's approach to radiation protection for astronauts, although a unique occupational group, indicates the possible applicability of estimates of risk and their uncertainty in a broader context for developing recommendations on: (1) dose limits for occupational exposure and exposure of members of the public; (2) criteria to limit exposures of workers and members of the public to radon and its short-lived decay products; and (3) the dosimetric quantity (effective dose) used in radiation protection.

R Julian Preston; John D Boice Jr; A Bertrand Brill; Ranajit Chakraborty; Rory Conolly; F Owen Hoffman; Richard W Hornung; David C Kocher; Charles E Land; Roy E Shore; Gayle E Woloschak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HUMAN POPULATIONS FOLLOWING ACUTE EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

estimation of the carcinogenic of low-dose, low-LET radiationradiation uoses, close rates, and LET to enable risk tions occur estimation at doses,radiation-induced cancer necessarily be based primarily on human dose-incidence data. in man must However, risk estimation

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Estimation of the radiation exposure of a chest pain protocol with ECG-gating in dual-source computed tomography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The estimation of the radiation exposure of the protocols we used resulted in effective doses differing among genders: for women, the estimated effective doses were 14.0% higher compared with men...

Dominik Ketelsen; Marie H. Luetkhoff; Christoph Thomas…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from fallout and related radionuclide compositions. Operation Teapot, 1955  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from events that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex.

Hicks, H.G.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

E-Print Network 3.0 - attenuates ionizing radiation-induced Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

silica optical Summary: measurements and the so-called radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) measured in dBm. TSL measurements have been... measurements. Connections between...

237

The effect of thymosin on the survival of CBA/J mice exposed to lethal and acute doses of ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF THYMOSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis ROGER LYNN HUCHTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Unrversrty in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subject: Biophysrcs THE EFFECT OF THYMQSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis by ROGER LYNN HUCHTQN Approved as to style and content by...

Huchton, Roger Lynn

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

ON THE DETECTION OF IONIZING RADIATION ARISING FROM STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT z {approx} 3-4: LOOKING FOR ANALOGS OF 'STELLAR RE-IONIZERS'  

SciTech Connect

We use the spatially resolved, multi-band photometry in the GOODS South field acquired by the CANDELS project to constrain the nature of candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters at redshift z {approx} 3.7 identified using ultradeep imaging below the Lyman limit (1{sigma} limit of Almost-Equal-To 30 AB in a 2'' diameter aperture). In 19 candidates out of a sample of 20 with flux detected at >3{sigma} level, the light centroid of the candidate LyC emission is offset from that of the Lyman break galaxy (LBG) by up to 1.''5. We fit the spectral energy distribution of the LyC candidates to spectral population synthesis models to measure photometric redshifts and the stellar population parameters. We also discuss the differences in the UV colors between the LBG and the LyC candidates, and how to estimate the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (f{sub esc}) in cases, like in most of our galaxies, where the LyC emission is spatially offset from the host galaxy. In all but one case we conclude that the candidate LyC emission is most likely due to lower redshift interlopers. Based on these findings, we argue that the majority of similar measurements reported in the literature need further investigation before it can be firmly concluded that LyC emission is detected. Our only surviving LyC candidate is an LBG at z = 3.795, which shows the bluest (B - V) color among LBGs at similar redshift, a stellar mass of M {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, weak interstellar absorption lines, and a flat UV spectral slope with no Ly{alpha} in emission. We estimate its f{sub esc} to be in the range 25%-100%, depending on the dust and intergalactic attenuation.

Vanzella, Eros; Cristiani, Stefano; Nonino, Mario [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Grazian, Andrea; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele; Pentericci, Laura; Galametz, Audrey [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio (RM) (Italy); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Faber, S. M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Siana, Brian D., E-mail: vanzella@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

239

HIV-1 Tat depresses DNA-PK{sub CS} expression and DNA repair, and sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose There is accumulating evidence that cancer patients with human immmunodeficiency virus-1/acquired immunodeficency syndrome (HIV-1/AIDS) have more severe tissue reactions and often develop cutaneous toxic effects when subjected to radiotherapy. Here we explored the effects of the HIV-1 Tat protein on cellular responses to ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials Two Tat-expressing cell lines, TT2 and TE671-Tat, were derived from human rhabdomyosarcoma cells by transfecting with the HIV-1 tat gene. Radiosensitivity was determined using colony-forming ability. Gene expression was assessed by cDNA microarray and immunohybridization. The Comet assay and {gamma}-H2AX foci were use to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and repair. Radiation-induced cell cycle changes were detected by flow cytometry. Results The radiosensitivity of TT2 and TE671-Tat cells was significantly increased as compared with parental TE671 cells or the control TE671-pCI cells. Tat also increased proliferation activity. The comet assay and {gamma}H2AX foci detection revealed a decreased capacity to repair radiation-induced DNA DSBs in Tat-expressing cells. Microarray assay demonstrated that the DNA repair gene DNA-PKcs, and cell cycle-related genes Cdc20, Cdc25C, KIF2C and CTS1 were downregulated in Tat-expressing cells. Depression of DNA-PKcs in Tat-expressing cells was further confirmed by RT-PCR and immuno-hybridization analysis. Tat-expressing cells exhibited a prolonged S phase arrest after 4 Gy {gamma}-irradiation, and a noticeable delay in the initiation and elimination of radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest as compared with parental cells. In addition, the G{sub 2}/M arrest was incomplete in TT2 cells. Moreover, HIV-1 Tat resulted in a constitutive overexpression of cyclin B1 protein. Conclusion HIV-1 Tat protein sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation via depressing DNA repair and dysregulating cell cycle checkpoints. These observations provide new insight into the increased tissue reactions of AIDS cancer patients to radiotherapy.

Sun Yi [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Huang Yuechen [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Xu Qinzhi [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Wang Huiping [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Bai Bei [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Sui Jianli [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Zhou Pingkun [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: zhoupk@nic.bmi.ac.cn

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Exposure assessment of acrylates/methacrylates in radiation-cured applications  

SciTech Connect

Occupational exposures to radiation-cured acrylates/methacrylates during their processing and use in coatings, inks, and adhesives were evaluated in 12 walk-through surveys at formulator and applicator sites. Inhalation and dermal-exposure routes were studied. According to the authors, the basic process used to formulate coatings, inks, and adhesives consists of blending raw materials in closed mixing vessels using local exhaust ventilation in the form of elephant trunks at vessel charging and packaging locations. Application methods surveyed included reverse-roll coaters, direct roll coaters, curtain/rain coaters, laminators, pneumatic injection, spray guns, and manual application. At the sites surveyed, the number of workers potentially exposed at each site ranged from two to 142. Process operators at applicator sites had the greatest potential for dermal exposure. Generally, the potential for inhalation exposure was low due to low volatility of the multifunctional acrylates/methacrylates used in the formulations. No reliable air-monitoring data were available at any site. Respirator use was limited and sporadic.

Not Available

1987-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

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241

PLANNING TOOLS FOR ESTIMATING RADIATION EXPOSURE AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

A set of computational tools was developed to help estimate and minimize potential radiation exposure to workers from material activation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). AAMI (Automated ALARA-MCNP Interface) provides an efficient, automated mechanism to perform the series of calculations required to create dose rate maps for the entire facility with minimal manual user input. NEET (NIF Exposure Estimation Tool) is a web application that combines the information computed by AAMI with a given shot schedule to compute and display the dose rate maps as a function of time. AAMI and NEET are currently used as work planning tools to determine stay-out times for workers following a given shot or set of shots, and to help in estimating integrated doses associated with performing various maintenance activities inside the target bay. Dose rate maps of the target bay were generated following a low-yield 10{sup 16} D-T shot and will be presented in this paper.

Verbeke, J; Young, M; Brereton, S; Dauffy, L; Hall, J; Hansen, L; Khater, H; Kim, S; Pohl, B; Sitaraman, S

2010-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

242

The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response  

SciTech Connect

Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

A DSM-based “2.0” System for Human Intervention Planning and Scheduling in Facilities Emitting Ionizing Radiations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To efficiently and safely plan, schedule and control its interventions in underground facilities, which are subject to ionizing radiations, CERN is currently developing a collaborative Web-based system. A similar project for maintenance management is also under way. On top of presenting their key requirements, this paper shows how the implementation of DSM can enhance a so-called Web 2.0 or collaborative dimension by bringing an intuitive and fair way of taking the dependencies between several activities into account. It is also discussed that the incoherencies brought in DSM by collaborative use (for instance regarding the time intervals) can be addressed by enlarging the binary DSM span of dependencies to ones of the Allen’s interval algebra or at least a subset of its dependencies.

Baudin, M; De Jonghe, J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Ionization chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionization chamber has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionize the gas.

Walenta, Albert H. (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss for Coulomb Scattered Particles from Low Energy up to Relativistic Regime in Space Radiation Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the space environment, instruments onboard of spacecrafts can be affected by displacement damage due to radiation. The differential scattering cross section for screened nucleus--nucleus interactions - i.e., including the effects due to screened Coulomb nuclear fields -, nuclear stopping powers and non-ionization energy losses are treated from about 50\\,keV/nucleon up to relativistic energies.

Boschini, M J; Gervasi, M; Giani, S; Grandi, D; Ivantchenko, V; Pensotti, S; Rancoita, P G; Tacconi, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Impact of Genetic Factors on the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation Janet E. Baulch University of California, Davis Why This Project? There is concern about the possible genetic effects of low dose radiation exposure. As a result, much effort has gone towards understanding mutation of cells due to radiation exposure. While recognition of the potential for mutation from exposure to ionizing radiation has led to extensive research, less effort has been given to the possible delayed risk of radiation exposure transmitted to the offspring of the exposed parent. Data from animal models show that parental exposures to DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation, predispose the offspring to serious health effects, including cancer offspring. Additionally, data from both humans and animal

247

EGFR Nuclear Translocation Modulates DNA Repair following Cisplatin and Ionizing Radiation Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...results suggest that nuclear expression of EGFR plays...the mechanisms by which nuclear expression modulates...C2259/A9994). The costs of publication of this...DNA-PK kinase assay. The graph shows the percentage...radiation-induced EGFR nuclear import by C225 (cetuximab...

Gianmaria Liccardi; John A. Hartley; and Daniel Hochhauser

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Radiation Exposures Associated with Shipments of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Experience has shown that the analyses of marine transport of spent fuel in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) were conservative. It is anticipated that for most shipments. The external dose rate for the loaded transportation cask will be more in line with recent shipments. At the radiation levels associated with these shipments, we would not expect any personnel to exceed radiation exposure limits for the public. Package dose rates usually well below the regulatory limits and personnel work practices following ALARA principles are keeping human exposures to minimal levels. However, the potential for Mure shipments with external dose rates closer to the exclusive-use regulatory limit suggests that DOE should continue to provide a means to assure that individual crew members do not receive doses in excess of the public dose limits. As a minimum, the program will monitor cask dose rates and continue to implement administrative procedures that will maintain records of the dose rates associated with each shipment, the vessel used, and the crew list for the vessel. DOE will continue to include a clause in the contract for shipment of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel requiring that the Mitigation Action Plan be followed.

MASSEY,CHARLES D.; MESSICK,C.E.; MUSTIN,T.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Assessment of retrospective dose estimation, with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), of six victims previously exposed to accidental ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the use of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay for retrospective dose estimation of acute accidental exposure to radiation in the past. Reciprocal translocation analysis by FISH with three whole-chromosome probes was performed on normal peripheral blood samples. Samples were irradiated with 0–5 Gy 60Co ?-rays in vitro, and dose–effect curves were established. FISH-based translocation analyses for six accident victims were then performed, and biological doses were estimated retrospectively by comparison with the dose–effect curves. Reconstructed doses by FISH were compared with estimated doses obtained by analysis of di-centrics performed soon after exposure, or with dose estimates from tooth-enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data obtained at the same time as the FISH analysis. Follow-up FISH analyses for an adolescent victim were performed. Results showed that dose–effect curves established in the present study follow a linear-quadratic model, regardless of the background translocation frequency. Estimated doses according to two dose–effect curves for all six victims were similar. FISH dose estimations of three adult victims exposed to accidental radiation less than a decade prior to analysis (3, 6, or 7 years ago) were consistent with those estimated with tooth-enamel EPR measurements or analyses of di-centrics. Estimated doses of two other adult victims exposed to radiation over a decade prior to analysis (16 or 33 years ago) were underestimated and two to three times lower than the values obtained from analysis of di-centrics or tooth-enamel EPR. Follow-up analyses of the adolescent victim showed that doses estimated by FISH analysis decrease rapidly over time. Therefore, the accuracy of dose estimates by FISH is acceptable only when analysis is performed less than 7 years after exposure. Measurements carried out more than a decade after exposure through FISH analysis resulted in underestimation of the biological doses compared with values obtained through analysis of di-centrics and tooth-enamel EPR.

Qing-Jie Liu; Xue Lu; Xiao-Tao Zhao; Jiang-Bin Feng; Yu-Min Lü; En-Hai Jiang; Shu-Lan Zhang; De-Qing Chen; Ting-Zhen Jia; Li Liang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

A molecular dynamics simulation of DNA damage induction by ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a multi-scale simulation of early stage of DNA damages by the indirect action of hydroxyl ($^\\bullet$OH) free radicals generated by electrons and protons. The computational method comprises of interfacing the Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo with the ReaxFF molecular dynamics software. A clustering method was employed to map the coordinates of $^\\bullet$OH-radicals extracted from the ionization track-structures onto nano-meter simulation voxels filled with DNA and water molecules. The molecular dynamics simulation provides the time evolution and chemical reactions in individual simulation voxels as well as the energy-landscape accounted for the DNA-$^\\bullet$OH chemical reaction that is essential for the first principle enumeration of hydrogen abstractions, chemical bond breaks, and DNA-lesions induced by collection of ions in clusters less than the critical dimension which is approximately 2-3 \\AA. We show that the formation of broken bonds leads to DNA base and backbone damages that collectively propagate ...

Abolfath, Ramin M; Chen, Zhe J; Nath, Ravinder

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

252

Safety Around Sources of Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Keeping Exposure Low Keeping Exposure Low Working Safely Around Radioactive Contamination Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Is it safe to be around sources? Too much radiation exposure is harmful. The degree of radiation injury depends on the amount of radiation received and the time involved. In general, the higher the amount, the greater the severity of early effects (occurring within a few weeks) and the greater the possibility of late effects such as cancer. The BEIR V (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation) Committee of the National Research Council estimates that among 100,000 people exposed to a one-time dose of 10 rem (10,000 mrem) and followed over their life span, about 790 more would die of cancer than the estimated 20,000 cancer deaths that would be expected among a non-exposed group of the same size. NOTE: 10 rem = 100 millisieverts (100 mSv).

253

Adaptive Response Against Spontaneous Neoplastic Transformation In Vitro Induced by Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to establish a dose response curve for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells in vitro under experimental conditions were an adaptive response, if it were induced, would have an opportunity to be expressed. During the first two years of the grant an exhaustive series of experiments were performed and the resulting data were reported at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society and then Subsequently published. The data showed that an adaptive response against spontaneous neoplastic transformation was seen up to doses of 10cGy of Cs-137 gamma rays. At dose of 30, 50 and 100 cGy the transformation frequencies were above background. This indicated that for this system, under the specific experimental conditions used, there was a threshold of somewhere between 10 and 30 cGy. The results also indicated some unexpected, though very interesting, correlations with relative risk estimates made from human epidemiologic studies.

J. Leslie Redpath, Ph.D.

2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

254

Radiation effects on humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

255

Mitigation Effect of an FGF-2 Peptide on Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome After High-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Acute gastrointestinal syndrome (AGS) resulting from ionizing radiation causes death within 7 days. Currently, no satisfactory agent exists for mitigation of AGS. A peptide derived from the receptor binding domain of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-P) was synthesized and its mitigation effect on AGS was examined. Methods and Materials: A subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI) model was created to induce gastrointestinal (GI) death while avoiding bone marrow death. After 10.5 to 16 Gy sub-TBI, mice received an intramuscular injection of FGF-P (10 mg/kg/day) or saline (0.2 ml/day) for 5 days; survival (frequency and duration) was measured. Crypt cells and their proliferation were assessed by hematoxylin, eosin, and BrdU staining. In addition, GI hemoccult score, stool formation, and plasma levels of endotoxin, insulin, amylase, interleukin (IL)-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were evaluated. Results: Treatment with FGF-P rescued a significant fraction of four strains of mice (33-50%) exposed to a lethal dose of sub-TBI. Use of FGF-P improved crypt survival and repopulation and partially preserved or restored GI function. Furthermore, whereas sub-TBI increased plasma endotoxin levels and several pro-inflammation cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha), FGF-P reduced these adverse responses. Conclusions: The study data support pursuing FGF-P as a mitigator for AGS.

Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Sun Weimin; Wang Jianjun [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Zhang Mei; Yang Shanmin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Tian Yeping [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Vidyasagar, Sadasivan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Pena, Louis A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY (United States); Zhang Kunzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Cao Yongbing [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Yin Liangjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Wang Wei [Department of Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Schaefer, Katherine L.; Saubermann, Lawrence J. [Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Swarts, Steven G.; Fenton, Bruce M.; Keng, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul, E-mail: Paul_Okunieff@URMC.Rochester.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Analysis of radiation exposure for naval units of Operation CROSSROADS. Volume 1. Basic report. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

External radiation doses are reconstructed for crews of support and target ships of Joint Task Force One at Operation CROSSROADS, 1946. Volume I describes the reconstruction methodology, which consists of modeling the radiation environment, to include the radioactivity of lagoon water, target ships, and support ship contamination; retracing ship paths through this environment; and calculating the doses to shipboard personnel. The USS RECLAIMER, a support ship, is selected as a representative ship to demonstrate this methodology. Doses for all other ships are summarized. Volume II (Appendix A) details the results for target ship personnel. Volume III (Appendix B) details the results for support ship personnel. Calculated doses for more than 36,000 personnel aboard support ships while at Bikini range from zero to 1.7 rem. Of those approximately 34,000 are less than 0.5 rem. From the models provided, doses due to target ship reboarding and doses accrued after departure from Bikini can be calculated, based on the individual circumstances of exposure.

Weitz, R.; Thomas, C.; Klemm, J.; Stuart, J.; Knowles, M.

1982-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

257

X-ray radiation effects in multilayer epitaxial graphene Jeremy Hicks1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 X-ray radiation effects in multilayer epitaxial graphene Jeremy Hicks1 , Rajan Arora2 , Eleazar and after exposure to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 12 Mrad(SiO2) using a 10 keV X-ray source. While we are mostly unaffected by radiation exposure. Combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data

258

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary glandas a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland as a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer Antoine M. Snijders 1 , Francesco Marchetti 1 , Ju Han 1 , Sandhya Bhatnagar 1 , Nadire Duru 1 , Zhi Hu 1 , Jian-Hua Mao 1 , Mina Bissell 1 , Joe Gray 1,2 , Gary H. Karpen 1 , Priscilla K. Cooper 1 and Andrew J. Wyrobek 1 1 Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 2 Current affiliation: Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health Science Univ, Portland, OR Goal: Our goal is to develop an in vivo mechanistic model of genetic variation in the low-dose damage responses of mammary glands using inbred mice known to vary in their sensitivity to low-dose induced mammary gland cancer, and to develop molecular predictors for susceptibility or resistance to low-dose induced breast cancer.

259

Assessment of radiation exposure for materials in the LANSCE Spallation Irradiation Facility  

SciTech Connect

Materials samples were irradiated in the Los Alamos Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to provide data for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project on the changes in mechanical and physical properties of materials in a spallation target environment. The targets were configured to expose samples to a variety of radiation environments including high-energy protons, mixed protons and neutrons, and predominantly neutrons. The irradiation was driven by an 800 MeV 1 mA proton beam with a circular Gaussian shape of approximately 2{sigma} = 3.5 cm. Two irradiation campaigns were conducted in which samples were exposed for approximately six months and two months, respectively. At the end of this period, the samples were extracted and tested. Activation foils that had been placed in proximity to the materials samples were used to quantify the fluences in various locations. The STAYSL2 code was used to estimate the fluences by combining the activation foil data with calculated data from the LAHET Code System (LCS) and MCNPX. The exposure for each sample was determined from the estimated fluences using interpolation based on a mathematical fitting to the fluence results. The final results included displacement damage (dpa) and gas (H, He) production for each sample from the irradiation. Based on the activation foil analysis, samples from several locations in both irradiation campaigns were characterized. The radiation damage to each sample was highly dependent upon location and varied from 0.023 to 13 dpa and was accompanied by high levels of H and He production.

James, M. R. (Michael R.); Maloy, S. A. (Stuart A.); Sommer, W. F. (Walter F.), Jr.; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Dry, D. E. (Donald E.); Ferguson, P. D. (Phillip D.); Corzine, R. K. (R. Karen); Mueller, G. E. (Gary E.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Its Repair in Human Cells  

SciTech Connect

DNA damage in mammalian chromatin in vitro and in cultured mammalian cells including human cells was studied. In the first phase of these studies, a cell culture laboratory was established. Necessary equipment including an incubator, a sterile laminar flow hood and several centrifuges was purchased. We have successfully grown several cell lines such as murine hybridoma cells, V79 cells and human K562 leukemia cells. This was followed by the establishment of a methodology for the isolation of chromatin from cells. This was a very important step, because a routine and successful isolation of chromatin was a prerequisite for the success of the further studies in this project, the aim of which was the measurement of DNA darnage in mammalian chromatin in vitro and in cultured cells. Chromatin isolation was accomplished using a slightly modified procedure of the one described by Mee & Adelstein (1981). For identification and quantitation of DNA damage in cells, analysis of chromatin was preferred over the analysis of "naked DNA" for the following reasons: i. DNA may not be extracted efficiently from nucleoprotein in exposed cells, due to formation of DNA-protein cross-links, ii. the extractability of DNA is well known to decrease with increasing doses of radiation, iii. portions of DNA may not be extracted due to fragmentation, iv. unextracted DNA may contain a significant portion of damaged DNA bases and DNA-protein cross-links. The technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which was used in the present project, permits the identification and quantitation of modified DNA bases in chromatin in the presence of proteins without the necessity of first isolating DNA from chromatin. This has been demonstrated previously by the results from our laboratory and by the results obtained during the course of the present project. The quality of isolated chromatin was tested by measurement of its content of DNA, proteins, and RNA, by analysis of its protein components using gel electrophoresis, and by absorption spectral analysis. GeneraUy, the RNA content was <5% of the amount of DNA, and the ratio of the amount of protein to that of DNA was =1. 8-2 (w/w). Having developed a suitable methodology for routine isolation of chromatin from mammalian cells, studies of DNA damage in chromatin in vitro and in cultured human cells were pursued.

Dizdaroglu, Miral

1999-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

How radiation exposure affects immunogenetical risk of stomach cancer among atomic-bomb survivors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Targeted alpha-Particle Radiation Therapy Kwamena E. Baidoo...comparison of the structure of radiation oncology in the United States and Japan.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol...FAQs/Fast-Facts-About-Radiation-Therapy/Index.aspx...

Tomonori Hayashi; Kazue Imai; Yoichiro Kusunoki; Kei Nakachi; and Eiichi Tahara

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Radiation exposure for 'caregivers' during high-dose outpatient radioiodine therapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......designed to evaluate radiation safety issues and predict...to comply with radiation safety instructions...list of radiation safety instructions...record cumulative radiation dose for each...using EasyEPD2 software (version 1......

Christopher J. Marriott; Colin E. Webber; Karen Y. Gulenchyn

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Assessment of the occupational radiation exposure doses to workers at INMOL Pakistan (2007–11)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......measures and safety of workers during...been sent to the Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory...fabricated computer software . The calibration...PNRA and IAEA radiation protection and safety guidelines...radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. (1994......

Khalid Masood; Junaid Zafar; Tasneem Zafar; Haroon Zafar

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Study of anticipated impact on DOE programs from proposed reductions to the external occupational radiation exposure limit  

SciTech Connect

A study of the impact of reducing the occupational radiation exposure limit from 5 rem/yr to 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 rem/yr, respectively produced the following conclusions: reduction of the occupational exposure limit would result in significant increase in total accumulated exposure to the current radiation worker population and could require an increase in the work force; important programs would have to be abandoned at a planned exposure limit of 0.5 rem/yr; some engineering technology is not sufficiently developed to design or operate at the 0.5 rem/yr limit; even a factor of 2 reduction (2.5 rem/yr) would significantly increase costs and would result in an increase in total exposure to the work force; in addition to a significant one-time initial capital cost resulting from a 0.5 rem/yr limit, there would be a significant increase in annual costs; the major emphasis in controlling occupational exposure should be on further reduction of total man-rem; and current standards are used only as a limit. For example, 97% of the employees receive less than 0.5 rem/yr.

None

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coordinately induced by UV radiation and alkylating agents...rapidly after X rays at doses as low as 2 Gy. After...isolation & purification radiation effects DNA Damage Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation Genes radiation effects...

M A Papathanasiou; N C Kerr; J H Robbins; O W McBride; I Alamo Jr; S F Barrett; I D Hickson; A J Fornace Jr

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DOE / NASA Joint Funded Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE/NASA Joint Funded Projects DOE/NASA Joint Funded Projects NASA Source Photo Space explorers are subject to exposure to low dose ionizing radiation. Research that helps determine health risks from this exposure is funded by NASA and DOE. Source: NASA DOE's Low Dose Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) jointly fund new research to develop a better scientific basis for understanding risks to humans from exposures to low doses or low fluences of ionizing radiation. Research must focus on elucidating molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in normal radiobiological responses to low dose exposure, and must have the potential to ultimately increase understanding of health outcomes from radiation exposures that are at or near current workplace exposure

267

Total ionizing dose effect of ?-ray radiation on the switching characteristics and filament stability of HfOx resistive random access memory  

SciTech Connect

The total ionizing dose (TID) effect of gamma-ray (?-ray) irradiation on HfOx based resistive random access memory was investigated by electrical and material characterizations. The memory states can sustain TID level ?5.2 Mrad (HfO{sub 2}) without significant change in the functionality or the switching characteristics under pulse cycling. However, the stability of the filament is weakened after irradiation as memory states are more vulnerable to flipping under the electrical stress. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to ascertain the physical mechanism of the stability degradation, which is attributed to the Hf-O bond breaking by the high-energy ?-ray exposure.

Fang, Runchen; Yu, Shimeng, E-mail: shimengy@asu.edu [School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States); School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Gonzalez Velo, Yago; Chen, Wenhao; Holbert, Keith E.; Kozicki, Michael N.; Barnaby, Hugh [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

268

Relationship between Radiation Exposure and Risk of Second Primary Cancers among Atomic Bomb Survivors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Welford, Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve...case.edu 1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve...Ohio. 2 Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. 3 School of Applied Sciences...

Christopher I. Li; Nobuo Nishi; Jean A. McDougall; Erin O. Semmens; Hiromi Sugiyama; Midori Soda; Ritsu Sakata; Mikiko Hayashi; Fumiyoshi Kasagi; Akihiko Suyama; Kiyohiko Mabuchi; Scott Davis; Kazunori Kodama; and Kenneth J. Kopecky

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Occupational exposure from external radiation used in medical practices in Pakistan by film badge dosimetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......R. J. Manual on Radiation Dosimetry (1970...An Introduction of Radiation Protection (1986...Agency (IAEA). Safety series calibration of radiation protection instruments...Orfi S. D. Software RaDLab Ver. 1......

A. Jabeen; M. Munir; A. Khalil; M. Masood; P. Akhter

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Comparison of codes assessing galactic cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the galactic cosmic radiation. Results are provided...fully satisfactory for radiation protection purposes...Protection and Nuclear Safety, F-92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses...Computer Simulation Cosmic Radiation Europe Humans Occupational...instrumentation methods Software Solar Activity...

J. F. Bottollier-Depois; P. Beck; B. Bennett; L. Bennett; R. Bütikofer; I. Clairand; L. Desorgher; C. Dyer; E. Felsberger; E. Flückiger; A. Hands; P. Kindl; M. Latocha; B. Lewis; G. Leuthold; T. Maczka; V. Mares; M. J. McCall; K. O'Brien; S. Rollet; W. Rühm; F. Wissmann

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Biological effects in unirradiated human tissue induced by radiation damage up to 1 mm away  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in extrapolating radiation risk estimates from epidemi- ologically accessible doses down to very low doses where) and for assessing the risk from a low-dose exposure to a carcinogen such as ionizing radiation, where only a smallBiological effects in unirradiated human tissue induced by radiation damage up to 1 mm away Oleg V

272

Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case–control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external ?-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m?3 and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m?3. These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the ?-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case–control study for childhood leukaemia.

N.D. Priest; D. Hoel; B. Uralbekov; D.O. Baizakova; M. Burkitbayev

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Estimation of radiation dose and risk to children undergoing cardiac catheterization for the treatment of a congenital heart disease using Monte Carlo simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many mathematical models have been developed for estimating the cancer risk resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. One such set of models has been...10...]. The BEIR VII committee has derived risk models ...

Emmanuel Yakoumakis; Helen Kostopoulou; Triantafilia Makri…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Estimation of the contribution of photon radiation for measurement of the exposure dose rate of neutron sources based on 252Cf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for the estimation of the contribution of photon radiation to the detector readings for measurement of the exposure dose rate and the equivalent activity of neutron ... screens and filters is considered....

N. F. Demchenko; R. N. Minvaliev; V. I. Shipilov…

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Radiation exposure to the population of Europe following the Chernobyl accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......based on the analysis and compilation...availability and reliability of the radiation...destroyed nuclear reactor, including...availability and reliability of radiation...based on the analysis and compilation...based on the analysis and compilation...availability and reliability of the radiation......

V. Drozdovitch; A. Bouville; N. Chobanova; V. Filistovic; T. Ilus; M. Kovacic; I. Malátová; M. Moser; T. Nedveckaite; H. Völkle; E. Cardis

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Collective Doses and Radiation Risks Due to Medical Diagnostic Exposures in Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Due to Medical Diagnostic Exposures in Ukraine L. Kalmykov N. Pilipenko V. Korneeva...Ukrainian population and separate regions of Ukraine due to radiodiagnosis have been calculated...exposure due to X ray examinations in Ukraine have decreased about twice during the......

L. Kalmykov; N. Pilipenko; V. Korneeva

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Yearly Chnages of Radiation Exposure Doses Received by Workers in Radiological Occupations at Kyushu University Hospital  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......by Workers in Radiological Occupations at Kyushu University Hospital Hideo Irie * Chikara Takei * Shigeki Momii * Takehiko Higuchi...by workers in radiological occupations at Kyushu University Hospital from September 1962 to March 1966 were reported. The exposure......

Hideo Irie; Chikara Takei; Shigeki Momii; Takehiko Higuchi; Sigeaki Okamura; Kouji Masuda

1967-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute radiation exposure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chloride 100-44-7) and benzoyl chloride 98-88-4 (combined exposures) IARC-2A Acrolein Acutely... toxins, biotoxins and acutely toxic substances is not exhaustive Chemical...

279

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Online Literature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Online Literature Online Literature Journals, Books and other Publications Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety Radioactive Waste and Radioecology "Insight" Magazine Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) News: Aiming at an information center on low dose radiation research Health Physics International Journal of Radiation Biology Iranian Journal of Radiation Research Journal of Radiological Protection National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Radiation Research U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge Reports Animal Cancer Tests and Human Cancer Risk Assessment: A Broad Perspective Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Atomic Bomb Survivors and Their Children (1945-1995) Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR

280

Evaluation and Control of Radiation Dose to the Embryo/Fetus Guide for Use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Guide provides an acceptable methodology for establishing and operating a program to control fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and evaluate the resultant dose that will comply with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements specified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (DOE 1998), hereinafter referred to as 10 CFR 835.

1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Microbial Community in the Soil Determines the Forest Recovery Post-Exposure to Gamma Irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High concentrations of radioactive isotopes can find their way into the environment mainly during the storage of high-level radioactive wastes,(1) including spent nuclear reactor fuels generated by nuclear power plants, wastes generated during reprocessing of these fuels, and wastes generated during development of nuclear weapons. ... (5-9) The question of whether microbial populations exposed to ionizing radiation recover in natural environments remains unanswered. ... In the areas where ionizing radiation exposure is likely, such as nuclear reactors or high-level radioactive waste storage sites, it would be valuable to study and archive the radiation sensitive microbial organisms that are essential for proper ecosystem function. ...

Vishal Shah; Shreya Shah; Herman Mackey; Murty Kambhampati; Daniel Collins; Scot E. Dowd; Robert Colichio; Kevin T. McDonnell; Timothy Green

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

282

Radiation exposure in X-ray-based imaging techniques used in osteoporosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation dose compared with the X- ray examinations commonly used in routine clinical practice for the estimationradiation dose data and appropriate risk coef?cients provided by scienti?c committees. Risk estimation

Damilakis, John; Adams, Judith E.; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Link, Thomas M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Analysis of radiation exposure, Task Force RAZOR. Exercise Desert Rock VI, Operation Teapot. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The radiation dose to Task Force RAZOR personnel participating in Shot Apple II of Operation Teapot, Exercise Desert Rock VI, is reconstructed. Task force personnel were exposed to initial radiation while in their vehicles or in trenches at the time of Apple II detonation. They were also exposed to residual radiation during their subsequent manuever and during an inspection of the equipment display area. The calculated total gamma doses to fully-participating Task Force RAZOR personnel range from about 0.8 rem to 1.8 rem. The highest dose was received by personnel of the armored infantry platoon on right flank nearest ground zero. Internal radiation dose commitments to maximally exposed personnel inside vehicles are estimated to be about 0.4 rem to the thyroid, 0.003 rem to the whole body, and 0.002 rem to the bone.

Edwards, R.; Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.

1983-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

A Personal Experience Reducing Radiation Exposures: Protecting Family in Kiev during the First Two Weeks after Chernobyl  

SciTech Connect

The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident occurred in 1986. The plume from the explosions and fires was highly radioactive and resulted in very high exposure levels in the surrounding regions. This paper describes how the people in Kiev, Ukraine, a city 90 miles (120 km) south of Chernobyl, and in particular one individual in that city, Professor Vitaly Eremenko, became aware of the threat before the official announcement and the steps he took to mitigate potential impacts to his immediate family. The combination of being informed and using available resources led to greatly reduced consequences for his family and, in particular, his newborn granddaughter. He notes how quickly word of some aspects of the hazard spread in the city and how other aspects appear to not have been understood. Although these events are being recalled as the 20th anniversary of the terrible event approaches, the lessons are still pertinent today. Threats of possible terrorist use of radiation dispersal devices makes knowledge of effective individual actions for self-protection from radiation exposures a topic of current interest.

Eremenko, Vitaly A.; Droppo, James G.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspring behavior in mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......In the developing nervous system, the brain tissue is more conductive than that of...neuronal functions and synaptic plasticity in brain slice preparations of rats exposed either...et al. Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile......

Yanchun Zhang; Zhihui Li; Yan Gao; Chenggang Zhang

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Mutation Research 504 (2002) 91100 Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mutation Research 504 (2002) 91­100 Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Bystander effects; Genomic instability; Ionizing radiation 1. Introduction Exposure

287

Radiation effects on polypropylene/polybutylene blends  

SciTech Connect

Polymer blends of polypropylene and polybutylene have been found to exhibit substantial maintenance of structural integrity after exposure to ionizing radiation. This radiation resistance has been found to be related to processing conditions and the resulting morphology of the blend. This article discusses (a) the processing conditions and the resulting mechanical properties after irradiation and (b) the role of morphology in this unexpected blend property.

Rolando, R.J. (3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Polyamide woven fabrics with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride or nitro blue tetrazolium chloride as 2D ionizing radiation dosimeters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of flat woven fabric-based ionizing radiation 2D dosimeters is reported in this work. Polyamide fabric was surface modified with radiation-sensitive 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) or nitro blue tetrazolium chloride (NBT). These samples responded to gamma radiation of 60Co through a colour change: red and blue for TTC and NBT, respectively. The tinge intensity was observed to depend on the absorbed dose, which allowed for the reflectance of light (R) measurements and calculation of the calibration parameters: dose range, quasi-linear range, threshold dose and sensitivity. Oxygen was shown to be an important factor determining the dose response of the samples. For this reason, a range of additional modifications to the TTC- and NBT-polyamide fabric was proposed which lead to a decrease in the threshold dose and increase in the sensitivity to irradiation of the samples. For instance, a dosimeter made of polyamide fabric modified with 10 g/dm3 TTC, 0.5 mol/dm3 tert-butyl alcohol, 7.5% gelatine hydrogel at pH 10 (vacuum packed) showed the lowest dose threshold (50 Gy), dose range up to 2.8 kGy and the highest sensitivity to irradiation (?0.0396%/Gy) among the compositions studied. In consequence, this dosimeter was examined in terms of response to inhomogeneous irradiation from a 192Ir brachytherapy radiation source. The relative dose distribution profiles across the source's longitudinal axis were calculated. This showed potential of the textile dosimeters for 2D dose distribution measurements; however, further modifications towards improvement of the dosimeter's low dose response can be considered.

M. Kozicki; E. S?siadek

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Assessment of radiation exposure in the uranium mining and milling area of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals from tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine waste dump. The actual external exposure is around 1.2 mSv a?1 at both locations and exposure from radon is around 3 mSv a?1 at Mailuu Suu and around 10 mSv a?1 at Kara Agach. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (?10–30 mSv a?1). In case of an accidental scenario [(part of) Tailing 3 content thrust to river], estimated additional maximum doses result in 45 and 77 mSv for an adult and a child, respectively.

H. Vandenhove; L. Sweeck; D. Mallants; H. Vanmarcke; A. Aitkulov; O. Sadyrov; M. Savosin; B. Tolongutov; M. Mirzachev; J.J. Clerc; H. Quarch; A. Aitaliev

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Occupational exposure to ionising radiation with thermoluminescence dosimetry system in Turkey, in 2003  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......communication between reader and software via an RS-232C port...main functions of this software are data and glow-curve...included in the new software. Monitored and exposed...monitoring period. Radiation workers who may be exposed...60(3) and in the Safety Series No. 115(7......

C. T. Zeyrek; H. Gündüz

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project The short-term effects of high doses of ionizing radiation on cellular responses are relatively well understood. Less clear are the long-term consequences of exposure to low dose/low dose-rate radiation and the effects of radiation exposure on the progeny of surviving cells. If a cell survives radiation, it is generally thought to have repaired all the radiation-induced insults and be capable of a "normal healthy life". At a certain frequency, however, we have found that some cells surviving radiation grow normally, but will rearrange their genetic material during time in culture. We call this radiation-induced genomic instability. Many

292

[Ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair in human cells]. Progress report, [April 1, 1993--February 28, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The excision of radiation-induced lesions in DNA by a DNA repair enzyme complex, namely the UvrABC nuclease complex, has been investigated. Irradiated DNA was treated with the enzyme complex. DNA fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography/isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. The results showed that a number pyrimidine- and purine-derived lesions in DNA were excised by the UvrABC nuclease complex and that the enzyme complex does not act on radiation-induced DNA lesions as a glycosylase. This means that it does not excise individual base products, but it excises oligomers containing these lesions. A number of pyrimidine-derived lesions that were no substrates for other DNA repair enzymes investigated in our laboratory were substrates for the UvrABC nuclease complex.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

PM2 DNA, Forms I and I: a quantitative comparison of strand breakage induced by ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Advisory Committee: Dr R. D. Neff A quantitative comparison of strand breakage production rates, induced by 250 kvP X-rays, was examined for PM2 DNA, Form I and Form I . Assay of the irrad. iated DNA samples was 0 accomplished by tube gel... AND METHODS DNA Preparation Radiation Protocol Azarose 1 Buffer ~garose Gels Tube Gel Electrophoresis Spectrofluorometry with Electronic Quantif'ication RESULTS DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 2 VITA ~Pa e ~ 22 22 24...

Myers, Peter Hall

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effects on chickens of continuous exposure to low level electromagnetic, electric, and magnetic fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major Subjects Nuclear Engineering (Health Physics) EFFECTS ON CHI CKENS OF CONT INUOUS EXPOSURE TO LOW LEVEL ELECTRONAGNETIC, ELECTRIC, AND MAGNETIC 1 IELDS A Thesis by ROBERT SHERWOOD HOWELL Approved... exposure to ionizing radiation. The treated groups appear to have a significantly reduced growth rate and a slightly increased feed conversion ratio. The spleen weight in the 260 MHz {calculated average input power density of 0. 029 mW/cm ) group...

Howell, Robert Sherwood

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Analysis of radiation exposure for naval units of Operation Crossroads. Volume 2. (Appendix A) target ships. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

External radiation doses are reconstructed for crews of support and target ships of Joint Task Force One at Operation CROSSROADS, 1946. Volume I describes the reconstruction methodology, which consists of modeling the radiation environment, to include the radioactivity of lagoon water, target ships, and support ship contamination; retracing ship paths through this environment; and calculating the doses to shipboard personnel. The USS RECLAIMER, a support ship, is selected as a representative ship to demonstrate this methodology. Doses for all other ships are summarized. Volume II (Appendix A) details the results for target ship personnel. Volume III (Appendix B) details the results for support ship personnel. Calculated doses for more than 36,000 personnel aboard support ships while at Bikini range from zero to 1.7 rem. Of those, approximately 34,000 are less than 0.5 rem. From the models provided, doses due to target ship reboarding and doses accrued after departure from Bikini can be calculated, based on the individual circumstances of exposure.

Weitz, R.; Thomas, C.; Klemm, J.; Stuart, J.; Knowles, M.

1982-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

296

Analysis of radiation exposure for naval units of Operation Crossroads. Volume 3. (Appendix B) support ships. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

External radiation doses are reconstructed for crews of support and target ships of Joint Task Force One at Operation CROSSROADS, 1946. Volume I describes the reconstruction methodology, which consists of modeling the radiation environment, to include the radioactivity of lagoon water, target ships, and support ship contamination; retracing ship paths through this environment; and calculating the doses to shipboard personnel. The USS RECLAIMER, a support ship, is selected as a representative ship to demonstrate this methodology. Doses for all other ships are summarized. Volume II (Appendix A) details the results for target ship personnel. Volume III (Appendix B) details the results for support ship personnel. Calculated doses for more than 36,000 personnel aboard support ships while at Bikini range from zero to 1.7 rem. Of those approximately 34,000 are less than 0.5 rem. From the models provided, doses due to target ship reboarding and doses accrued after departure from Bikini can be calculated, based on the individual circumstances of exposure.

Weitz, R.; Thomas, C.; Klemm, J.; Stuart, J.; Knowles, M.

1982-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

297

Radiation exposure during liver surgery after treatment with 90Y microspheres, evaluated with computer simulations and dosimeter measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose. Two patients with liver tumours were planned for a combined treatment, including surgery with preceding injections of ?? radiation emitting 90Y microspheres (SIRTEX®). The aim of this paper is to present a method of pre-surgical computer simulations of the absorbed dose rate on the surface of tumour tissue, combined with measurements of the actual absorbed dose rate on resected tissue, in order to estimate the absorbed dose to a surgeon's fingers during such surgery procedures. Methods and Materials. The dose rates from ?? radiation on the surface of tumour tissue were simulated with the software VARSKIN® Mod 2. The activity concentrations in tumours were estimated, based on SPECT/CT distribution studies of 99mTc-MAA and confirmed by SPECT/CT bremsstrahlung studies of 90Y microspheres. The activity distributions were considered as homogeneous within the tumour regions. The absorbed dose rates at different tumour tissue spots were calculated based on measurements with thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLD) fastened on resected tissue. Results. The simulations showed a good agreement with the averaged absorbed dose rates based on TLD measurements performed on resected tissue, differing by 13% and 4% respectively. The absorbed dose rates at the measured maximum hotspots were twice as high as the average dose rates for both patients. Conclusion. The data is not sufficient in order to draw any general conclusions about dose rates on tumour tissue during similar surgeries, neither about the influence of dose rate heterogeneities nor about average dose rates. However, the agreement between simulations and measurements on these limited data indicate that this approach is a promising method for estimations of the radiation exposure to the surgeons' fingers during this kind of surgery procedure. More data from similar surgeries are necessary in order to validate the method.

Jonas Högberg; Magnus Rizell; Ragnar Hultborn; Johanna Svensson; Olof Henrikson; Peter Gjertsson; Peter Bernhardt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY RADIATION ANNUAL REPORT 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic reliability of Complex System & decision Analysis I. Papazoglou Occupational Risk Assessment I PHYSICS OF THE REACTOR I. Stamatelatos Exposure of the Population to Ionizing Radiations of the Enironment LABORATORY G. Pantelias Operation & Maintenance of Research Reactor M. Stakakis Nuclear Analytical Techniques

299

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted laser ionization Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: of a high power pulsed far-infrared laser. Furthermore, impurity ionization with terahertz radiation can... of ionization capture processes due to the Poole-Frenkel...

300

E-Print Network 3.0 - activities involving ionizing Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Physics 62 Magnetic field effect on tunnel ionization of deep impurities by terahertz radiation S.D. Ganichev1 Summary: Magnetic field effect on tunnel ionization of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Effect of neutral collision and radiative heat-loss function on self-gravitational instability of viscous thermally conducting partially-ionized plasma  

SciTech Connect

The problem of thermal instability and gravitational instability is investigated for a partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations. We use normal mode analysis method in this problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using linearized perturbation equations of the problem. Effects of collisions with neutrals, radiative heat-loss function, viscosity, thermal conductivity and magnetic field strength, on the instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the effect of various physical parameters on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. The temperature-dependent heat-loss function, thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field and neutral collision have stabilizing effect, while density-dependent heat-loss function has a destabilizing effect on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. With the help of Routh-Hurwitz's criterion, the stability of the system is discussed.

Kaothekar, Sachin [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010, Madhya Pradesh (India); Department of Physics, Mahakal Institute of Technology, Ujjain-456664, Madhya Pradesh (India); Soni, Ghanshyam D. [Government Girls Degree College, Dewas, Madhya Pradesh (India); Chhajlani, Rajendra K. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010, Madhya Pradesh (India)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Colour and lipid oxidation changes in dry-cured loins from free-range reared and intensively reared pigs as affected by ionizing radiation dose level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of irradiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured loin slices from pigs fed on concentrate (CON) or free-range reared (FRG) was studied in relation to colour changes, TBA-RS and hexanal content. Both, ionizing radiation and type of loin had a significant effect on the instrumental colour parameters of the samples. Irradiation resulted in significantly higher a*-values in both sets of loins, indicating a redder colour. Numerically calculated total colour difference (?E) changes were significantly less intense in CON vacuum-packaged dry-cured loin slices than in FRG samples and changed significantly at 10 kGy dose levels in both types of samples. TBA-RS numbers were significantly affected by irradiation dose and type of loin and increased linearly with dose in both types of slices. Increments in TBA-RS numbers in FRG loin slices was dose-dependent and was closely related to the type of dry-cured loin. Irradiation of dry-cured loin slices significantly increased hexanal contents in both groups of loins and the increases were dose-dependent and greater in FRG samples than in CON samples. Differences in the characteristics of the raw material and initial lipid oxidation level could play an important role in the irradiation-induced changes in vacuum-packaged dry-cured loin slices.

A. Carrasco; R. Tárrega; M.R. Ramírez; F.J. Mingoarranz; R. Cava

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

On The Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Arising From Star-Forming Galaxies At Redshift z ~ 3-4 : Looking For Analogs Of "Stellar Reionizers"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the spatially-resolved, multi-band photometry in the GOODS South field acquired by the CANDELS project to constrain the nature of candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters at redshift z~3.7 identified using ultra-deep imaging below the Lyman limit (1-sigma limit of ~30 AB in a 2" diameter aperture). In 18 candidates, out of a sample of 19 with flux detected at >3-sigma level, the light centroid of the candidate LyC emission is offset from that of the LBG by up to 1.5". We fit the SED of the LyC candidates to spectral population synthesis models to measure photometric redshifts and the stellar population parameters. We also discuss the differences in the UV colors between the LBG and the LyC candidates, and how to estimate the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (f_esc) in cases, like in most of our galaxies, where the LyC emission is spatially offset from the host galaxy. In all but one case we conclude that the candidate LyC emission is most likely due to lower redshift interlopers. Based on these fi...

Vanzella, Eros; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Castellano, Marco; Cristiani, Stefano; Dickinson, Mark; Fontana, Adriano; Nonino, Mario; Giallongo, Emanuele; Pentericci, Laura; Galametz, Audrey; Faber, S M; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Koekemoer, Anton M; Newman, Jeffrey; Siana, Brian D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

SHP-2 tyrosine phosphate-dependent focal adhesion kinase mediated cell migration of primary endothelial cells upon low LET radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SHP-2 tyrosine phosphate-dependent focal adhesion kinase mediated cell SHP-2 tyrosine phosphate-dependent focal adhesion kinase mediated cell migration of primary endothelial cells upon low LET radiation exposure Xiangpeng Zheng, 1 Sumathy Mohan, 3 and Mohan Natarajan 1,2 Departments of 1 Otolaryngology, 2 Radiation Oncology, and 3 Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229 The influence and mechanism of low LET radiation exposure on wound healing process is not yet fully understood. Based on the vital role of endothelial cells in migration and wound healing, this study investigated the response of endothelial cells to low-dose irradiation and the underlying mechanism. A wound was inflicted in the confluent monolayer of primary vascular endothelial cells exposing a cell-free zone on the plate. The cells were then exposed

305

Analysis of radiation exposure for naval personnel at Operation Ivy. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The radiological environments are reconstructed for eighteen ships and the residence islands of Enewetak, Kwajalein, and Bikini Atolls that received fallout following Shots MIKE and KING during Operation IVY (November 1952). Secondary (late-time) fallout from Shot MIKE was the primary contributor to the low-level radiation encountered on the majority of the ships and atolls; only the M/V HORIZON received primary (early-time) fallout from this event. Fallout from Shot KING was minimal. From the reconstructed operations and radiological environments, equivalent personnel film badge doses are calculated and compared with available dosimetry data for fourteen of the ships. Calculated doses for the majority of the ships are in good agreement with the film badge data; however, for three of the participating destroyers (DDEs), calculated doses are significantly lower than the dosimetry data indicates. Calculated mean doses for typical shipboard personnel range from a high of 0.062 rem on the HORIZON to a low of 0.001 rem on the SPENCER F. BAIRD; for island-based personnel, calculated mean doses are less than 0.06 rem.

Thomas, C.; Goetz, J.; Stuart, J.; Klemm, J.

1983-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1996: Twenty-ninth annual report. Volume 18  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1996 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. Annual reports for 1996 were received from a total of 300 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 300 licensees indicated that 138,310 individuals were monitored, 75,139 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 21,755 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 13% decrease from the 1995 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem) for 1996. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 22,348 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1996, the average measurable dose calculated from reported was 0.24 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem).

Thomas, M.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Hagemeyer, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Analysis of radiation exposure for Naval personnel at Operation Castle. Technical report, 1 January 1983-31 January 1984  

SciTech Connect

Film-badge doses are reconstructed for sixteen ships and the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls resulting from the six nuclear detonations comprising Operation CASTLE (March-May 1954). Fallout from Shots BRAVO and ROMEO was the major source of contamination on most of the ships and islands. Varying amounts of fallout from Shots UNION, YANKEE, and NECTAR contributed somewhat to the total doses of the shipboard and island-based personnel; no fallout was experienced as a result of Shot KOON. Shipboard personnel received additional exposure from hulls and salt water piping systems that had become contaminated from operating in the radioactive waters of Bikini Lagoon. From the reconstructed radiation environments, both topside and below, an equivalent film badge dose is calculated and compared to actual dosimetry data. Agreement is very good during badged periods when the ships received significant fallout. When topside intensities were not documented, generally late in the operation when intensity levels were low, agreement is not as good. Calculated ship contamination doses of significance are in excellent agreement with limited available dosimetry data. Calculated average doses for shipboard personnel range from a low of 0.19 rem for the crew of the USS LST-825 to a high of 3.56 rem for the crew of the USS PHILIP. Average doses on the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls are 1.09 rem and 0.32 rem, respectively.

Thomas, C.; Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.; Weitz, R.

1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

Estimation of risk from medical radiation exposure based on effective and organ dose: how much difference is there?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Russian Basic Sanitary Radiation Protection Standards...Basic Sanitary Rules for Radiation Safety of 2010(3). It is...CT)(4). Although radiation dose is the primary...effective dose; this software is addressed to radiologists......

V. K. Ivanov; V. V. Kashcheev; S. Yu. Chekin; A. N. Menyaylo; E. A. Pryakhin; A. F. Tsyb; F. A. Mettler

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Review of exposure limits and experimental data for corneal and lenticular damage from short pulsed UV and IR laser radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of exposure limits ANSI Z136.16 . The IEC and ANSI laser safety standards use the term "Maximum Permissible

310

7 - Estimation of Radiation Doses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Radiation doses to the Japanese population from inhalation of contaminated air, external irradiation, terrestrial and marine food contamination are estimated and compared with other sources of anthropogenic (global fallout, Chernobyl accident), natural (radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation) and medical applications (X-ray tests, CT-tests, etc.) of ionizing radiation. The estimated doses from inhalation, ingestion of terrestrial and marine food, and radiation exposure from radioactive clouds and deposited radionuclides were generally below the levels which could cause health damage of the Japanese population, as well as of the world population. The estimated total radiation doses to fish and shellfish in coastal waters during the largest radionuclide releases were by a factor of 10 lower than the baseline safe level postulated for the marine organisms, therefore no harmful effects are expected for the marine ecosystem as well.

Pavel P. Povinec; Katsumi Hirose; Michio Aoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Exposure of workers in Tusnica coal mine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and for the Safety of Radiation Sources(4). Chemical...addition to natural radiation, based on the natural...IAEA TECDOC-1472. Naturally Occuring Radioactive Material...protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of......

A. Vidic; Z. Ilic; D. Deljkic; F. Adrovic

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Cell Cycle Disturbances and Mitotic Catastrophes in HeLa Hep2 Cells following 2.5 to 10 Gy of Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...death (2-5). Radiation is known to exert...molecules involved in this radiation-induced cellular safety machinery is p53...different doses of radiation at the molecular and...using the CellQuest software program, setting...

David Eriksson; Per-Olov Löfroth; Lennart Johansson; Katrine Åhlström Riklund; and Torgny Stigbrand

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Measurements of photon ionizing radiation fields in the reactor room of the 4th power-generating unit of the chernobyl nuclear power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A radiation examination of the reactor room of the damaged fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was performed. The most strongly radiating surfaces...

A. G. Volkovich; V. N. Potapov; S. V. Smirnov; L. I. Urutskoev…

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

Radiological Control Managers' Council

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 564 (2006) 319323 Passive monitoring of the equilibrium factor inside a radon exposure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-lived radon progeny contributes about half of the total exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation of the determined ranges of F for a few LR 115 SSNTDs can give a very good estimate of the true equilibrium factor. It is also well known that the radon dose delivered to the lungs is not attributed to the radon gas itself

Yu, K.N.

316

Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The objective of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. The course curriculum combines...

317

Effects of an acute dose of gamma radiation exposure on stem diameter growth, carbon gain, and biomass partitioning in Helianthus annuus  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen-day-old dwarf sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus, variety NK894) received a variable dose (0-40 Gy) from a cobalt-60 gamma source. A very sensitive stem monitoring device, developed at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington was used to measure real-time changes in stem diameter. Exposure of plants caused a significant reduction in stem growth and root biomass. Doses as low as 5 Gy resulted in a significant increase in leaf density, suggesting that nonreversible morphological growth changes could be induced by very low doses of radiation. Carbohydrate analysis of 40-Gy irradiated plants demonstrated significantly more starch content in leaves and significantly less starch content in stems 18 days after exposure than did control plants. In contrast, the carbohydrate content in roots of 40-Gy irradiated plants were not significantly different from unirradiated plants 18 days after exposure. These results indicate that radiation either decreased phloem transport or reduced the availability of sugar reducing enzymes in irradiated plants. 44 refs., 12 figs.

Thiede, M.E.

1988-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

318

Theoretical study of ionization profiles of molecular clouds near supernova remnants: Tracing the hadronic origin of GeV gamma radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context: Since a few years, signatures of supernova remnants associated with molecular clouds have been detected in gamma rays. Whether these gamma rays are generated by cosmic ray electrons or by cosmic ray protons is usually not known. The detection of hadronic ionization signatures in spatial coincidence with gamma ray signatures can help to unambiguously identify supernova remnants as sources of cosmic ray protons. Methods: In order to calculate hadronic signatures from cosmic ray-induced ionization for an examination of the origin of the observed gamma rays, the transport equation for cosmic ray protons propagating in a molecular cloud, including the relevant momentum loss processes, is solved analytically and the proton flux at any position in the cloud is determined. Results: Since the solution of the transport equation is obtained for arbitrary source functions, it can be used for a variety of supernova remnants. The corresponding theoretical ionization rate, as a function of the penetration depth, is...

Schuppan, Florian; Tjus, Julia Becker

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Animal mortality resulting from uniform exposures to photon radiations: Calculated LD/sub 50/s and a compilation of experimental data  

SciTech Connect

Studies conducted during the 1950s and 1960s of radiation-induced mortality to diverse animal species under various exposure protocols were compiled into a mortality data base. Some 24 variables were extracted and recomputed from each of the published studies, which were collected from a variety of available sources, primarily journal articles. Two features of this compilation effort are (1) an attempt to give an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment so that interspecies differences due to body size were minimized and (2) a recomputation of the LD/sub 50/ where sufficient experimental data are available. Exposure rates varied in magnitude from about 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup 3/ R/min. This report describes the data base, the sources of data, and the data-handling techniques; presents a bibliography of studies compiled; and tabulates data from each study. 103 refs., 44 tabs.

Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Wells, S.M.; Young, R.W.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Analysis of radiation exposure, Third Marine Corps Provisional Atomic Exercise Brigade. Exercise Desert Rock VI, Operation Teapot. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The radiation dose is reconstructed for 3d MCPAEB personnel participating in exercises involving helicopter-lifted assaults in conjunction with Shot Bee of Operation Teapot, Exercise Desert Rock VI. Brigade personnel were exposed to initial radiation while in trenches at the time of the Shot Bee detonation. They were also exposed to residual radiation from an earlier test shot (Shot Turk) during their subsequent maneuvers and to residual radiation from Shot Bee during an inspection of equipment displays. The calculated total gamma doses to the bulk of the participating troops range from about 0.57-0.85 rem.

Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.; Ortlieb, E.

1984-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Rapid assessment of high-dose radiation exposures through scoring of cell-fusion-induced premature chromosome condensation and ring chromosomes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Analysis of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) mediated by fusion of G0-lymphocytes with mitotic CHO cells in combination with rapid visualization and quantification of rings (PCC-Rf) is proposed as an alternative technique for dose assessment of radiation-exposed individuals. Isolated lymphocytes or whole blood from six individuals were ?-irradiated with 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gy at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min. Following either 8- or 24-h post-exposure incubation of irradiated samples at 37 °C, chromosome spreads were prepared by standard PCC cytogenetic procedures. The protocol for PCC fusion proved to be effective at doses as high as 20 Gy, enabling the analysis of ring chromosomes and excess PCC fragments. The ring frequencies remained constant during the 8–24-h repair time; the pooled dose relationship between ring frequency (Y) and dose (D) was linear: Y = (0.088 ± 0.005) × D. During the repair time, excess fragments decreased from 0.91 to 0.59 chromatid pieces per Gy, revealing the importance of information about the exact time of exposure for dose assessment on the basis of fragments. Compared with other cytogenetic assays to estimate radiation dose, the PCC-Rf method has the following benefits: a 48-h culture time is not required, allowing a much faster assessment of dose in comparison with conventional scoring of dicentrics and rings in assays for chemically-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC-Rch), and it allows the analysis of heavily irradiated lymphocytes that are delayed or never reach mitosis, thus avoiding the problem of saturation at high doses. In conclusion, the use of the PCC fusion assay in conjunction with scoring of rings in G0-lymphocytes offers a suitable alternative for fast dose estimation following accidental exposure to high radiation doses.

A.I. Lamadrid Boada; I. Romero Aguilera; G.I. Terzoudi; J.E. González Mesa; G. Pantelias; O. García

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Inference of Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a 2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose Kai Zhang, Ju Han, Torsten Groesser, Priscilla Cooper, and Bahram Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Goal: To elucidate temporal-dependent gene templates, causal networks, and underlying biological processes that can be inferred in response to a 10 cGy priming dose with or without a later higher challenged dose. Background and significance: Mechanistic inference of regulatory network can provide new insights into radiation systems biology. The main challenge continues to be high dimensionality of data, complex network architecture and limited knowledge of biological processes.

323

Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters  

SciTech Connect

Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

Konzek, G.J.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATION OF RISK COEFFICIENTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO LOW-LEVEL RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATIONRADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATION

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Current Funded Project Descriptions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Funded Project Descriptions Funded Project Descriptions Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Jointly funded by NASA and DOE Eric J Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

326

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Project Descriptions-Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project Descriptions-Archive Project Descriptions-Archive Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric J Ackerman (former PNNL) (Jointly funded by NASA and DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

327

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Computational Modeling of Biochemical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computational Modeling of Biochemical Pathways Linking Ionizing Computational Modeling of Biochemical Pathways Linking Ionizing Radiation to Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Tumor Incidence Authors: Yuchao Maggie Zhao and Rory Conolly Institutions: Center for Computational Systems Biology CIIT Centers for Health Research Long-Range Goal: To develop an integrated, computational framework for the prediction of low-dose-response to ionizing radiation (IR) in people. Methodology: To provide a flexible framework to evaluate mechanisms of cellular adaptive responses after exposure to IR, three progressively more complicated descriptions of biochemical pathways linking DNA damage with cell-cycle checkpoint control and apoptosis were developed. These descriptions focus on p53-dependent checkpoint arrest and apoptosis, p73-dependent apoptosis, and Chk2-dependent checkpoint arrest,

328

Dynamics of the xanthophyll cycle and non-radiative dissipation of absorbed light energy during exposure of Norway spruce to high irradiance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Summary The response of Norway spruce saplings (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) was monitored continuously during short-term exposure (10 days) to high irradiance (HI; 1000 ?mol m?2 s?1). Compared with plants acclimated to low irradiance (100 ?mol m?2 s?1), plants after HI exposure were characterized by a significantly reduced CO2 assimilation rate throughout the light response curve. Pigment contents varied only slightly during HI exposure, but a rapid and strong response was observed in xanthophyll cycle activity, particularly within the first 3 days of the HI treatment. Both violaxanthin convertibility under HI and the amount of zeaxanthin pool sustained in darkness increased markedly under HI conditions. These changes were accompanied by an enhanced non-radiative dissipation of absorbed light energy (NRD) and the acceleration of induction of both NRD and de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments. We found a strong negative linear correlation between the amount of sustained de-epoxidized xanthophylls and the photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency (FV/FM), indicating photoprotective down-regulation of the PSII function. Recovery of FV/FM at the end of the HI treatment revealed that Norway spruce was able to cope with a 10-fold elevated irradiance due particularly to an efficient NRD within the PSII antenna that was associated with enhanced violaxanthin convertibility and a light-induced accumulation of zeaxanthin that persisted in darkness.

Michal Štroch; Kristina Kuldová; Ji?í Kalina; Vladimír Špunda

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Radiation safety and quality assurance in North American dental schools  

SciTech Connect

A survey of North American dental schools revealed that processing quality control and routine maintenance checks on x-ray generators are, in most instances, being carried out in a timely manner. Available methods for reducing patient exposure to ionizing radiation are, however, not being fully implemented. Furthermore, in some instances, dental students are still being exposed to x-rays primarily for teaching purposes.

Farman, A.G.; Hines, V.G.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Analysis of radiation exposure for troop observers, Exercise Desert Rock VI, Operation Teapot. Final report 1 Mar-15 Jul 80  

SciTech Connect

The radiation doses to troop observers and volunteer observers for Exercise Desert Rock VI are reconstructed for each applicable shot of Operation Teapot (1955). Initial neutron and gamma radiation doses are determined from transport codes ATR4 and ATR4.1. Residual radiation contours and decay rates are established through a new automated procedure that utilizes raw data in regression analysis to fit space-time models. Troop operations data are combined with the radiological data to determine integrated dose. Uncertainties are calculated for each parameter. The volunteers received the highest observer--1.6 rem gamma and 4.5 rem neutron. The highest dose received by troop observers was 1.4 rem gamma and 1.4 rem neutron at Shot Tesla.

Goetz, J.; McGahan, J.; Kaul, D.; Weitz, R.; Klemm, J.

1980-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

332

10 CFR 835- Occupational Radiation Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

333

Code of Federal Regulations OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

334

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect

Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment  

SciTech Connect

In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

Janeen Denise Robertson

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Photo-Electric Ionization of Caesium Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of photo-electric ionization in gases.—The current from a filament, normally limited by space change, is increased by the presence of positive ions. As shown by Kingdon this effect may be greatly magnified if a small cathode is practically enclosed by the anode so that the ions are imprisoned. This method was used for the detection of photo-electric ionization. Besides possessing extreme sensitivity it is unaffected by photo-electric emission from the electrodes.Photo-electric effect in caesium vapor.—The change in thermionic current with the unresolved radiation from a mercury arc was measured as functions of the applied voltage, filament temperature, and vapor pressure. Then the photo-electric effect as a function of wave-length was studied using a monochromatic illuminator to disperse light from the arc or a Mazda lamp. The ionization per unit flux was found to increase with increasing wave-length to a sharp maximum at the limit 1s=3184A of the principal series, as is required by the Bohr theory. For longer wave-lengths the ionization decreased to about 10 percent at 3400A. Photo-excitation. The simple theory does not admit of ionization by wave-lengths greater than 3184A but the data are in qualitative agreement with the hypothesis that such radiation produces excited atoms which upon collision with other atoms acquire sufficient additional energy to become ionized. Hence, unlike an x-ray limit, the photo-ionization effect for a valence electron is not sharply discontinuous at the true threshold for direct ionization.Photo-ionization photometer and intensitometer. A tube of the type described, with suitable gases for the range of wave-length involved, may be used as a photometer or may be calibrated to measure intensity of radiation directly.

Paul D. Foote and F. L. Mohler

1925-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Accelerated alpha-decay of 232U isotope achieved by exposure of its aqueous solution with gold nanoparticles to laser radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental results are presented on laser-induced accelerated alpha-decay of Uranium-232 nuclei under laser exposure of Au nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of its salt. It is demonstrated that the decrease of alpha-activity strongly depends on the peak intensity of the laser radiation in the liquid and is highest at several terawatt per square centimeter. The decrease of alpha-activity of the exposed solutions is accompanied by the deviation of gamma-activities of daughter nuclides of Uranium-232 from their equilibrium values. Possible mechanisms of the laser influence on the alpha-activity are discussed on the basis of the amplification of the electric field of laser wave on metallic nanoparticles.

A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

338

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 2003 Molecular Characterization of the  

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Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Authors: Chuan-Yuan Li,1 Eric Chuang2 Institutions: 1Dept of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 2Advanced Technology Center, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland The potential risks of exposure to low dose radiation are of major concerns to the DOE/OBER Low Dose Radiation Research Program. It has been long recognized that much of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Therefore, internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying

339

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Characterization of the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Authors: Chuan-Yuan Li, Zhanjun Guo, Zhonghui Yang, and Eric Chuang Institutions: Dept of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC Advanced Technology Center, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland Background The potential risks of exposure to low dose radiation are of major concerns to the DOE/OBER Low Dose Radiation Research Program. It has been long recognized that much of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Therefore internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying

340

Hydrogen peroxide significantly contributes to radiation-induced genomic instability  

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peroxide significantly contributes to radiation- peroxide significantly contributes to radiation- induced genomic instability Disha Dayal 1 , Sean M. Martin 1 , Sujatha Venkataraman 1 , Charles L. Limoli 2 , Douglas R Spitz 1 . 1 Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA- 52246, 2 Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of California, Irvine, CA-92697 Chronic metabolic oxidative stress is associated with genomic instability following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). Mitochondria have long been known to be a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing oxidative stress. We hypothesized that radiation damages mitochondria, leading to oxidative stress and eventually genomic instability. This hypothesis is based on preliminary studies in parental

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341

Alanine-EPR dosimetry for measurements of ionizing radiation absorbed doses in the range 0.5-10 kGy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The usefulness of two, easy accessible alanine dosimeters (ALANPOL from IChTJ and foil dosimeter from Gamma Service, Radeberg, Germany) to radiation dose measurement in the range of 0.5-10 kGy, were investigated. In both cases, the result of the test was positive. The foil dosemeter from Gamma Service is recommended for dose distribution measurements in fantoms or products, ALANPOL - for routine measurements. The EPR-alanine method based on the described dosimeters can be successfully used, among others, in the technology of radiation protection of food.

Peimel-Stuglik, Z

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone : an international comparison of approaches.  

SciTech Connect

There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.; Brown, J. E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Copplestone, D.; Gaschak, S.; Hosseini, A.; Howard, B. J.; Kamboj, S.; Nedveckaite, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Smith, J. T.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Vives-Lynch, S.; Yu, C.; Environmental Science Division; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority; England and Wales Environment Agency; International Radioecology Lab.; Inst. of Physics, Radiation Protection,; Belgian Nuclear Research Centre; Univ. of Portsmouth; Westlakes Research Inst.

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

343

Development and Validation of a Heart Atlas to Study Cardiac Exposure to Radiation Following Treatment for Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cardiac toxicity is an important sequela of breast radiotherapy. However, the relationship between dose to cardiac structures and subsequent toxicity has not been well defined, partially due to variations in substructure delineation, which can lead to inconsistent dose reporting and the failure to detect potential correlations. Here we have developed a heart atlas and evaluated its effect on contour accuracy and concordance. Methods and Materials: A detailed cardiac computed tomography scan atlas was developed jointly by cardiology, cardiac radiology, and radiation oncology. Seven radiation oncologists were recruited to delineate the whole heart, left main and left anterior descending interventricular branches, and right coronary arteries on four cases before and after studying the atlas. Contour accuracy was assessed by percent overlap with gold standard atlas volumes. The concordance index was also calculated. Standard radiation fields were applied. Doses to observer-contoured cardiac structures were calculated and compared with gold standard contour doses. Pre- and post-atlas values were analyzed using a paired t test. Results: The cardiac atlas significantly improved contour accuracy and concordance. Percent overlap and concordance index of observer-contoured cardiac and gold standard volumes were 2.3-fold improved for all structures (p < 0.002). After application of the atlas, reported mean doses to the whole heart, left main artery, left anterior descending interventricular branch, and right coronary artery were within 0.1, 0.9, 2.6, and 0.6 Gy, respectively, of gold standard doses. Conclusions: This validated University of Michigan cardiac atlas may serve as a useful tool in future studies assessing cardiac toxicity and in clinical trials which include dose volume constraints to the heart.

Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moran, Jean M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Koelling, Todd [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Chughtai, Aamer [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Chan, June L.; Freedman, Laura; Hayman, James A.; Jagsi, Reshma; Jolly, Shruti; Larouere, Janice; Soriano, Julie; Marsh, Robin; Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

Kleiman, Norman Jay [Columbia University] [Columbia University

2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

345

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Wide Expression of LLIR and the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wide Expression of LLIR and the Biological Consequences Wide Expression of LLIR and the Biological Consequences David J. Chen Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Why This Project It is known that changes in gene expression alter biological effects. It is necessary to identify the specific genes that demonstrate altered expression after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and to determine pathways involved in DNA damage recognition, signaling, and repair that are associated with radiation-induced adaptive and bystander effects. Project Goals Identification of genes whose transcription is regulated in response to low levels of ionizing radiation Identification of the genes and communication pathways that control these responses to low dose radiation Identification of the cellular and molecular targets that influence

346

Low LET Radiation Alters the Fetal Epigenome of the Avy Mouse  

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LET Radiation Alters the Fetal Epigenome of the Avy Mouse LET Radiation Alters the Fetal Epigenome of the Avy Mouse Randy Jirtle Duke University Medical Center Abstract Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation significantly alters the epigenome in somatic cells and gametes (Filkowski and others, 2009), yet it has not been determined if epigenomic modifications occur below 10 cGy. Epigenetic dysregulation during early development is mechanistically linked to the pathogenesis of adult-onset diseases (Jirtle and Skinner, 2007). Thus, we sought to determine whether low doses of ionizing radiation during early gestation affect susceptibility to adult-onset diseases by deregulating the establishment of DNA methylation patterns. Agouti viable yellow (Avy) mice were used to test this novel postulate because they are

347

Properties of Natural Radiation and Radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

Ubiquitous natural sources of radiation and radioactive material (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) have exposed humans throughout history. To these natural sources have been added technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) sources and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. This chapter describes the ubiquitous radiation sources that we call background, including primordial radionuclides such as 40K, 87Rb, the 232Th series, the 238U series, and the 235U series; cosmogenic radionuclides such as 3H and 14C; anthropogenic radionuclides such as 3H, 14C, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I; radiation from space; and radiation from technologically-enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides, particularly the short-lived decay products of 222Rn ("radon") and 220Rn ("thoron") in indoor air. These sources produce radiation doses to people principally via external irradiation or internal irradiation following intakes by inhalation or ingestion. The effective doses from each are given, with a total of 3.11 mSv y-1 (311 mrem y-1) to the average US resident. Over 2.5 million US residents receive over 20 mSv y-1 (2 rem y-1), primarily due to indoor radon. Exposure to radiation from NORM and TENORM produces the largest fraction of ubiquitous background exposure to US residents, on the order of 2.78 mSv (278 mrem) or about 89%. This is roughly 45% of the average annual effective dose to a US resident of 6.2 mSv y-1 (620 mrem y-1) that includes medical (48%), consumer products and air travel (2%), and occupational and industrial (0.1%). Much of this chapter is based on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report No. 160, "Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States," for which the author chaired the subcommittee that wrote Chapter 3 on "Ubiquitous Background Radiation."

Strom, Daniel J.

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

348

National radiation exposures and risks caused by implementing EPA`s proposed revised national primary drinking water regulations  

SciTech Connect

This report estimates risks to workers and the public associated with treatment processes and their associated waste products that would be mandated under proposed regulations of radium, radon, and uranium in drinking water. Three scenarios were examined: (1) all wastes flushed to the sanitary sewer; (2) all wastes disposed on land; (3) similar to (2) but radon removal by granulated activated carbon rather than packed tower aeration. Risks considered included accidental injury and cancer. Worker risks for both scenarios I and II were estimated to be 0.025 and 0.01 deaths per year of operation for radium-226 and radium-228, respectively. Worker risks for uranium were estimated to be 0.13 deaths/year of operation for scenario I and 0.5 deaths/year of operation for scenario II. Worker risks for radon removal were estimated to be 1.7 deaths/year of operation for scenario I and 2.2 deaths/year of operation for scenario II. Risks to the public for scenarios I and II for radium-226 were 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} and for radium-228 were 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} deaths/year of operation. Risks to the public for scenarios I and II for uranium were 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} and 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, respectively. Risks to the public for scenario I and II for radon were 24 deaths/year of operation and for scenario III were nil. Public risks were quantified only for people exposed during a year of operation. For example, effects of public exposures in future years via groundwater contamination associated with landfill of treatment waste were not considered.

Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation-and Amifostine-Mediated  

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Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation- and Amifostine-Mediated Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation- and Amifostine-Mediated Chromosomal Inversion Responses Pam Sykes Flinders University and Medical Centre Abstract Low dose radiation and the chemical radioprotector amifostine have both been shown to protect cells from the immediate and delayed effects of radiation exposure. They display a number of distinct similarities including their ability to protect cells against radiation-induced DNA damage, radiation-induced cell death and metastases formation. Amifostine, which protects cells from the toxic effects of ionizing radiation, has a broad range of activities including free radical scavenging, polyamine-like DNA binding, and induction of hypoxia and redox-regulated genes. Amifostine’s ability to protect cells is often

350

Release of Inorganic Phosphate from Irradiated Yeast: Radiation Biodosimetry and Evaluation of Radioprotective Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...irradiated with ionizing radiation, inorganic...radiation dose and on the...somewhat limited range of the yeast...irradiated with ionizing radiation, inorganic...radiation dose and on the...somewhat limited range of the yeast...represent range ofvaluesfrom...but with dose plotted on...effect of ionizing radiation (27...

Hillel S. Levinson; Esther B. Garber

1967-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Parg deficiency confers radio-sensitization through enhanced cell death in mouse ES cells exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Parg{sup ?/?} ES cells were more sensitive to ?-irradiation than Parp-1{sup ?/?} ES cells. •Parg{sup ?/?} cells were more sensitive to carbon-ion irradiation than Parp-1{sup ?/?} cells. •Parg{sup ?/?} cells showed defects in DSB repair after carbon-ion irradiation. •PAR accumulation was enhanced after carbon-ion irradiation compared to ?-irradiation. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (Parg) is the main enzyme involved in poly(ADP-ribose) degradation. Here, the effects of Parg deficiency on sensitivity to low and high linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation were investigated in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Mouse Parg{sup ?/?} and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 deficient (Parp-1{sup ?/?}) ES cells were used and responses to low and high LET radiation were assessed by clonogenic survival and biochemical and biological analysis methods. Parg{sup ?/?} cells were more sensitive to ?-irradiation than Parp-1{sup ?/?} cells. Transient accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) was enhanced in Parg{sup ?/?} cells. Augmented levels of phosphorylated H2AX (?-H2AX) from early phase were observed in Parg{sup ?/?} ES cells. The induction level of p53 phophorylation at ser18 was similar in wild-type and Parp-1{sup ?/?} cells and apoptotic cell death process was mainly observed in the both genotypes. These results suggested that the enhanced sensitivity of Parg{sup ?/?} ES cells to ?-irradiation involved defective repair of DNA double strand breaks. The effects of Parg and Parp-1 deficiency on the ES cell response to carbon-ion irradiation (LET13 and 70 keV/?m) and Fe-ion irradiation (200 keV/?m) were also examined. Parg{sup ?/?} cells were more sensitive to LET 70 keV/?m carbon-ion irradiation than Parp-1{sup ?/?} cells. Enhanced apoptotic cell death also accompanied augmented levels of ?-H2AX in a biphasic manner peaked at 1 and 24 h. The induction level of p53 phophorylation at ser18 was not different between wild-type and Parg{sup ?/?} cells. The augmented level of poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was noted after carbon-ion irradiation compared to ?-irradiation even in the wild-type cells. An enhanced poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was further observed in Parg{sup ?/?} cells. Both Parg{sup ?/?} cells and Parp-1{sup ?/?} cells did not show sensitization to Fe-ion irradiation. Parg deficiency sensitizes mouse ES cells to a wide therapeutic range of LET radiation through the effects on DNA double strand break repair responses and enhanced cell death.

Shirai, Hidenori; Fujimori, Hiroaki [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Gunji, Akemi [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan) [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); ADP-Ribosylation in Oncology Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Hirai, Takahisa [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan) [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Poetsch, Anna R. [ADP-Ribosylation in Oncology Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [ADP-Ribosylation in Oncology Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Harada, Hiromi [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Yoshida, Tomoko [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan) [Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minatoku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Sasai, Keisuke [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Okayasu, Ryuichi [International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)] [International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Masutani, Mitsuko, E-mail: mmasutan@ncc.go.jp [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan) [Division of Genome Stability Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); ADP-Ribosylation in Oncology Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

352

Poly [1,1'-bis(ethynyl)-4,4'-biphenyl(bis-tributylphosphine)Pt(II)] solutions used as low dose ionizing radiation dosimeter  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the effect of gamma radiation on the optical properties of polymetallayne poly[1,1'-bis(ethynyl)-4,4'-biphenyl(bis-tributylphosphine)Pt(II)] (Pt-DEBP) in chloroform solution is studied. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with doses from 0.01 Gy to 1 Gy using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source. A new band at 420 nm is observed in the emission spectra, in superposition to the emission maximum at 398 nm, linearly dependent on dose. We propose to use the ratio of the emission amplitude bands as the dosimetric parameter. This method proved to be robust, accurate, and can be used as a dosimeter in medical applications.

Bronze-Uhle, E. S.; Graeff, C. F. O. [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil)] [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil); Batagin-Neto, A.; Fernandes, D. M. [UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fratoddi, I.; Russo, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome 'Sapienza,' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome 'Sapienza,' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

Strong-field high-frequency approximation to the multiphoton ionization of hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The strong-field multiphoton ionization of atoms is considered and a theoretical approach dealing nonperturbatively with the radiation field formulated. The general computational...

Trombetta, F; Basile, S; Ferrante, G

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DDE ESTIMATED DOSE FROM CONCEPTION TO DECLARATION: DDE Radiation Safety Officer Signature for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation dose of the occupational dose limit of 50 mSv (5.0 rem). The CPMC Radiation Safety Office will provide education

Jia, Songtao

355

IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. V. ALFVÉN IONIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Observations of continuous radio and sporadic X-ray emission from low-mass objects suggest they harbor localized plasmas in their atmospheric environments. For low-mass objects, the degree of thermal ionization is insufficient to qualify the ionized component as a plasma, posing the question: what ionization processes can efficiently produce the required plasma that is the source of the radiation? We propose Alfvén ionization as a mechanism for producing localized pockets of ionized gas in the atmosphere, having sufficient degrees of ionization (?10{sup –7}) that they constitute plasmas. We outline the criteria required for Alfvén ionization and demonstrate its applicability in the atmospheres of low-mass objects such as giant gas planets, brown dwarfs, and M dwarfs with both solar and sub-solar metallicities. We find that Alfvén ionization is most efficient at mid to low atmospheric pressures where a seed plasma is easier to magnetize and the pressure gradients needed to drive the required neutral flows are the smallest. For the model atmospheres considered, our results show that degrees of ionization of 10{sup –6}-1 can be obtained as a result of Alfvén ionization. Observable consequences include continuum bremsstrahlung emission, superimposed with spectral lines from the plasma ion species (e.g., He, Mg, H{sub 2}, or CO lines). Forbidden lines are also expected from the metastable population. The presence of an atmospheric plasma opens the door to a multitude of plasma and chemical processes not yet considered in current atmospheric models. The occurrence of Alfvén ionization may also be applicable to other astrophysical environments such as protoplanetary disks.

Stark, C. R.; Helling, Ch.; Rimmer, P. B. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Diver, D. A., E-mail: craig.stark@st-andrews.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

356

Ionizing radiation dosimetry in the absorbed dose range 0.01–50 \\{MGy\\} based on resistance and ESR linewidth measurements of organic conducting crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The materials studied in the present work as high-dose dosimeters are members of a large class of molecular crystals which are organic conductors of electricity. Very different from each other in the details of their molecular and crystal structures, they all behave in the same way when subjected to increasing high doses of radiation, at least from the point of view of their electronic transport properties, because of the quasi-one-dimensional character of the conduction process. Their resistivities increase exponentially with the absorbed dose while their electron spin resonance (ESR) linewidths decrease exponentially. Very small single crystals less than 10 ?m thick can be used as dosimeters in the dose range 0.01–50 \\{MGy\\} for ? rays as well as for electron irradiations, by applying four probe resistance measurements. Only a few compounds over a large number of candidates have been irradiated in the present work with ?-rays, low energy x-rays and electrons. In some favourable cases the energy and temperature dependences of the dosimeters have been checked experimentally. Their mass energy absorption coefficients and electron stopping powers have been also calculated. It is hoped to extend this kind of dosimetry to lower and higher doses by trying new compounds from the large family of organic conductors or by improving the resistivity and ESR measurement techniques.

L. Zuppiroli; S. Bouffard; J.J. Jacob

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

General. The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

358

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

359

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

360

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

DOE Radiation Records Contacts List  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE radiation records contact list for individuals to obtain records of occupational exposure directly from a DOE site.

363

ORISE Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS):  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities Capabilities REAC/TS offers medical management of radiation incidents, consultation and training in radiation emergency medicine REAC/TS staff member providing medical assistance Recognized around the world for its expertise in the medical management of radiation incidents, the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provides radiation incident response, consultation and preparedness training, and participates in simulation exercises to address the medical aspects of human exposure to ionizing radiation. As REAC/TS continues to establish international partnerships through education, exercises and conferences, the group is strengthening radiological emergency preparedness and response around the globe. REAC/TS

364

An Automated Method to Quantify Radiation Damage in Human Blood Cells  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes is a well established method to assess the absorbed dose in persons exposed to ionizing radiation. Because mature lymphocytes circulate throughout the body, the dose to these cells is believed to represent the average whole body exposure. Cytogenetic methods measure the incidence of structural aberrations in chromosomes as a means to quantify DNA damage which occurs when ionizing radiation interacts with human tissue. Methods to quantify DNA damage at the chromosomal level vary in complexity and tend to be laborious and time consuming. In a mass casualty scenario involving radiological/nuclear materials, the ability to rapidly triage individuals according to radiation dose is critically important. For high-throughput screening for dicentric chromosomes, many of the data collection steps can be optimized with motorized microscopes coupled to automated slide scanning platforms.

Gordon K. Livingston, Mark S. Jenkins and Akio A. Awa

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

365

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: Induction of NF-κB, MnSOD, 14-3-3ζ and Cyclin B1 Authors: Jian Jian Li, Kazi M. Ahmed, Ming Fan, Shaozhong Dong, Douglas R. Spitz, and Cheng-Rong Yu Institutions: Division of Molecular Radiobiology, Purdue University School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, Indiana; Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Molecular Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Gene expression profiles demonstrate that a group of key stress-responsive genes are associated with radiation exposure and may contribute to cellular

366

Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the hypothesis of increased kidney cancer risk after exposure to hydrocarbons, especially those present in gasoline, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of approximately 100,000 male refinery workers from five petroleum companies. A review of 18,323 death certificates identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories, containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject, were found for 98% of the cases and 94% of the controls. Tb each job, industrial hygienists assigned semiquantitative ratings for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the more volatile hydrocarbons. Ratings of {open_quotes}present{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}absent{close_quotes} were assigned for seven additional exposures: higher boiling hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chlorinated solvents, ionizing radiation, and lead. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the hydrocarbon category of principal a priori interest, the nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.9). Analyses of cumulative exposures and of exposures in varying time periods before kidney cancer occurrence also produced null or near-null results. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject (average duration 9.2 years or 40% of the refiner&y work history), three groups appeared to be at increased risk: laborers (RR = 1.9,95% CI 1.0-3.9); workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5,95% CI 0.9-6.6); and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.5-9.9). 53 refs., 7 tabs.

Poole, C.; Dreyer, N.A.; Satterfield, M.H. [Epidemiology Resources Inc., Newton Lower Falls, MA (United States); Levin, L. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Radiation.cdr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An average American's exposure is about 620 millirems per year from naturally occurring and other sources. Other Factors Background radiation varies with location....

368

Measurements and evaluation of the risks due to external radiation exposures and to intake of activated elements for operational staff engaged in the maintenance of medical cyclotrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......personnel are monitored using standard personal dosemeters (type...microSv(2) Furthermore, the HVAC is kept off, as air circulation...Guide WS G 2.2. IAEA Safety Standards Series (1999). 4 International...International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing......

R. Calandrino; A. del Vecchio; R. Parisi; S. Todde; P. De Felice; A. Savi; A. Pepe; A. Mrskova

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Weak interaction studies using resonance ionization spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Important developments in laser sources for the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of the spectrum are making it possible to carry out resonance ionization of some of the noble gases. It has already been shown that xenon can be ionized in a two-photon allowed excitation from the ground state. Recently a new method of generating radiation by four-wave mixing in mercury vapor enables excitation of xenon in a one-photon resonance process. With these new laser sources we expect to have effective ionization volumes of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 3/ for the cases of argon, krypton, and xenon. This has important consequences in weak interaction physics and environmental research.

Payne, M.G.; Hurst, G.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Assessing Biological Function of DNA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Assessing Biological Function of DNA Damage Response Genes Assessing Biological Function of DNA Damage Response Genes Larry H. Thompson Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Why This Project To understand the relative importance of individual DNA repair and DNA-damage response pathways to the recovery of mammalian cells after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR). This understanding may lead to better ways of setting limits on human exposure to IR. In spite of the discovery of many mammalian DNA repair genes, our current knowledge of how many of these genes contribute to cellular recovery from IR exposure is quite limited. Project Goals Measure cellular responses at doses in the 5-100 cGy range, which generally cause changes too small to detect in normal, repair-proficient cells Focus on DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA oxidative base

371

Plasmadynamics and ionization kinetics of thermionic energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

To reduce the plasma arc-drop, thermionic energy conversion is studied with both analytical and numerical tools. Simplifications are made in both the plasmadynamic and ionization-recombination theories. These are applied to a scheme proposed presently using laser irradiation to enhance the ionization kinetics of the thermionic plasma and thereby reduce the arc-drop. It is also predicted that it is possible to generate the required laser light from a thermionic-type cesium plasma. The analysis takes advantage of theoretical simplifications derived for the ionization-recombination kinetics. It is shown that large laser ionization enhancements can occur and that collisional cesium recombination lasing is expected. To complement the kinetic theory, a numerical method is developed to solve the thermionic plasma dynamics. To combine the analysis of ionization-recombination kinetics with the plasma dynamics of thermionic conversion, a finite difference computer program is constructed. It is capable of solving for both unsteady and steady thermionic converter behavior including possible laser ionization enhancement or atomic recombination lasing. A proposal to improve thermionic converter performance using laser radiation is considered. In this proposed scheme, laser radiation impinging on a thermionic plasma enhances the ionization process thereby raising the plasma density and reducing the plasma arc-drop. A source for such radiation may possibly be a cesium recombination laser operating in a different thermionic converter. The possibility of this being an energy efficient process is discussed. (WHK)

Lawless, J.L. Jr.; Lam, S.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

WI Radiation Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

373

Radiation Sources and Radioactive Materials (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations apply to persons who receive, transfer, possess, manufacture, use, store, handle, transport or dispose of radioactive materials and/or sources of ionizing radiation. Some...

374

Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA is a mechanism by which randomly produced stochastic energy deposition events can lead to nonrandom types of damage along DNA manifested distal to the sites of the initial energy deposition. Electron migration along DNA is significantly influenced by the DNA base sequence and DNA conformation. Migration along 7 base pairs in oligonucleotides containing guanine bases was observed for oligonucleotides irradiated in solution which compares to average migration distances of 6 to 10 bases for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in solution and 5.5 base pairs for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in cells. Evidence also suggests that electron migration can occur preferentially in the 5{prime} to 3{prime} direction along DNA. Our continued efforts will provide information regarding the contribution of electron transfer along DNA to formation of locally multiply damaged sites created in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation.

Fuciarelli, A.F.; Sisk, E.C.; Miller, J.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Zimbrick, J.D. [National Research Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

The Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays, Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays, PET, and Gamma-rays Douglas Boreham McMaster University Abstract The goal of this project was to investigate low dose ionizing radiation effects associated with exposure to diagnostic computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Biological effects were evaluated in wild type and Trp53+/- heterozygous females, following in vivo exposure to diagnostic CT (75kVp, 200µ) or PET (18F-FDG) scans. The short term biological effects following CT or PET scans were evaluated in order to understand biological modification of mechanisms, such as DNA repair processes and apoptosis, that might alter long term cancer risk. Corresponding life-time cancer risk studies are in progress. Short-term

376

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Role of the Number and Spacing of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Workshop I Program Workshop I November 10-12, 1999, Washington, D.C. The Role of the Number and Spacing of Electron Tracks on the Consequences of Low Dose Irradiation Leslie A. Braby and J. R. Ford Nuclear Engineering, Texas A&M University, 129 Zachry, College Station, Texas. Summary: Biological mechanisms, which may influence the health risks resulting from very low dose radiation exposures, will be investigated using a collimated beam of electrons to simulate the irradiation patterns occurring with low dose exposures. Abstract: Ionizing radiation produces a variety of free radicals and chemical products that react to produce the same types of oxidative damage in a mammalian cell as produced by the normal metabolic activity of the cell. However, the damage produced by radiation is distributed differently

377

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why this Project? To examine genomic instability and bystander effects as non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure. Project Goals To provides a robust, reliable, highly sensitive assay for detecting delayed events occurring in cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. Experimental Approach To mimic radiation damage from gamma and x-ray sources, a low-LET electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells leaving neighboring cells unirradiated. Using a novel green fluorescence gene (GFP) reporter assay, a high through

378

EPA's Radiation Protection Standards Protecting the Environment from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cancer. EPA does not regulate naturally occurring radiation or the non-ionizing radiation that is emittedEPA's Radiation Protection Standards Protecting the Environment from Radioactive Materials EPA materials. These radioactive materials emit ionizing radiation, which can damage living tissue and cause

379

Spectroscopy 16 (2002) 121125 121 Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

undamaged even after long periods of exposure in the Synchroton Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) beam [2

Wallace, Bonnie Ann

380

E-Print Network 3.0 - arrbod acute radiation Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

... 5 Summary: to years). Exposure to naturally occurring background radiation is an example of chronic exposure. Acute......

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute radiation effects Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

... 5 Summary: to years). Exposure to naturally occurring background radiation is an example of chronic exposure. Acute......

382

College of Health Sciences RAS Radiation Sciences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; excitation and ionization processes; selected nuclear reactions; basic radiation detection and dosimetry, and nuclear medical physics. Prereq or concur: RM/PHY 472G or consent of instructor. (Same as PHY/RM 546.) RAS 601 ADVANCED RADIATION DOSIMETRY. (2

MacAdam, Keith

383

(Resonance ionization spectroscopy)  

SciTech Connect

J. P. Young attended the Fifth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy and presented an invited oral presentation on research he and coworkers had carried out in applying diode lasers to resonance ionization mass spectrometry. A summary of the conference is given along with an assessment of some of the presentations that the author found of interest. Young also visited Professor Marassi at the University of Camerino to present a seminar and discuss mutual interests in a new molten salt research project of the author. Some of the studies at Camerino are described. Ideas concerning the author's research that came from private discussions are also presented here.

Young, J.P.

1990-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

384

Code of Federal Regulations PART 835-OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Subpart A- General Provisions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

385

Roles of the Major, Small, Acid-Soluble Spore Proteins and Spore-Specific and Universal DNA Repair Mechanisms in Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spores to Ionizing Radiation from X Rays and High-Energy Charged-Particle Bombardment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology Division, Cologne...International Space Radiation Laboratory, National...Sciences, Chiba-shi, Japan 5 University of Florida...Sciences in Chiba, Japan, under the aegis of...components of space radiation and span a range of...

Ralf Moeller; Peter Setlow; Gerda Horneck; Thomas Berger; Günther Reitz; Petra Rettberg; Aidan J. Doherty; Ryuichi Okayasu; Wayne L. Nicholson

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis of Filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...time of exposure to solar radiation (E and F). (A and...E and F) daily solar doses during the exposure period...Cyanobacteria growth & development radiation effects ultrastructure Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation Photosynthesis radiation...

Hongyan Wu; Kunshan Gao; Virginia E. Villafañe; Teruo Watanabe; E. Walter Helbling

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Cumulative radiation dose estimates from medical imaging in paediatric patients with non-oncologic chronic illnesses. A systematic review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Paediatric patients with non-oncologic chronic illnesses often require ongoing care that may result in repeated imaging and exposure to ionizing radiation from both diagnostic and interventional procedures. In this study the scientific literature on cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation accrued from medical imaging among specific cohorts of paediatric, non-oncologic chronic patients (inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, shunt-treated hydrocephalus, hemophilia, spinal dysraphism) was systematically reviewed. We conducted PubMed/Medline, Scopus and EMBASE searches of peer-reviewed papers on CED from diagnostic and therapeutic radiological examinations. No time restriction was introduced in the search. Only studies reporting \\{CEDs\\} accrued for a period >1 year were included. We found that the annual CED was relatively low (3–20 mSv/year) in Crohn's patients. This extra yearly radiation exposure accrues over the lifetime and can reach high values (>100 mSv) in selected cohorts of paediatric chronic patients.

Marco Brambilla; Andreana De Mauri; Domenico Lizio; Lucia Leva; Alessandro Carriero; Clara Carpeggiani; Eugenio Picano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Role of TNF-α as a Potential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Role of TNF-α as a Potential Signaling Mediator of Role of TNF-α as a Potential Signaling Mediator of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Human Vascular Cells. Authors: Mohan Natarajan, Sumathy Mohan, Catherine Gibbons, Yan Bo and Munira A. Kadhim Institutions: Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas; Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside; Radiation and Genomic Stability Unit, Medical research Council, Oxford, United Kingdom Identifying reliable and sensitive signaling pathways that are implicated in adverse health effects after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation would allow us to understand the scientific basis of low dose-induced signaling pathways and their downstream phenotypic expression. This

389

Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation Marianne B. Sowa, Claere von Neubeck, R. Joe Robinson, Paula M. Koehler, Norman J. Karin, Xihai Wang, Katrina M. Waters and Harish Shankaran Ionizing radiation exposure triggers a cell signaling program which includes proliferation, the DNA damage response, and tissue remodeling. The activated signaling pathways lead to the induction of both protective effects as well as adverse consequences. A fundamental question is whether signaling cascades initiated by low doses are fundamentally different than those initiated by high doses. To address this question we have applied a systems biology approach to examine the radiation induced temporal responses of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) human skin tissue model. Using microarray-

390

Radiation protection: Natural radiation risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... radiation to which humans are exposed consists of four components - cosmic, gamma, internal, radon. The relative contribution that each makes to the sum is shown in the chart. ... but exposure of the whole body to terrestrial gamma rays and of the lungs to radon daughters are influenced by the nature and location of housing. Gamma rays are emitted ...

M. C. O'Riordan

1983-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

391

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

393

Hysteresis of ionization waves  

SciTech Connect

A quasi-logistic, nonlinear model for ionization wave modes is introduced. Modes are due to finite size of the discharge and current feedback. The model consists of competing coupled modes and it incorporates spatial wave amplitude saturation. The hysteresis of wave mode transitions under current variation is reproduced. Sidebands are predicted by the model and found in experimental data. The ad hoc model is equivalent to a general--so-called universal--approach from bifurcation theory.

Dinklage, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Bruhn, B.; Testrich, H. [Institut fuer Physik, E.-M.-Arndt Universitaet Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Wilke, C. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Plasmaforschung und Technologie, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

395

The effect of photo-ionization on the cooling rates of enriched, astrophysical plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiative cooling is central to a wide range of astrophysical problems. Despite its importance, cooling rates are generally computed using very restrictive assumptions, such as collisional ionization equilibrium and solar relative abundances. We simultaneously relax both assumptions and investigate the effects of photo-ionization of heavy elements by the meta-galactic UV/X-ray background and of variations in relative abundances on the cooling rates of optically thin gas in ionization equilibrium. We find that photo-ionization by the meta-galactic background radiation reduces the net cooling rates by up to an order of magnitude for gas densities and temperatures typical of the shock-heated intergalactic medium and proto-galaxies. In addition, photo-ionization changes the relative contributions of different elements to the cooling rates. We conclude that photo-ionization by the ionizing background and heavy elements both need to be taken into account in order for the cooling rates to be correct to order of magnitude. Moreover, if the rates need to be known to better than a factor of a few, then departures of the relative abundances from solar need to be taken into account. We propose a method to compute cooling rates on an element-by-element basis by interpolating pre-computed tables that take photo-ionization into account. We provide such tables for a popular model of the evolving UV/X-ray background radiation, computed using the photo-ionization package CLOUDY.

Robert P. C. Wiersma; Joop Schaye; Britton D. Smith

2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

396

Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial )  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-threshold mode estimate the response at lower doses. · The Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing RadiationModule 9 Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial ) · sources of background radiation · various risk models. · estimating risk and on the sources of background radiation, both

Massey, Thomas N.

397

EFFECTS OF TRITIUM EXPOSURE ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL  

SciTech Connect

Samples of three polymers, Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, also known as Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide were exposed to 1 atmosphere of tritium gas at ambient temperature for varying times up to 2.3 years in closed containers. Sample mass and size measurements (to calculate density), spectra-colorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the effects of tritium exposure on these samples. Changes of the tritium exposure gas itself were characterized at the end of exposure by measuring total pressure and by mass spectroscopic analysis of the gas composition. None of the polymers exhibited significant changes of density. The color of initially white UHMW-PE and PTFE dramatically darkened to the eye and the color also significantly changed as measured by colorimetry. The bulk of UHMW-PE darkened just like the external surfaces, however the fracture surface of PTFE appeared white compared to the PTFE external surfaces. The white interior could have been formed while the sample was breaking or could reflect the extra tritium dose at the surface directly from the gas. The dynamic mechanical response of UHMW-PE was typical of radiation effects on polymers- an initial stiffening (increased storage modulus) and reduction of viscous behavior after three months exposure, followed by lowering of the storage modulus after one year exposure and longer. The storage modulus of PTFE increased through about nine months tritium exposure, then the samples became too weak to handle or test using DMA. Characterization of Vespel{reg_sign} using DMA was problematic--sample-to-sample variations were significant and no systematic change with tritium exposure could be discerned. Isotopic exchange and incorporation of tritium into UHMW-PE (exchanging for protium) and into PTFE (exchanging for fluorine) was observed by FT-IR using an attenuated total reflectance method. No significant change in the Vespel{reg_sign} infrared spectrum was observed after three months exposure. Protium significantly pressurized the UHMW-PE containers during exposure to about nine atmospheres (the initial pressure was one atmosphere of tritium). This is consistent with the well-known production of hydrogen by irradiation of polyethylene by ionizing radiation. The total pressure in the PTFE containers decreased, and a mass balance reveals that the observed decrease is consistent with the formation of small amounts of {sup 3}HF, which is condensed at ambient temperature. No significant change of pressure occurred in the Vespel{reg_sign} containers; however the composition of the gas became about 50% protium, showing that Vespel{reg_sign} interacted with the tritium gas atmosphere to some degree. The relative resistance to degradation from tritium exposure is least for PTFE, more for UHMW-PE, and the most for Vespel{reg_sign}, which is consistent with the known relative resistance of these polymers to gamma irradiation. This qualitatively agrees with the concept of equivalent effects for equivalent absorbed doses of radiation damage of polymers. Some of the changes of different polymers are qualitatively similar; however each polymer exhibited unique property changes when exposed to tritium. Information from this study that can be applied to a tritium facility is: (1) the relative resistance to tritium degradation of the three polymers studied is the same as the relative resistance to gamma irradiation in air (so relative rankings of polymer resistance to ionizing radiation can be used as a relative ranking for assessing tritium compatibility and polymer selection); and (2) all three polymers changed the gas atmosphere during tritium exposure--UHMW-PE and Vespel{reg_sign} exposed to tritium formed H{sub 2} gas (UHMW-PE much more so), and PTFE exposed to tritium formed {sup 3}HF. This observation of forming {sup 3}HF supports the general concept of minimizing chlorofluorocarbon polymers in tritium systems.

Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

FEATURE ARTICLE Photoexcitation, Ionization, and Dissociation of Molecules Using Intense Near-Infrared  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FEATURE ARTICLE Photoexcitation, Ionization, and Dissociation of Molecules Using Intense Near-Infrared The coupling mechanism between an intense (1013 W cm-2, 780 nm) near-infrared radiation field of duration 50 above threshold dissociation,3 multiple electron emission,4 and mo- lecular ionization using near-infrared

Levis, Robert J.

399

Plasmadynamics and ionization kinetics of thermionic energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

To reduce the plasma arc-drop, thermionic energy conversion is studied with both analytical and numerical tools. Simplifications are made in both the plasmadynamic and ionization-recombination theories. These are applied to a scheme proposed presently using laser irradiation to enhance the ionization kinetics of the thermionic plasma and thereby reduce the arc-drop. It is also predicted that it is possible to generate the required laser light from a thermionic-type Cesium plasma. The analysis takes advantage of theoretical simplifications derived for the ionization-recombination kinetics. It is shown that large laser ionization enhancements can occur and that collisional Cesium recombination lasing is expected. To complement the kinetic theory, a numerical method is developed to solve the thermionic plasma dynamics. The effects of the complete system of electron-atom inelastic collisions on the ionization-recombination problem are shown to reduce to a system nearly as simple as the well-known one-quantum approximation. To combine the above analysis of ionization-recombination kinetics with the plasma dynamics of thermionic conversion, a finite difference computer program is constructed. Using the above developments, a proposal to improve thermionic converter performance using laser radiation is considered. In this proposed scheme, laser radiation impinging on a thermionic plasma enhances the ionization process thereby raising the plasma density and reducing the plasma arc-drop. A source for such radiation may possibly be a Cesium recombination laser operating in a different thermionic converter. The possibility of this being an energy efficient process is discussed.

Lawless, J.L. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

TYPICAL EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO EMF: EXPOSIMETRY AND DOSIMETRY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......EMF: EXPOSIMETRY AND DOSIMETRY Blaz Valic 1 Bor Kos 2 Peter Gajsek 2 * * Corresponding author: peter.gajsek@inis.si 1 INIS - Institute of Non-ionizing Radiation, Pohorskega bataljona 215, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2 Faculty of Electrical......

Blaž Vali?; Bor Kos; Peter Gajšek

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Resistance of Marine Bacterioneuston to Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Marine Bacterioneuston to Solar Radiation Helene Agogue Fabien...after exposure to simulated solar radiation. Bacterioneuston...estimate of their screening capacity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...D. P. 2000. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic...

Hélène Agogué; Fabien Joux; Ingrid Obernosterer; Philippe Lebaron

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

High resolution resonance ionization imaging detector and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resonance ionization imaging device (RIID) and method for imaging objects using the RIID are provided, the RIID system including a RIID cell containing an ionizable vapor including monoisotopic atoms or molecules, the cell being positioned to intercept scattered radiation of a resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1 from the object which is to be detected or imaged, a laser source disposed to illuminate the RIID cell with laser radiation having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 or wavelengths .lambda..sub.2, .lambda..sub.3 selected to ionize atoms in the cell that are in an excited state by virtue of having absorbed the scattered resonance laser radiation, and a luminescent screen at the back surface of the RIID cell which presents an image of the number and position of charged particles present in the RIID cell as a result of the ionization of the excited state atoms. The method of the invention further includes the step of initially illuminating the object to be detected or imaged with a laser having a wavelength selected such that the object will scatter laser radiation having the resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1.

Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Matveev, Oleg I. (Gainesville, FL); Smith, Benjamin W. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Modulated voltage metastable ionization detector  

SciTech Connect

Metastable ionization detectors used for chromatographic analysis usually employa fixed high voltage for the ionization potential. For this reason, the operating range is limited to about three orders of magnitude. By use of the technique disclosed in the instant invention, operating ranges of about nine orders of magnitude are obtained. The output current from a metastable ionization detector (MID) is applied to a modulation voltage circuit. An adjustment is made to balance out the background current, and an output current, above background, is applied to an input of a strip chart recorder. For low level concentrations, i.e., low detected output current, the ionization potential will be at a maximum and the metastable ionization detector will operate at its most sensitive level. When the detected current from the metastable ionization detector increases above a predetermined threshold level, a voltage control circuit is activated which turns on a high voltage transistor which acts to reduce the ionization potential. The ionization potential applied to the metastable ionization detector is then varied so as to maintain the detected signal level constant. The variation in ionization potential is now related to the concentration fo the constituent and a representative amplitude is applied to another input of said strip chart recorder.

Carle, G. C.; Humphry, D. E.; Kojiro, D. R.

1985-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

404

Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs  

SciTech Connect

The United States conducted 24 nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll with a total yield of 76.8 Megatons (MT). The Castle series produced about 60% of this total and included the Bravo test that was the primary source of contamination of Bikini Island and Rongelap and Utrok Atolls. One of three aerial drops missed the atoll and the second test of the Crossroads series, the Baker test, was an underwater detonation. Of the rest, 17 were on barges on water and 3 were on platforms on an island; they produced most of the contamination of islands at the atoll. There were 42 tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll with a total yield of 31.7 MT (Simon and Robison, 1997; UNSCEAR, 2000). Of these tests, 18 were on a barge over wateror reef, 7 were surface shots, 2 aerial drops, 2 under water detonations, and 13 tower shots on either land or reef. All produced some contamination of various atoll islands. Rongelap Atoll received radioactive fallout as a result of the Bravo test on March 1, 1954 that was part of the Castle series of tests. This deposition was the result of the Bravo test producing a yield of 15 MT, about a factor of three to four greater than the predicted yield that resulted in vaporization of more coral reef and island than expected and in the debris-cloud reaching a much higher altitude than anticipated. High-altitude winds were to the east at the time of detonation and carried the debris-cloud toward Rongelap Atoll. Utrok Atoll also received fallout from the Bravo test but at much lower air and ground-level concentrations than at Rongelap atoll. Other atolls received Bravo fallout at levels below that of Utrok [other common spellings of this island and atoll (Simon, et al., 2009)]. To avoid confusion in reading other literature, this atoll and island are spelled in a variety of ways (Utrik, Utirik, Uterik or Utrok). Dose assessments for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll (Robison et al., 1997), Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll (Robison et al., 1987), Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll (Robison et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1997), and Utrok Island at Utrok Atoll (Robison, et al., 1999) indicate that about 95-99% of the total estimated dose to people who may return to live at the atolls today (Utrok Island is populated) is the result of exposure to {sup 137}Cs. External gamma exposure from {sup 137}Cs in the soil accounts for about 10 to 15% of the total dose and {sup 137}Cs ingested during consumption of local food crops such as drinking coconut meat and fluid (Cocos nucifera L.), copra meat and milk, Pandanus fruit, and breadfruit accounts for about 85 to 90%. The other 1 to 2% of the estimated dose is from {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The {sup 90}Sr exposure is primarily through the food chain while the exposure to {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am is primarily via the inhalation pathway as a result of breathing re-suspended soil particles.

Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

405

A surface ionization source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Einzel Lens. 2 The Quadrupole Triplet . . 3. The Beam Scanner. . . 4 The Four-plate Detectors and Faraday Cups. III TESTING AND OPTIMIZING THE BEAM LINE 10 12 13 A. Initial Results. IV THE THEORY OF SURFACE IONIZATION . . . . . V ION SOURCES. 21... aperture and through a beam scanner. The scanner translates the beam's cross-section to an image visible on the oscilloscope A movable Faraday cup connected to a sensitive electrometer is used to maximize the beam transmission at the opening into the 2...

Buzatu, Daniel J.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

406

Plasma Production via Field Ionization  

SciTech Connect

Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming particle beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes a neutral vapor or gas. Experiments conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization by an electron beam in a neutral lithium vapor. By independently varying the transverse beam size, number of electrons per bunch or bunch length, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. Additional experiments ionized neutral xenon and neutral nitric oxide by varying the incoming beam's bunch length. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments.

O'Connell, C.L.; Barnes, C.D.; Decker, F.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; Lu,; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Zhou, M.; /UCLA; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

407

Ionization photophysics and spectroscopy of dicyanoacetylene  

SciTech Connect

Photoionization of dicyanoacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the excitation range 8–25 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The absolute ionization cross-section and detailed spectroscopic aspects of the parent ion were recorded. The adiabatic ionization energy of dicyanoacetylene was measured as 11.80 ± 0.01 eV. A detailed analysis of the cation spectroscopy involves new aspects and new assignments of the vibrational components to excitation of the quasi-degenerate A{sup 2}?{sub g}, B{sup 2}?{sub g}{sup +} states as well as the C{sup 2}?{sub u}{sup +} and D{sup 2}?{sub u} states of the cation. Some of the structured autoionization features observed in the 12.4–15 eV region of the total ion yield spectrum were assigned to vibrational components of valence shell transitions and to two previously unknown Rydberg series converging to the D{sup 2}?{sub u} state of C{sub 4}N{sub 2}{sup +}. The appearance energies of the fragment ions C{sub 4}N{sup +}, C{sub 3}N{sup +}, C{sub 4}{sup +}, C{sub 2}N{sup +}, and C{sub 2}{sup +} were measured and their heats of formation were determined and compared with existing literature values. Thermochemical calculations of the appearance potentials of these and other weaker ions were used to infer aspects of dissociative ionization pathways.

Leach, Sydney, E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr, E-mail: Martin.Schwell@lisa.u-pec.fr; Champion, Norbert [LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules-Jansen, 92195 Meudon (France)] [LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules-Jansen, 92195 Meudon (France); Schwell, Martin, E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr, E-mail: Martin.Schwell@lisa.u-pec.fr; Bénilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie-Claire [LISA UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris-Est Créteil and Université Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France)] [LISA UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris-Est Créteil and Université Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France); Garcia, Gustavo A.; Gaie-Levrel, François [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guillemin, Jean-Claude [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France)] [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

408

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Exposures Review of phenomenon appears in Radiation Research Pamela Sykes and Benjamin Blyth One concern of radiobiologists is the effect radiation exposure might have on nearby unirradiated cells. For example, when only a small fraction of cells are directly hit by radiation energy, are the surrounding unirradiated cells also at an increased risk of cancer? The term "radiation-induced bystander effect" is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that occur in unirradiated cells within an irradiated cell population. Radiation-induced bystander effects have become established in the vernacular and are considered as an authentic radiation response. However, there is still no consensus on a precise definition of the term, which

410

Heating and Ionization of the Primordial Intergalactic Medium by High Mass X-ray Binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the influence of High Mass X-ray Binaries on their high redshift environments. Using a one-dimensional radiative transfer code, we predict the ionization and temperature profiles surrounding a coeval stellar population, composed of main sequence stars and HMXBs, at various times after its formation. We consider both uniform density surroundings, and a cluster embedded in a 10^8 solar mass NFW halo. HMXBs in a constant density environment produce negligible enhanced ionization because of their high-energy SEDs and short lifetimes. In this case, HMXBs only marginally contribute to the local heating rate. For NFW profiles, radiation from main sequence stars cannot prevent the initially ionized volume from recombining since it is unable to penetrate the high density galactic core. However, HMXB photons stall recombinations behind the front, keeping it partially ionized for longer. The increased electron density in these partially ionized regions promotes further cooling, resulting in lower IGM temp...

Knevitt, Gillian; Power, Chris; Bolton, James

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2 Mice with a History of Paternal DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2 Mice with a History of Paternal F0 Germline Irradiation Authors: J.E. Baulch and O.G. Raabe Institutions: Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA. The main goal of this grant is to evaluate heritable, transgenerational effects of low dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (0.1 Gy attenuated 137Cs gamma rays) on Type B spermatogonia in 129SVE mice; wild-type and heterozygous for Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). The ATM heterozygotes are carriers for a genetic mutation (AT mutated, ATM) that is thought to predispose both humans and mice to radiation sensitivity. Experiments conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated heritable effects of paternal germline exposure to ionizing radiation in mice using 1.0 Gy of

412

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster Formation in a Cellular Environment Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster Formation in a Cellular Environment Larry Toburen East Carolina University Why This Project Modern tools of radiobiology are leading to many new discoveries regarding how cells and tissues respond to radiation exposure. We can now irradiate single cells and observe responses in adjacent cells. We can also measure clusters of radiation damage produced in DNA. The primary tools available to describe the initial spatial pattern of damage formed by the absorption of ionizing radiation are based on (MC) Monte Carlo simulations of the structure of charged particle tracks. Although many MC codes exist and considerable progress is being made in the incorporation of detailed macromolecular target structures into these codes, much of the interaction

413

Effects of plasma-deposited silicon nitride passivation on the radiation hardness of CMOS integrated circuits  

SciTech Connect

The use of plasma-deposited silicon nitride as a final passivation over metal-gate CMOS integrated circuits degrades the radiation hardness of these devices. The hardness degradation is manifested by increased radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts caused principally by the charging of new interface states and, to a lesser extent, by the trapping of holes created upon exposure to ionizing radiation. The threshold voltage shifts are a strong function of the deposition temperature, and show very little dependence on thickness for films deposited at 300/sup 0/C. There is some correlation between the threshold voltage shifts and the hydrogen content of the PECVD silicon nitride films used as the final passivation layer as a function of deposition temperature. The mechanism by which the hydrogen contained in these films may react with the Si/SiO/sub 2/ interface is not clear at this point.

Clement, J. J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Ionization and maximum energy of nuclei in shock acceleration theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the acceleration of heavy nuclei at SNR shocks when the process of ionization is taken into account. Heavy atoms ($Z_N >$ few) in the interstellar medium which start the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) are never fully ionized at the moment of injection. The ionization occurs during the acceleration process, when atoms already move relativistically. For typical environment around SNRs the photo-ionization due to the background galactic radiation dominates over Coulomb collisions. The main consequence of ionization is the reduction of the maximum energy which ions can achieve with respect to the standard result of the DSA. In fact the photo-ionization has a timescale comparable to the beginning of the Sedov-Taylor phase, hence the maximum energy is no more proportional to the nuclear charge, as predicted by standard DSA, but rather to the effective ions' charge during the acceleration process, which is smaller than the total nuclear charge $Z_N$. This result can have a direct consequence in the pred...

Morlino, Giovanni

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

416

Ionized Iron Lines in X-ray Reflection Spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from new calculations of the X-ray reflection spectrum from ionized accretion discs. These computations improve on our previous models by including the condition of hydrostatic balance in the vertical direction, following the work of Nayakshin, Kazanas & Kallman. We find that an ionized Fe K$\\alpha$ line is prominent in the reflection spectra for a wide variety of physical conditions. The results hold for both gas and radiation pressure dominated discs and when the metal abundances have been varied.

D. R. Ballantyne; R. R. Ross; A. C. Fabian

2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Quality management system in the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Service  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......for technical services in radiation safety. (2008) IAEA. Safety Guide, No. GS-G-3...protection against ionizing radiation. (2001) 27284-27393...Publication 103. ICRP. 9 Certool Software. AENOR. http://www......

R. Martín; T. Navarro; A. M. Romero; M. A. López

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Effects of Substerilization Doses of Co60 Gamma Radiation on the Cold-Storage Life Extension of Shucked Soft-Shelled Clams and Haddock Fillets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless...indicate that in the dose range from 400,000...

E. B. Masurovsky; S. A. Goldblith; J. T. R. Nickerson

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionizing radiation exposure" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Concepts of radiation safety and protection: Beyond BEIR V  

SciTech Connect

The publication of an updated report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR V) has focused new attention on the potential hazards associated with the use of low doses of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. This article reviews the BEIR V report findings and suggests methods for reducing the risks to dental patients and the operators of dental x-ray equipment.

Farman, A.G. (University of Louisville School of Dentistry, KY (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Optical ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

423

Optical ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

General situation of radiation accidents in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......never received any formal safety culture education, so...professionals, and during safety culture education, for...dose results, relevant software has been developed for...International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of......

Zhou Li; Zhang Wenyi; Zhang Liang'an

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the impact of ionizing radiation on several types of ecosystems, atmospheric aerosol, and heavy metal. Stubos Computer Simulation of Atmospheric Pollution S. Andronopoulos Analyses & Assessment of Environmental Pollutants S. Andronopoulos ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY A. Stubos Diagnostics of Boundary

426

United States Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Office...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

and non-ionizing radiation, and to promote the controls necessary to protect the public health and safety. The purpose of this report is to present the results of a survey of...

427

Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

Marsh, B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Field ionization from carbon nanofibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Micro Gas Analyzer project aims to develop power-efficient, high resolution, high sensitivity, portable and real-time gas sensors. We developed a field ionizer array based on gated CNTs. Arrays of CNTs are used because ...

Adeoti, Bosun J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

IONIZATION OF EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANET ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

Many extrasolar planets orbit close in and are subject to intense ionizing radiation from their host stars. Therefore, we expect them to have strong, and extended, ionospheres. Ionospheres are important because they modulate escape in the upper atmosphere and can modify circulation, as well as leave their signatures, in the lower atmosphere. In this paper, we evaluate the vertical location Z{sub I} and extent D{sub I} of the EUV ionization peak layer. We find that Z{sub I{approx}}1-10 nbar-for a wide range of orbital distances (a = 0.047-1 AU) from the host star-and D{sub I}/H{sub p{approx}}>15, where H{sub p} is the pressure scale height. At Z{sub I}, the plasma frequency is {approx}80-450 MHz, depending on a. We also study global ion transport, and its dependence on a, using a three-dimensional thermosphere-ionosphere model. On tidally synchronized planets with weak intrinsic magnetic fields, our model shows only a small, but discernible, difference in electron density from the dayside to the nightside ({approx}9 x 10{sup 13} m{sup -3} to {approx}2 x 10{sup 12} m{sup -3}, respectively) at Z{sub I}. On asynchronous planets, the distribution is essentially uniform. These results have consequences for hydrodynamic modeling of the atmospheres of close-in extrasolar giant planets.

Koskinen, Tommi T. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ (United States); Cho, James Y-K. [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Achilleos, Nicholas; Aylward, Alan D., E-mail: tommi@lpl.arizona.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2010-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

430

Observation of ionization fronts in low density foam targets  

SciTech Connect

Ionization fronts have been observed in low density chlorinated foam targets and low density foams confined in gold tubes using time resolved {ital K}-shell absorption spectroscopy. The front was driven by an intense pulse of soft x-rays produced by high power laser irradiation. The density and temperature profiles inferred from the radiographs provided detailed measurement of the conditions. The experimental data were compared to radiation hydrodynamics simulations and reasonable agreement was obtained. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Hoarty, D. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); [Radiation Physics Department, AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Willi, O.; Barringer, L.; Vickers, C. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Watt, R. [P24, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [P24, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Nazarov, W. [Chemistry Department, University of Dundee (United Kingdom)] [Chemistry Department, University of Dundee (United Kingdom)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

432

Radiation Machines and Radioactive Materials (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These chapters describe general provisions and regulatory requirements; registration, licensure, and transportation of radioactive materials; and exposure standards for radiation protection.

433

Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber With An Integrated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber With An Integrated Body And Moderator A detector for detecting neutrons and gamma radiation includes a cathode that defines an interior surface and an interior volume. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber With An Integrated Body And Moderator A detector for detecting neutrons and gamma radiation includes a cathode that defines an interior surface and an interior volume. A conductive neutron-capturing layer is disposed on the interior surface of the cathode and a plastic housing surrounds the cathode. A plastic lid is attached to the housing and encloses the interior volume of the cathode forming an

434

EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS  

SciTech Connect

Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the main backbone chain, or by protonation of the imine groups [de Acevedo, 1999]. There are several types of radiation sensors commercially available, including ionization chambers, geiger counters, proportional counters, scintillators and solid state detectors. Each type has advantages, although many of these sensors require expensive electronics for signal amplification, are large and bulky, have limited battery life or require expensive materials for fabrication. A radiation sensor constructed of a polymeric material could be flexible, light, and the geometry designed to suit the application. Very simple and inexpensive electronics would be necessary to measure the change in conductivity with exposure to radiation and provide an alarm system when a set change of conductivity occurs in the sensor that corresponds to a predetermined radiation dose having been absorbed by the polymer. The advantages of using a polymeric sensor of this type rather than those currently in use are the flexibility of sensor geometry and relatively low cost. It is anticipated that these sensors can be made small enough for glovebox applications or have the ability to monitor the air tritium levels in places where a traditional monitor cannot be placed. There have been a few studies on the changes in conductivity of polyaniline specifically for radiation detection [de Acevedo, 1999; Lima Pacheco, 2003], but there have been no reports on the effects of tritium (beta radiation) on conducting polymers, such as polyaniline or polythiophene. The direct implementation of conducting polymers as radiation sensor materials has not yet been commercialized due to differing responses with total dose, dose rate, etc. Some have reported a large increase in the surface conductivity with radiation dose while others report a marked decrease in conductive properties; these differing observations may reflect the competing mechanisms of chain scission and cross-linking. However, it is clear that the radiation dose effects on conducting polymers must be fully understood before these materials can be used

Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

435

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Image Gallery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Image Gallery Image Gallery These are images, photographs, and charts presented or developed for Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators’ Meetings. They may be used for presentations or reports. To save, right click on the picture, then choose "Save picture as." U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 1980. various sources 1980 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 2006. various sources 2006 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from man-made sources in the United States for 2006. man-made 2006 Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience (Rem) Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience

436

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity Kleiman, N.J. 1 , Smilenov, L.B. 2 , Brenner, D.J. 2 and Hall, E.J. 2 1 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health & 2 The Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, New York 10032 The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of such opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. The

437

Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - appendices. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The NRC staff is in need of decommissioning bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2) located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clear structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Intensity-resolved Above Threshold Ionization Yields of Atoms with Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Electron ionization yields of xenon were measured for a set of laser pulse intensities using a time of flight (TOF) setup. Horizontally polarized, unchirped, pulses were used in the ionization process. All laser parameters other than the radiation... Tiezer, I am grateful for all their time and help. I would like to thank Dr. James Strohaber for detailed discussions and assistance related to this experiment. I acknowledge the Department of Physics at Texas A&M and the US Air Force...

Hart, Nathan Andrew

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

439

Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function of human skin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function...Stanford, CA 94305 The ubiquitous presence of solar UV radiation in human life is essential for...defense against environmental exposures like solar UV radiation, and its effects on UV targets...

Krysta Biniek; Kemal Levi; Reinhold H. Dauskardt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Bruce E. Lehnert  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

E. Lehnert E. Lehnert Los Alamos National Laboratory Past Project Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Technical Abstracts 2002 Workshop: Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Lehnert, B.E., Cary, R., Gadbois, D. and Gupta G. 2001 Workshop: Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells. Lehnert, B.E. 1999 Workshop: Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells. Lehnert, B.E. Publications Lehnert, B.E., Radiation bystander effects. U.S.Department of Energy Research News (March 6 issue) Goldberg, Z. and Lehnert, B.E. (2002). Radiation-induced effects in

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441

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed radiation dose Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

know Summary: . Absorbed dose is the physical quantity describing energy deposited per unit mass. For radiation protection... Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing...

442

E-Print Network 3.0 - accumulated radiation dose Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

. At the end, this seminar concentrates on the dose contributions of naturally occurring ionizing radiation... particles. - The equivalent dose, HT, which takes into account...

443

Molecular Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. elegans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. elegans Anders Olsen, Maithili C. Vantipalli, Arnold Kahn, Judith Campisi and Gordon J. Lithgow. Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato CA 94945 Brief exposure to a mild stress causes induction of stress gene expression leading to enhanced stress responses, improved maintenance and repair and in some cases lifespan increase. This phenomenon is termed hormesis and has been observed in several species. For example, we previously demonstrated that short periods of mild heat stress in early life increase both mean and maximum lifespan of the soil nematode C. elegans. Similar hormetic responses have been described for many other stressors. Here we present data showing that treatment of the nematode with low-doses of ionizing

444

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparisons of IR and ROS for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparisons of IR and ROS for Induction of Damage to Cells Comparisons of IR and ROS for Induction of Damage to Cells Kathryn D. Held1, Yvonne L. McCarey1, Laurence Tartier1, Elena V. Rusyn1, Giuseppe Schettino2, Melvyn Folkard2, Kevin M. Prise2, and Barry D. Michael2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114; 2Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK Accurate evaluation of the risks associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) is a major challenge for environmental sciences. Studies on the mechanisms of the actions of low doses of IR are needed to help understand possible risks. IR exerts its effects on cells through production of reactive oxidizing species (ROS) such as ·OH, H2O2 and

445

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low-Dose Dose-Response of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Dose Dose-Response of Proliferating Human Cells Exposed to Low Low-Dose Dose-Response of Proliferating Human Cells Exposed to Low Dose Rate g-Radiation. Authors: Louise Enns,1 Michael Weinfeld,1 Albert Murtha,1 and Kenneth Bogen2 Institutions: 1Cross Cancer Institute and 2Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Clinical and environmental exposure to ionizing radiation rarely exceeds 200 cGy. To examine cell proliferation at early times (up to 5 days) post-irradiation, we are utilizing an assay in which single cells encapsulated within ~30- to 70-µm-diameter agarose gel microdrops (GMDs) are exposed and cultured for 4 days at 37°C, then analyzed by flow cytometry (FC). Clonogenic proliferation is measured as the fraction of occupied GMDs containing multicellular microcolonies after 4 days in culture. This assay was applied to human A549 lung cells exposed to gamma

446

Low Dose Radiation Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Human 3-Dimensional Skin Model System Yanrong Su, Jarah Meador and Adayabalam S. Balajee Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) inflicts a wide variety of lesions in the genomic DNA. Among them, DNA double strand break (DSB) is considered to be the critical lesion for most of the deleterious radiation effects including carcinogenesis. Much of our knowledge on induction and repair kinetics of DSB has come from studies in two dimensional cell culture systems. However, the damage signaling and repair responses to DSB in tissue microenvironment are largely unknown. Knowledge of tissue responses to

447

2013 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report Appendices  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Name Year Reported * 6202304 LATAParralax Portsmouth LLC Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 1005003 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory ...

448

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

changed as a result of adopting ICRP 60 dosimetry system; u Used the ICRP 68 dose conversion factors to determine values for the derived air concentrations (DACs); and u Adopted...

449

Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites ...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Other Related Sites DOE - Main Home Page - the home page for all DOE information and web sites. DOE EHSS Information Portal - source for EHSS information across the complex....

450

Radiation Safety Edward O'Connell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tissues) #12;Sources of Background Radiation Exposure · Naturally occurring radioactive materialsRadiation Safety Edward O'Connell Radiation Safety Officer Stony Brook University New York #12;STONY BROOK UNIVERSITY & U. HOSPITAL MEDICAL CENTER #12;Why Radiation Safety · Working with radioactive

451

Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......relating to radiation protection...physicist, radiation safety officer, other...use of any software other than...of the QADDS software package. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...exposure to radiation in medical...Radiation safety management......

B. M. Moores; P. Charnock; M. Ward

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Project Lyman: Quantifying 11 Gyrs of Metagalactic Ionizing Background Evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The timing and duration of the reionization epoch is crucial to the emergence and evolution of structure in the universe. The relative roles that star-forming galaxies, active galactic nuclei and quasars play in contributing to the metagalactic ionizing background across cosmic time remains uncertain. Deep quasar counts provide insights into their role, but the potentially crucial contribution from star-formation is highly uncertain due to our poor understanding of the processes that allow ionizing radiation to escape into the intergalactic medium (IGM). The fraction of ionizing photons that escape from star-forming galaxies is a fundamental free parameter used in models to "fine-tune" the timing and duration of the reionization epoch that occurred somewhere between 13.4 and 12.7 Gyrs ago (redshifts between 12 > z > 6). However, direct observation of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons emitted below the rest frame \\ion{H}{1} ionization edge at 912 \\AA\\ is increasingly improbable at redshifts z > 3, due to the stead...

McCandliss, Stephan R; Bergvall, Nils; Bianchi, Luciana; Bridge, Carrie; Bogosavljevic, Milan; Cohen, Seth H; Deharveng, Jean-Michel; Dixon, W Van Dyke; Ferguson, Harry; Friedman, Peter; Hayes, Matthew; Howk, J Christopher; Inoue, Akio; Iwata, Ikuru; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kriss, Gerard; Kruk, Jeffrey; Kutyrev, Alexander S; Leitherer, Claus; Meurer, Gerhardt R; Prochaska, Jason X; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Teplitz, Harry I; Windhorst, Rogier A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout  

SciTech Connect

In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Radiation dose in dental radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The aim of this study was to compare radiation exposure in panoramic radiography (PR), dental CT, and digital volume tomography (DVT) ... at appropriate locations were exposed as in a dental examination. In PR...

M. Cohnen; J. Kemper; O. Möbes; J. Pawelzik; U. Mödder

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Telomere Targeting with a New G4 Ligand Enhances Radiation-Induced Killing of Human Glioblastoma Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sensitivity to ionizing radiation of 2 human telomerase-positive...Coulter) using CellQuest software. Apoptosis assessment...of TAC combined with radiation on GBM cells in vitro...trials with acceptable safety (49). In conclusion...sensitivity to ionizing radiation of 2 human hTERT-positive...

Patrick Merle; Bertrand Evrard; Anne Petitjean; Jean-Marie Lehn; Marie-Paule Teulade-Fichou; Emmanuel Chautard; Anne De Cian; Lionel Guittat; Phong Lan Thao Tran; Jean-Louis Mergny; Pierre Verrelle; and Andreï Tchirkov

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Method to Improve Total Dose Radiation Hardness in a CMOS dc-dc Boost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a wide range of radiation environment, with increasing total dose radiation, The efticieney also greatlyMethod to Improve Total Dose Radiation Hardness in a CMOS dc-dc Boost Converter Huadian Pan to natural radiation in space. Among the effects of ionizing radiation are shiftsin threshold voltageand

Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

457

Track 3: Exposure Hazards  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 3: Exposure Hazards

458

Electron impact ionization of neutral and ionized fullerenes: ionization cross–sections and kinetic energy release  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and 1000 eV, with an energy spread of approximately...exit electrode by an electric field penetrating from...measurements of appearance energies and ionization cross-sections...measurements have been car- ried out (in both...cross-sections versus electron energy from threshold up to...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

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461

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute whole-body exposure Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation exposure is expressed in a unit called... of approximatly 360 mrem ... Source: Yucca Mountain Project, US EPA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 2 Influence...

462

Solid cancer incidence among the Chernobyl emergency workers residing in Russia: estimation of radiation risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the method of radiation dose measurement, the dosimetric data for the studied... 1. Exposure or absorbed dose recorded...

V. K. Ivanov; A. I. Gorski; A. F. Tsyb…

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Quantification of radiation induced crosslinking in a commercial, toughened silicone rubber, TR-55, by 1H MQ-NMR  

SciTech Connect

Radiation induced degradation in a commercial, filled silicone composite has been studied by SPME/GC-MS, DMA, DSC,