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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Sandia National Laboratories: ionic liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquid Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in Biofuels, Biomass, Energy,...

2

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

3

Theinfluence of a hierarchical porous carbon network on the coherent dynamics of a nanoconfined room temperature ionic liquid: A neutron spin echo and atomistic simulation investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular-scale dynamic properties of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, or [C4mim+ ][Tf2N ], confined in hierarchical microporous mesoporous carbon, were investigated using neutron spin echo (NSE) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Both NSE and MD reveal pronounced slowing of the overall collective dynamics, including the presence of an immobilized fraction of RTIL at the pore wall, on the time scales of these approaches. A fraction of the dynamics, corresponding to RTIL inside 0.75 nm micropores located along the mesopore surfaces, are faster than those of RTIL in direct contact with the walls of 5.8 nm and 7.8 nm cylindrical mesopores. This behavior is ascribed to the near-surface confined-ion density fluctuations resulting from the ion ion and ion wall interactions between the micropores and mesopores as well as their confinement geometries. Strong micropore RTIL interactions result in less-coordinated RTIL within the micropores than in the bulk fluid. Increasing temperature from 296 K to 353 K reduces the immobilized RTIL fraction and results in nearly an order of magnitude increase in the RTIL dynamics. The observed interfacial phenomena underscore the importance of tailoring the surface properties of porous carbons to achieve desirable electrolyte dynamic behavior, since this impacts the performance in applications such as electrical energy storage devices.

Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Feng, Guang [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Li, Song [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Arend, Nikolas [ORNL; Faraone, Antonio [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research and practical applications. They present a wide range of complex physical and chemical behaviors, including ambient vapor pressures ranging from UHV to weakly volatile, a substantial variety of distinct condensed phases, including multiple crystal isomorphs, glasses, amorphous plastic and liquid crystal phases, deep supercooling, and interesting dynamical and transport phenomena. Experiments and simulations have shown that their intrinsic self-organization at the nanoscale is responsible for several of these properties. The symposium will assemble an international array of speakers to discuss ionic liquids in the context of their heterogeneous environments, solvation, dynamics and transport, interfacial properties,

5

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations Hui Jin, Bernie O'Hare, Jing Dong, Sergei Arzhantsev, Gary A. Baker, James F. Wishart, Alan J. Benesi, and Mark Maroncelli J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 81-92 (2008). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of

6

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids Symposium Schedule  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) (Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) Sunday Morning Structure and Heterogeneity of Ionic Liquids I. James Wishart and Edward Castner Introductory Remarks Andre Pinkert Hydroxyamine ionic liquids and their properties Thomas Strassner TAAILs - Tunable Aryl-Alkyl Ionic Liquids: A new generation of ionic liquids Laura Sprunger Grubbs Thermodynamic Properties of New Generation Ionic Liquids Christopher Hardacre Prediction methods for physical properties of ionic liquids BREAK Patricia Hunt What happens when you functionalise an ionic liquid with a "silicone" side chain? Edward L Quitevis Effect of cation symmetry and nanoscale segregation on the morphology, physical properties, and low-frequency vibrational dynamics of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cation ionic liquids

7

Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

8

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

9

Solubility of Carbohydrates in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

‡ Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P., Unit of Bioenergy, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038, Lisboa, Portugal ... The aim of this Review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding the solubility of carbohydrates in ionic liquids but not on modifications of carbohydrates in ionic liquids. ... We herein collect all of the available literature data about the solubility of various carbohydrates in ionic liquids and highlight their interactions with carbohydrates. ...

Ma?gorzata Ewa Zakrzewska; Ewa Bogel-?ukasik; Rafa? Bogel-?ukasik

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

10

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and...

11

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

12

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale...

13

Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E. Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospectsthem attention as “green” solvents for synthesis and

Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

15

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

16

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids M. F. Thomas, L. Li, J. Handley-Pendleton, D. van der Lelie, J. J. Dunn and J. F. Wishart Bioresource Technology 102, in press. [Find paper at Science Direct] Abstract: The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic

17

TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

Charge trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids I. A. Shkrob and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 5582-5592 (2009). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a promising class of solvents for applications ranging from photovoltaics to solvent extractions. Some of these applications involve the exposure of the ILs to ionizing radiation, which stimulates interest in their radiation and photo- chemistry. In the case of ILs consisting of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions, ionization, charge transfer and redox reactions yield charge-trapped species thought to be radicals resulting from neutralization of the constituent ions. Using computational chemistry methods and the recent results on electron spin resonance (ESR) and transient absorption

19

Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents for Alkylation and Acylation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many clean solvents like water, ionic liquids, supercritical fluid, polyglycol, fluorine-containing solvents, and so on are employed to replace the conventional organic solvents. Among these, ionic liquids have a...

Zhongkui Zhao; Yitao Dai

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Organic Ionic Liquids: Ultimate Green Solvents in Organic Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are ground-breaking green alternatives to the highly toxic solvents that are hazardous to the environment and ... liquids offer certain advantages as alternatives to conventional solvents. Ionic liq...

Mohammed Abid Shaikh; Xudong Huang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to describe the tribological and rheological properties of mixtures of nanoparticles (NPs) and ionic liquids (ILs), specifically the mixture of bare SiO_(2) (silica) nanoparticles and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (trifluoromethysulfony...

Lu, Wei

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

22

Metal-air low temperature ionic liquid cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.

Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel A

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

23

1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

24

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

25

Determination of triclosan and triclocarban in environmental water samples with ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A hydrophobic ionic liquid was finely dispersed in aqueous solution along with a hydrophilic ionic liquid. Following centrifugation, the two phases aggregate to form relatively large droplets. Based on this pheno...

Ru-Song Zhao; Xia Wang; Jing Sun; Cong Hu; Xi-Kui Wang

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Ionic Liquids: Structure and Photochemical Reactions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure and Photochemical Reactions Structure and Photochemical Reactions E. W. Castner, Jr., C. J. Margulis, M. Maroncelli, and J. F. Wishart in "Annual Reviews of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 62"; Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA, (2011) pp. 85-105. [Find paper at Annual Reviews] Abstract: Ionic liquids are subjects of intense current interest within the physical chemistry community. A great deal of progress has been made in just the past five years toward identifying the factors that cause these salts to have low melting points and other useful properties. Supramolecular structure and organization have emerged as important and complicated topics that may be key to understanding how chemical reactions and other processes are affected by ionic liquids. New questions are posed, and an active

27

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography and Electrodriven Separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......processing (5), solvent extraction (6, 7), electrolytes in batteries (8), metal deposition (9, 10) and gas treatment (11...Polymerized ionic liquid sorbents for CO2 separation. Energy and Fuels (2010) 24:5797-5804. 13 Ho T.D. , Canestraro A......

Yi Huang; Shun Yao; Hang Song

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Toward a Materials Genome Approach for Ionic Liquids: Synthesis...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Materials Genome Approach for Ionic Liquids: Synthesis Guided by Ab Initio Property Maps Previous Next List Fangyong Yan, Michael Lartey, Kuldeep Jariwala, Sage Bowser,...

29

Kinetics and Solvent Effects in the Synthesis of Ionic Liquids.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Ionic liquids (ILs) are being recognized as environmentally friendly ("green") solvents. However, their synthesis is often conducted in the very solvents that they will reportedly… (more)

Schleicher, Jay C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Using Ionic Liquids to Make Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Using Ionic Liquids to Make...

31

Compositions and methods useful for ionic liquid treatment of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention provides for novel compositions and methods for recycling or recovering ionic liquid used in IL pretreated cellulose and/or lignocellulosic biomass (LBM).

Dibble, Dean C.; Cheng, Aurelia; George, Anthe

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

32

Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Additives Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, selected low-viscosity...

33

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF3SO3-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3SO2)2N-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3CF2SO2)2N-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF3SO2)3C-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow sphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? The ?-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ? Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ? Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ? A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup ?} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the ?-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

Tang, Zhe, E-mail: tangzhe1983@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyq@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Li, Guangci, E-mail: liguangci1984@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Hu, Xiaofu, E-mail: hjj19850922@126.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Chenguang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Intermolecular Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Edward W. Castner, Jr., James F. Wishart, and Hideaki Shirota Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 1217-1227 (2007). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Ionic liquids can simultaneously assume multiple solvent roles, because they are strongly polar and polarizable solvents and binary solutions and frequently contain very hydrophobic components. When the cation and anion functional groups are tuned appropriately, ionic liquids can be used as designer solvents for a broad range of applications. In this Account, we discuss our spectroscopic studies on the intermolecular interactions, dynamics, solvation, transport, and friction in ionic liquids, as compared with information obtained from macroscopic experiments including viscometry

36

Intermolecular vibrations and fast relaxations in supercooled ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Short-time dynamics of ionic liquids has been investigated by low-frequency Raman spectroscopy (4 < ? < 100 cm?1) within the supercooled liquid range. Raman spectra are reported for ionic liquids with the same anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and different cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium trimethylbutylammonium and tributylmethylammonium. It is shown that low-frequency Raman spectroscopy provides similar results as optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy which has been used to study intermolecular vibrations in ionic liquids. The comparison of ionic liquids containing aromatic and non-aromatic cations identifies the characteristic feature in Raman spectra usually assigned to librational motion of the imidazolium ring. The strength of the fast relaxations (quasi-elastic scattering QES) and the intermolecular vibrational contribution (boson peak) of ionic liquids with non-aromatic cations are significantly lower than imidazolium ionic liquids. A correlation length assigned to the boson peak vibrations was estimated from the frequency of the maximum of the boson peak and experimental data of sound velocity. The correlation length related to the boson peak (?19 Å) does not change with the length of the alkyl chain in imidazolium cations in contrast to the position of the first-sharp diffraction peak observed in neutron and X-ray scattering measurements of ionic liquids. The rate of change of the QES intensity in the supercooled liquid range is compared with data of excess entropy free volume and mean-squared displacement recently reported for ionic liquids. The temperature dependence of the QES intensity in ionic liquids illustrates relationships between short-time dynamics and long-time structural relaxation that have been proposed for glass-forming liquids.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

38

Polarization versus Temperature in Pyridinium Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic polarization and charge transfer effects play a crucial role in thermodynamic, structural and transport properties of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These non-additive interactions constitute a useful tool for tuning physical chemical behavior of RTILs. Polarization and charge transfer generally decay as temperature increases, although their presence should be expected over an entire condensed state temperature range. For the first time, we use three popular pyridinium-based RTILs to investigate temperature dependence of electronic polarization in RTILs. Atom-centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics, supplemented by a weak coupling to an external bath, is used to simulate the temperature impact on system properties. We show that, quite surprisingly, non-additivity in the cation-anion interactions changes negligibly between 300 and 900 K, while the average dipole moment increases due to thermal fluctuations of geometries. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding...

Chaban, Vitaly V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes: Achieving a 10,000 GPU Permeance for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture with Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Alongside Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute, CU-Boulder is developing a membrane made of a gelled ionic liquid to capture CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants. The membranes are created by spraying the gelled ionic liquids in thin layers onto porous support structures using a specialized coating technique. The new membrane is highly efficient at pulling CO2 out of coal-derived flue gas exhaust while restricting the flow of other materials through it. The design involves few chemicals or moving parts and is more mechanically stable than current technologies. The team is now working to further optimize the gelled materials for CO2 separation and create a membrane layer that is less than 1 micrometer thick.

None

2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

40

Properties of some ionic liquids based on 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium cations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids as green solvents: progress and prospects.ionic liquids are “green” solvents, i.e. , environmentally

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Yakelis, Neal; Salminen, Justin; Bergman, Robert; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species James F. Wishart In "Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospects" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R. , Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 856, Ch. 31, pp. 381-395, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003. (ISBN 0-84123-856-1) [Information about the book] Abstract: An understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is important for development of their applications in radioactive material processing and for the application of pulse radiolysis techniques to the general study of chemical reactivity in ionic liquids. The distribution of primary radiolytic species and their reactivities determine the yields of ultimate products and the radiation stability of a particular ionic liquid. This chapter introduces some principles of radiation chemistry and the

42

Behavior of hydrophobic ionic liquids as liquid membranes on phenol removal: Experimental study and optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapor pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. Three ionic liquids with high hydrophobicity were used and their phenol removal efficiency, membrane stability and membrane loss were studied. Besides that, the effects of several parameters, namely feed phase pH, feed concentration, NaOH concentration and stirring speeds on the performance of best ionic liquid membrane were also evaluated. Lastly, an optimization study on bulk ionic liquid membrane was conducted and the maximum phenol removal efficiency was compared with the organic liquid membranes. The preliminary study shows that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 96.21% and 98.10%, respectively can be achieved by ionic liquid memb...

Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

44

Effects of Structural Modification on Ionic Liquid Physical Properties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of Structural Modification on the Physical Properties Effect of Structural Modification on the Physical Properties of Various Ionic Liquids S. I. Lall-Ramnarine, J. L. Hatcher, A. Castano, M. F. Thomas, and J. F. Wishart in "ECS Transactions - Las Vegas, NV, Vol. 33, Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 17" D. Fox et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2010) pp 659 - 665. [Find paper at ECS] Abstract: A few classes of ionic liquids were synthesized and investigated for their physical properties as a function of structural variation. Bis(oxalato)borate (BOB) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2) ionic liquids (ILs) containing pyridinium, 4-dimethylaminopyridinium (DMAP) and pyrrolidinium cations bearing alkyl, benzyl, hydroxyalkyl and alkoxy substituents, were prepared from the corresponding halide salts. The

45

Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel Absorbents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs as novel absorbents Background There is growing concern among climate scientists that the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere is affecting the global climate in ways that could have serious consequences. One approach to reducing GHG emissions is to scrub CO 2 from the flue gas of power plants and sequester it in geologic formations. Although it is technically feasible to remove CO 2 from flue gas, current processes are too expensive. New, less expensive processes are needed. This project is investigating the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids - for the capture of CO 2 from the flue gas from coal and natural gas-fired power plants. The success of ionic liquids technology

46

Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents for Glycosylation Reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are among the most promising alternatives to molecular organic solvents due to their unique properties and, in particular, are considered to be green solvents due to their nonvolatile and nonflammab...

Kaname Sasaki; Daisuke Takahashi; Kazunobu Toshima

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A group of oil-miscible ionic liquids has been developed by an ORNL-GM team as candidate lubricant additives with promising physical/chemical properties and potential multiple functionalities.

48

Kinetics and Solvent Effects in the Synthesis of Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids (ILs) are being recognized as environmentally friendly ("green") solvents. However, their synthesis is often conducted in the very solvents that they will reportedly replace. This research has investigated ...

Schleicher, Jay C.

2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

49

Electronically and ionically conductive porous material and method for manufacture of resin wafers therefrom  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically and ionically conductive porous material including a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material. The thermoplastic binder immobilizes the moieties with respect to each other but does not substantially coat the moieties and forms the electrically conductive porous material. A wafer of the material and a method of making the material and wafer are disclosed.

Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

50

Physically and chemically stable ionic liquid-infused textured surfaces showing excellent dynamic omniphobicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fluorinated and hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, effectively served as an advantageous lubricating liquid for the preparation of physically and chemically stable omniphobic surfaces based on slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces. Here, we used particulate microstructures as supports, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent surface modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. Confirmed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the resulting IL-infused microtextured surfaces are smooth and not only water but also various low surface tension liquids can easily slide off at low substrate tilt angles of <5°, even after exposure to high temperature, vacuum, and UV irradiation.

Miranda, Daniel F.; Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Dunderdale, Gary J.; Hozumi, Atsushi, E-mail: a.hozumi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98, Anagahora, Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 463-8560 (Japan); Yagihashi, Makoto [Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute, Rokuban, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-0058 (Japan)

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Charge Delocalization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Resistance Through Charge Delocalization in 1-Benzylpyridinium Ilya A. Shkrob, Timothy W. Marin, Jasmine L. Hatcher, Andrew R. Cook, Tomasz Szreder and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 117, Just Accepted (2013). [Find paper at ACS Publications]. Abstract: Hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) hold promise as replacements for molecular diluents for processing of used nuclear fuel as well as for the development of alternative separations processes, provided that the solvent can be made resistant to ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that 1-benzylpyridinium cations are uniquely suited as radiation resistant cations due to the occurrence of charge delocalization both in their reduced and oxidized form in the ILs. It is suggested that

52

Ionic Liquids and Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Species James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3225-3231 (2010). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request View the video on this Perspective article at The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (5:03) Selected for the ACS Special Virtual Issue on Ionic Liquids (March 2011). Abstract: Due to their unique properties, ionic liquids present many opportunities for basic research on the interactions of radiation with materials under conditions not previously available. At the same time, there are practical applied reasons for characterizing, understanding, and being able to predict how ionic-liquid-based devices and industrial-scale systems will perform under conditions of extreme reactivity, including radiation. This

53

Methods for separating medical isotopes using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for extracting a radioisotope from an aqueous solution, the method comprising: a) intimately mixing a non-chelating ionic liquid with the aqueous solution to transfer at least a portion of said radioisotope to said non-chelating ionic liquid; and b) separating the non-chelating ionic liquid from the aqueous solution. In preferred embodiments, the method achieves an extraction efficiency of at least 80%, or a separation factor of at least 1.times.10.sup.4 when more than one radioisotope is included in the aqueous solution. In particular embodiments, the method is applied to the separation of medical isotopes pairs, such as Th from Ac (Th-229/Ac-225, Ac-227/Th-227), or Ra from Ac (Ac-225 and Ra-225, Ac-227 and Ra-223), or Ra from Th (Th-227 and Ra-223, Th-229 and Ra-225).

Luo, Huimin; Boll, Rose Ann; Bell, Jason Richard; Dai, Sheng

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

54

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7¯ ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Solubilities of Solutes in Ionic Liquids from a Simple Perturbed-Hard-Sphere Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eds). Ionic liquids as Green solvents. Washington: Americanmay be useful as “green” solvents that do not pollute the

Qin, Yuan; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

58

High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

59

High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

Lu, Wen (Littleton, CO)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

60

Temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography for the rapid determination of triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-triclosan in aqueous samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As extraction solvents, ionic liquids have green characteristics. In this study, an environmentally benign analytical method termed temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TIL...

JieHong Guo; XingHong Li; XueLi Cao; Lei Qu; DeKun Hou…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

62

Ionic liquids for separation of olefin-paraffin mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to an ionic liquid comprising (i) a cationic portion containing a complex of a silver (I) ion and one or more neutral ligands selected from organoamides, organoamines, olefins, and organonitriles, and (ii) an anionic portion having the chemical formula ##STR00001## wherein m and n are independently 0 or an integer of 1 or above, and p is 0 or 1, provided that when p is 0, the group --N--SO.sub.2--(CF.sub.2).sub.nCF.sub.3 subtended by p is replaced with an oxide atom connected to the shown sulfur atom. The invention is also directed to a method for separating an olefin from an olefin-paraffin mixture by passing the mixture through a layer of the ionic liquid described above.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Huang, Jing-Fang

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

63

High-frequency acoustic modes in an ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-frequency collective dynamics of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C6C1im]Br has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Time correlation functions of mass current fluctuations were calculated for several wavevectors and the dispersion curves of excitations ?(k) for longitudinal and transverse acoustic sound modes were obtained at different temperatures and pressures. Two different thermodynamic states have the same high-frequency sound velocity irrespective of the temperature provided that both have the same density. Partial time correlation functions of mass currents were calculated for the atoms belonging to the polar or the non-polar domains resulting from the heterogeneous structure of [C6C1im]Br. The partial correlation functions indicate that the polar domains are stiffer than the non-polar domains of the simulated ionic liquid.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Ionic liquids for separation of olefin-paraffin mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to an ionic liquid comprising (i) a cationic portion containing a complex of a silver (I) ion and one or more neutral ligands selected from organoamides, organoamines, olefins, and organonitriles, and (ii) an anionic portion having the chemical formula ##STR00001## wherein m and n are independently 0 or an integer of 1 or above, and p is 0 or 1, provided that when p is 0, the group --N--SO.sub.2--(CF.sub.2).sub.nCF.sub.3 subtended by p is replaced with an oxide atom connected to the shown sulfur atom. The invention is also directed to a method for separating an olefin from an olefin-paraffin mixture by passing the mixture through a layer of the ionic liquid described above.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Huang, Jing-Fang

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Reactions of Lignin Model Compounds in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin, a readily available form of biomass, awaits novel chemistry for converting it to valuable aromatic chemicals. Recent work has demonstrated that ionic liquids are excellent solvents for processing woody biomass and lignin. Seeking to exploit ionic liquids as media for depolymerization of lignin, we investigated reactions of lignin model compounds in these solvents. Using Brønsted acid catalysts in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate at moderate temperatures, we obtained up to 11.6% yield of the dealkylation product guaiacol from the model compound eugenol and cleaved phenethyl phenyl ether, a model for lignin ethers. Despite these successes, acid catalysis failed in dealkylation of the unsaturated model compound 4-ethylguaiacol and did not produce monomeric products from organosolv lignin, demonstrating that further work is required to understand the complex chemistry of lignin depolymerization.

Holladay, John E.; Binder, Joseph B.; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Understanding the effect of side groups in ionic liquids on carbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the effect of side groups in ionic liquids on carbon-capture properties: a combined experimental and theoretical effort Previous Next List Fangyong Yan, Michael Lartey, Krishnan...

67

Synthesis and applications of imidazolium-based ionic liquids and their polymer derivatives .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??"Imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been increasingly used as green solvents to replace the volatile and relatively toxic organic solvents, in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, materials… (more)

Oh, Woon Su, 1974-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Short Time Dynamics of Ionic Liquids in AIMD-Based Power Spectra  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Short Time Dynamics of Ionic Liquids in AIMD-Based Power Spectra ... A Car-Parrinello study of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride water mixture ...

Katharina Wendler; Martin Brehm; Friedrich Malberg; Barbara Kirchner; Luigi Delle Site

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

69

Methods of using ionic liquids having a fluoride anion as solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method in one embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having a fluoride anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of about 90.degree. C. or less during the contacting. A method in another embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having an acetate or formate anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of less than about 90.degree. C. during the contacting.

Pagoria, Philip (Livermore, CA); Maiti, Amitesh (San Ramon, CA); Gash, Alexander (Brentwood, CA); Han, Thomas Yong (Pleasanton, CA); Orme, Christine (Oakland, CA); Fried, Laurence (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

70

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium ionic liquids Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic Data Center (CFADC) Collection: Plasma Physics and Fusion 2 "Control of protein folding and misfolding in ionic liquid media, and a conjecture on early earth biology"....

71

Project Profile: Thermally-Stable Ionic Liquid Carriers forNanopartic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

as ionic liquids (ILs). Approach Illusrtation of various colored circles connected by lines. They will select an appropriate IL using a constant method of determining thermal...

72

Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

Chaban, Vitaly

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Glyphosate-Based Herbicidal Ionic Liquids with Increased Efficacy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse testing indicated that while at a higher application rate of 360 g/ha the efficacy of all the HILs was comparable to the commercial herbicide control, at a lower application rate of 180 g/ha, the efficacy of all HILs was as much as two and a half to three times higher when compared to the commercial formulation, and the dianionic glyphosates were the most effective. ... In field trials, all but one of the tested HILs demonstrated excellent efficacy. ... Laboratory regrowth tests established that the ionic liquids of glyphosate are efficiently translocated to rhizomes preventing the regrowth of plants. ...

Juliusz Pernak; Micha? Niemczak; Rafa? Giszter; Julia L. Shamshina; Gabriela Gurau; O. Andreea Cojocaru; Tadeusz Praczyk; Katarzyna Marcinkowska; Robin D. Rogers

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

74

Ionic Liquids Used as Wear Reduction, Wins R&D 100 Award | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

100 Award October 16, 2014 - 11:19am Addthis Partnered with Shell Global Solutions, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed ionic liquids (salts in a liquid state...

75

Pysico-chemical properties of hydrophobic ionic liquids containing 1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium cations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids as green solvents: progress and prospects,in ionic liquid solvents. Green Chem. 2004, 6, 245-249. Xu,solvent structural variations on the mechanism of facilitated ion transfer into room-temperature ionic liquids. Green

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Lee, Jong-Min; Prausnitz, John M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Low-frequency Raman spectra and fragility of imidazolium ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman spectra within the 5-200 cm{sup -1} range have been recorded as a function of temperature for different ionic liquids based on imidazolium cations. A correlation has been found between fragility and the temperature dependence of the strength of fast relaxational motions. Understanding quasielastic scattering as the relaxational contribution to ionic mean-squared displacement elucidates some effects on ionic liquids' fragility resulting from modifications in the chemical structure.

Ribeiro, Mauro C. C. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Molecular, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

77

Low-frequency Raman spectra and fragility of imidazolium ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman spectra within the 5 – 200 ? cm ? 1 range have been recorded as a function of temperature for different ionic liquids based on imidazolium cations. A correlation has been found between fragility and the temperature dependence of the strength of fast relaxational motions. Understanding quasielastic scattering as the relaxational contribution to ionic mean-squared displacement elucidates some effects on ionic liquids’ fragility resulting from modifications in the chemical structure.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture ... Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) are potential green substitutes of aqueous amine solutions for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. ... However, the viscous nature of AAILs greatly hinders their further development in CO2 capture applications. ...

Xianfeng Wang; Novruz G. Akhmedov; Yuhua Duan; David Luebke; David Hopkinson; Bingyun Li

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

79

WHEN IT COMES TO SOLVENTS, IONIC LIQUIDS are in a class by themselves. Compared to other  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are a groundbreaking green alternative to highly toxic solvents capable of causing signifi- cant environmental harm WITTKOP IONIC LIQUIDS: THE GREEN SUPER-SOLVENTS AUTHOR: DEAN L. MASKEVICH is editor of NJIT Magazine. #12WHEN IT COMES TO SOLVENTS, IONIC LIQUIDS are in a class by themselves. Compared to other solvents

Bieber, Michael

80

Short Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with uranium from mining and milling operations, radioactive wastes, and from nuclear accidents is a majorShort Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous solution t s Uranium forms various complexes with ionic liquids. Uranium bioreduction was affected by the type

Ohta, Shigemi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Method of purifying a gas stream using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a target gas from a gaseous mixture using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids is presented. Industrial effluent streams may be cleaned by removing carbon dioxide from the stream by contacting the effluent stream with a 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquid compound.

Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunald; Tang, Chau

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

82

Efficient Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia in Ionic Liquids ... An efficient process was developed for the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]) by using sulfated zirconia as catalyst. ... Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars ...

Xinhua Qi; Haixin Guo; Luyang Li

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

84

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids Ionic Liquids Project No.: FC26-07NT43091 Model of CO2 absorption by an ionic liquid. Model of CO2 absorption by an IL. The model shows that the anions are controlling absorption in ILs. The green units represent anions and the grey units represent cations. The University of Notre Dame is conducting the Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture project (FC26-07NT43091), that builds on the work of its earlier project (FG26-04NT42122), to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids (ILs) - for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Initial efforts focused on "proof-of-concept" exploration, followed by a laboratory-/bench-scale effort. ILs include a broad category

85

The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use in nuclear fuel processing J. F. Wishart and I. A. Shkrob in "Ionic Liquids: From Knowledge to Application" Rogers, R. D., Plechkova, N. V., and Seddon, K. R., Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 1030, Ch. 8, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2009, pp 119-134. (ISBN 978-0-8412-6997-2) [Find chapter at ACS Publications] Abstract: Using ionic liquids as a medium for the processing of spent nuclear fuel, where their safety and process improvement advantages could be significant, promises to substantially contribute to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles to improve the world's energy posture. It is therefore important to study the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids, to determine

86

Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs generally have low volatilities and are combustion-resistant, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of primary radiation chemistry, charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of reactions and product distributions. We study these issues by characterization of primary radiolysis products and measurements of their yields and reactivity, quantification of electron solvation dynamics and scavenging of electrons in different states of solvation. From this knowledge we wish to learn how to predict radiolytic mechanisms and control them or mitigate their effects on the properties of materials used in nuclear fuel processing, for example, and to apply IL radiation chemistry to answer questions about general chemical reactivity in ionic liquids that will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that the slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increase the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alter product distributions and subsequent chemistry. This difference from conventional solvents has profound effects on predicting and controlling radiolytic yields, which need to be quantified for the successful use under radiolytic conditions. Electron solvation dynamics in ILs are measured directly when possible and estimated using proxies (e.g. coumarin-153 dynamic emission Stokes shifts or benzophenone anion solvation) in other cases. Electron reactivity is measured using ultrafast kinetics techniques for comparison with the solvation process.

Wishart, J.F.

2011-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

87

Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermophysical Properties of 1,8-Diazobicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene Based Thiocyanate Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work was supported by PETRONAS Ionic Liquids Centre (PILC). ... We acknowledge all of the research officers in PILC for helping with the analysis of the ionic liquids. ...

Kallidanthiyil Chellappan Lethesh; Syed Nasir Shah; M. I. Abdul Mutalib

2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

88

Efficient Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Chromium(III) Chloride in Inexpensive Ionic Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Chromium(III) Chloride in Inexpensive Ionic Liquid ... An efficient process was developed for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the relatively low-toxicity and inexpensive catalytic system of chromium(III) chloride (CrCl3·6H2O) catalyst and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) ionic liquid. ... Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Biofuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran ...

Lei Hu; Yong Sun; Lu Lin

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

89

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids Luke D. Simoni-Butanol, Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium, Excess Gibbs Energy Models, Biofuels #12;1 1. Introduction other organic compounds can be produced biologically, and thus can be considered as biofuel candidates

Stadtherr, Mark A.

90

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral Solvents Heather Y. Lee, Joseph B. Issa, Stephan S. Isied, Edward W. Castner, Jr., Yunfeng Pan, Charles L. Hussey, Kwang Soon Lee, and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 5197-5208 (2012). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request. Abstract: The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethyl¬sulfonyl)¬amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a

91

A Microfabricated Planar Electrospray Array Ionic Liquid Ion Source With Integrated Extractor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a fully microfabricated planar array of externally fed electrospray emitters that produces heavy molecular ions from the ionic liquids ...

Gassend, Blaise

92

Theoretical Investigations on Nanoporpus Materials and Ionic Liquids for Energy Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by adsorption. In this regard carbon nanotube and Metal Organic Framework (MOFs) based materials are worth studying. Ionic liquids (IL) are potential electrolytes that can improve energy storage capacity and safety in Li ion batteries. Therefore it is important...

Mani Biswas, Mousumi

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

Survey on ionic liquids effect based on metal anions over the thermal stability of heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A survey on the effect of ionic liquids (ILs) over the thermal stability of a heavy Mexican oil was performed. ILs used were based on [Cnim]+ and [Cnpyr]+ organic cations with FeCl 4 ...

J. A. Murillo-Hernández; S. López-Ramírez…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...existing internal combustion engines. Based in part on previous work (9), we constructed a...Microbial cellulose utilization: Fundamentals and biotechnology . Microbiol...precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from ionic liquid-treated...

Gregory Bokinsky; Pamela P. Peralta-Yahya; Anthe George; Bradley M. Holmes; Eric J. Steen; Jeffrey Dietrich; Taek Soon Lee; Danielle Tullman-Ercek; Christopher A. Voigt; Blake A. Simmons; Jay D. Keasling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Environmentally Benign Production of Ionic Liquids in CO2-Expanded Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The need to reduce air pollution in chemical manufacturing processes continues to drive the search for alternative solvents. Ionic Liquids (ILs) have emerged in recent years as a promising solution. In contrast to traditional ...

Nwosu, Sylvia Ogechi

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

97

Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvents Convert Sugars to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sugars were converted to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yield in ionic liquids without the addition of Bronsted acids. Very small amount of certain metal halides significantly reduced the fructose dehydration barrier in ionic liquids producing HMF at high yields. Most remarkably, glucose, a common sugar molecule, was selectively converted to HMF in good yield in ionic liquids containing a small amount of CrCl2. Thus CrCl2 is unique among metal chlorides tested for its effectiveness in both isomerizing glucose as well as dehydrating fructose. Only negligble amount of levulinic acid was formed in the reactions. The catalytic activity of metal chlorides for sugar conversion in ionic liquids is perhaps related to hydroxyl group of the sugar forming metal complexes with the unsaturated metal center.

Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Brown, Heather M.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Etherification of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to a Biodiesel Component Over Ionic Liquid Modified Zeolites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, ionic liquid (IL) modified H-Beta zeolites were prepared and the physicochemical properties of the catalysts were investigated. IL modified zeolites were applied in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) eth...

Eero Salminen; Narendra Kumar; Pasi Virtanen; Mikko Tenho…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Interfacial Ionic Liquids: Connecting Static and Dynamic Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is well-known that room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) often adopt a charge-separated layered structure, i.e., with alternating cation- and anion-rich layers, at electrified interfaces. However, the dynamic response of the layered structure to temporal variations in applied potential is not well understood. We used in situ, real-time X-ray reflectivity (XR) to study the potential-dependent electric double layer (EDL) structure of an imidazolium-based RTIL on charged epitaxial graphene during potential cycling as a function of temperature. The results suggest that the graphene-RTIL interfacial structure is bistable in which the EDL structure at any intermediate potential can be described by the combination of two extreme-potential structures whose proportions vary depending on the polarity and magnitude of the applied potential. This picture is supported by the EDL structures obtained by fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at various static potentials. The potential-driven transition between the two structures is characterized by an increasing width but with an approximately fixed hysteresis magnitude as a function of temperature. The results are consistent with the coexistence of distinct anion and cation adsorbed structures separated by an energy barrier (~0.15 eV).

Ahmet Uysal; Hua Zhou; Guang Feng; Sang Soo Lee; Song Li; Peter T. Cummings; Pasquale F. Fulvio; Sheng Dai; John K. McDonough; Yury Gogotsi; Paul Fenter

2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

100

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Background Development of innovative environmental control technologies is key to maintaining coal as an affordable and environmentally sound energy source. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control technologies, specifically post-combustion CO 2 capture, for coal- fired power plants is a major focus area in addressing climate change concerns. Post-

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101

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial region between graphene and an imidazolium based ionic liquid is studied using spectroscopic analysis and computational modelling. This combined approach reveals that the molecular level structure of the interfacial region is significantly influenced by functional group defects on the graphene surface.The combined experimental and computational study reveals that the molecular structure at interfacial region between graphene and imidazolium based ionic liquid is defined by the hydroxyl functional groups on the graphene surface

Vijayakumar, M.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Shutthanandan, V.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

102

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO 2 Capture Background Post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture presents technical challenges because the flue gas is at atmospheric pressure and the CO 2 concentration is 10 to 15 volume percent, resulting in a low CO 2 partial pressure and a large volume of gas that needs to be treated. In spite of this difficulty, post-combustion CO 2 capture offers the

103

DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

Fox, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Porous material and process development for electrospray propulsion applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ion electrospray propulsion devices rely on the transportation of ionic liquid propellant to emission regions where ions are extracted at high velocities. One such method involves the use of porous substrates to passively ...

Arestie, Steven Mark

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Highly Selective and Near-Quantitative Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Mildly Acidic Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly Selective and Near-Quantitative Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Mildly Acidic Ionic Liquids ... The ionic liquid, [C4C1im][HSO4], provides an acidic solvent in which to convert fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural rapidly and in high yield. ... The room-temperature ionic liquid, [C4C1im][HSO4], provides a multi-faceted medium in which to convert fructose to the versatile chemical building block, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). ...

Sanan Eminov; James D. E. T. Wilton-Ely; Jason P. Hallett

2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

107

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Structure and phase transitions into ionic adsorption layers on liquid interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The structure of ionic adsorption layers is studied via a proper thermodynamic treatment of the electrostatic and non-electrostatic interactions between the surfactant ions as well as of the effect of thermodynamic non-locality. The analysis is also applied to phase transitions into the ionic adsorption layer, which interfere further with the oscillatory-diffusive structure of the electric double layer and hydrodynamic stability of squeezing waves in thin liquid films.

R. Tsekov

2014-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

109

Reclamation of niobium compounds from ionic liquid electrochemical polishing of superconducting radio frequency cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent research has shown that choline chloride (vitamin B4)-based solutions can be used as a greener alternative to acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. This study demonstrated a successful method for electrochemical deposition of niobium compounds onto the surface of copper substrates using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. Niobium ions present in the ionic liquid solution were dissolved into the solution prior to deposition via electrochemical polishing of solid niobium. A black coating was clearly visible on the surface of the Cu following deposition. This coating was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). This ionic liquid-based electrochemical deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemical polishing of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities.

Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony; ,

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

111

High-Pressure Phase Equilibria of Ionic Liquids and Compressed Gases for Applications in Reactions and Absorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of high-melting solids not liquids at processing conditions. Coupling ionic liquids with compressed gases systems may overcome most of these difficulties for their applications in separations, reactions, materials processing and engineering applications...

Ren, Wei

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

112

Method to prepare nanoparticles on porous mediums  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method to prepare porous medium decorated with nanoparticles involves contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a porous medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.

Vieth, Gabriel M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

113

Trace determination of triclosan and triclocarban in environmental water samples with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction prior to HPLC–ESI-MS–MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel and environmentally friendly microextraction method, termed ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction (IL-DLPME), has been developed for rapid enrichment of triclosan and triclocarban before an...

Ru-Song Zhao; Xia Wang; Jing Sun; Shan-Shan Wang…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics inIonic Liquids and Neutral Solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a 1-N,1-N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine donor, a proline bridge, and a coumarin 343 acceptor. The photoinduced electron-transfer processes are in the inverted regime (-{Delta}G > {lambda}) in all four solvents, with driving forces of -1.6 to -1.9 eV and estimated reorganization energies of about 1.0 eV. The observed electron-transfer kinetics have broadly distributed rates that are generally slower in the ionic liquids compared to the neutral solvents, which also have narrower rate distributions. To describe the broad distributions of electron-transfer kinetics, we use two different models: a distribution of exponential lifetimes and a discrete sum of exponential lifetimes. Analysis of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling shows that for ionic liquids this intramolecular electron-transfer reaction should be treated using a solvent-controlled electron-transfer model.

Wishart J. F.; Lee, H.Y.; Issa, J.B.; Isied, S.S.; Castner, Jr., E.W.; Pan, Y.; Hussey, C.L.; Lee, K.S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...depolymerization and conversion: A review of thermochemical methods . Chem Eng...in ionic liquids . Biomass Bioenergy 33 : 1122 – 1130 . 40 Abdel-Magid AF Carson...profiling was supported by the BioEnergy Science Center administered...information, and related literature citations. Table S2. Raw...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices H. Bircana polymer configuration is commonly used when constructing electrochromic devices (ECDs) due to the expected)thienyl)-N-methylcarbazole] (PBEDOT-NMCz) as the two complementary electrochromic polymers for the device. A variety of gel

Otero, Toribio Fernández

117

Ionic liquid effects on mass transfer efficiency in extractive distillation of water–ethanol mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The relatively high viscosities of ionic liquids could reduce the mass transfer efficiency of the extractive distillation process. The rate-based model was adopted to analyze this phenomenon since it predicted the performance of an extractive distillation pilot plant using ionic liquids as solvent. For the water–ethanol separation, three ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide and the organic solvent ethylene glycol were used for the analysis. Simulations were conducted for sieve trays and Mellapak® 250Y. The results indicate that relatively high viscosities affect the mass transfer efficiency. However, the improvements in relative volatilities obtained from the ionic liquids help to overcome this effect. However, with high solvent viscosities (>65 mPa s at T = 353.15 K) it was not possible to overcome the reductions. Additionally, at higher distillate rates high relative volatilities yielded negative effects on mass transfer efficiency because of a decrease in vapor velocity.

E. Quijada-Maldonado; G. Wytze Meindersma; André B. de Haan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Protic Ionic Liquids: Preparation, Characterization, and Proton Free Energy Level Representation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interesting properties, including the ability to serve as electrolytes in solvent-free fuel cell systems. We in a fuel cell.2,7,8 This is an application which requires the presence of a special type of ionic liquids continue to be found. They are the low-melting relatives of molten salts whose place in the history

Angell, C. Austen

119

Gas-liquid critical point in ionic fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on the method of collective variables we develop the statistical field theory for the study of a simple charge-asymmetric $1:z$ primitive model (SPM). It is shown that the well-known approximations for the free energy, in particular DHLL and ORPA, can be obtained within the framework of this theory. In order to study the gas-liquid critical point of SPM we propose the method for the calculation of chemical potential conjugate to the total number density which allows us to take into account the higher order fluctuation effects. As a result, the gas-liquid phase diagrams are calculated for $z=2-4$. The results demonstrate the qualitative agreement with MC simulation data: critical temperature decreases when $z$ increases and critical density increases rapidly with $z$.

O. Patsahan; I. Mryglod; T. Patsahan

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

120

Capacitive Energy Storage from - 50o to 100o Using an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relying on redox reactions, most batteries are limited in their ability to operate at very low or very high temperatures. While performance of electrochemical capacitors is less dependent on the temperature, present-day devices still cannot cover the entire range needed for automotive and electronics applications under a variety of environmental conditions. We show that the right combination of the exohedral nanostructured carbon (nanotubes and onions) electrode and a eutectic mixture of ionic liquids can dramatically extend the temperature range of electrical energy storage, thus defying the conventional wisdom that ionic liquids can only be used as electrolytes above room temperature. We demonstrate electrical double layer capacitors able to operate from 50 to 100 C over a wide voltage window (up to 3.7 V) and at very high charge/discharge rates of up to 20 V/s.

Lin, Rongying [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.; Taberna, Pierre-Louis [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.; Santini, Sebastien [SOLVIONIC Company, Toulouse, France; Presser, Volker [ORNL; Perez, Carlos R. [Drexel University; Malbosc, Francois [SOLVIONIC Company, Toulouse, France; Rupesinghe, Nalin L. [AIXTRON, Cambridge, UK; Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON, Cambridge, UK; Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel University; Simon, Patrice [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Borkowski, Marian [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Los Alamos Natl Lab, Earth and Environm Sci Div, Carlsbad, NM, (United States); Laszak, Ivan [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Commisariat Energie Atom, DEN DPC SERC LANIE, Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Dietz, Mark L. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wisconsin-Milwaukee Univ, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Milwaukee, WI, (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Extraction of Uranium from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Conjunction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranyl ions (UO2)2+ in aqueous nitric acid solutions can be extracted into supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) via an imidazolium-based ionic liquid using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent. The transfer of uranium from the ionic liquid to the supercritical fluid phase was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy using a high-pressure fiberoptic cell. The form of the uranyl complex extracted into the supercritical CO2 phase was found to be UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2. The extraction results were confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and by neutron activation analysis. This technique could potentially be used to extract other actinides for applications in the field of nuclear waste management.

Wang, Joanna S.; Sheaff, Chrystal N.; Yoon, Byunghoon; Addleman, Raymond S.; Wai, Chien M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

N-Methyl-N-Allylpyrrolidinium Based Ionic Liquids for Solvent-Free Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We prepared four new ionic liquids consisting of N-methyl-N-allylpyrrolidinium cation in conjunction with anions including iodide, nitrate, thiocyanate, and dicyanamide, respectively, and measured their physical properties of density, viscosity, and ...

Ning Cai; Jing Zhang; Difei Zhou; Zhihui Yi; Jin Guo; Peng Wang

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

124

Project Profile: Thermally-Stable Ionic Liquid Carriers for Nanoparticle-Based Heat Transfer in CSP Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Savannah River National Laboratory, under an ARRA CSP Award, is performing research to better understand the thermal stability of low-temperature organic molten salts, which are commonly referred to as ionic liquids (ILs).

125

Ionic Liquid?Water Mixtures: Enhanced Kw for Efficient Cellulosic Biomass Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Departments of Chemistry and ... Under relatively mild conditions (?140 °C, 1 atm) and in the absence of added acid catalysts typically employed in biomass conversion, cellulose dissolved in certain ionic liquids (ILs) has been converted into water-soluble reducing sugars in high total reducing sugar yield (up to 97%), or directly into the biomass platform chemical 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) in high conversion (up to 89%) when CrCl2 is added. ...

Yuetao Zhang; Hongbo Du; Xianghong Qian; Eugene Y.-X. Chen

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

126

Ionic-Liquid Induced Changes in Cellulose Structure Associated with Enhanced Biomass Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of varying ionic liquid pretreatment parameters on various sources of lignocellulosic biomass have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fiber diffraction, and compositional analysis. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar analysis were used to relate the observed changes in cellulose structure to biomass digestibility. In this study, the factor most clearly associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis is the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase.

Samayam, Indira P.; Hanson, B. Leif; Langan, Paul; Schall, Constance A. (Toledo)

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

3D Printing Phosphonium Ionic Liquid Networks with Mask Projection Microstereolithography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

3D Printing Phosphonium Ionic Liquid Networks with Mask Projection Microstereolithography ... Additive manufacturing, often referred to as 3D printing, where objects are constructed in a layer-by-layer fashion, enables the design and creation of geometrically complex objects with tailored topology, and thus, functionality. ... Herein, we report photopolymerization strategies coupled with additive manufacturing to achieve 3D printed phosphonium PILs in order to demonstrate the first example of 3D printing of an ion-conducting polymer. ...

Alison R. Schultz; Philip M. Lambert; Nicholas A. Chartrain; David M. Ruohoniemi; Zhiyang Zhang; Chainika Jangu; Musan Zhang; Christopher B. Williams; Timothy E. Long

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

128

Solubility of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols in Ionic Liquids: Measurement and PC-SAFT Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solubility of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols in Ionic Liquids: Measurement and PC-SAFT Modeling ... The measured data as well as previously published solubility data of glucose and fructose in these ILs were modeled by means of PC-SAFT using a molecular-based associative approach for ILs. ... PC-SAFT was used in this work as it has shown to be applicable to model the solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in ILs (Paduszy?ski; et al. ...

Aristides P. Carneiro; Christoph Held; Oscar Rodríguez; Gabriele Sadowski; Eugénia A. Macedo

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

129

Ionic liquid binary mixtures: Promising reaction media for carbohydrate conversion into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) has been studied in binary mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs), using strongly acidic resin Amberlyst 15 as the catalyst. In particular, both mono- and disaccharides, such as fructose, glucose and sucrose have been investigated. Considering the favorable effect exerted by chloride-based ionic liquids in the dissolution of carbohydrates, we used binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]) with [bmim+] based ionic liquids differing in size, shape and coordination ability of the anion ([bmim][BF4], [bmim][N(CF3SO2)2], [bmim][N(CN)2], [bmim][SbF6] and [bmim][CF3SO3]). Carbohydrate conversion in [bmim][BF4]/[bmim][Cl] binary mixtures, has been studied under both magnetic stirring and ultrasound (US) activation. The catalytic system used led to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in good yield under mild conditions. A significant influence of IL binary mixture composition on the outcome of the target processes was evidenced. Improvements in both reaction time and temperature have been observed, under US activation.

Francesca D’Anna; Salvatore Marullo; Paola Vitale; Carla Rizzo; Paolo Lo Meo; Renato Noto

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Lattice Boltzmann method for modeling liquid-vapor interface configurations in porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lattice Boltzmann method for modeling liquid-vapor interface configurations in porous media Michael; published 13 January 2004. [1] The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has emerged as a powerful tool: Modeling; 3230 Mathematical Geophysics: Numerical solutions; KEYWORDS: Lattice Boltzmann Citation: Sukop, M

Sukop, Mike

131

Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

First evidence of anisotropic quenched disorder effects on a smectic liquid crystal confined in porous silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a neutron scattering analysis of the structure of the smectic liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined in one-dimensional nanopores of porous silicon films (PS). The smectic transition is completely suppressed, leading to the extension of a short-range ordered smectic phase aligned along the pore axis. It evolves reversibly over an extended temperature range, down to 50 K below the \\textit{N-SmA} transition in pure 8CB. This behavior strongly differs from previous observations of smectics in different one-dimensional porous materials. A coherent picture of this striking behavior requires that quenched disorder effects are invoked. The strongly disordered nature of the inner surface of PS acts as random fields coupling to the smectic order. The one-dimensionality of PS nano-channels offers new perspectives on quenched disorder effects, which observation has been restricted to homogeneous random porous materials so far.

Régis Guégan; Denis Morineau; Claude Loverdo; Wilfried Béziel; Mohammed Guendouz

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

133

Squeezout phenomena and boundary layer formation of a model ionic liquid under confinement and charging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic appraoch under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering, and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.

R. Capozza; A. Vanossi; A. Benassi; E. Tosatti

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

134

Conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural catalyzed by acidic ionic liquids in dimethyl sulfoxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An efficient process was developed for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) using DMSO as the solvent and an acidic ionic liquid 1-carboxypropyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([CMIm]Cl) as the catalyst. The effects of various reaction parameters on HMF yields were investigated. HMF yields of 95.7% and 88.4% were obtained from fructose and inulin when reactions were carried out 120 °C after 120 min and 180 min, respectively. The combination of ZrOCl2 and [CMIm]Cl resulted in a 50.6% yield of HMF from glucose. HMF could also be synthesized using other carbohydrates with moderate to high yields.

Zhao Hu; Bing Liu; Zehui Zhang; Lianqing Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals: Thermodynamic Studies on the Extraction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals: Thermodynamic Studies on the Extraction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Ionic Liquids ... Furthermore, the solubility of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in these solutes and the solubility of the solutes in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate ([C4mim][CH3SO3]) was assessed. ... In the past 20 years, a large body of work has been conducted on the condensation of fructose and other carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which, due to its multifunctionality, has been claimed a prime platform chemical derived from biomass (Scheme 1). ...

Annegret Stark; Bernd Ondruschka; Dzmitry H. Zaitsau; Sergey P. Verevkin

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

A Preliminary Study of Oxidation of Lignin from Rubber Wood to Vanillin in Ionic Liquid Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, lignin was oxidised to vanillin by means of oxygen in ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate) medium. The parameters of the oxidation reaction that have been investigated were the following: concentration of oxygen (5, 10, 15 and 20 ft3 h-1), reaction time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) and reaction temperature (25, 40, 60, 80 and 100{\\deg}C). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses were used to characterise the product. The results revealed vanillin as the product obtained via the oxidation reaction. The optimum parameters of vanillin production were 20 ft3 h-1 of oxygen for 10 h at 100{\\deg}C. In conclusion, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate could be used as an oxidation reaction medium for the production of vanillin from rubber wood lignin.

Shamsuri, A A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

An unusual non-Tafel dependence for electron transfer reactions in ionic liquids at large electrode polarisations: Fiction or reality?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We speculate about the existence of a “square-root Tafel dependence” for simple one stage anodic/cathodic electron transfer reactions in ionic liquids. In this dependence, the logarithm of the current depends linearly on the square-root of electrode potential. The modified law is a consequence of ion crowding in the electrical double layer at high charges of the electrode. It may be expected that this effect may be observed for slow reactions at large electrode polarisations, yet not triggering electrochemical decomposition of ionic liquids, and only if diffusion limitations on the transport of reactants are absent.

Alexei A. Kornyshev; Lu-Peng Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Uranyl coordination environment in hydrophobic ionic liquids : an in situ investigation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different inner-sphere coordination environments are observed for the uranyl nitrate complexes formed with octyl-phenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and tributyl phosphate in dodecane and in the hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] and [C{sub 8}mim][N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}]. Qualitative differences in the coordination environment of the extracted uranyl species are implied by changes in peak intensity patterns and locations for uranyl UV-visible spectral bands when the solvent is changed. EXAFS data for uranyl complexes in dodecane solutions is consistent with hexagonal bipyramidal coordination and the existence of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(CMPO){sub 2}. In contrast, the complexes formed when uranyl is transferred from aqueous nitric acid solutions into the ILs exhibit an average equatorial coordination number of approximately 4.5. Liquid/liquid extraction results for uranyl in both ILs indicate a net stoichiometry of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3})(CMPO){sup +}. The concentration of the IL cation in the aqueous phase increases in proportion to the amount of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3})(CMPO){sup +} in the IL phase, supporting a predominantly cation exchange mechanism for partitioning in the IL systems.

Visser, A. E.; Jensen, M. P.; Laszak, I.; Nash, K. L.; Choppin, G. R.; Roers, R. D.; Chemistry; Univ. of Alabama; Flordia State Univ.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Superoxide Electrochemistry in an Ionic Liquid Inas M. AlNashef, Matthew L. Leonard, Michael A. Matthews,* and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with organic solvents as the reaction medium. Green chemistry and engineering calls for better, sustainable-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as substitute solvents in Green chemistry, with the emphasis on organic synthesis dissolved in two different solvent systems: (1) acetonitrile with tetraethylammonium perchlorate (TEAP

Weidner, John W.

140

Supplement to Chimica Oggi/CHEMISTRY TODAY Vol 25 nr 6 Green Chemistry/Ionic liquids Aquatic toxicity and biodegradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplement to Chimica Oggi/CHEMISTRY TODAY · Vol 25 nr 6 · Green Chemistry/Ionic liquids 32 Aquatic these are two important aspects of green chemistry, yet data are limited compared to the vast literature on IL currently used volatile solvents (Table 3). However, standard bioassays typically do not mimic

Bernot, Randall

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Click grafting of seaweed bioactive polysaccharides onto PVC surfaces using ionic liquid as green solvent and catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6 . Their recyclable characteristics and their catalytic activities make them a green alternative to organic solventsClick grafting of seaweed bioactive polysaccharides onto PVC surfaces using ionic liquid as green solvent and catalyst Sandra Bigota , Guy Louarnb , Nasreddine Kébir*a and Fabrice Burela a Normandie

Boyer, Edmond

142

An artificial neural network to calculate pure ionic liquid densities without the need for any experimental data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a feed-forward artificial neural network, with three layers and seventeen neurons, was constructed to estimate the densities of a wide range of ionic liquid families including those based on the imidazolium, ammonium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and isoquinolinium cations, together with various anions, as well as varying lengths of alkyl side chain lengths. The model is a function of the molecular weight and structure of the ionic liquid, and the system condition of temperature and pressure, which covers a temperature range of (273.15 to 393.17) K and a pressure range of (0.1 to 100) MPa. Therefore, no additional experimental data on the ionic liquid is required as input parameter(s), which makes this technique quite versatile. It was observed that the estimated values of densities of pure ionic liquids have very good agreement with the experimental data. The training correlating coefficient (R), the training performance (MSE), and the average absolute error on the training dataset were 0.99997, 6.04 × 10?6, and 0.019%, respectively. The average absolute error value on the test dataset is 0.014%.

Mohammad-Reza Fatehi; Sona Raeissi; Dariush Mowla

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Efficient conversion of cellulose into biofuel precursor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethyl sulfoxide–ionic liquid mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In recent years, cellulose has received increasing attention as a potential material for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. In this study, a new process for the efficient conversion of cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was developed by the use of AlCl3 as the catalyst in DMSO–ionic liquid ([BMIM]Cl) mixtures. Various reaction parameters such as reaction time, reaction temperature, solvent and catalyst dosage were investigated in detail. A high HMF yield of 54.9% was obtained from cellulose at 150 °C after 9 h in a mixed solvent of DMSO–[BMIM]Cl (10 wt.%). More importantly, the catalytic system could be reused for several times despite of the slight loss of its catalytic activity.

Shaohua Xiao; Bing Liu; Yimei Wang; Zhongfeng Fang; Zehui Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

145

Alkaline Ionic Liquids as Catalysts: A Novel and Green Process for the Dehydration of Carbohydrates To Give 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alkaline Ionic Liquids as Catalysts: A Novel and Green Process for the Dehydration of Carbohydrates To Give 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural ... An efficient process for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) catalyzed by the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide ([BMIM]OH), using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent, has been developed. ... (6, 7) The efficient transformation of hexoses such as fructose, glucose, galactose, and mannose or disaccharides such as sucrose and cellobiose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)—which is regarded as a versatile platform molecule and is used in the production of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers—is a key step in the use of carbohydrates to produce liquid fuels and value-added chemicals. ...

Yong-Shui Qu; Yan-Lei Song; Chong-Pin Huang; Jie Zhang; Biao-Hua Chen

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Radiation induced redox reactions and fragmentation of constituent ions in ionic liquids II. Imidazolium cations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In part 1 of this study, radiolytic degradation of constituent anions in ionic liquids (ILs) was examined. The present study continues the themes addressed in part 1 and examines the radiation chemistry of 1,3-dialkyl substituted imidazolium cations, which currently comprise the most practically important and versatile class of ionic liquid cations. For comparison, we also examined 1,3-dimethoxy- and 2-methyl-substituted imidazolium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations. In addition to identification of radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and selective deuterium substitution, we analyzed stable radiolytic products using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS). Our EPR studies reveal rich chemistry initiated through 'ionization of the ions': oxidation and the formation of radical dications in the aliphatic arms of the parent cations (leading to deprotonation and the formation of alkyl radicals in these arms) and reduction of the parent cation, yielding 2-imidazolyl radicals. The subsequent reactions of these radicals depend on the nature of the IL. If the cation is 2-substituted, the resulting 2-imidazolyl radical is relatively stable. If there is no substitution at C(2), the radical then either is protonated or reacts with the parent cation forming a C(2)-C(2) {sigma}{sigma}*-bound dimer radical cation. In addition to these reactions, when methoxy or C{sub {alpha}}-substituted alkyl groups occupy the N(1,3) positions, their elimination is observed. The elimination of methyl groups from N(1,3) was not observed. Product analyses of imidazolium liquids irradiated in the very-high-dose regime (6.7 MGy) reveal several detrimental processes, including volatilization, acidification, and oligomerization. The latter yields a polymer with m/z of 650 {+-} 300 whose radiolytic yield increases with dose (0.23 monomer units per 100 eV for 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium trifluorosulfonate). Gradual generation of this polymer accounts for the steady increase in the viscosity of the ILs upon irradiation. Previous studies at lower dose have missed this species due to its wide mass distribution (stretching out to m/z 1600) and broad NMR lines, which make it harder to detect at lower concentrations. Among other observed changes is the formation of water immiscible fractions in hydrophilic ILs and water miscible fractions in hydrophobic ILs. The latter is due to anion fragmentation. The import of these observations for use of ILs as extraction solvents in nuclear cycle separations is discussed.

Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. W.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Hatcher, J.; Wishart, J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (BNL)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

147

Towards In situ extraction of fine chemicals and biorenewable fuels from fermentation broths using Ionic liquids and the Intensification of contacting by the application of Electric Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

product separations. For developing environmentally sustainable processes, ionic liquids are touted as greener alternative to organic solvents not only because of their relatively low volatility but also due to the ability to tune their properties...

Gangu, Satya Aravind

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Hazardous Materials j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / j h a z m a t Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption C. Zhang a,b,∗ , S.V. Malhotra b,1 , A.J. Francis c,d a College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China 300071 b Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07104 USA c Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 USA d Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 South Korea h i g h l i g h t s * Three ILs showed varying degrees of toxicity to Clostridium sp.

149

Tribological characteristics of aluminum alloys against steel lubricated by ammonium and imidazolium ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sliding friction and wear characteristics of aluminum alloys against AISI 52100 steel lubricated by ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at both room and elevated temperatures. The tested aluminum alloys include a commercially pure aluminum Al 1100, a wrought alloy Al 6061-T6511, and a cast alloy Al 319-T6. The lubricating performance of two ILs with the same anion, one ammonium-based [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium-based C10mim.Tf2N, were compared each other and benchmarked against that of a conventional fully-formulated engine oil. Significant friction (up to 35%) and wear (up to 55%) reductions were achieved by the ammonium IL when lubricating the three aluminum alloys compared to the engine oil. The imidazolium IL performed better than the oil but not as well as the ammonium IL for Al 1100 and 319 alloys. However, accelerated wear was unexpectedly observed for Al 6061 alloy when lubricated by C10mim.Tf2N. Surface chemical analyses implied complex tribochemical reactions between the aluminum surfaces and ILs during the wear testing, which has been demonstrated either beneficial by forming a protective boundary film or detrimental by causing severe tribo-corrosion. The effects of the IL cation structure, aluminum alloy composition, and tribo-testing condition on the friction and wear results have been discussed.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Truhan, John J. [Caterpillar Inc.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over cellulose-derived carbonaceous catalyst in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Three environmental-benign and low-cost carbon-based solid acid catalysts containing –SO3H, –COOH and phenolic –OH groups were prepared and used for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl). The results demonstrated that cellulose-derived carbonaceous catalyst (CCC) possessed the highest catalytic activity, which resulted in 46.4% HMF yield at 160 °C for only 15 min. In addition, the reaction kinetics for the conversion of glucose into HMF over CCC was fitted with the first-order rate equation. The slightly-deactivated CCC after four successive reaction runs could be easily regenerated by a simple carbonization and sulfonation process. More gratifyingly, the combination of CCC and [BMIM]Cl were confirmed to be suitable for converting other carbohydrates such as fructose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, starch and cellulose into HMF. Particularly, a plausible mechanism involving hydrolysis, isomerization and dehydration for the conversion of carbohydrates into HMF was also proposed.

Lei Hu; Geng Zhao; Xing Tang; Zhen Wu; Jiaxing Xu; Lu Lin; Shijie Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Vitamin B{sub 4}-Based Ionic Liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern particle accelerators require minimal interior surface roughness for Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Polishing of the Nb is currently achieved via electrochemical polishing with concentrated mixtures of sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids. This acid-based approach is effective at reducing the surface roughness to acceptable levels for SRF use, but due to acid-related hazards and extra costs (including safe disposal of used polishing solutions), an acid-free method would be preferable. This study focuses on an alternative electrochemical polishing method for Nb, using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride, also known as Vitamin B{sub 4} (VB{sub 4}). Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed on the VB4-based system. Nb polished using the VB4-based method was found to have a final surface roughness comparable to that achieved via the acid-based method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These findings indicate that acid-free VB{sub 4}-based electrochemical polishing of Nb represents a promising replacement for acid-based methods of SRF cavity preparation.

Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Varanasi, Patanjali [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Singh, Seema [Joint Bioenergy Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Physical insight into switchgrass dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize solutions of switchgrass and the constituent biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a physical mixture of them mimicking the composition of switchgrass, dissolved in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. The results demonstrate that the IL dissolves the cellulose fibrils of switchgrass, although a supramolecular biopolymer network remains that is not present in solutions of the individual biopolymers and that does not self-assemble in a solution containing the physical mixture of the individual biopolymers. The persistence of a network-like structure indicates that dissolving switchgrass in the IL does not disrupt all of the physical entanglements and covalent linkages between the biopolymers created during plant growth. Reconstitution of the IL-dissolved switchgrass yields carbohydrate-rich material containing cellulose with a low degree of crystallinity, as determined by powder X-ray diffraction, which impacts potential down-stream uses of the biopolymers produced by the process. The data suggests that the use of chemical additives which would break bonds that exist between the lignin and hemicellulose might improve the purity of the resulting product, but may not be able to disrupt the highly physically-entangled biopolymer network sufficiently to facilitate their separation.

Wang, Hui [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Gurau, Gabriela [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Neil, Hugh [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, Barbara R [ORNL] [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL] [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL] [ORNL; Rogers, Robin D [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

155

Lithium Ion Transport Mechanism in Ternary Polymer Electrolyte-Ionic Liquid Mixtures - A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The lithium transport mechanism in ternary polymer electrolytes, consisting of PEO/LiTFSI and various fractions of the ionic liquid N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, are investigated by means of MD simulations. This is motivated by recent experimental findings [Passerini et al., Electrochim. Acta 2012, 86, 330-338], which demonstrated that these materials display an enhanced lithium mobility relative to their binary counterpart PEO/LiTFSI. In order to grasp the underlying microscopic scenario giving rise to these observations, we employ an analytical, Rouse-based cation transport model [Maitra at al., PRL 2007, 98, 227802], which has originally been devised for conventional polymer electrolytes. This model describes the cation transport via three different mechanisms, each characterized by an individual time scale. It turns out that also in the ternary electrolytes essentially all lithium ions are coordinated by PEO chains, thus ruling out a transport mechanism enhanced by the presence of ionic-liquid molecules. Rather, the plasticizing effect of the ionic liquid contributes to the increased lithium mobility by enhancing the dynamics of the PEO chains and consequently also the motion of the attached ions. Additional focus is laid on the prediction of lithium diffusion coefficients from the simulation data for various chain lengths and the comparison with experimental data, thus demonstrating the broad applicability of our approach.

Diddo Diddens; Andreas Heuer

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

156

Determination of Single-Ion Activities of H+ and Cl– in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Solutions by Use of an Ionic Liquid Salt Bridge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many of the problems inherent to KCl-type salt bridges can be circumvented by use of a salt bridge made of a moderately hydrophobic ionic liquid, that is, an ionic liquid salt bridge (ILSB). ... A newly emerged salt bridge based on moderately hydrophobic ionic liqs. is promising to solve many of the problems that KCl-type salt bridges are unable to, possibly making the future of electroanal. ... The new salt bridge is free from most of the problems inherent to KCl-based salt bridges. ...

Hideaki Sakaida; Takashi Kakiuchi

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

157

Zeolite-promoted transformation of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A variety of zeolite catalysts were investigated for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), and the results revealed that H?-zeolite with a unique BEA structure and a moderate Si/Al ratio of 25 possessed the highest catalytic activity, which resulted in 50.3% HMF yield with 80.6% glucose conversion at a reaction temperature of 150 °C for only 50 min. In the presence of H?-zeolite (Si/Al = 25) and [BMIM]Cl, the reaction kinetics for the conversion of glucose into HMF was studied and determined to be in accordance with a first-order reaction rate equation, and the activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 97.4 kJ mol?1 and 2.2 × 1010 min?1, respectively. Moreover, a plausible mechanism involving the isomerization of glucose into fructose followed by the dehydration of fructose into HMF was proposed on the basis of the synergistic catalytic effect between Lewis acid sites and Brønsted acid sites of H?-zeolite. H?-zeolite (Si/Al = 25) could be easily regenerated via a simple calcination, and a similar HMF yield with the first reaction run was observed in the seventh reaction run. More importantly, H?-zeolite (Si/Al = 25) and [BMIM]Cl were also confirmed to be an excellent combination for the conversion of other carbohydrates such as fructose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, starch and cellulose into HMF.

Lei Hu; Zhen Wu; Jiaxing Xu; Yong Sun; Lu Lin; Shijie Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (eFAP) ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The density and viscosity of the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P66614][eFAP] were measured as a function of temperature and pressure and as a function of temperature, respectively. These two ionic liquids are more viscous than those based in the same anion associated to imidazolium cations. The effect of the addition of water on the density and viscosity of [P66614][eFAP] was studied at pressures close to atmospheric and as a function of the temperature. This ionic liquid is only partially miscible with water, its solubility being of around X H 2 O = 0.2 in the range of (303 to 315) K. Experimental values of the solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen were obtained as a function of temperature and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the more soluble gases with mole fraction solubilities up to 7 · 10?2. Ethane is four times and 1.3 times less soluble than carbon dioxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and [P66614][eFAP], respectively. Nitrogen is one order of magnitude less soluble than the others gases in the two ionic liquids studied. In order to understand behavior of the different gases with these ionic liquids, the thermodynamic functions of solvation such as enthalpy and entropy were calculated from the variation of the Henry’s law constant with temperature. It is shown that the more favorable interactions of the gases with the ionic liquid explain the larger solubility of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP]. In the case of [P66614][eFAP], it is the less favorable entropic contribution that explains the lower solubility of ethane in this ionic liquid.

S. Stevanovic; M.F. Costa Gomes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Dynamic Solvation in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids on Short Time Scales Lindsay Sanders Headley, Prasun Mukherjee, Jared L. Anderson, Rongfang Ding,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"green" solvents by reducing environmental levels of volatile organic carbons. Their viscosities can coumarin 153 in two imidazoles, six imidazolium- based ionic liquids, and several other solvents and an inorganic anion. They have been used as novel solvent systems for organic synthesis,1-14 liquid

Song, Xueyu

160

Catalytic conversion of cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over chromium trichloride in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An efficient method for converting cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) using an inexpensive ionic...3·6H2O) was developed. The effects of hydrochloric acid loading, catalyst dosage, reaction temperatur...

Shui Wang; Yizhen Du; Wenqian Zhang…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium-based ionic liquids Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 65 Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices Summary: Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in...

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylammonium ionic liquids Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 99 Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices Summary: Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in...

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylimidazolium ionic liquids Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 73 Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices Summary: Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in...

164

Effects of liquid pore water on acoustic wave propagation in snow as a Biot-type porous material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method to estimate phase velocity and attenuation of acoustic waves in the presence of liquid water in a snowpack is presented. The method is based on Biot's theory of wave propagation in porous materials. Empirical relations and a priori information is used to characterize snow as a porous material as a function of porosity. Plane wave theory and an equivalent pore fluid are used to solve Biot's differential equations and to asses the impact of the air and water in the pore space. The liquid water in the pore space of a snow pack reduces the velocity of the first compressional wave by roughly 300 m/s for every 0.1 increase in liquid water saturation. Also the attenuation of the compressional waves is increased with increasing liquid water content. Two end member models for compaction are evaluated to asses the importance of an independent density measurement for an estimate of liquid pore water saturation in snow with acoustic waves. The two end members correspond to no compaction at all and to a melting s...

Sidler, Rolf

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Local Depolarization in Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids/Water Mixtures: Car–Parrinello and Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Local Depolarization in Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids/Water Mixtures: Car–Parrinello and Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulation ... Their analysis of the molecular electrostatic properties compared with the previous work on smaller number of ion pairs per unit cell shows that the immediate liquid environment predominantly affects the molecular electric dipole moments, whereas the bulk contributions appear to be minor. ... The ion-pair/water interaction energy (Einter), which is defined as the difference between the energy of the ion pair and water system (EIL-W) and the sum of the energies of the single ion pair (EIL) and water (EW), can be calculated by:(1)Each complex and corresponding water and anion were optimized for structure and energy at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory by the above computational procedure. ...

Mohammad Hadi Ghatee; Amin Reza Zolghadr

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

166

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...experimental details.) Effect of Biomass-Derived...performed in triplicate, and average yields are reported...biomass into furans for fuels and chemicals . J Am Chem...Brandt A ( 2010 ) The effect of the ionic...estimates were made using prices in bulk chemical supplier...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Novel multiple-acidic ionic liquids: Green and efficient catalysts for the synthesis of bis-indolylmethanes under solvent-free conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Four novel multiple-acidic ionic liquids based on triethanolamine (TEA) were prepared and used as efficient catalysts to synthesize bis-indolylmethanes at room temperature without any organic solvent. [TEOA][HSO4] showed the best catalytic performance. The optimal amount of catalyst was 10 mol%. Various aldehydes/ketones reacted with indole/substituted indole smoothly and afforded to corresponding products in 70–99% yields within minutes. Additionally, the ionic liquid could be reused up to five times with only a slight decrease in catalytic activity. Finally, a possible reaction mechanism was given. Techniques of acidity test and NMR were introduced to verify the proposed mechanism.

Anguo Ying; Zhifeng Li; Yuxiang Ni; Songlin Xu; Hailiang Hou; Huanan Hu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

may help to design green solvents for specific applications.liquids as new, green, and non-toxic solvents. However,

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Catalysis of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Supported PdxCoy Nanoparticles Prepared by a Pyrolysis Method Using Ionic Liquids as the Solvent toward Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Method Using Ionic Liquids as the Solvent toward Ethanol Oxidation Reaction Hongwei Yang,a Yahui WangCoy/MWCNTs catalysts toward ethanol oxida- tion reaction (EOR) was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was revealed that the onset potential was ~90 mV lower and the peak current was about four times higher for ethanol oxidation

Guo, John Zhanhu

170

Colorimetric Au Nanoparticle Probe for Speciation Test of Arsenite and Arsenate Inspired by Selective Interaction between Phosphonium Ionic Liquid and Arsenite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Colorimetric Au Nanoparticle Probe for Speciation Test of Arsenite and Arsenate Inspired by Selective Interaction between Phosphonium Ionic Liquid and Arsenite ... With the colorimetric probe, we developed a protocol for naked eye speciation test of AsIII and AsV at levels below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline of 10 µg L?1. ...

Zhiqiang Tan; Jingfu Liu; Yongguang Yin; Qiantao Shi; Chuanyong Jing; Guibin Jiang

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

171

Chlorocuprate Ionic Liquid Functionalized Biochar Sulfonic Acid as an Efficiently Biomimetic Catalyst for Direct Hydrolysis of Bamboo under Microwave Irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

National & Local United Engineering Laboratory for New Petrochemical Materials & Fine Utilization of Resources, Key Laboratory of Resource Fine-Processing and Advanced Materials of Hunan Province and Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, People’s Republic of China ... Recently, cellulose hydrolysis to reducing sugars with Br?nsted acid catalysis(7, 8) and the conversion of cellulose or sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) catalyzed by metal chlorides(9-11) in some ionic liquids (ILs) have gained increasing research attention, because these ILs possess a good solubility for cellulose, which can lead to significantly improved hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose. ... Verevkin, S. P.; Emel’yanenko, V. N.; Stepurko, E. N.; Ralys, R. V.; Zaitsau, D. H.; Stark, A.Biomass-derived platform chemicals: thermodynamic studies on the conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into bulk intermediates Ind. Eng. ...

Chao Zhang; Zaihui Fu; Baohua Dai; Shunqin Zen; Yachun Liu; Qiong Xu; Steven Robert Kirk; Dulin Yin

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

172

Kinetic studies on chromium-catalyzed conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in alkylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a promising green platform chemical derived from biomass. Kinetic studies were performed on chromium chloride-catalyzed conversion of glucose into HMF in alkylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids. The main by-products are disaccharides, fructose, glyceraldehyde, formic acid, and humins. The formation of HMF is strongly affected by reaction temperature and initial glucose concentration. The reaction is second order in glucose, with an activation energy of 134.9 kJ mol?1. The order in chromium is first, indicating that the rate-determining isomerization reaction is catalyzed by a mononuclear chromium species. The observed glucose conversion rate constant decreases as initial glucose concentration increases, suggesting that the catalytic activity of the chloride anion is significantly restrained by the hydrogen bonding with hydroxyl groups. A simplified kinetic model is developed to describe the behaviors of glucose conversion and HMF formation. This model is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Jian Zhang; Yan Cao; Huiquan Li; Xinbin Ma

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

The dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural efficiently catalyzed by acidic ion-exchange resin in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficient dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was developed in ionic liquids (ILs) with acidic ion-exchange resins as catalyst. By screening different resins and \\{ILs\\} respectively, it was found that the structure of resins and \\{ILs\\} had a prominent effect on the dehydration of fructose. In 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl), D001-cc resin showed a high activity. And then the effects of reaction temperatures, dosages of D001-cc, and different initial fructose loadings on the dehydration of fructose were studied in detail. The system of D001-cc resin and [Bmim]Cl exhibited a constant activity at 75 °C for 20 min and a 86.2% yield of HMF was obtained after seven recycles. At 75 °C for 20 min, a 93.0% yield of HMF from the dehydration of fructose was obtained.

Yuan Li; Hui Liu; Changhua Song; Xiaomin Gu; Huaming Li; Wenshuai Zhu; Sheng Yin; Changri Han

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Ionic-Liquid Component Dependence of Carrier Injection and Mobility for Electric-Double-Layer Organic Thin-Film Transistors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ionic-Liquid Component Dependence of Carrier Injection and Mobility for Electric-Double-Layer Organic Thin-Film Transistors ... The values of tan ? can be expressed by the following equation(1)where IC and IR are the currents of CIL and the parasitic resistance (RP), respectively, and ? is the angular frequency. ... We estimated the thickness (dOX) of the oxidized layer from the CV curves, using(2)where Q is the amount of charge calculated from the CV curve; VU is the unit cell volume; n is the number of molecules in the unit cell; n? is the number of the reaction electrons per one molecule; e is the elementary charge; and A is the area of the thin film. ...

Takuya Fujimoto; Michio M. Matsushita; Kunio Awaga

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

175

Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and yard waste, respectively...for yard waste control strain...pCellulose on plant biomass treated...liquid pre-treatment . Biofuel...Insights into plant cell wall degradation...bioenergy systems . Biofuels Bioprod...2010 ) An integrated catalytic approach...

Gregory Bokinsky; Pamela P. Peralta-Yahya; Anthe George; Bradley M. Holmes; Eric J. Steen; Jeffrey Dietrich; Taek Soon Lee; Danielle Tullman-Ercek; Christopher A. Voigt; Blake A. Simmons; Jay D. Keasling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microbial cellulose utilization: Fundamentals and biotechnology . Microbiol...precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from...ZZQQhy40 minutes in a liquid cycle. After cooling, MOPS-M9 salts...

Gregory Bokinsky; Pamela P. Peralta-Yahya; Anthe George; Bradley M. Holmes; Eric J. Steen; Jeffrey Dietrich; Taek Soon Lee; Danielle Tullman-Ercek; Christopher A. Voigt; Blake A. Simmons; Jay D. Keasling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

FRAGMENTATION OF COAL AND IMPROVED DISPERSION OF LIQUEFACTION CATALYSTS USING IONIC LIQUIDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal has been utilized for coal-to-liquid fuels and coal-to-chemical industries both historically in South Africa and recently in China. Abundant bituminous and low-rank coal reserves… (more)

Cetiner, Ruveyda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Infrasonic response characteristics of gas? and liquid?filled porous media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The infrasonic (0.15–30 Hz) responses of several nitrogen?saturated porous models are measured experimentally. Within the frequency range covered the results verify a theory proposed earlier by Smith and Greenkorn [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 52 247–253 (1972)]. Results of a similar response study of water?filled porous media show the effect of dynamic coupling between the solid and fluid phases the excitation of which precludes agreement with a rigid frame theory. However the results significantly indicate an approach to a condition of zero coupling at very low frequencies and/or low permeabilities.

Peter G. Smith; Robert A. Greenkorn; Ronald G. Barile

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

An innovative experimental approach aiming to understand and quantify the actual fire hazards of ionic liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

access to fundamental flammability properties of these chemicals through the use of Pyrolysis Combustion to flash point values, various threshold values being considered in different regulatory frameworks to rate, in the Classification Labelling and Packaging regulation,14 flammable liquids are those having a flash point below

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural through the dehydration of sugars with caprolactam hydrogen sulfate ([CPL]HSO4) ionic liquid catalyst in a water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether mixed solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) through the dehydration of sugars...4) ionic liquid or using metal halide as the co-catalyst in a new water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether solvent system....

Pingzhen Huang; Aijuan Gu; Jinxing Wang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Artificial neural network as an applicable tool to predict the binary heat capacity of mixtures containing ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ionic liquids (ILs) are amazing solvents gain an increasingly attention in the different areas of chemistry and chemical engineering industries during the past decade. Similar to every promising solvent, knowing the physiochemical properties of the \\{ILs\\} seems to be crucial to develop new designed \\{ILs\\} based industries. In this direction, the present study extends an artificial neural network (ANN) to correlate the binary heat capacity of ILs. To verify the proposed network, 1571 binary heat capacity data points were collected from the previously published literatures and divided in to two subsets namely training and testing subsets. The optimum parameters of the network including the number of hidden layer, numbers of neurons and transfer functions in hidden and output layers were obtained using these subsets data points. In addition, the predictive capability of the optimized network was validated using the testing data points (not considered in the training stage). The optimized network configuration consisted of one hidden layer with sixteen neurons and tansig and purelin transfer functions for the hidden and output layers. The obtained results from the training and test stages show that the proposed network was able to accurately predict the binary heat capacity of \\{ILs\\} binary mixtures with total absolute average relative deviation (AARD%) of 1.60% and relation coefficient (R2) value of 0.9975.

Mostafa Lashkarbolooki; Ali Zeinolabedini Hezave; Shahab Ayatollahi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Inelastic and Reactive Scattering Dynamics of Hyperthermal Oxygen Atoms on Ionic Liquid Surfaces: [emim][NTf{sub 2}] and [C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Collisions of hyperthermal oxygen atoms, with an average translational energy of 520 kJ mol{sup -1}, on continuously refreshed ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([emim][NTf{sub 2}]) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}]), were studied with the use of a beam-surface scattering technique. Time-of-flight and angular distributions of inelastically scattered O and reactively scattered OH and H{sub 2}O were collected for various angles of incidence with the use of a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. For both O and OH, two distinct scattering processes were identified, which can be empirically categorized as thermal and non-thermal. Non-thermal scattering is more probable for both O and OH products. The observation of OH confirms that at least some reactive sites, presumably alkyl groups, must be exposed at the surface. The ionic liquid with the longer alkyl chain, [C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}], is substantially more reactive than the liquid with the shorter alkyl chain, [emim][NTf{sub 2}], and proportionately much more so than would be predicted simply from stoichiometry based on the number of abstractable hydrogen atoms. Molecular dynamics models of these surfaces shed light on this change in reactivity. The scattering behavior of O is distinctly different from that of OH. However, no such differences between inelastic and reactive scattering dynamics have been seen in previous work on pure hydrocarbon liquids, in particular the benchmark, partially branched hydrocarbon, squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}). The comparison between inelastic and reactive scattering dynamics indicates that inelastic scattering from the ionic liquid surfaces takes place predominantly at non-reactive sites that are effectively stiffer than the reactive alkyl chains, with a higher proportion of collisions sampling such sites for [emim][NTf{sub 2}] than for [C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}].

Wu Bohan; Zhang Jianming; Minton, Timothy K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); McKendrick, Kenneth G. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Slattery, John M. [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Yockel, Scott; Schatz, George C. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

Syngas production from liquid fuels in a non-catalytic porous burner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates rich combustion of n-heptane, diesel oil, kerosene and rapeseed-oil methyl ester (RME) bio-diesel for the purpose of producing syngas ready for the clean-up stages for fuel-cell applications or for traditional combustor enrichment. Rich flames have been stabilised in a two-layer inert porous medium combustor and a range of equivalence ratios and porous materials have been examined. n-heptane was successfully reformed up to an equivalence ratio of 3, reaching a conversion efficiency (based on the lower heating value of H2 and CO over the fuel input) up to 75% for a packed bed of alumina beads. Similarly, diesel, kerosene and bio-diesel were reformed to syngas in a Zirconia foam burner with conversion efficiency over 60%. A preliminary attempt to reduce the content of CO and hydrocarbons in the reformate has been also conducted using commercial steam reforming and water–gas shift reaction catalysts, obtaining encouraging results. Finally, soot emission has been assessed, demonstrating particle formation for diesel oil above ? = 2, whereas bio-diesel showed the lowest soot formation tendency among all the fuels tested.

A. Pastore; E. Mastorakos

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Vibration-induced mobilization of trapped non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Acoustic wave stimulation, such as vibration-induced mobilization, is a promising enhancement approach to remove trapped NAPLs (Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids) usually encountered in multiphase flows through… (more)

Li, Wenqing

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Amine-functionalized task-specific ionic liquids: a mechanistic explanation for the dramatic increase in viscosity upon complexation with CO{sub 2} from molecular simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capture of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion, particularly in coal-fired power plants, represents a critical component of efforts aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere. Recently, a series of second-generation task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) containing amine functional groups have been synthesized and demonstrated to have much higher capacities for CO{sub 2} due to their reactivity with CO{sub 2}, as well unusually high viscosities in both the neat and complexed states. The current work extends the seminal studies of CO{sub 2} capture with ionic liquids (ILs) by providing insight from simulations into the mechanism responsible for the dramatic increase in viscosity upon complexation. Simulations conclusively demonstrate that the slow translational and rotational dynamics, which are manifest in the high viscosity, may be attributable to the formation of a strong, pervasive hydrogen-bonded network. Semiquantitative estimates of the cation and anion self-diffusion coefficients and rotational time constants, as well as detailed hydrogen bond analysis, are consistent with the experimentally observed formation of glassy or gel-like materials upon contact with CO{sub 2}. This has significant implications for the design of new approaches or materials involving ILs that take advantage of these preconceived limitations, in the synthesis or manipulation of new TSIL frameworks for CO{sub 2} capture, and in novel experimental studies of chemistries and dynamics in persistent heterogeneous environments.

Gutowski, K.E.; Maginn, E.J. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

IUPAC Partnership Develops Standards and a Data Retrieval System for Ionic Liquids J.W. Magee, J.A. Widegren, D.G. Archer, S.L. Outcalt, M.Frenkel, R.D. Chirico, Q. Dong, A. Laesecke,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature, have been proposed as solvents for Green Processing. In spite of the many advantages with a knowledge base to exploit these solvents. To achieve these goals in the shortest time possible and reach chemical structure, solvent properties, ionic liquids use in synthesis, reviews, reactions and catalysis

Magee, Joseph W.

187

One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. • Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. • The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. • 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidation–reduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chloride–ethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup ?1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.

Gu, Changdong, E-mail: cdgu@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

The Penetration of a Fluid into a Porous Medium or Hele-Shaw Cell Containing a More Viscous Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

24 June 1958 research-article The Penetration of a Fluid into a Porous Medium or Hele-Shaw Cell Containing...modes of small disturbances from a plane interface and their rate of growth, it is necessary to know, or to assume one knows...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Dissolution in Porous Media: Multi-Scale Effects of Multi-Component Dissolution Kinetics on Cleanup Time  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial organic solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) constitute a principal class of groundwater contaminants. Cleanup of groundwater plume source areas associated with these compounds is problematic, in part, because the compounds often exist in the subsurface as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Ganglia (or 'blobs') of DNAPL serve as persistent sources of contaminants that are difficult to locate and remediate (e.g. Fenwick and Blunt, 1998). Current understanding of the physical and chemical processes associated with dissolution of DNAPLs in the subsurface is incomplete and yet is critical for evaluating long-term behavior of contaminant migration, groundwater cleanup, and the efficacy of source area cleanup technologies. As such, a goal of this project has been to contribute to this critical understanding by investigating the multi-phase, multi-component physics of DNAPL dissolution using state-of-the-art experimental and computational techniques. Through this research, we have explored efficient and accurate conceptual and numerical models for source area contaminant transport that can be used to better inform the modeling of source area contaminants, including those at the LLNL Superfund sites, to re-evaluate existing remediation technologies, and to inspire or develop new remediation strategies. The problem of DNAPL dissolution in natural porous media must be viewed in the context of several scales (Khachikian and Harmon, 2000), including the microscopic level at which capillary forces, viscous forces, and gravity/buoyancy forces are manifested at the scale of individual pores (Wilson and Conrad, 1984; Chatzis et al., 1988), the mesoscale where dissolution rates are strongly influenced by the local hydrodynamics, and the field-scale. Historically, the physico-chemical processes associated with DNAPL dissolution have been addressed through the use of lumped mass transfer coefficients which attempt to quantify the dissolution rate in response to local dissolved-phase concentrations distributed across the source area using a volume-averaging approach (Figure 1). The fundamental problem with the lumped mass transfer parameter is that its value is typically derived empirically through column-scale experiments that combine the effects of pore-scale flow, diffusion, and pore-scale geometry in a manner that does not provide a robust theoretical basis for upscaling. In our view, upscaling processes from the pore-scale to the field-scale requires new computational approaches (Held and Celia, 2001) that are directly linked to experimental studies of dissolution at the pore scale. As such, our investigation has been multi-pronged, combining theory, experiments, numerical modeling, new data analysis approaches, and a synthesis of previous studies (e.g. Glass et al, 2001; Keller et al., 2002) aimed at quantifying how the mechanisms controlling dissolution at the pore-scale control the long-term dissolution of source areas at larger scales.

McNab, W; Ezzedine, S; Detwiler, R

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

190

Real-time sweat pH monitoring based on a wearable chemical barcode micro-fluidic platform incorporating ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents the fabrication, characterisation and the performance of a wearable, robust, flexible and disposable chemical barcode device based on a micro-fluidic platform that incorporates ionic liquid polymer gels (ionogels). The device has been applied to the monitoring of the pH of sweat in real time during an exercise period. The device is an ideal wearable sensor for measuring the pH of sweat since it does not contain any electronic part for fluidic handle or pH detection and because it can be directly incorporated into clothing, head- or wristbands, which are in continuous contact with the skin. In addition, due to the micro-fluidic structure, fresh sweat is continuously passing through the sensing area providing the capability to perform continuous real time analysis. The approach presented here ensures immediate feedback regarding sweat composition. Sweat analysis is attractive for monitoring purposes as it can provide physiological information directly relevant to the health and performance of the wearer without the need for an invasive sampling approach.

Vincenzo F. Curto; Cormac Fay; Shirley Coyle; Robert Byrne; Corinne O’Toole; Caroline Barry; Sarah Hughes; Niall Moyna; Dermot Diamond; Fernando Benito-Lopez

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Strong Electronic Polarization of the C60 Fullerene by the Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: Accurate Insights from Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fullerenes are known to be polarizable due to the strained carbon-carbon bonds and high surface curvature. Electronic polarization of fullerenes is of steady practical importance, since it leads to non-additive interactions and, therefore, to unexpected phenomena. For the first time, hybrid density functional theory (HDFT) powered Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulations have been conducted to observe electronic polarization and charge transfer phenomena in the C60 fullerene at finite temperature (350 K). The non-additive phenomena are fostered by the three selected imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). We conclude that although charge transfer appears nearly negligible in these systems, an electronic polarization is indeed significant leading to a systematically positive effective electrostatic charge on the C60 fullerene: +0.14e in [EMIM][Cl], +0.21e in [EMIM][NO3], +0.17e in [EMIM][PF6]. These results are, to certain extent, unexpected providing an inspiration to consider ...

Chaban, Vitaly V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Rapid analysis of cyanuric acid in swimming pool waters by high performance liquid chromatography using porous graphitic carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An approach is presented for reducing analysis times of cyanuric acid in swimming pool waters by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC ... ) to fully resolve cyanuric acid from other pool interferences wit...

R. Cantú; O. Evans; M. L. Magnuson

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Phonon-roton modes of liquid 4He beyond the roton in the porous medium MCM-41  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present neutron scattering measurements of the phonon-roton (P-R) mode of superfluid 4He confined in 47 Å MCM-41 at T=0.5 K at wave vectors, Q, beyond the roton wave vector (QR=1.92 Å?1). Measurements beyond the roton require access to high wave vectors (up to Q=4 Å?1) with excellent energy resolution and high statistical precision. Only one previous measurement in porous media (in aerogel) with low statistical precision has been reported. At T=0.5 K, we find that the P-R mode in MCM-41 extends out to wave vector Q?3.6 Å?1, with the same energy and zero width (within precision) as observed in bulk superfluid 4He. Layer modes in the roton region are also observed. Specifically, the P-R mode energy, ?Q, increases with Q for Q>QR and reaches a plateau at a maximum energy ?Q=2? where ? is the roton energy, ?=0.74 ± 0.01 meV in MCM-41. This upper limit means the P-R mode decays to two rotons if its energy exceeds 2?. It also means that the P-R mode does not decay to two-layers modes. If the P-R could decay to two-layer modes, ?Q would plateau at a lower energy, ?Q=2?L, where ?L=0.60 meV is the energy of the roton-like minimum of the layer mode. Rather the P-R mode and the layer modes observed in porous media appear to be quite different modes with little interaction between them.

R. T. Azuah; S. O. Diallo; M. A. Adams; O. Kirichek; H. R. Glyde

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

194

Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase entrapped in nano gold particles-ionic liquid-N,N-dimethylformamide composite film on glassy carbon electrode and glucose sensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) entrapped in nano gold particles (NAs)-N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluophosphate (BMIMPF6) composite film on a glassy carbon electrode (NAs-DMF-GOD (BMIMPF6)/GC) has been investigated for first time. The immobilized GOD exhibits a pair of well-defined reversible peaks in 0.050 M pH 5 phosphate solutions (PS), resulting from the redox of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in GOD. The peak currents are three times as large as those of GOD-NAs-DMF film coated GC electrode (i.e. NAs-DMF-GOD (water)/GC). In addition, the NAs-DMF-GOD (BMIMPF6) composite material has higher thermal stability than NAs-DMF-GOD (water). Results show that ionic liquid BMIMPF6, DMF and \\{NAs\\} are requisite for GOD to exhibit a pair of stable and reversible peaks. Without any of them, the peaks of GOD become small and unstable. Upon the addition of glucose, the peak currents of GOD decrease and a new cathodic peak occurs at ?0.8 V (versus SCE), which corresponds to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by the catalytic oxidation of glucose. The peak current of the new cathodic peak and the glucose concentration show a linear relationship in the ranges of 1.0 × 10?7 to 1.0 × 10?6 M and 2.0 × 10?6 to 2.0 × 10?5 M. The kinetic parameter Imax of H2O2 is estimated to be 1.19 × 10?6 A and the apparent Km (Michaelis–Menten constant) for the enzymatic reaction is 3.49 ?M. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human plasma and beer samples, and the average recoveries are 97.2% and 99%, respectively.

Jiangwen Li; Jingjing Yu; Faqiong Zhao; Baizhao Zeng

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Assessing the N2O/CO2 high pressure separation using ionic liquids with the soft-SAFT EoS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The capabilities of the soft-SAFT EoS to accurately describe the thermophysical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) and the phase equilibria of their mixtures with greenhouse gases is extended in this work to address the CO2 and the N2O solubilities in [C4mim]+ \\{ILs\\} from different anion families. In addition to the commonly studied [BF4]? and [NTf2]? anions, the solubility of these gases in \\{ILs\\} with the anions [N(CN)2]?, [SCN]? and [Ac]? is also studied and compared among them, searching for the best system for separation purposes. A coarse-grained molecular model is proposed within the soft-SAFT framework for each newly studied IL based on structural information, guidance obtained from quantum calculations and previous work. The most adequate set of molecular parameters are selected from the \\{ILs\\} density description and from the ability to reproduce the N2O/CO2 solubilities in these \\{ILs\\} at the lowest and highest temperatures for which experimental data are available. A discussion about the association molecular parameters values and their relation with the anion nature is also presented. With these molecular models, the description of the high pressure phase equilibria of the binary systems composed of the two gases and the \\{ILs\\} referred above are described with soft-SAFT for the remaining isotherms. For most systems, the equilibria behavior of the mixtures is predicted without using any binary parameter. When good agreement with the experimental data is not achieved, a single temperature independent binary parameter is enough to allow a good description. Finally, Henry's law constants are calculated from soft-SAFT to evaluate the selectivity of those \\{ILs\\} for the CO2/N2O separation.

Luís M.C. Pereira; Mariana B. Oliveira; Felix Llovell; Lourdes F. Vega; João A.P. Coutinho

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Development of thin palladium membranes supported on large porous 310L tubes for a steam reformer operated with gas-to-liquid fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Palladium membranes were prepared on large tubes (80 mm diameter and 150 mm length) of porous stainless steel supports (PSS) using a modified electroless plating technique. The morphology of the palladium layer was found to be depending on the container material of the coating apparatus. The use of PMMA resulted in compact palladium layers with smooth surfaces whereas PTFE led to inhomogeneous palladium coating with rough surface. Two different ceramic materials and coating methods were used to prepare an intermediate layer needed to prevent intermetallic diffusion between the palladium and the support at elevated temperatures. Wet powder spraying of TiO2 followed by sintering resulted in a smoother surface than atmospheric plasma spraying of YSZ, thus allowing for a thinner palladium coating. Pd/TiO2/PSS membranes showed about 4 times higher hydrogen permeances than Pd/YSZ/PSS membranes as a consequence of higher palladium thickness and lower porosity of the ceramic intermediate layer. The selectivity against nitrogen was comparable for both membranes. However, the YSZ intermediate layer showed better stability at elevated temperatures. Two membrane tubes were applied in the membrane reformer, which produced hydrogen successfully from a gas-to-liquid (GtL) fuel.

Grazyna Straczewski; Johannes Völler-Blumenroth; Hubert Beyer; Peter Pfeifer; Michael Steffen; Ingmar Felden; Angelika Heinzel; Matthias Wessling; Roland Dittmeyer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Development of a Conceptual Process for Selective CO{sub 2} Capture from Fuel Gas Streams Using [hmim][Tf2N] Ionic Liquid as a Physical Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ionic Liquid (IL) [hmim][Tf2N] was used as a physical solvent in an Aspen Plus simulation, employing the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (P-R EOS) with Boston-Mathias (BM) alpha function and standard mixing rules, to develop a conceptual process for CO{sub 2} capture from a shifted warm fuel gas stream produced from Pittsburgh # 8 coal for a 400 MWe power plant. The physical properties of the IL, including density, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure and heat capacity were obtained from literature and modeled as a function of temperature. Also, available experimental solubility values for CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CO, and CH{sub 4} in this IL were compiled and their binary interaction parameters ({delta}{sub ij} and l{sub ij}) were optimized and correlated as functions of temperature. The Span-Wager Equation-of-State EOS was also employed to generate CO{sub 2} solubilities in [hmim][Tf2N] at high pressures (up to 10 MPa) and temperatures (up to 510 K). The conceptual process developed consisted of 4 adiabatic absorbers (2.4 m ID, 30 m high) arranged in parallel and packed with Plastic Pall Rings of 0.025 m for CO{sub 2} capture; 3 flash drums arranged in series for solvent (IL) regeneration with the pressure-swing option; and a pressure-intercooling system for separating and pumping CO{sub 2} up to 153 bar to the sequestration sites. The compositions of all process streams, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency, and net power were calculated using Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that, based on the composition of the inlet gas stream to the absorbers, 95.67 mol% of CO{sub 2} was captured and sent to sequestration sites; 99.5 mol% of H{sub 2} was separated and sent to turbines; the solvent exhibited a minimum loss of 0.31 mol%; and the net power balance of the entire system was 30.81 MW. These results indicated that [hmim][Tf2N] IL could be used as a physical solvent for CO{sub 2} capture from warm shifted fuel gas streams with high efficiency.

Basha, Omar M.; Keller, Murphy J.; Luebke, David R.; Resnik, Kevin; P Morsi, Badie I.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ionic dynamics in the glass-forming liquid Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4: A molecular dynamics study with a polarizable model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The microscopic dynamics of the fragile glass-forming liquid Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4 is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation with a polarizable model. Polarization effects are included within a fluctuating partial charges approach for the nitrate ion. Single-particle time-correlation functions are compared with the ones obtained by the nonpolarizable model counterpart. It is argued that the increased ionic mobility due to polarization effects corrects the stiff dynamics of the nonpolarizable model. Among the collective functions that have been calculated with the polarizable model, special attention is paid to the density fluctuations in wave vectors around the first sharp diffraction peak of the static structure factor. In line with recent neutron-scattering experiments, an intermediate-range-order dynamics has been observed in the simulated system.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2001-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

200

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry and a new liquid autoporosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines the volumes of different size pores by measuring the amount of liquid in these pores, thus, providing pore volume distribution (PVD) data for porous structures. Any liquid that wets the sample may be used. This opens unique opportunities for porous structure evaluation. It provides realistic PVD analysis when the liquid of interest changes the porous structure. It determines uptake/drainage hysteresis of real liquids. It allows direct measurements of uptake and retention capillary pressures with different amounts of liquid in a sample. Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines liquid/solid contact angles of different size pores within the sample. It can also be used for PVD analysis of both soft, brittle materials and porous metal materials.

Tyomkin, I. [TRI/Princeton, NJ (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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201

Nano-porous Silicon Microcavity Sensors for Determination of Organic Fuel Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the preparation and characteristics of liquid-phase sensors based on nano-porous silicon multilayer structures for determination of organic content in gasoline. The...

Pham, Van Hoi; Bui, Huy; Hoang, Le Ha; Nguyen, Thuy Van; Nguyen, The Anh; Pham, Thanh Son; Ngo, Quang Minh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.

Han, legal representative, Amy Qi (Hockessin, DE); Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

203

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 7 APRIL 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT3598 Adaptive fluid-infused porous films with tunable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 7 APRIL 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT3598 Adaptive fluid-infused porous films for malleable surfaces. As we have recently shown, a liquid infused in a rigid porous substrate develops 1School

Mahadevan, L.

204

Charge Compensation in RE3+ (RE = Eu, Gd) and M+ (M = Li, Na, K) Co-Doped Alkaline Earth Nanofluorides Obtained by Microwave Reaction with Reactive Ionic Liquids Leading to Improved Optical Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline earth fluorides are extraordinarily promising host matrices for phosphor materials with regard to rare earth doping. In particular, quantum cutting materials, which might considerably enhance the efficiency of mercury-free fluorescent lamps or SC solar cells, are often based on rare earth containing crystalline fluorides such as NaGdF4, GdF3 or LaF3. Substituting most of the precious rare earth ions and simultaneously retaining the efficiency of the phosphor is a major goal. Alkaline earth fluoride nanoparticles doped with trivalent lanthanide ions (which are required for the quantum cutting phenomenon) were prepared via a microwave assisted method in ionic liquids. As doping trivalent ions into a host with divalent cations requires charge compensation, this effect was thoroughly studied by powder X-ray and electron diffraction, luminescence spectroscopy and 23Na, 139La and 19F solid state NMR spectroscopy. Monovalent alkali ions were codoped with the trivalent lanthanide ions to relieve stress and achieve a better crystallinity and higher quantum cutting abilities of the prepared material. 19F-magic angle spinning (MAS)-NMR-spectra, assisted by 19F{23Na} rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) studies, reveal distinct local fluoride environments, the populations of which are discussed in relation to spatial distribution and clustering models. In the co-doped samples, fluoride species having both Na+ and La3+ ions within their coordination sphere can be identified and quantified. This interplay of mono- and trivalent ions in the CaF2 lattice appears to be an efficient charge compensation mechanism that allows for improved performance characteristics of such co-doped phosphor materials.

Lorbeer, C [Ruhr-Universitat Bochum; Behrends, F [Westfalische Wilhelsm-Universitat Munster; Cybinska, J [Ruhr Universitat Bochum; Eckert, H [Westfalische Wilhelsm-Universitat Munster; Mudring, Anja -V [Ames Laboratory

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

206

Tailored Porous Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

207

Enhanced Gas Absorption in the Ionic Liquid 1-n-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) Confined in Silica Slit Pores: A Molecular Simulation Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-dimensional NP{sub xy}T and isostress-osmotic (N{sub 2}P{sub xy}Tf{sub 1}) Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute the density and gas absorption properties of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-n-hexyl-3- methylimidazolium bis(Trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) confined in silica slit pores (25-45 Å). Self-diffusivity values for both gas and IL were calculated from NVE molecular dynamics simulations using both smooth and atomistic potential models for the silica. Simulations show that the molar volume for [hmim][Tf{sub 2}N] confined in 25-45 Å silica slit pores are 12-31% larger than for the bulk IL at 313-573 K and 1 bar. The amounts of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} absorbed in the confined IL are typically 1.1-3 times larger than in the bulk IL due to larger molar volumes for the confined IL compared to the bulk IL. The CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} molecules are generally absorbed close to the silica wall where the IL density is very low. This arrangement causes the self-diffusivities for these gases in the confined IL to be 2 to 8 times larger than in the bulk IL at 298-573 K. The solubility for water in the confined and bulk ILs are similar, which is likely due to strong water interactions with [hmim][Tf{sub 2}N] through hydrogen-bonding resulting in the confined IL molar volume playing a less important role in determining H{sub 2}O solubility. Water molecules were largely absorbed in the IL-rich region rather than close to the silica wall. The self-diffusivities for water correlate with the confined IL. The confined IL exhibits self-diffusivities larger than the bulk IL at lower temperatures, but smaller than the bulk IL at higher temperatures. The findings from simulations are consistent with available experimental data for similar confined IL systems.

Shi, Wei; Luebke, David R.

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

208

Versatile Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The commonly used solvents like benzene, toluene, methylene chloride etc. for organic synthesis, particularly in industrial production, are known to cause health and environmental problems. In view of this, th...

V. K. Ahluwalia; M. Kidwai

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Catalytic Transformation of Biomass in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) can be produced from poly- and monohexoses and is a valuable platform chemical that can be used to make polymers, fuels, and commodity chemicals (Fig. 8.7). HMF is the product of the...

Blair J. Cox; John G. Ekerdt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

211

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conducting polymer electrochromic devices using ionicelectrochemical cells and electrochromic devices, including

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Interfacial ionic liquids: connecting static and dynamic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

L, Lee S S and Fenter P 2012 Real-time observations of interfacial lithiation in a metal silicide thin film J. Phys. Chem. C 116 22341-5 43 Lindahl E, Hess B and van der...

213

Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

214

Open-cell glass crystalline porous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An open-cell glass crystalline porous material made from hollow microspheres which are cenospheres obtained from fly ash, having an open-cell porosity of up to 90 vol. % is produced. The cenospheres are separated into fractions based on one or more of grain size, density, magnetic or non-magnetic, and perforated or non-perforated. Selected fractions are molded and agglomerated by sintering with a binder at a temperature below the softening temperature, or without a binder at a temperature about, or above, the softening temperature but below the temperature of liquidity. The porous material produced has an apparent density of 0.3-0.6 g/cm.sup.3, a compressive strength in the range of 1.2-3.5 MPa, and two types of openings: through-flow wall pores in the cenospheres of 0.1-30 micrometers, and interglobular voids between the cenospheres of 20-100 micrometers. The porous material of the invention has properties useful as porous matrices for immobilization of liquid radioactive waste, heat-resistant traps and filters, supports for catalysts, adsorbents and ion-exchangers.

Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Sharonova, Olga M. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana A. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Zykova, Irina D. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Revenko, Yurii A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Lubtsev, Rem I. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Macheret, Yevgeny (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

216

Why engineer porous materials?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Porous carbon of high thermal conductivity is used...absorption, fuel cells and battery materials is a number...photoluminescence, thermal conductivity, low k...self-lubricating bearings and battery electrodes. The range...vibration suppression and thermal management. The porous...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography and Electrodriven Separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......miscibility with water and organic solvents...responsible for condensation and pollution of...electron spray or atmospheric pressure ionization...changes in analyte recovery or column backpressure...precision, accuracy and recovery. Figure 4. Synthesis...both methanol-water and acetonitrile-water......

Yi Huang; Shun Yao; Hang Song

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Ionic (Proton) Transport Hydrogen Separation Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Proton) (Proton) Transport Hydrogen Separation Systems Summary Session Participants -- Ionic Transport Balachandran, Balu Cornelius, Chris Fleming, Greg Glass, Robert Hartvigsen, Joseph Higgins, Richard King, David Paster, Mark Paul, Dilo Robbins, John Samells, Anthony Schwartz, Michael Schinski, Bill Smith, Ronald Van Bibber, Lawrence Zalesky, Rick Argonne National Laboratory Sandia National Laboratory Air Liquide Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Cerametec, Inc. CeraMem Corporation Battelle, PNNL DOE Science Applications International Corporation ExxonMobil Eltron Research, Inc. ITN Energy Systems ChevronTexaco SRI Consulting SAIC ChevronTexaco Technology Ventures Performance Goals 4-5 years (5 years upper limit) (100,000 hrs is 12 years) High durability 250-350

219

Super ionic conductive glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

GASAR porous metals process control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GASAR porous metals are produced by melting under a partial pressure of hydrogen and then casting into a mold that ensures directional solidification. Hydrogen is driven out of solution and usually grows as quasi-cylindrical pores normal to the solidification front. Experiments with pure nickel have been carried out under processing conditions of varying H{sub 2} partial pressure, total pressure (H{sub 2} + Ar), and superheat. An analysis that considers heterogeneous bubble nucleation was developed that identifies processing conditions in which hydrogen bubbles are stable in the liquid before solidification. It is hypothesized that these conditions lead to low porosity because these bubbles float out of the melt and escape the advancing solidification front. Experimental data are shown to support this hypothesis.

Apprill, J.M.; Poirier, D.R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Maguire, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gutsch, T.C. [California State Univ., Chico, CA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

ESM of Ionic and Electrochemical Phenomena on the Nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation of energy storage and conversion devices is ultimately controlled by series of intertwined ionic and electronic transport processes and electrochemical reactions at surfaces and interfaces, strongly mediated by strain and mechanical processes [1-4]. In a typical fuel cell, these include chemical species transport in porous cathode and anode materials, gas-solid electrochemical reactions at grains and triple-phase boundaries (TPBs), ionic and electronic flows in multicomponent electrodes, and chemical and electronic potential drops at internal interfaces in electrodes and electrolytes. All these phenomena are sensitively affected by the microstructure of materials from device level to the atomic scales as illustrated in Fig. 1. Similar spectrum of length scales and phenomena underpin operation of other energy systems including primary and secondary batteries, as well as hybrid systems such flow and metal-air/water batteries.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [Pennsylvania State University; Balke, Nina [ORNL; McCorkle, Morgan L [ORNL; Guo, Senli [ORNL; Arruda, Thomas M [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

X-ray and Neutron Scattering Studies of Methyl Iodide and Hydrogen Confined in Porous Media.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??X-ray diffraction was used to study the liquid - solid phase transition and structure of methyl iodide confined in porous GelTech© glass, with 25, 50… (more)

Glanville, Yvonne

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Charge transfer kinetics at the solid–solid interface in porous electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interfacial charge transfer is widely assumed to obey the Butler–Volmer kinetics. For certain liquid–solid interfaces, the Marcus–Hush–Chidsey theory is more accurate and predictive, but it has not been applied to porous ...

Bai, Peng

224

E-Print Network 3.0 - active matrix liquid Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Collection: Engineering 11 "Control of protein folding and misfolding in ionic liquid media, and a conjecture on early earth biology"....

225

Foams in porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.

Marsden, S.S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

journal Solid State Ionics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic acid solutions journal Solid State Ionics year month abstract p Proton exchange membranes are key solid state ion carriers in many relevant energy technologies including flow batteries fuel cells and solar fuel generators In many of these systems the membranes are in contact with electrolyte solutions In this paper we focus on the impact of different HBr a flow battery and exemplary acid electrolyte external concentrations on the conductivity of Nafion a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is commonly used in many energy related applications The peak and then decrease in conductivity is correlated with measured changes in the water and HBr content within the membrane In addition small angle x ray scattering is used to probe the nanostructure to

227

Why engineer porous materials?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thermal conductivity materials (Maex et al. 2003...Hrubesh et al. 1993); materials remarkably similar to...reduce the oxygen at the cathode and oxidize the fuel...electrochemically active, have large surface...volume fraction of porous materials about 0.3 (Brandon...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_GATech_Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for SOFC Cathodes Matthew E. Lynch, Lei Yang, Meilin Liu Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 771 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Telephone: 404-894-6114 Email: meilin.liu@mse.gatech.edu Porous cathodes are of primary importance to the electrochemical operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The compound La 1-x Sr x Co 1-y Fe y O 3-δ (LSCF) is a candidate material for the cathode, and shows good mixed ionic-electronic conductivity as well as good activity toward the oxygen reduction

229

Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. Abstract: The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst...

231

Computer Simulation of a "Green Chemistry" Room-Temperature Ionic Solvent C. J. Margulis, H. A. Stern, and B. J. Berne*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer Simulation of a "Green Chemistry" Room-Temperature Ionic Solvent C. J. Margulis, H. A, room-temperature ionic liquids are currently being investigated as alternative solvents in industry that is clean, recyclable, and a good solvent for both organic and inorganic compounds is appealing

Berne, Bruce J.

232

Ionic Power Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ionic Power Systems Ltd Ionic Power Systems Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Ionic Power Systems Ltd. Place San Diego, California Zip 92126 Product Ionix Power Systems, Ltd. is a developer of new and innovative products and tools designed to aid in the development of next-generation energy technologies such as batteries, fuel cells, and advanced capacitors. References Ionic Power Systems Ltd.[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ionic Power Systems Ltd. is a company located in San Diego, California . References ↑ "Ionic Power Systems Ltd." Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Ionic_Power_Systems_Ltd&oldid=347099" Categories:

233

Liquid-permeable electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Aqueous Biphasic Systems Based on Salting-Out Polyethylene Glycol or Ionic Solutions: Strategies for Actinide or Fission Product Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous biphasic systems can be formed by salting-out (with kosmotropic, waterstructuring salts) water soluble polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) or aqueous solutions of a wide range of hydrophilic ionic liquids based on imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium and ammonium cations. The use of these novel liquid/liquid biphases for separation of actinides or other fission products associated with nuclear wastes (e.g., pertechnetate salts) has been demonstrated and will be described in this presentation.

Rogers, Robin D.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Griffin, Scott T.; Holbrey, John D.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

235

Experimental and Modeling Studies of Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media and Its Effects on the Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the two-phase flow properties of porous media used in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The liquid and gas phase relative permeability of porous media used in PEM fuel cells was measured...

Wang, Xuhai

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Quantized ionic conductance in nanopores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic transport in nanopores is a fundamentally and technologically important problem in view of its ubiquitous occurrence in biological processes and its impact on DNA sequencing applications. Using microscopic calculations, we show that ion transport may exhibit strong non-liDearities as a function of the pore radius reminiscent of the conductance quantization steps as a function of the transverse cross section of quantum point contacts. In the present case, however, conductance steps originate from the break up of the hydration layers that form around ions in aqueous solution. Once in the pore, the water molecules form wavelike structures due to multiple scattering at the surface of the pore walls and interference with the radial waves around the ion. We discuss these effects as well as the conditions under which the step-like features in the ionic conductance should be experimentally observable.

Zwolak, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lagerqvist, Johan [UCSD; Di Ventra, Massimilliano [UCSD

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

238

Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers. 9 figs.

Wilson, M.S.

1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

239

Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Volatile organic solvents (VOS) creating increasing air pollution are ... researches are directed on developing alternative environmental friendly solvent systems to replace traditional volatile organics. Within ...

Shadpour Mallakpour; Mohammad Dinari

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents for the Oxidation of Alcohols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbonyl compounds are of central importance to organic chemistry, biochemistry, and biology. Aldehydes and ketones are used as starting materials or reagents for the synthesis of other organic compounds, drugs, ...

Farhad Shirini; Masoumeh Abedini; Seyyed Vahid Atghia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

attractive platforms for synthesis of chemicals, fuels, andchemical transformation of biorenewable feedstocks to platform

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Tunable wavelength soft photoionization of ionic liquid vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LiTFSI and acetamide for lithium batteries. Electrochemistrysuch as fuel cells, 3-5 batteries 6,7 and solar cells. 8,9

Strasser, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thin-film rechargeable batteries. Materials Science andMicroscopic Nickel-Zinc Batteries for Use in AutonomousM, and RJ Brodd. “What Are Batteries, Fuel Cells, and

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Since cellulose is theto the interaction of lignin with the biopolymers in rawthat the presence of lignin did not have a detrimental

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the development of biomass conversion technologies, it isefficient and selective biomass conversion technologies is athe conversion of both carbohydrate components of biomass.

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daniel A Steingart, James W Evans, and Paul K Wright. "AC Shafer, Paul K Wright, James W Evans, and R Ramesh. "Christine C Ho, and James W Evans. "Dispenser Printing for

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using dispenser printing including (a) 3D polymer molds, (b)using dispenser printing including (a) 3D polymer molds, (b)

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

17 1.13. A monolithic solid-state battery formed by (a) coldcells of “monolithic” solid-state battery materials tailored1.13. A monolithic solid-state battery formed by (a) cold

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yoshida, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research [21] G.Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 1945, 37, 43-52; B.Yoshida, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2007,

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Examination of Coal Solubility and Fragmentation with Various Ionic Liquids.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The organic component of coal is heterogeneous and often has a complicated networkstructure. When exposed to certain solvents, swelling and partial dissolution often occurs.However, due… (more)

Pulati, Nuerxida

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cellobiose, arabinose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5- HMF, 99%from Iolitec, Germany. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 99%from Iolitec, Germany. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 99%

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Microscopic Transport in Mixtures of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

andor storage of carbon dioxide. For these applications in addition to CO 2 sorption properties, also transport properties of the mixtures of CO 2 and ILs are of high...

254

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

current density, and A is the Tafel slope given by the gason current density, as stated by Tafel’s equation for high

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Tunable wavelength soft photoionization of ionic liquid vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 6: Near-threshold PIE spectra, showing binding energyand photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves, obtained at the28 The combined set of PIE curves and PE spectra data allows

Strasser, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Thermal and concentration-induced instability in porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exothermic chemical reactions can influence natural convection effects in a porous medium. Such phenomena may occur in tubular reactors, oxidation of solid material in large containers, chemical vapor deposition systems, liquid explosives, and others. Experimental evidence indicates that the influence of natural convection in many chemically reacting systems cannot be neglected. In this work, transient effects of a two-dimensional convection generated and sustained by an endothermic chemical reaction and a constant heat flux are studied. The Darcy-Boussinesq equations are used to describe fluid flow through a porous medium with a first-order chemical reaction. The complete mass, energy, and momentum balance equations are solved with the Arakawa-Dufort Frankel numerical scheme, which is particularly suitable for stationary solutions over a range of various parameters.

Carter, J.M.; Islam, M.R. (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Impedance tube measurements of printed porous materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An impedance tube has been used to make measurements of the acoustic impedance of porous samples. Porous with designed porosities and tortuosities have been produced using 3D printing. Measured impedances are compared to calculated values.

Carl Frederickson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Boron Nitride Porous Microbelts for Hydrogen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Boron Nitride Porous Microbelts for Hydrogen Storage ... However, the attention paid to their potential applications in gas sorption, especially in case of hydrogen, has obviously been insufficient. ... boron nitride; porous; microbelts; specific surface area; hydrogen storage ...

Qunhong Weng; Xuebin Wang; Chunyi Zhi; Yoshio Bando; Dmitri Golberg

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

259

Multilayered YSZ/GZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

YSZGZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Multilayered YSZGZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for...

260

Method of preparing thin porous sheets of ceramic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming thin porous sheets of ceramic material for use as electrodes or other components in a molten carbonate fuel cell is disclosed. The method involves spray drying a slurry of fine ceramic particles in liquid carrier to produce generally spherical agglomerates of high porosity and a rough surface texture. The ceramic particles may include the electrode catalyst and the agglomerates can be calcined to improve mechanical strength. After slurrying with suitable volatile material and binder tape casting is used to form sheets that are sufficiently strong for further processing and handling in the assembly of a high temperature fuel cell.

Swarr, Thomas E. (South Windsor, CT); Nickols, Richard C. (East Hartford, CT); Krasij, Myron (Avon, CT)

1987-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Method of preparing thin porous sheets of ceramic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming thin porous sheets of ceramic material for use as electrodes or other components in a molten carbonate fuel cell is disclosed. The method involves spray drying a slurry of fine ceramic particles in liquid carrier to produce generally spherical agglomerates of high porosity and a rough surface texture. The ceramic particles may include the electrode catalyst and the agglomerates can be calcined to improve mechanical strength. After slurrying with suitable volatile material and binder tape casting is used to form sheets that are sufficiently strong for further processing and handling in the assembly of a high temperature fuel cell.

Swarr, T.E.; Nickols, R.C.; Krasij, M.

1984-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

262

Metal recovery from porous materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Sturcken, E.F.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Price, J.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Homogenization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations for Ion Transport in Charged Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effective Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations are derived for macroscopic ion transport in charged porous media under periodic fluid flow by an asymptotic multi-scale expansion with drift. The microscopic setting is a two-component periodic composite consisting of a dilute electrolyte continuum (described by standard PNP equations) and a continuous dielectric matrix, which is impermeable to the ions and carries a given surface charge. Four new features arise in the upscaled equations: (i) the effective ionic diffusivities and mobilities become tensors, related to the microstructure; (ii) the effective permittivity is also a tensor, depending on the electrolyte/matrix permittivity ratio and the ratio of the Debye screening length to the macroscopic length of the porous medium; (iii) the microscopic fluidic convection is replaced by a diffusion-dispersion correction in the effective diffusion tensor; and (iv) the surface charge per volume appears as a continuous "background charge density", as in classical membrane models. The coefficient tensors in the upscaled PNP equations can be calculated from periodic reference cell problems. For an insulating solid matrix, all gradients are corrected by the same tensor, and the Einstein relation holds at the macroscopic scale, which is not generally the case for a polarizable matrix, unless the permittivity and electric field are suitably defined. In the limit of thin double layers, Poisson's equation is replaced by macroscopic electroneutrality (balancing ionic and surface charges). The general form of the macroscopic PNP equations may also hold for concentrated solution theories, based on the local-density and mean-field approximations. These results have broad applicability to ion transport in porous electrodes, separators, membranes, ion-exchange resins, soils, porous rocks, and biological tissues.

Markus Schmuck; Martin Z. Bazant

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

265

Drying by Cavitation and Poroelastic Relaxations in Porous Media with Macroscopic Pores Connected by Nanoscale Throats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the drying dynamics of porous media with two pore diameters separated by several orders of magnitude. Nanometer-sized pores at the edge of our samples prevent air entry, while drying proceeds by heterogeneous nucleation of vapor bubbles (cavitation) in the liquid in micrometer-sized voids within the sample. We show that the dynamics of cavitation and drying are set by the interplay of the deterministic poroelastic mass transport in the porous medium and the stochastic nucleation process. Spatio-temporal patterns emerge in this unusual reaction-diffusion system, with temporal oscillations in the drying rate and variable roughness of the drying front.

Olivier Vincent; David A. Sessoms; Erik J. Huber; Jules Guioth; Abraham D. Stroock

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

266

Novel hollow powder porous structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent finite element calculations indicate that structures constructed from partially compacted hollow spheres exhibit a greater stiffness and strength than many other cellular structures at comparable density. It has been observed that gas atomization of metallic powders often leads to entrapment of the flow field gas. The resulting hollow powders are an unwanted by-product in the sense that they lead to porosity and future sites of defect in solid parts. Here a method is developed to separate the hollow powders according to their size, shape and density. They are then consolidated to a porous structure. Examples of this are given for both a titanium alloy and a nickel-base superalloy. The compressive mechanical properties are measured and compared to those of other porous structures.

Sypeck, D.J.; Parrish, P.A.; Wadley, H.N.G. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Modification of Deeply Buried Hydrophobic Interfaces by Ionic Surfactants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrophobicity, the spontaneous segregation of oil and water, can be modified by surfactants. The way this modification occurs is studied at the oil-water interface for a range of alkanes and two ionic surfactants. A liquid interfacial monolayer, consisting of a mixture of alkane molecules and surfactant tails, is found. Upon cooling, it freezes at T{sub s}, well above the alkane's bulk freezing temperature, T{sub b}. The monolayer's phase diagram, derived by surface tensiometry, is accounted for by a mixtures-based theory. The monolayer's structure is measured by high-energy X-ray reflectivity above and below T{sub s}. A solid-solid transition in the frozen monolayer, occurring approximately 3 C below T{sub s}, is discovered and tentatively suggested to be a rotator-to-crystal transition.

Ocko, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Pontoni, D.; Sapir, Z.; Yefet, S.; Sloutskin, E.; Reichert, H.; Deutsch, M.

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

268

Modification of Deeply Buried Hydrophobic Interfaces by Ionic Surfactants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrophobicity, the spontaneous segregation of oil and water, can be modified by surfactants. The way this modification occurs is studied at the oil-water interface for a range of alkanes and two ionic surfactants. A liquid interfacial monolayer, consisting of a mixture of alkane molecules and surfactant tails, is found. Upon cooling, it freezes at T{sub s}, well above the alkane's bulk freezing temperature, T{sub b}. The monolayer's phase diagram, derived by surface tensiometry, is accounted for by a mixtures-based theory. The monolayer's structure is measured by high-energy X-ray reflectivity above and below T{sub s}. A solid-solid transition in the frozen monolayer, occurring approximately 3 C below T{sub s}, is discovered and tentatively suggested to be a rotator-to-crystal transition.

L Tamam; D Pontoni Z Sapir; S Yefet; S Sloutskin; B Ocko; H Reichert; M Deutsch

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Activation of porous MOF materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the treatment of solvent-containing MOF material to increase its internal surface area involves introducing a liquid into the MOF in which liquid the solvent is miscible, subjecting the MOF to supercritical conditions for a time to form supercritical fluid, and releasing the supercritical conditions to remove the supercritcal fluid from the MOF. Prior to introducing the liquid into the MOF, occluded reaction solvent, such as DEF or DMF, in the MOF can be exchanged for the miscible solvent.

Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Activation of porous MOF materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the treatment of solvent-containing MOF material to increase its internal surface area involves introducing a liquid into the MOF in which liquid the solvent is miscible, subjecting the MOF to supercritical conditions for a time to form supercritical fluid, and releasing the supercritical conditions to remove the supercritical fluid from the MOF. Prior to introducing the liquid into the MOF, occluded reaction solvent, such as DEF or DMF, in the MOF can be exchanged for the miscible solvent.

Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

271

Diffusion in Porous Catalysts and Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diffusion in Porous Catalysts and Adsorbents ... Single industrial adsorbent pellets of zeolites 5A and 13X were mounted with a polymer capable of withstanding high temperatures. ...

Jan Hoogschagen

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Effective permeabilities for model heterogeneous porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a technique to evaluate effective absolute permeabilities for heterogeneous porous media. The technique is based on a perturbation analysis of the equations of motion of a slightly compressible fluid in a homogeneous porous medium at low Reynolds numbers. The effective permeabilities can be calculated once the local geometry of the heterogeneous medium is specified. The technique is used to evaluate two- and three-dimensional effective vertical permeabilities in porous media with shale intercalations, including the case in which the porous matrix is anisotropic.

Otevo, C.; Rusinek, I. (Tecnologiade Yacimientos, INTEVEPS.A., P.O. Box 76343, Caracas 1070-A (VE)); Saez, A.E. (Departamento de Termodinamicay Fenomenosde Transferencia, Universidad Simon Bolivar, P.O. Box 89000, Caracas 1086-A (VE))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Laboratory Measurement of Sorption in Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratory Measurement of Sorption in Porous Media A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT of pressure change used to determine equilibrium were made. The sorption isotherms measured for geothermal

Stanford University

274

Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

Yaghi, Omar M; Czaja, Alexander U; Wang, Bo; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L; Furukawa, Hiroyasu

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

275

Study of Porous Adsorbents for Carbon Capture via Molecular Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.5 Porous adsorbents . . . . . . . 2 Evaluating mixtureStudy of Porous Adsorbents for Carbon Capture via MolecularFall 2012 Study of Porous Adsorbents for Carbon Capture via

Swisher, Joseph Andrew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

A generalized lattice Boltzmann model for flow through tight porous media with Klinkenberg's effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas slippage occurs when the mean free path of the gas molecules is in the order of the characteristic pore size of a porous medium. This phenomenon leads to the Klinkenberg's effect where the measured permeability of a gas (apparent permeability) is higher than that of the liquid (intrinsic permeability). A generalized lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for flow through porous media that includes Klinkenberg's effect, which is based on the model of Guo et al. (Z.L. Guo et al., Phys.Rev.E 65, 046308 (2002)). The second-order Beskok and Karniadakis-Civan's correlation (A. Beskok and G. Karniadakis, Microscale Thermophysical Engineering 3, 43-47 (1999), F. Civan, Transp Porous Med 82, 375-384 (2010)) is adopted to calculate the apparent permeability based on intrinsic permeability and Knudsen number. Fluid flow between two parallel plates filled with porous media is simulated to validate model. Simulations performed in a heterogeneous porous medium with components of different porosity and permeability indicat...

Chen, Li; Kang, Qinjun; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Viswanathan, Hari S; Tao, Wen-Quan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode. Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode. Abstract: Functionalized graphene sheets (FGS)...

278

Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Constants of Porous Amorphous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy and Optical Constants of Porous Amorphous Solid Water. Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Constants of Porous Amorphous Solid Water. Abstract: Reflection-absorption...

279

Removal of Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium by Means of Soil Vapor Extraction Enhanced by Desiccation and Water Removal of Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium...

280

Removal of carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium by means of soil vapor extraction enhanced by desiccation and water Removal of carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Explosion propagation in inert porous media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the density, c the heat capacity and k the thermal...important in porous media combustion because it represents...voids and the rate of heat loss to the porous medium...velocities for a propagating combustion wave: the planar laminar...detonation velocity. For hydrocarbon fuel-air mixtures...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Porous Power Technologies LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Porous Power Technologies LLC Porous Power Technologies LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Porous Power Technologies LLC Name Porous Power Technologies LLC Address 2765 Dagny Way, Suite 200 Place Lafayette, Colorado Zip 80026 Sector Efficiency Product Laminable, porous, absorbent Li-ion batteries Website http://www.porouspower.com/ Coordinates 40.0130129°, -105.1327972° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.0130129,"lon":-105.1327972,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

283

Model for Configurational Thermodynamics in Ionic Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a formalism to model configurational thermodynamics in ionic systems with multiple anion and cation species. Because cations and anions can be partitioned into two interacting sublattices that do not exchange species, the dimensionality of configuration space is significantly reduced. The result is a model applicable to many important problems in ionic systems. Here we show that the effect of an order-disorder transition in one sublattice on the other depends on how the symmetry is changed through the transition, as well as on the strength of the interactions.

P. D. Tepesch; G. D. Garbulsky; G. Ceder

1995-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

284

Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

Lantz, Jeffrey W. (Albuquerque, NM); Stalford, Harold L. (Norman, OK)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

285

Hyperfine Effects in Ionic Orbital Electron Capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The K-orbital electron capture in ions with one or two electrons is analized for a general allowed nuclear transition. For ionic hyperfine states the angular neutrino distribution and the electron capture rate are given in terms of nuclear matrix elements. A possible application towards the determination of neutrino parameters is outlined.

M. A. Goñi

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

286

IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operating experience. #12;ELTRON RESEARCH INC. Syngas Production Rate ­ 60 mL/min cm2 @ 900°C Equivalent O2IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND SEPARATION Presented by Tony Sammells for Hydrogen Production ­ Compositions ­ Feedstocks ­ Performance ­ Key Technical Hurdles · Membranes

287

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Analysis of deformation of porous metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The elasto-plastic finite element method using a yield criterion advanced by Lee and Kim was employed to analyze the effect of indenting geometry on the Brinell hardness of sintered porous copper specimens with various densities. The changes in geometry of porous iron rings with various initial relative densities were also calculated for various friction coefficients between the metal rings and compression platens. The calculated hardness values were in very good agreement with the measured data. The friction coefficient could be determined from the relationship between the change in the inner diameter and height reduction of porous metal rings with various initial relative densities.

Lee, D.N.; Oh, K.H. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Materials Science and Engineering; Han, H.N. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Kyungbuk (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.; Kim, H.S. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Forced dewetting on porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dewetting of a porous plate withdrawn from a bath of fluid. The microscopic contact angle is fixed to zero and the flow is assumed to be parallel to the plate (lubrication approximation). The ordinary differential equation involving the position of the water surface is analysed in phase space by means of numerical integration. We show the existence of a critical value of the capillary number $\\eta U / \\gamma$, above which no stationary contact line can exist. An analytical model, based on asymptotic matching is developed, that reproduces the dependence of the critical capillary number on the angle of the plate with respect to the horizontal for large control parameters (3/2 power law).

Olivier Devauchelle; Christophe Josserand; Stephane Zaleski

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

290

Characterization of porous GASAR aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and numerical analyses were performed on porous aluminum samples to evaluate microstructure and mechanical properties. Experiments considered of tensile tests on dog-bone specimens containing 9 to 17% porosity, which were instrumented with axial and transverse extensometers. Properties measured included Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio remained constant with porosity., For the numerical simulations, 3-D, mesoscale, multilayer models were constructed to evaluate the effects of pore morphology and interactions on material properties. The models allowed systematic spatial positioning of the pore within the cell and the ability to form solid zones. Pore arrangement, the effect of constraint, and gradients on the stress state were investigated. By using different combinations of hex cells as building blocks, several complicated microstructural arrangements were simulated.

Bonenberger, R.J. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Kee, A.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Everett, R.K.; Matic, P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Manipulation of surface chemistry and nanostructure in porous silicon-based chemical sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advantages as a chemical sensing platform. The porous layera universal platform for sensing. Chemical Society Reviewschemical modification and porous layer structure make porous silicon a promising platform

Ruminski, Anne Marie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Modelling and characterisation of porous materials.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Porous materials possessing random microstructures exist in both organic (e.g. polymer foam, bone) and in-organic (e.g. silica aerogels) forms. Foams and aerogels are two such… (more)

Alsayednoor, Jafar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Porous low dielectric constant materials for microelectronics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...porous low-k films. The most important ones at the present time are inorganic silica-based materials (silica xerogel, aerogels), silsesquioxanes (SSQ) and organic polymers. The advantage of silica- and SSQ-based materials is that their chemical...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A MODEL FOR POROUS-MEDIUM COMBUSTION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......these applied in coal combustion appears in...understanding of the chemistry of combustion...GLASSMAN, Combustion (Academic Press...ESSENHIGH, In Chemistry of Coal Utilization...POROUS-MEDIUM COMBUSTION 177 8. D. A......

J. NORBURY; A. M. STUART

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Multiphase flow in fractured porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major goal of this research project was to improve the understanding of the gas-oil two-phase flow in fractured porous media. In addition, miscible displacement was studied to evaluate its promise for enhanced recovery.

Firoozabadi, A.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Anomalous transport through porous and fractured media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anomalous transport, understood as the nonlinear scaling with time of the mean square displacement of transported particles, is observed in many physical processes, including contaminant transport through porous and fractured ...

Kang, Peter Kyungchul

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Porous Power Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Porous Power Technologies Porous Power Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name Porous Power Technologies Place Lafayette, Colorado Zip 80026 Product Porous Power is a Colorado-based developer of microporous, laminatable battery separators. Coordinates 42.706102°, -88.48126° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.706102,"lon":-88.48126,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

298

Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

1980-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

EMSL - liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquids en Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsiodine-solubility-low-activity-waste-borosilicate...

300

Porous and cellular materials for structural applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The symposium, Porous and Cellular Materials for Structural Applications, was held on April 13--15 at the 1998 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco. Recent developments were presented and discussed in the area of porous and cellular materials, including polymer-, ceramic-, and metal-based materials. The general focus of the symposium was on porous materials that are being developed, at least in part, for structural applications. Theoretical aspects of the mechanical behavior of porous and cellular materials were discussed, as well as the specific mechanical properties of a wide variety of solid foam materials. Design principles for the use of solid foams in structures were presented, and a number of promising applications for porous and cellular materials were shown. Papers on the manufacture of solid foams and the production of parts containing solid foams were presented. A significant portion of the symposium was devoted to new porous materials that cannot be classified as foams, such as hollow spheres, hot isostatically compacted and expanded (HICE) materials and GASAR materials. Thirty nine papers were processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Schwartz, D.S.; Shih, D.S. [eds.] [Boeing Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Evans, A.G. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Wadley, H.N.G. [ed.] [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Neutral-ionic transitions in organic mixed-stack compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Torrance et al. have made the interesting observation that several mixed-stack organic compounds undergo transitions from neutral states to ionic states as the temperature or pressure is varied. We examine a simple model of such transitions including Coulomb interaction and hybridization of neutral and ionic states. In the limit of weak hybridization and long-range repulsive interaction between ionic planes, it is proven that there is a complete devil's staircase where the degree of ionicity assumes an infinity of rational values. For attractive interactions between ionic planes, the neutral-ionic transition is shown to be first order for weak hybridization. Comparison with experiment indicates that this situation applies to tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) chloranil. For strong hybridization the transition is continuous but goes through a metallic phase. It is shown, for the first time, that the spectrum of the charge-transfer Hamiltonian contains both a bound spectrum, the observed charge-transfer excitations, and a continuum.

Bruinsma, R.; Bak, P.; Torrance, J.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

A MODIFICATION OF MAUCHA'S IONIC DIAGRAM TO INCLUDE ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ences in concentrations of ions and dif- ferences in relative proportions of ions. Though Maucha's (1932) ionic field dia- grams illustrate relative proportions of ...

2000-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

303

Filtration Combustion in Hydrocarbon Desorption from a Porous Medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated theoretically and experimentally the process of filtration combustion with hydrocarbon desorption from a porous skeleton realized, in particular, in heat cleaning of porous media out of resid...

S. I. Fut'ko; K. V. Dobrego; E. S. Shmelev…

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Porous materials for thermal management under extreme conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...engine; (ii) a Space Shuttle tile; and (iii) a Stirling engine heat exchanger. Highly porous, permeable materials...engine; (ii) a Space Shuttle tile; and (iii) a Stirling engine heat exchanger. Highly porous, permeable materials...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Potential-of-mean-force description of ionic interactions and structural hydration in biomolecular systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To understand the functioning of living organisms on a molecular level, it is crucial to dissect the intricate interplay of the immense number of biological molecules. Most of the biochemical processes in cells occur in a liquid environment formed mainly by water and ions. This solvent environment plays an important role in biological systems. The potential-of-mean-force (PMF) formalism attempts to describe quantitatively the interactions of the solvent with biological macromolecules on the basis of an approximate statistical-mechanical representation. At its current status of development, it deals with ionic effects on the biomolecular structure and with the structural hydration of biomolecules. The underlying idea of the PMF formalism is to identify the dominant sources of interactions and incorporate these interactions into the theoretical formalism using PMF`s (or particle correlation functions) extracted from bulk-liquid systems. In the following, the authors shall briefly outline the statistical-mechanical foundation of the PMF formalism and introduce the PMF expansion formalism, which is intimately linked to superposition approximations for higher-order particle correlation functions. The authors shall then sketch applications, which describe the effects of the ionic environment on nucleic-acid structure. Finally, the authors shall present the more recent extension of the PMF idea to describe quantitatively the structural hydration of biomolecules. Results for the interface of ice and water and for the hydration of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) will be discussed.

Hummer, G.; Garcia, A.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group; Soumpasis, D.M. [Max-Planck-Inst for Biophysical Chemistry, Goettingen (Germany). Biocomputation Group

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Final Report for DE-FG02-93ER14376,Ionic Transport in Electrochemical Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was a molecular dynamics study of the relevant issues associated with the structure and transport of lithium in polymer electrolytes such as polyethylene oxide(PEO). In close collaboration with quantum chemist Larry Curtiss and neutron scatterers David Lee Price and Marie-Louise Saboungi at Argonne, we used molecular dynamics to study the local structure and dynamics and ion transport in the polymer. The studies elucidated the mechanism of Li transport in PEO, revealing that the rate limiting step is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the torsion forces in the backbone of the polymer. Because the torsion forces are difficult to manipulate chemically, this makes it easier to understand why improving the conductivity of PEO based electrolytes has proven to be very difficult. We studied the transport properties of cations in ionic liquids as possible additives to polymer membranes for batteries and fuel cells and found preliminary indications that the transport is enhanced near phase separation in acid-ionic liquid mixtures.

J. W. Halley

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

307

Joining of porous silicon carbide bodies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of joining two porous bodies of silicon carbide is disclosed. It entails utilizing an aqueous slip of a similar silicon carbide as was used to form the porous bodies, including the sintering aids, and a binder to initially join the porous bodies together. Then the composite structure is subjected to cold isostatic pressing to form a joint having good handling strength. Then the composite structure is subjected to pressureless sintering to form the final strong bond. Optionally, after the sintering the structure is subjected to hot isostatic pressing to further improve the joint and densify the structure. The result is a composite structure in which the joint is almost indistinguishable from the silicon carbide pieces which it joins.

Bates, Carl H. (Worcester, MA); Couhig, John T. (Worcester, MA); Pelletier, Paul J. (Thompson, CT)

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Numerical study of porous media thermoelectric converter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermoelectric conversion is direct conversion technology that has characteristics of being maintenance free. However, the efficiency of the conventional bulk semiconductor thermoelectric device is about 20% for ideal theoretical calculation, and less than 5% for an actual application. The efficiency is very low because the heat conduction in the device and the Joule loss are too large compared with the Peltier heat which is changed into the electric power. The thermoelectric device made by porous media is heated by the radiation and maintains a large temperature difference by the gas which passes in the porous device. Therefore, the influence of the heat conduction in the thermoelectric device is small and the improvement of the conversion efficiency can be attempted. In this paper, the authors report the calculated results and the performance of thermoelectric converter made with porous media.

Kosaka, Kenichirou; Yamada, Akira

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

Field emission study of cobalt ion implanted porous silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis . Field Emission Measurements of Cobalt Implanted Porous Silicon Differences between the 1mplanted Porous Silicon Field Emission Devioe and the Al-anode Oxidized Porous Silicon Field Emission Diode VII CONCLUSION 70 94 99 REFERENCES... Emission Diode (OPSFED) was developed and studied [8] . The OPSFED was using the irregularity on the interface between the oxidized porous silicon film and silicon substrate as field emission cathodes, and a thin aluminum layer deposited...

Liu, Hongbiao

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

310

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping (Hoffman Estates, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yuan, Shengwen (Chicago, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

311

LNG liquid-liquid immiscibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although natural gas species rarely exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility in binary systems, the presence of additional components can extend the domain of immiscibility in those few binary systems where it already exists or produce immiscibility in binary systems where it had not existed. If the solute has the proper molecular relation to the solvent mixture background, liquid-liquid-vapor (LLV) behavior will occur; such phenomena greatly complicate the design of LNG processing equipment. To aid LNG engineers, researchers mapped the thermodynamic behavior of four ternary LLV systems and examined the effects of the second solvents - ethane, propane, n-butane, and CO/sub 2/ - on the binary methane + n-octane system.

Luks, K.D.; Kohn, J.P.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Synthesis and characterization of hybrid materials based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid and Dawson-type tungstophosphate K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O and K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we synthesized hybrid materials using well-Dawson polyoxometalates (POMs), K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O or K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O and a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]). K, W, P and CHN elemental analysis showed that one mole of [H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 7-} reacts with 6 moles of BMIM{sup +} and one mole of [P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} reacts with 4 moles of BMIM{sup +} to form, respectively, K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. X-ray diffraction illustrated amorphous structure of the hybrid materials. FT-IR spectra showed the presence of both 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and the Dawson anion. TG analysis displayed a relative thermal stability of the hybrid materials compared to the parents Dawson POMs. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the reduction peak potentials of the Dawson anion in the hybrid materials shift towards negative values and the shift is more pronounced for K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} compared to K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. This was attributed to a decrease in the acidity of the Dawson POM anion in the hybrid material. -- Graphical abstract: Powder XRD patterns of (a) PW{sub 18}, (b) K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}, (c) P{sub 2}W{sub 18}, and (d) K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]) reacts with K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O to form K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} [BMIM][BF{sub 4}] reacts with K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O to form K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} displayed amorphous structures. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} illustrated low water content. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} showed improved thermal stability.

Ammam, Malika, E-mail: m78ammam@yahoo.f [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), K.U Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Fransaer, Jan [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), K.U Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

THE IONIC CENTRIFUGE CAN GIVE FUSION NUCLEAR POWER  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...so long as the electric field and magnetic...3. The First Discharge of the Ionic Centrifuge...low-voltage arc source of ionization...The anode of the arc is taken as zero...first type of discharge, the end plates...found when the arc current was varied...4. The Second Discharge of the Ionic Centrifuge...

Joseph Slepian

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Structure of Random Porous Materials: Silica Aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using small-angle x-ray scattering, we show that porous silica aerogel has a fractal backbone structure. The observed structure is traced to the underlying chemical (polymerization) and physical (colloid aggregation) growth processes. Comparison of scattering curves for aerogel with silica aggregates confirms this interpretation.

Dale W. Schaefer and Keith D. Keefer

1986-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

316

Evaporation-driven growth of large crystallized salt structures in a porous medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Subflorescence refers to crystallized salt structures that form inside a porous medium. We report a drying experiment revealing major development of subflorescence in the dry region of the porous medium away from the liquid zone. Using a combination of image analyses and numerical computations, we show that the growth is directly correlated to the evaporation flux distribution along the boundary of the growing salt structure. This indicates that the salt is transported into the domain occupied by the salt structure in the porous medium up to the structure periphery, where salt deposition takes place. This is confirmed when a growing salt structure encounters dry subflorescence formed earlier during the drying process. The dry subflorescence is reimbibed and resumes its growth. The analysis also suggests that the solution within the growing subflorescence is in equilibrium with the crystallized salt wall. These results shed light on the growth mechanisms of subflorescence, a phenomenon that can play a fundamental role in several important issues such as carbon dioxide sequestration or salt weathering.

N. Sghaier; S. Geoffroy; M. Prat; H. Eloukabi; S. Ben Nasrallah

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

317

Experimental Investigation of the Effective Foam Viscosity in Unsaturated Porous Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foam has the potential to effectively carry and distribute either aqueous or gaseous amendments to the deep vadose zone for contaminant remediation. However, the transport of foam in porous media is complicated because flow characteristics such as the effective viscosity are affected not only by foam properties but also by the sediment properties and flow conditions. We determined the average effective foam viscosity via a series of laboratory experiments and found that the effective foam viscosity increased with the liquid fraction in foam, the injection rate, and sediment permeability. These impacts are quantified with an empirical expression, which is further demonstrated with data from literature. The results show that the liquid fraction in foam and sediment permeability are two primary factors affecting effective foam viscosity. These results suggest that, when foam is used in deep vadose zone remediation, foam flow will not suffer from gravitational drainage and can distribute amendments uniformly in heterogeneous sediments.

Zhang, Z. F.; Zhong, Lirong; White, Mark D.; Szecsody, James E.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Dynamics of DNAPL penetration into fractured porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) that pool above stratigraphic contacts as a result of capillary forces can migrate downward through fractures in the underlying fine-grained layer. Although the DNAPL in the fracture is excluded from the surrounding porous matrix by capillary forces, the DNAPL constituent will dissolve and migrate by diffusion into the matrix. As a front of moderately soluble DNAPL advances into a fracture, the flux of dissolved material into the matrix increases until it becomes comparable to the rate of flow into the fracture, reducing the pressure in the DNAPL phase and slowing its advance. If the DNAPL front encounters a constriction with sufficiently large entry pressure, its advance will halt temporarily. But as the concentration gradients driving diffusion into the matrix decrease, there will be less DNAPL lost by diffusion and the DNAPL pressure at the constriction will increase until it exceeds the entry pressure, causing the downward advance of the front to suddenly resume. Because the time scales of diffusion are much slower than those of density flow, this analysis suggests that under certain circumstances a DNAPL can suddenly resume its downward advance after a long period of apparent immobility. In one plausible example, a dichloromethane front passes through 5 m of fractured clay in 16 days, is immobile for more than four years, and then suddenly moves again. Where this phenomenon is possible, removal of DNAPL to protect underlying aquifers becomes more important as a remediation goal.

Ross, B. [Disposal Safety Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Lu, N. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Div. of Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Uncertainty quantification for porous media flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainty quantification is an increasingly important aspect of many areas of computational science, where the challenge is to make reliable predictions about the performance of complex physical systems in the absence of complete or reliable data. Predicting flows of oil and water through oil reservoirs is an example of a complex system where accuracy in prediction is needed primarily for financial reasons. Simulation of fluid flow in oil reservoirs is usually carried out using large commercially written finite difference simulators solving conservation equations describing the multi-phase flow through the porous reservoir rocks. This paper examines a Bayesian Framework for uncertainty quantification in porous media flows that uses a stochastic sampling algorithm to generate models that match observed data. Machine learning algorithms are used to speed up the identification of regions in parameter space where good matches to observed data can be found.

Christie, Mike [Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mike.christie@pet.hw.ac.uk; Demyanov, Vasily [Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Erbas, Demet [Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Metallographic study of GASAR porous magnesium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the promising techniques for making porous metals is the so-called GASAR process. In principle, the process affords considerable control over pore size, shape, and distribution. However, in practice, the pore microstructure is difficult to control, and a clearer understanding of microstructural evolution would be helpful. In this study, the authors undertake a detailed microstructural study of a porous Mg and AZ31 Mg alloy synthesized by the GASAR process. Microscopic studies demonstrated the presence of different pore size ranges. The pore distribution depended on the distance from the chill end of ingots. TEM observations revealed apparent crack lines (gas tracks) near the pores and ternary intermetallic phases in the alloy.

Park, C.; Nutt, S.R. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Screening model for nanowire surface-charge sensors in liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conductance change of nanowire field-effect transistors is considered a highly sensitive probe for surface charge. However, Debye screening of relevant physiological liquid environments challenge device performance due to competing screening from the ionic liquid and nanowire charge carriers. We discuss this effect within Thomas-Fermi and Debye-Huckel theory and derive analytical results for cylindrical wires which can be used to estimate the sensitivity of nanowire surface-charge sensors. We study the interplay between the nanowire radius, the Thomas-Fermi and Debye screening lengths, and the length of the functionalization molecules. The analytical results are compared to finite-element calculations on a realistic geometry.

Martin H. Sorensen; Niels Asger Mortensen; Mads Brandbyge

2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

322

THIN LIQUID WALL BEHAVIOR UNDER IFE CYCLIC OPERATION A. R. Raffray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the requirements imposed by the driver and target thermal and injection control. I. INTRODUCTION A wetted wall relative to the requirements imposed by the driver and target thermal and injection control. In determining of thin liquid film protection systems with either radial injection through a porous first wall (hereafter

Najmabadi, Farrokh

323

Liquid meniscus friction on a wet plate: Bubbles, lamellae and foams Isabelle Cantat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For enhanced oil recovery [1­3], or soil remediation [4], liquid foams are pushed into porous media to displace]; innovative set-ups are developed to control bubbles motion in micro-channels for lab-on-a-chip applications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

SPUTTERING FROM A POROUS MATERIAL BY PENETRATING IONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Porous materials are ubiquitous in the universe and weathering of porous surfaces plays an important role in the evolution of planetary and interstellar materials. Sputtering of porous solids in particular can influence atmosphere formation, surface reflectivity, and the production of the ambient gas around materials in space. Several previous studies and models have shown a large reduction in the sputtering of a porous solid compared to the sputtering of the non-porous solid. Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the sputtering of a nanoporous solid with 55% of the solid density. We calculate the electronic sputtering induced by a fast, penetrating ion, using a thermal spike representation of the deposited energy. We find that sputtering for this porous solid is, surprisingly, the same as that for a full-density solid, even though the sticking coefficient is high.

Rodriguez-Nieva, J. F. [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Bringa, E. M. [CONICET and Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Cassidy, T. A. [CalTech/JPL, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Johnson, R. E.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A. [Laboratory for Atomic and Surface Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Caro, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 94551 (United States); Loeffler, M. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrochemistry Branch, Code 691, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Farkas, D. [Department of Materials Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

325

Membrane Ion Channels and Ionic Hydration Energies [Abstract Only  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

25 November 1980 research-article Membrane Ion Channels and Ionic Hydration Energies [Abstract Only] D. T. Edmonds The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings...

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids and Plasma/Liquid Phase Boundaries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this research project, the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with multi-phase media was computationally investigated. Multi-phase media includes liquids, particles, complex materials and porous surfaces. Although this investigation addressed fundamental plasma transport and chemical processes, the outcomes directly and beneficially affected applications including biotechnology, medicine and environmental remediation (e.g., water purification). During this project, we made advances in our understanding of the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use computer modeling to represent these complex processes. We determined the method that atmospheric pressure plasmas flow along solid and liquid surfaces, and through endoscopic like tubes, deliver optical and high energy ion activation energy to organic and liquid surfaces, and produce reactivity in thin liquid layers, as might cover a wound. We determined the mechanisms whereby plasmas can deliver activation energy to the inside of liquids by sustaining plasmas in bubbles. These findings are important to the advancement of new technology areas such as plasma medicine

Kushner, Mark Jay [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan

2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

327

Electronically and ionically conducting electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite article comprising a porous cermet electrode on a dense solid electrolyte and method of making same. The cerment electrode comprises beta-type-alumina and refractory metal.

Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Weber, Neill (Murray, UT)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative ...

Xu, Feng

329

Stable benzimidazole-incorporated porous polymer network for...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stable benzimidazole-incorporated porous polymer network for carbon capture with high efficiency and low cost Previous Next List Muwei Zhang, Zachary Perry, Jinhee Park, Hong-Cai...

330

Polyamine-Tethered Porous Polymer Networks for Carbon Dioxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polyamine-Tethered Porous Polymer Networks for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Previous Next List Weigang Lu, Julian P. Sculley, Daqiang Yuan, Rajamani Krishna, Zhangwen Wei,...

331

Evaluating different classes of porous materials for carbon capture...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Evaluating different classes of porous materials for carbon capture Previous Next List Johanna Maria Huck, Li-Chiang Lin, Adam Berger, Mahdi Niknam Shahrak, Richard Luis Martin,...

332

Building multiple adsorption sites in porous polymer networks...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Building multiple adsorption sites in porous polymer networks for carbon capture applications Previous Next List Weigang Lu, Wolfgang M. Verdegaal, Jiamei Yu, Perla B Balbuena,...

333

Synthesis, Structure, and Metalation of Two New Highly Porous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Synthesis, Structure, and Metalation of Two New Highly Porous Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List William Morris, Boris Volosskiy, Selcuk Demir, Felipe Gndara,...

334

Desiccation of unsaturated porous media: Intermediate-scale experiment...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with the multifluid flow simulator STOMP, using independently obtained hydraulic and thermal porous medium properties. In all the experiments, the injection of dry air proved...

335

SciTech Connect: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores. Authors: Hatch, Anson V; Sommer,...

336

Ammonia Capture in Porous Organic Polymers Densely Functionalized...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ammonia Capture in Porous Organic Polymers Densely Functionalized with Brnsted Acid Groups Previous Next List Jeffrey F. Van Humbeck, Thomas M. McDonald, Xiaofei Jing, Brian M....

337

Thermodynamic Model for Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Areas in Porous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

areas are important in controlling the rate of mass and energy transfer between fluid phases in porous media. We present a modified thermodynamically based model (TBM) to...

338

Development of non-premixed porous inserted regenerative thermal oxidizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, a porous inserted regenerative thermal oxidizer (PRTO) system was developed for a... x emissions and high radiant efficiency. Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2...) ceramic ...

Jun-chun Zhang; Le-ming Cheng; Cheng-hang Zheng…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

340

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Characterizing unsaturated diffusion in porous tuff gravel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (for example, the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent to which surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents were calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s for tuff gravel. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel at very low water contents.

Hu, Qinhong; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Wang, Joseph, S.Y.

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

342

Production of porous coating on a prosthesis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preselected surface areas of a prosthesis are covered by a blend of matching primary metallic particles and expendable particles. The particles are compressed and heated to assure that deformation and metallurgical bonding occurs between them and between the primary particles and the surface boundaries of the prosthesis. Porosity is achieved by removal of the expendable material. The result is a coating including discrete bonded particles separated by a network of interconnected voids presenting a homogeneous porous coating about the substrate. It has strength suitable for bone implant usage without intermediate adhesives, and adequate porosity to promote subsequent bone ingrowth.

Sump, Kenneth R. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

A rigid porous filter and filtration method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m

Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dauchier, Jean-Michel (Martignas, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

345

Accepted Manuscript Title: Fuel Pyrolysis through Porous Media: Coke Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted Manuscript Title: Fuel Pyrolysis through Porous Media: Coke Formation and Coupled effect. Gascoin, P. Gillard, M. Bouchez, J. Steelant, Fuel Pyrolysis through Porous Media: Coke Formation Coke Formation and Coupled effect on Permeability2 G. Fau1* , N. Gascoin1 , P. Gillard1 , M. Bouchez2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

346

Mechanical Properties of Porous-Matrix Ceramic Composites**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requirements of high-temperature components for future gas turbine engine technologies becomes realizable). These mechanisms per- mit the development of multiple matrix cracks, which in turn produce inelastic strain during/Mechanical Properties of Porous-Matrix Ceramic Composites REVIEWS The porous matrix concept has been developed primarily

Zok, Frank

347

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

349

A liquid film motor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that electro-hydrodynamical effects in freely suspended liquid films can force liquids to flow. Here, we report a purely electrically driven rotation in water and some other liquid suspended film...

A. Amjadi; R. Shirsavar; N. Hamedani Radja…

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

351

Computed Shock Response of Porous Aluminum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The shock response of powdered aluminum compacted by a driver plate was simulated with a one?dimensional Lagrangiancontinuum mechanicscomputer program. The porous aluminum was mocked up by a series of flat plates separated by gaps to obtain an initial density of 1.35 g/cm3 for the ``powder.'' The compaction process was followed in detail for two cases of driver?plate conditions corresponding to two Stanford Research Institute experiments. The calculations showed an approach to equilibrium behind the shock in each of the porous samples. The equilibrium states established were found to be consistent with the Rankine?Hugoniot jump conditions applied to aluminum of density 1.35 g/cm3. These states did not lie on the Hugoniot curve of solid?density aluminum. This was shown to be due to the significant internal?energy dependency in the equation of state. The calculated results were in good agreement with the SRI experiments. Application of this computational model to more complex cases is indicated.

Ronald Hofmann; Dudley J. Andrews; D. E. Maxwell

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Multicomponent Gas Diffusion in Porous Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multicomponent gas transport is investigated with unprecedented precision by AC impedance analysis of porous YSZ anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells. A fuel gas mixture of H2-H2O-N2 is fed to the anode, and impedance data are measured across the range of hydrogen partial pressure (10-100%) for open circuit conditions at three temperatures (800C, 850C and 900C) and for 300mA applied current at 800C. For the first time, analytical formulae for the diffusion resistance (Rb) of three standard models of multicomponent gas transport (Fick, Stefan-Maxwell, and Dusty Gas) are derived and tested against the impedance data. The tortuosity is the only fitting parameter since all the diffusion coefficients are known. Only the Dusty Gas model leads to a remarkable data collapse for over twenty experimental conditions, using a constant tortuosity consistent with permeability measurements and the Bruggeman relation. These results establish the accuracy of the Dusty Gas model for multicomponent gas diffusion in porous med...

Fu, Yeqing; Dutta, Abhijit; Mohanram, Aravind; Pietras, John D; Bazant, Martin Z

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Porous Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and repel liquid droplets2,3 . Recently, carbon materials such as amorphous carbon coatings, graphene foams carbon materials or structures have been used extensively as electrode materials for batteries and super

Kim, Ho-Young

354

Protein separations using porous silicon membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

extraction, liquid/liquid extraction, and electrical processes. Of all of these, adsorption/chromatography and membrane separations are perhaps the most promising. According to Wong et al. (1987), chromatography offers very high selectivity but is riddled... heat transfer or heat generating equipment is necessary. The only utility required is electricity to drive pumps. A membrane separation unit operation can also be run at ambient temperature. When balanced against its drawbacks which include fouling...

Pass, Shannon Marie

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 139, 214701 (2013) The liquid surface of chiral ionic liquids as seen from molecular dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these applications include drug delivery as active phar- maceutical ingredients, solvents for green processing, pu

Lisal, Martin

356

Transition from a nonionic to an ionic micelle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper was motivated by an attempt to understand the transition from a nonionic to an ionic micelle from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments were performed on mixed micelles of nonionic-ionic surfactants as the charge was increased in steps. Evidence for the charge condensation on the surface of the micelles is obtained. An extension of the sticky-hard-sphere model to include the Coulomb potentials is presented and used to analyze experimental results on two systems. It is concluded that this model is more appropriate than the currently used models.

V. K. Kelkar; B. K. Mishra; K. Srinivasa Rao; P. S. Goyal; C. Manohar

1991-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

358

A Semi-Empirical Model for Porous Media Heat Exchanger Design Richard A. Wirtz1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the effectiveness of the porous wall are always maximum when it is operated with the number of transfer units of the porous matrix greater than two (ntu 2). Furthermore, if the porous matrix is composed of a packed bed matrix is minimum when ntu 2. This suggest that for many design requirements, the porous media exchanger

Wirtz, Richard A.

359

Flow and heat transfer in porous micro heat sink for thermal management of high power LEDs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel porous micro heat sink system is presented for thermal management of high power LEDs, which has high heat transport capability. The operational principle and heat transfer characteristics of porous micro heat sink are analyzed. Numerical model ... Keywords: Heat dissipation, High heat flux, High power LEDs, Porous media, Porous micro heat sink

Z. M. Wan; J. Liu; K. L. Su; X. H. Hu; S. S. M

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

UW -Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems Design of Energy Absorption Bases on Porous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NiTi Alloy Disk EDM Cutting (Electro-Discharge Machining) Porous NiTi Alloy Cylindrical Specimen HeatTi Alloy Porous Disc EDM Cutting (Electro-Discharge Machining) Porous NiTi Alloy Cylindrical Specimen Heat for Intelligent Materials and Systems EDM Cutting and Heat Treatment NiTi Porous Disc ( =30mm, h=4.5mm) = 5.0mm

Taya, Minoru

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Measurement of vibrational spectrum of liquid using monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy–electron energy loss spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......application to lithium-ion battery and hence has been well studied...Atom-by-atom spectroscopy at graphene edge. Nature (2010) 468...temperature molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte. Electrochim...additive systems as lithium-ion battery ionic liquid electrolytes......

Tomohiro Miyata; Mao Fukuyama; Akihide Hibara; Eiji Okunishi; Masaki Mukai; Teruyasu Mizoguchi

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Conductive Filler Morphology Effect on Performance of Ionic Polymer Conductive Network Composite Actuators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several generations of ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators have been developed since 1992. It has been discovered that the composite electrodes which are composed of electronic and ionic conductors, have great ...

Liu, Sheng

363

Weakly-Basic Anion Exchange Resin Scavenges Impurities in Ionic Liquid Synthesized from Trialkyloxonium Salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Lewis acidic parts of these impurities, that is, H+ and BF3, were demonstrated to be able to transfer to dimethylamino groups of the weakly basic anion exchange resin (DOWEX MARATHON WBA) in aqueous solutions, releasing 1-methylimidazole (mim). ... Although intense reddish brown color was given to the residual oil of [emim]BF4, further purification and decolorization have been achieved by using silica-gel column chromatography (eluent: acetone) and treatment with activated carbon in water. ... The detection and determination of [emim]+, mim, [Hmim]+, [BF3(mim)], and BF4– in the recovered oils and collected volatiles from each batch were performed by using chemical shifts and peak integrals in the 1H and 19F NMR spectra. ...

Koichiro Takao; Taro Tsubomura

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

364

Imaging an ionic liquid adlayer by scanning tunneling microscopy at the solid|vacuum interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm, Germany 2 Institute of Particle Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal- Zellerfeld, Gemany Abstract The first imaging(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([Py1,4]FAP) was evaporated onto a clean Au(111) surface by a Knudsen-type evaporator and the surface

Pfeifer, Holger

365

Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liq- uids have been considered and used as a new generation of green solvents for a number of or solvents, a much smaller amount of the catalyst was used. After a relatively easy removal of the polymer Chemistry, Vol. 41, 143­151 (2003) © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 143 #12;tion solvents will make

Wan, Xin-hua

366

Determination of Binding Constants of Cyclodextrins in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and virtually no vapor pressure. Because of these properties, they can serve as a "green" recyclable alternative to the volatile organic compounds that are traditionally used as industrial solvents.1-4 In fact, RTIL have been successfully used in many applications, including replacing traditional organic solvents in (1) organic

Reid, Scott A.

367

Adsorption of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids onto montmorillonite : characterization and thermodynamic calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and are thus widely used as green solvents for various applications [1,3,4]. RTILs are formed to their extremely low vapour pressures [2], they constitute an attractive alternative to traditional solvents

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Green Chemistry Protocols: Specific Ionic Liquids as Recyclable Reagents, Catalysts, Solvents and Extractors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the current age of high dependency of chemical industries on the resources coming from oil and gas which are getting increasingly scarce, the focus is shifting towards renewable feedstock. In this prospective,...

Fliur Z. Macaev

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Application of deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids to hydrolase-catalyzed reactions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hydrolases are important enzymes for stereoselective and environmentally benign synthesis. In nature, hydrolases cleave bonds with water. When used in organic solvents, these enzymes can… (more)

Gorke, Johnathan Thomas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Using Caenorhabditis elegans to probe toxicity of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride based ionic liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are gaining attention as new solvents within the green chemistry community; however this attention has quickly attention as new solvents within the green chemistry community.1 This attention is due in part 35487, USA. E-mail: RDRogers@bama.ua.edu; Fax: 205-348-0823; Tel: 205-348-4323 b Center for Green

Caldwell, Guy

371

Instructions for use Dielectric spectroscopy study on ionic liquid microemulsion composed of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the versatility of mi- croemulsion. In addition to the "green solvents" nature, ILs are also known as "designer to traditional organic solvents but also a group of advanced materials for diverse purposes like energy storage.3 solvents" because their properties can be easily customized by chemical modification or sim- ply pairing

Tsunogai, Urumu

372

Production of Versatile Platform Chemical 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Biomass in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Growing concerns on global warming and the depletion of traditional resources have driven us to look for green and sustainable energy sources. As a biomass-derived platform chemical, the production of 5-HMF has b...

Xinhua Qi; Richard L. Smith Jr.; Zhen Fang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-supported recyclable catalysts for biomass conversion into HMF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This contribution reports the first study of recyclable PIL-supported metal (Cr, Al) catalysts for effective biomass (glucose and cellulose) conversion into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a key biorefining building block and biomass platform chemical. Of the five different \\{PILs\\} investigated, poly(3-butyl-1-vinylimidazolium chloride), P[BVIM]Cl, has been found to be most effective; when combined with CrCl2 in situ or used as the preformed PIL-metalate P[BVIM]+[CrCl3]? in DMF, this PIL-supported catalyst converts glucose to HMF in 65.8% yield at 120 °C for 3 h. This yield is higher than those achieved by the catalysts based on the PIL monomer, [BVIM]Cl–CrCl2, as well as by the most commonly used molecular IL based catalyst, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl)–CrCl2, under otherwise identical conditions. The P[BVIM]Cl–CrCl2 catalyst system also works well for the cellulose-to-HMF conversion via a two-step process. The analogous PIL–Al catalyst, P[BVIM]Cl–Et2AlCl, is less effective than the PIL–CrCl2 system, but recyclability tests indicate the PIL–Al system is more recyclable thus achieving a nearly constant HMF yield upon 6 cycles.

Dajiang (D.J.) Liu; Eugene Y.-X. Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Ionic Liquids as Multi-Functional Lubricant Additives to Enhance Engine Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

375

Correlation between Quasielastic Raman Scattering and Configurational Entropy in an Ionic Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro * ... Urahata, Sergio M.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C. ... Urahata, Sergio M.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C. ...

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

376

High Viscosity of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids with the Hydrogen Sulfate Anion: A Raman Spectroscopy Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro * ... Monteiro, Marcelo J.; Bazito, Fernanda F. C.; Siqueira, Leonardo J. A.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.; Torresi, Roberto M. ...

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous ionic liquids Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The methane partial... of commercial processes are available to deal with the acid gas removal. Chemical absorption ... Source: Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit - Centre for...

378

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioenerg. Res. (2010) 3:123–133 DOI 10.1007/s12155-010-9091-has been shown to be an Bioenerg. Res. (2010) 3:123–133 12.Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA, USA e-

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Investigations into the Synthesis, Identification and Developability of Active Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be advantageous in traditional oral and alternative non-oral routes of administration. The library of successful AILs was increased with a series of generic and propriatary compounds. They were characterized via infrared spectrometry, glass transition temperature...

Miller, Elise

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B. M. Holmes Biomass Science and Conversion Technologyof the conversion of biomass into monosaccharides. However,enhance the conversion of IL-treated biomass polysaccharides

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

DOE-funded researchers have shown that a new, highly effective pretreatment process used in the production of biofuel can be executed at a larger scale than ever achieved before.

382

Process for CO2 Capture Using Ionic Liquid That Exhibits Phase Change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An expander turbine powered by the CO2-lean flue gas leaving the absorber recovers 43% of the power expended by the flue gas compressor. ... The authors appreciate the close collaboration with faculty at the University of Notre Dame, including Professors Joan Brennecke, Mark McCready, Mark Stadtherr, Bill Schneider, and Ed Maginn. ... The heat transfer within the adsorbent beds can be managed in situ, using thermal energy storage material: a phase change materials (PCM) for example. ...

Ronald S. Eisinger; George E. Keller; II

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

383

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

identification of structure and domain size in block copolymer thin films using RSoXS enables a quantitative comparison of the bulk

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Molecular Friction Mechanisms Across Nanofilms of a Bilayer-Forming Ionic Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The prevailing paradigm in boundary lubrication asserts, in essence, that surfaces coated in amphiphiles slide past each other by way of the “slippery” exposed alkyl chains while the polar head group remains anchored at the surface. Here we show, for ...

Alexander M. Smith; Michael A. Parkes; Susan Perkin

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

385

Technical Highlights for July 2012 New Collaboration Underway to Investigate Ionic Liquids for Enhancing Engine Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Isobutanol- and Ethanol-Gasoline Fuel Blends A preliminary analysis was performed by Mike Kass, Steve Pawel Exposed to Ethanol-blended Gasoline The ORNL/TM-2012/88 report entitled Compatibility Study for Plastic and Chris Janke which compared the compatibility of selected elastomers and metals to gasoline-based test

386

Ionic Liquid–Mediated Selective Conversion of CO2 to CO at Low Overpotentials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...observe here. Further development of the reactor configuration...rotating-disk electrode at a cathode potential equivalent...At present, our cathode has an electrochemical...Dubois D. L. , Development of molecular electrocatalysts...A new homogeneous electrocatalyst for the reduction...

Brian A. Rosen; Amin Salehi-Khojin; Michael R. Thorson; Wei Zhu; Devin T. Whipple; Paul J. A. Kenis; Richard I. Masel

2011-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

387

Ionic Liquid-Assisted Synthesis of Pt Nanoparticles onto Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The success of PEMFC depends considerably on cost, durability, and performance of the electrocatalyst in fuel cell stacks. ... The development of highly active electrocatalysts dispersed on corrosion-resistant and inexpensive carbons is necessary for achieving the reliability of the PEMFC necessary for their widespread usage and reducing its total cost. ... Time-effective and reliable methods for studying catalyst durability are indispensable for developing PEMFC catalysts. ...

Inhwan Do; Lawrence T. Drzal

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Gas Hydrate Equilibrium Measurements for Multi-Component Gas Mixtures and Effect of Ionic Liquid Inhibitors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrate inhibition data from a newly commissioned micro bench top reactor, a high-pressure autoclave and a rocking cell. The conditions for hydrate formation for pure methane and carbon dioxide were also measured, for validation purposes. The measured data...

Othman, Enas Azhar

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

389

Solubilization of Biomass Components with Ionic Liquids Toward Biomass Energy Conversions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cellulosic biomass essentially consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. To obtain energy from cellulosic biomass with minimum given energy, following three steps are required, namely...3, 4...]. Since or...

Mitsuru Abe; Hiroyuki Ohno

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pretreatment efficiency . Biofuels 4 ( 1 ): 63 – 72 . 16 Simmons BA Loque D Blanch HW ( 2008 ) Next-generation biomass feedstocks for biofuel production . Genome Biol 9 ( 12 ): 242 . 17 Kilpelainen A ( 2003 ) Wood properties of Scots pines (Pinus...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

392

Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

393

Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

394

Production of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Mono- and Disaccharides in the Presence of Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The one-pot dehydration/hydrolysis of mono- and disaccharides to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the presence of several...4], a HMF yield of 87 % was achieved from sucrose. In addition, [AMIM]Cl revealed a rema...

Jincai Shi; Wentao Liu; Ningning Wang; Yan Yang; Haijun Wang

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

One-step degradation of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in ionic liquid under mild conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract One-step conversion of cellulose to HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural) has been achieved by using metal chlorides (CrCl3, CuCl2, SnCl4, WCl6) in [BMIM]Cl. The effects of temperature, reaction time, amount of catalysts, and the purity of [BMIM]Cl on the performance have been studied and discussed in detail. More than 63% yield of HMF and 80% yield of TRS (total reducing sugar) were obtained in [BMIM]Cl with CrCl3 at 120 °C under atmospheric pressure. Filter paper and cotton were also used as a source for cellulose degradation to HMF, but only a moderate yield of HMF was obtained (40% for filter paper and 12% for cotton). The reutilization of this system was examined and the reaction mechanism was also discussed.

Lilong Zhou; Yiming He; Zhanwei Ma; Runjuan Liang; Tinghua Wu; Ying Wu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Temperature dependence of some liquid lithium properties from the ionic pseudopotential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, UCRL-'L44O 444, Laurence Livermore Lab, Caleg (19~ (3) S. G. J. Fischer, et aleg Intl Conf. En n of Past Reactors i' or Safe and Relia e s. , ese sc a ur em orsc ung, a sr e, (4) P. A. Nelson, et al. , A~A- 6, Argo e National Date, Ill. , (1976) (5..., UCRL-'L44O 444, Laurence Livermore Lab, Caleg (19~ (3) S. G. J. Fischer, et aleg Intl Conf. En n of Past Reactors i' or Safe and Relia e s. , ese sc a ur em orsc ung, a sr e, (4) P. A. Nelson, et al. , A~A- 6, Argo e National Date, Ill. , (1976) (5...

Engel, Anthony Wells

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

397

Radiation-Induced Fragmentation of Diamide Extraction Agents in Ionic Liquid Diluents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Hoel, P.; Nigond, L.; Vitart, X. Sep. ... Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Hoel, P.; Nigond, L.; Vitart, X. ...

Ilya A. Shkrob; Timothy W. Marin; Jason R. Bell; Huimin Luo; Sheng Dai; Jasmine L. Hatcher; R. Dale Rimmer; James F. Wishart

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Borrowing Hydrogen in Water and Ionic Liquids: Iridium-Catalyzed Alkylation of Amines with Alcohols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ourida Saidi †, A. John Blacker ‡, Gareth W. Lamb †, Stephen P. Marsden ‡, James E. Taylor † and Jonathan M. J. Williams *† ... Blacker, A. J.; Farah, M. M.; Hall, M. I.; Marsden, S. P.; Saidi, O.; Williams, J. M. J. Org. ... Blacker, A. John; Farah, Mohamed M.; Hall, Michael I.; Marsden, Stephen P.; Saidi, Ourida; Williams, Jonathan M. J. ...

Ourida Saidi; A. John Blacker; Gareth W. Lamb; Stephen P. Marsden; James E. Taylor; Jonathan M. J. Williams

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

399

Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photoionization efficiency (PIE) data were acquired as thebeam. In this first study, PIE data are taken over a limitedthe source is reached before PIE curves are measured. The

Chambreau, Steven D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Ionic Liquids as an Attractive Alternative Solvent for Thermal Lens Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in volatile organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexane. However, the ILs are more,2 Nonpolar, volative organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexane should provide good

Reid, Scott A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

402

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for other IL-based process technology currently...transformation and separation processes (1, 2). ILs are often...capture (10), and biodiesel production (11). Among the...biofuels. Chemical processes to produce ILs directly...knowledge) synthesis and evaluation of ILs from these...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

404

Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

405

Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Strain rate effects in porous materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The behavior of metal foams under rapid loading conditions is assessed. Dynamic loading experiments were conducted in their laboratory using a split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus and a drop weight tester; Strain rates ranged from 45 s{sup {minus}1} to 1200 s{sup {minus}1}. The implications of these experiments on open-cell, porous metals, and closed- and open-cell polymer foams are described. It is shown that there are two possible strain-rate dependent contributors to the impact resistance of cellular metals: (i) elastic-plastic resistance of the cellular metal skeleton, and (ii) the gas pressure generated by gas flow within distorted open cells. A theoretical basis for these implications is presented.

Lankford, J. Jr.; Dannemann, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

Flow in porous media, phase and ultralow interfacial tensions: Mechanisms of enhanced petroleum recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major program of university research, longer-ranged and more fundamental in approach than industrial research, into basic mechanisms of enhancing petroleum recovery and into underlying physics, chemistry, geology, applied mathematics, computation, and engineering science has been built at Minnesota. The original focus was surfactant-based chemical flooding, but the approach taken was sufficiently fundamental that the research, longer-ranged than industrial efforts, has become quite multidirectional. Topics discussed are volume controlled porosimetry; fluid distribution and transport in porous media at low wetting phase saturation; molecular dynamics of fluids in ultranarrow pores; molecular dynamics and molecular theory of wetting and adsorption; new numerical methods to handle initial and boundary conditions in immiscible displacement; electron microscopy of surfactant fluid microstructure; low cost system for animating liquid crystallites viewed with polarized light; surfaces of constant mean curvature with prescribed contact angle.

Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Nickel catalysts based on porous nickel for methane steam reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of synthesis conditions on the phase composition and texture of porous nickel supports as plates with a magnesium oxide underlayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen...

Z. A. Sabirova; M. M. Danilova; V. I. Zaikovskii; N. A. Kuzin…

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Cryogenic Fluid Flow Heat Transfer in a Porous Heat Exchanger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recent utilization of porous heat exchangers in various key industries has aroused considerable interest in the heat transfer and fluid dynamics processes in channel flows involving suction...1], suction with...

L. L. Vasiliev; G. I. Bobrova; S. K. Vinokurov…

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Experimental design for study of nucleate boiling in porous structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The superheat required to initiate nucleate boiling inside porous wicks is not well understood in practice. This thesis reports the design of an experimental setup for investigating the onset of vapor nucleation in sintered ...

Kelley, Mitchell Joseph

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Study on electroluminescence from porous silicon light-emitting diode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Porous silicon (PS) light-emitting diode (LED) with an ITO/PS/p-Si/Al structure was fabricated by anodic oxidation method. Photoluminescence (PL) of the PS LED was measured with a...

Yang, Yajun; Li, Qingshan; Liu, Xianyun

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Gasification and combustion modeling for porous char particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasification and combustion of porous char particles occurs in many industrial applications. Reactor-scale outputs of importance depend critically on processes that occur at the particle-scale. Because char particles often ...

Singer, Simcha Lev

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Heterojunction solar cells produced by porous silicon layer transfer technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we present the result of heterojunction solar cells based on porous silicon layer transfer technology. a-Si/c-Si structured solar cells were prepared in which the c-Si ... was investigated. The spe...

Zhihao Yue; Honglie Shen; Lei Zhang; Bin Liu; Chao Gao; Hongjie Lv

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

The evolution of miscible gravity currents in horizontal porous layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravity currents of miscible fluids in porous media are important to understand because they occur in important engineering projects, such as enhanced oil recovery and geologic CO[subscript 2] sequestration. These flows ...

Szulczewski, Michael Lawrence

415

Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by ...

Bazant, Martin Z.

416

Pinning in a porous high-temperature superconductor Bi2223  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The current-voltage characteristics of a porous superconductor Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O x (Bi2223) have been measured at temperatures in the range from 10 to 90 ... been found that the ele...

K. Yu. Terent’ev; D. M. Gokhfel’d; S. I. Popkov…

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Convective stability of carbon sequestration in anisotropic porous media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Convective stability of carbon sequestration in anisotropic porous media...media|stability theory|carbon sequestration| 1. Introduction The world's...processes occurring during carbon dioxide sequestration in underground saline aquifers...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Tripyrrylmethane based 2D porous structure for hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The key to hydrogen storage is to design new materials with light ... explored Ti-tripyrrylmethane based 2D porous structure for hydrogen storage using density functional theory. We have found ... and the exposed...

Xiao Zhou ??; Jian Zhou ??; Qiang Sun ??

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

High-Throughput Characterization of Porous Materials Using Graphics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High-Throughput Characterization of Porous Materials Using Graphics Processing Units Previous Next List J. Kim, R. L. Martin, O. Rubel, M. Haranczyk, and B. Smit, J. Chem. Theory...

420

Vortex development behind a finite porous obstruction in a channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This experimental study describes the turbulent wake behind a two-dimensional porous obstruction, consisting of a circular array of cylinders. The cylinders extend from the channel bed through the water surface, mimicking ...

Zong, Lijun

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag. A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above.

Arora, Michelle B. (Woodridge, IL); Hestekin, Jamie A. (Morton Grove, IL); Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); St. Martin, Edward J. (Libertyville, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

422

Investigation of porous media structures using NMR restricted diffusion measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVESTIGATION OF POROUS MEDIA STRUCTURES USING NMR RESTRICTED DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS A Thesis by PEIZHI MIAO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1993 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering INVESTIGATION OF POROUS MEDIA STRUCTURES USING NMR RESTRICTED DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS A Thesis by PEIZHI MIAO Approved ss to style and content by: A. T. Watson (Chair of Committee) C...

Miao, Peizhi

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

423

Two dimensional properties of methane adsorbed on porous silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TWO DIMENSIONAL PROPERTIES OF METHANE ADSORBED ON POROUS SILICON A Thesis by RICHARD FRANKLIN TENNIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Physics TWO DIMENSIONAL PROPERTIES OF METHANE ADSORBED ON POROUS SILICON A Thesis by RICHARD FRANKLIN TENNIS Approved as to style and content by: P. Kirk (C ir of Committee) Glenn olet (M er) Da J. Ernst...

Tennis, Richard Franklin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Nuclear magnetic resonance study of methane adsorbed on porous silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE STUDY OF METHANE ADSORBED ON POROUS SILICON A Thesis by FENG I I Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1992 Major Subject: Physics NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE STUDY OF METHANE ADSORBED ON POROUS SILICON A Thesis by FENG LI Approved as to style and content by: . P. Kirk (Chair of Committee) i G. Agnolet (Member) J. H. Ross, r (Member) M...

Li, Feng

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

425

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

427

Monodisperse porous polymer particles containing macrocyclic ether as a new class of sorbent for SR(II) separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strontium{sup 90} is one of the typical fission products that may be found in high level liquid waste (HLLW). Separation of Sr{sup 90} prior to the vitrification is beneficial to the final treatment of solid radioactive waste. In this study, a new class of sorbent for Sr(II) was developed by loading the macrocyclic ether DtBuCH18C6 into the monodisperse porous polymer particles (MPPPs). The MPPPs are well-known as a promising chromatographic material due to the uniform particle size, porous morphology, good compatibility with organic extractants, and rigid matrix. The structure and micro-morphology of the sorbent particles were characterized. The adsorption behavior towards Sr(II) in HNO{sub 3} media was investigated by both batch and column experiments. High adsorption efficiency and selective separation of Sr(II) was obtained. The sorbent particles can be recycled for at least several times before obvious lose of the adsorption ability. This kind of sorbent possesses the potential to be used for strontium separation in radioactive liquid waste.

Leng, Yuxiao; Bai, Feifei [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Faculty of Chemical Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 100084 (China); Ye, Gang; Wei, Jichao; Wang, Jianchen; Chen, Jing [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Viscosity, specific (for liquids)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n. The ratio between the viscosity of a liquid and the viscosity of water at the same temperature. Specific viscosity is sometimes used interchangeably with relative viscosity for liquids.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Liquid Piston Stirling Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Fluidyne liquid piston engine is a simple free-piston Stirling engine that can be made from nothing more...

Graham Walker Ph. D.; J. R. Senft Ph.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Ionically Conducting Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Separation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND SEPARATION Presented by Tony Sammells Eltron Research Inc. Boulder, Colorado www.eltronresearch.com Presented at DOE Hydrogen Separations Workshop Arlington, Virginia September 8, 2004 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. TO BE DISCUSSED * Membranes for Hydrogen Production - Compositions - Feedstocks - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles * Membranes for Hydrogen Separation - Compositions - Ex Situ vs. In Situ WGS - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles ELTRON RESEARCH INC. OVERALL SCHEME FOR CONVERTING FEEDSTOCK TO HYDROGEN WITH SIMULTANEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION Oxygen Transport Membrane Hydrogen Transport Membrane Natural Gas Coal Biomass Syngas CO/H 2 WGS H 2 O CO 2 /H 2 1618afs.dsf H 2 CO 2 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. INCENTIVES FOR OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR

431

Ionic Ckonductivity and Glass Transition of Phosphoric Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we report the low-temperature dielectric and viscoelastic properties of phosphoric acids in the range of H2O:P2O5 1.5 5. Both dielectric and viscosity measurements allow us to determine the glass-transition temperatures of phosphoric acids. The obtained glass-transition temperatures are in good agreement with previous differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Moreover, our analysis reveals moderate decoupling of ionic conductivity from structural relaxation in the vicinity of the glass transition.

Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Lane, Nathan A [ORNL; Sun, Che-Nan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fan, Fei [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Ionic conductivity and glass transition of phosphoric acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we report the low-temperature dielectric and viscoelastic properties of phosphoric acids in the range of H2O:P2O5 1.5 5. Both dielectric and viscosity measurements allow us to determine the glass-transition temperatures of phosphoric acids. The obtained glass-transition temperatures are in good agreement with previous differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Moreover, our analysis reveals moderate decoupling of ionic conductivity from structural relaxation in the vicinity of the glass transition.

Wang, Yangyang [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lane, Nathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Sun, Che-Nan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fan, Fei [ORNL] [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Porous platinum-based catalysts for oxygen reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A method of producing a porous metal according to an embodiment of the current invention includes producing an alloy consisting essentially of platinum and nickel according to the formula Pt.sub.xNi.sub.1-x, where x is at least 0.01 and less than 0.3; and dealloying the alloy in a substantially pH neutral solution to reduce an amount of nickel in the alloy to produce the porous metal.

Erlebacher, Jonah D; Snyder, Joshua D

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

434

Sliding Luttinger liquid phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study systems of coupled spin-gapped and gapless Luttinger liquids. First, we establish the existence of a sliding Luttinger liquid phase for a system of weakly coupled parallel quantum wires, with and without disorder. It is shown that the coupling can stabilize a Luttinger liquid phase in the presence of disorder. We then extend our analysis to a system of crossed Luttinger liquids and establish the stability of a non-Fermi-liquid state: the crossed sliding Luttinger liquid phase. In this phase the system exhibits a finite-temperature, long-wavelength, isotropic electric conductivity that diverges as a power law in temperature T as T?0. This two-dimensional system has many properties of a true isotropic Luttinger liquid, though at zero temperature it becomes anisotropic. An extension of this model to a three-dimensional stack exhibits a much higher in-plane conductivity than the conductivity in a perpendicular direction.

Ranjan Mukhopadhyay; C. L. Kane; T. C. Lubensky

2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

435

Conduction of Electricity by Dielectric Liquids at High Field Strengths  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conductivity of highly purified heptane has been measured between optical flats at field strengths up to 600,000 volts per cm at temperatures ranging from - 190°C to 20°C. Electrode separations down to 0.005 cm were used in order to minimize the effect of space charge and ionic recombination. It is concluded that electronic or collision processes are unlikely as the source of high field conductivity in heptane and probably most other liquid dielectrics as well. It is suggested that the highly nonconducting dielectric liquids should be included as extreme cases in the general class of weak electrolytes. The presence of appreciable conductivity under high electric fields is ascribed to the lowering of the energy of the hydrogen bond by the applied field.

H. J. Plumley

1941-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Viscoelastic Properties, Ionic Conductivity, and Materials Design Considerations for Poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene)-Based Ion Gel Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The viscoelastic properties and ionic conductivity of ion gels based on the self-assembly of a poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene) (SOS) triblock copolymer (M{sub n,S} = 3 kDa, M{sub n,O} = 35 kDa) in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([EMI][TFSA]) were investigated over the composition range of 10-50 wt % SOS and the temperature range of 25-160 C. The poly(styrene) (PS) end-blocks associate into micelles, whereas the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) midblocks are well-solvated by this ionic liquid. The ion gel with 10 wt % SOS melts at 54 C, with the longest relaxation time exhibiting a similar temperature dependence to that of the viscosity of bulk PS. However, the actual values of the gel relaxation time are more than 4 orders of magnitude larger than the relaxation time of bulk PS. This is attributed to the thermodynamic penalty of pulling PS end-blocks through the PEO/[EMI][TFSA] matrix. Ion gels with 20-50 wt % SOS do not melt and show two plateaus in the storage modulus over the temperature and frequency ranges measured. The one at higher frequencies is that of an entangled network of PEO strands with PS cross-links; the modulus displays a quadratic dependence on polymer weight fraction and agrees with the prediction of linear viscoelastic theory assuming half of the PEO chains are elastically effective. The frequency that separates the two plateaus, {omega}{sub c}, reflects the time scale of PS end-block pull-out. The other plateau at lower frequencies is that of a congested micelle solution with PS cores and PEO coronas, which has a power law dependence on domain spacing similar to diblock melts. The ionic conductivity of the ion gels is compared to PEO homopolymer solutions at similar polymer concentrations; the conductivity is reduced by a factor of 2.1 or less, decreases with increasing PS volume fraction, and follows predictions based on a simple obstruction model. Our collective results allow the formulation of basic design considerations for optimizing the mechanical properties, thermal stability, and ionic conductivity of these gels.

Zhang, Sipei; Lee, Keun Hyung; Sun, Jingru; Frisbie, C. Daniel; Lodge, Timothy P. (UMM)

2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

437

Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for Water...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for WaterEthanol Separation. Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for WaterEthanol Separation. Abstract:...

438

In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High Performance Supercapacitors. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for...

439

Etch-free Formation of Porous Silicon by High-energy Ion Irradiation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

these porous networks are discussed. Citation: Perez-Bergquist AG, FU Naab, Y Zhang, and LM Wang.2011."Etch-free Formation of Porous Silicon by High-energy Ion Irradiation."Nuclear...

440

Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Mixed Convection in a Driven Cavity Packed with Porous Medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problem of mixed convection in a driven cavity packed with porous medium is studied with lattice Boltzmann method. A lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible flow in porous media and another thermal lattice

Zhenhua Chai; Zhaoli Guo; Baochang Shi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Discrete particle transport in porous media : discrete observations of physical mechanisms influencing particle behavior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An understanding of how discrete particles in the micron to submicron range behave in porous media is important to a number of environmental problems. Discrete particle behavior in the interior of a porous medium is complex ...

Yoon, Joon Sik, 1973-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs. High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs. Abstract: In this article, two-dimensional, Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs are...

443

Reduced graphene oxide/porous Si composite as anode for high-performance lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reduced graphene oxide/porous Si composite was fabricated through ... subsequent dispersing porous Si in the suspension of graphene oxide followed by reduced process. The electrochemical performance of the obtain...

Hua-Chao Tao; Xue-Lin Yang; Lu-Lu Zhang; Shi-Bing Ni

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes. Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes. Abstract:...

445

Resistance Reduction Induced by Small Electric Current in CoCu Porous Films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Resistance Reduction Induced by Small Electric Current in CoCu Porous Films ... The investigation of electrics discovered that resistance reduction could be induced by a small electric current in these ferromagnetic porous films. ...

Zhigang Li; Weiping Cai; Peisheng Liu; Qintao Li; Liangjian Zou

2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

446

High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And Implications For Flux Measurement And Fractionation Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And Implications For Flux Measurement And Fractionation Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Diffuse emissions of CO2 are known to be large around some volcanoes and hydrothermal areas. Accumulation-chamber measurements of CO2 flux are increasingly used to estimate the total magmatic or metamorphic CO2 released from such areas. To assess the performance of accumulation chamber systems at fluxes one to three orders of magnitude higher than normally encountered in soil respiration studies, a test system was

447

Some properties of convective oscillations in porous medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Convective oscillations in porous media are studied numerically. A two-dimensional square, differentially heated cavity, filled with a saturated porous medium, is considered subject to linear harmonic oscillations in the vertical direction. The formulation is based on the Darcy-Boussinesq model. The problem includes three nondimensional parameters: the Rayleigh number for porous media Ra, its vibrational analog Ra{sub v}, and the nondimensional frequency f. The time-dependent Darcy-Boussinesq equations have been solved using a pseudo-spectral Chebyshev collocation method. The instantaneous fields of the established oscillatory regimes are presented. Also, some instantaneous and mean characteristics are studied and discussed. The distinctions from the case of viscous fluid alone are emphasized.

Khallouf, H.; Mojitabi, A. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Gershuni, G.Z. [Perm State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

1996-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

448

Porous siliconformation and etching process for use in silicon micromachining  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reproducible process for uniformly etching silicon from a series of micromechanical structures used in electrical devices and the like includes providing a micromechanical structure having a silicon layer with defined areas for removal thereon and an electrochemical cell containing an aqueous hydrofluoric acid electrolyte. The micromechanical structure is submerged in the electrochemical cell and the defined areas of the silicon layer thereon are anodically biased by passing a current through the electrochemical cell for a time period sufficient to cause the defined areas of the silicon layer to become porous. The formation of the depth of the porous silicon is regulated by controlling the amount of current passing through the electrochemical cell. The micromechanical structure is then removed from the electrochemical cell and submerged in a hydroxide solution to remove the porous silicon. The process is subsequently repeated for each of the series of micromechanical structures to achieve a reproducibility better than 0.3%.

Guilinger, Terry R. (Albuquerque, NM); Kelly, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Jr., Samuel B. (Albuquerque, NM); Stevenson, Joel O. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Sylvia S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Method for dialysis on microchips using thin porous polymer membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and forms a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA); Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

450

Dialysis on microchips using thin porous polymer membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and form a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA); Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

451

Anisotropy of flow in stochastically generated porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Models of porous media are often applied to relatively small systems, which leads not only to system-size-dependent results, but also to phenomena that would be absent in larger systems. Here we investigate one such finite-size effect: anisotropy of the permeability tensor. We show that a non-zero angle between the external body force and macroscopic flux vector exists in three-dimensional periodic models of sizes commonly used in computer simulations and propose a criterion, based on the system size to the grain size ratio, for this phenomenon to be relevant or negligible. The finite-size anisotropy of the porous matrix induces a pressure gradient perpendicular to the axis of a porous duct and we analyze how this effect scales with the system and grain sizes.

Matyka, Maciej; Go?embiewski, Jaros?aw; Kostur, Marcin; Januszewski, Micha?

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Design and manipulation of 1-D rugate photonic crystals of porous silicon for chemical sensing applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al. Microhotplate platforms for chemical sensor research.advantages as a chemical sensing platform. The porous layer

King, Brian Henry

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Low-frequency dilatational wave propagation through unsaturated porous media containing two immiscible fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of elastic waves in unconsolidated unsaturated granularfrequency in both unconsolidated and consolidated materialsboth consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, and the

Lo, W.-C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Transport in Porous Media 52: 185211, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Netherlands. 185 Wettability Alteration to Intermediate Gas-Wetting in Porous Media at Elevated Temperatures

Firoozabadi, Abbas

455

Transport in Porous Media 57: 125152, 2004. 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Netherlands. 125 Relative Permeabilities for Strictly Hyperbolic Models of Three-Phase Flow in Porous Media

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

456

Multiphase lattice Boltzmann simulations for porous media applications -- a review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over the last two decades, lattice Boltzmann methods have become an increasingly popular tool to compute the flow in complex geometries such as porous media. In addition to single phase simulations allowing, for example, a precise quantification of the permeability of a porous sample, a number of extensions to the lattice Boltzmann method are available which allow to study multiphase and multicomponent flows on a pore scale level. In this article we give an extensive overview on a number of these diffuse interface models and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we shortly report on multiphase flows containing solid particles, as well as implementation details and optimization issues.

Liu, Haihu; Leonardi, Christopher R; Jones, Bruce D; Schmieschek, Sebastian; Narváez, Ariel; Williams, John R; Valocchi, Albert J; Harting, Jens

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Displacement of oil from porous material with carbonated water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DISPLACEMENT OF OIL FROM POROUS MATERIAL WITH CARBONATED WATER A Thesis By JAGJIT S. YADAV Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1967 Ma/or Sub)act; Petroleum Engineering DISPLACEMENT OF OIL FROM POROUS MATERIAL WITH CARBONATED WATER A Thesis By JAGJIT ST YADAV Approved as to style and content by: ( ai an of Committee) cZ&-& 3~ ~" (Head of Department) (Member) (Member...

Yadav, Jagjit Singh

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using porous nickel plate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen atomic pair ions, i.e., H{sup +} and H{sup -} ions, are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a porous nickel plate. Positive ions in a hydrogen plasma generated by dc arc discharge are irradiated to the porous plate, and pair ions are produced from the back of the irradiation plane. It becomes clear that the production quantity of pair ions mainly depends on the irradiation current of positive ions and the irradiation energy affects the production efficiency of H{sup -} ions.

Oohara, W.; Maeda, T.; Higuchi, T. [Department of Electronic Device Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube 755-8611 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

Evaluation of bacterial detachment rates in porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability of published biomass detachment rate expressions to describe experimental data obtained from porous media reactors using Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown aerobically on glucose was evaluated. A first-order rate expression on attached biomass concentration best reflected effluent substrate concentration for combined data sets. Detachment rate coefficient k{sub d1} was dependent on initial substrate concentration. Simulation of porous media reactor experiments indicated that responses using higher influent substrate concentrations possessed greater sensitivity to variations in k{sub d1}. Simulations of field bioremediation systems suggest the use of accurate biofilm development kinetics is important in the prediction of well bore biofouling.

Peyton, B.M.; Hooker, B.S.; Skeen, R.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cunningham, A.B.; Lundman, R.W. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

On the Effect of Porous Layers on Melting Heat Transfer in an Enclosure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the Effect of Porous Layers on Melting Heat Transfer in an Enclosure E. A. Ellinger* and C. To enhance heat transfer, the porous layers are located in regions where the melting rates for a pure the porous layer and the pure fluid layer cause strong variations in heat transfer, melt convection

Beckermann, Christoph

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

Tam, S.W.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

462

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

Tam, Shiu-Wing (Downers Grove, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

Tam, Shiu-Wing (Downers Grove, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An illumination source is disclosed comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

Tam, S.W.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

465

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic supported ionic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hin Hark Gan Summary: are summarized in Mate- rials and Methods and in the Supporting Material. In this work, we compute ionic... present the mesoscale chromatin model and...

466

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony oxide ionic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: antimony oxide ionic Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 IOP PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 20 (2009) 264003 (7pp) doi:10.10880957-44842026264003 Summary:...

467

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial muscles ionic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

their tails. They may cost more than conventional... . Artificial muscles represent the holy grail for robotics researchers. Today's robots look blocky... . The ionic group is...

468

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

469

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

470

Gain switching and oscillations in an ionic pulsed xenon laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The output of a visible ionic pulsed xenon laser excited with a FWHM nearly flat current pulse was analysed through time-resolved spectroscopy. It was observed that near threshold, the output consisted of a multipulse pattern within the duration of the current pulse. Beside this, a study of the spontaneous emission of the laser lines was carried out as a function of discharge current. This work reports the main characteristics of this kind of output and proposes a simplified model based on excitation - de-excitation processes by electron impact and gain modulation that reproduces the main experimental results.

H Sobral; D Schinca; R Duchowicz; M Gallardo

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Integrating Structure Control over Multiple Length Scales in Porous High  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature catalytic applications for their high surface area and low flow resistance in combination with thermal and chemical stability. We have developed a bottom-up approach to functional, porous, high results in three-dimensionally interconnected, high-temperature ceramic materials functionalized with well

Gruner, Sol M.

472

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS FORMULATIONS OF THREEPHASE FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

permeability and capillary pressure curves satisfy a so­called total differential condition, the pseudo­global, oil, and gas) flow in porous media, including phase, global, and pseudo­global pressure and numerically presented for the first time. It is shown that the global pressure­saturation formulation

473

Cathode porous transport irreversibility model for PEM fuel cell design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence is studied of slip-irreversibility at the interface between the gas diffusion layer, also referred to here as the porous transport layer, and the catalyst layer of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A two-dimensional cathode ... Keywords: catalyst layer, exergy, gas diffusion layer, slip flow irreversibility

E. O. B. Ogedengbe; M. A. Rosen

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Surface wettability of oxygen plasma treated porous silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen plasma treatment on porous silicon (p-Si) surfaces was studied as a practical and effective means to modify wetting properties of as-fabricated p-Si surfaces, that is, contact angles of the p-Si materials. P-Si samples spanning a wide range of ...

Lei Jiang, Songyan Li, Jiqian Wang, Limin Yang, Qian Sun, Zhaomin Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Numerical simulation of fluid flow in porous/fractured media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretical models of fluid flow in porous/fractured media can help in the design of in situ fossil energy and mineral extraction technologies. Because of the complexity of these processes, numerical solutions are usually required. Sample calculations illustrate the capabilities of present day computer models.

Travis B.J.; Cook, T.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

Miller, Curtis Jack

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

477

ORIGINAL PAPER Conditional simulations of wateroil flow in heterogeneous porous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water standards. Thus, a small amount of NAPL can contaminate large volumes of groundwater over a long period of time. Therefore, it is very important to understand the processes associated with contaminant is a complicated mixture of hydrocarbon fluids, brine, porous rock and fractures. The structure of the void space

Lu, Zhiming

478

NMRI methods for characterizing fluid flow in porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for fluids in porous media are very small and the NMR signals decay very fast. Furthermore, a narrow pulse approximation concept was applied so that the velocities of spins don't have to be assumed constant during the entire observation time. Preliminary...

Yao, Xiaoli

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

479

Acoustics in Porous Media. - Department of Mathematics, Purdue ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time histories observed at a receiver for a porous rock saturated by gas, .... The average quality factors: Qp = 10.5 (from left) and Qs = 5.5 (from right) are in ... In geophysical prospecting and reservoir development, knowledge of .... Lamé coefficient (GPa) for the brine-saturated fractal porosity-permeability sample of case 4.

480

Mechanistic Foam Flow Simulation in Heterogeneous and Multidimensional Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that is analogous to energy and species mass balances7, 8. Accordingly, a separate conservation equation is written flow is multidimensional and the porous medium is heterogeneous. We have incorporated a conservation are predicted, regardless of whether the layers are communicating or isolated. Introduction Field application

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Electronic Supplementary Material Scalable preparation of porous silicon nanoparticles and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and their application for lithium-ion battery anodes Mingyuan Ge1 , Jiepeng Rong1 , Xin Fang1 , Anyi Zhang1 , Yunhao Lu2 with reduced graphene oxide Figure S2 TEM image of porous silicon nanoparticles after carbon coating and graphene wrapping. #12;www.theNanoResearch.comwww.Springer.com/journal/12274 | Nano R

Zhou, Chongwu

482

Supercritical carbon dioxide behavior in porous silica aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Supercritical carbon dioxide within a porous silica aerogel behaves as a two-phase system formed by a film next to the silica walls and a remaining fluid phase. Small-angle neutron scattering allows one to determine the structural parameters of the involved phases.

Ciccariello, S.

2010-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

483

Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the intrinsic material properties of carbon, functionalized films can be produced through chemical modification fabrication method capable of producing large area (%100 s cm2 ) submicrometer porous carbon films. In our methodology. The palladium-modified electrodes exhibit a catalytic response for methanol oxidation

New Mexico, University of

484

The Transport of Nuclear Contamination in Fractured Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and dispersion of nuclear contamination through a granitic medium having densely spaced fracturesThe Transport of Nuclear Contamination in Fractured Porous Media Jim Douglas, Jr. #3; Anna M that takes the relevant time scales of the ow and the nuclear decay. 1 Introduction We formulate a model

Douglas Jr., Jim

485

Exponential decay in one-dimensional porous-thermo-elasticity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the equilibrated stress, g is the equilibrated body force and q is the heat flux. The variables u" (BFM2003- 00309) of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology. Keywords: porous energy density is a positive definite form. Thus, the constitutive coefficients satisfy the conditions: µ

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

486

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

488

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

490

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

491

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach Tomer, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (Dated: November 19, 2014) We study the surface tension of ionic solutions expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical

Andelman, David

492

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self-assembled multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self The electrochromic switching times of solid state conducting polymer devices fabricated by the ionic self shown to decrease with the active area of the electrochromic device suggesting that even faster

Heflin, Randy

493

Higher ionic conductive ceria-based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Codoping is used to enhance the ionic conductivity of ceria-based electrolytes. Sm 3 + and Nd 3 + were selected as codopants to promote low migration energy paths for oxygen vacancydiffusion thereby increasing the ionic conductivity. Moreover the use of codopants also increases the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius relationship thus further improving the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity of Sm x Nd x Ce 1 ? 2 x O 2 ? ? solid solutions is measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was observed that for Sm 0.075 Nd 0.075 Ce 0.85 O 2 ? ? the grain ionic conductivity was 14.0 × 10 ? 3 S cm ? 1 at 550 ° C which makes it one of the most promising ceria-based electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

Shobit Omar; Eric D. Wachsman; Juan C. Nino

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

495

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

496

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Amorphization and reduction of thermal conductivity in porous silicon by irradiation with swift heavy ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article, we demonstrate that the thermal conductivity of nanostructured porous silicon is reduced by amorphization and also that this amorphous phase in porous silicon can be created by swift (high-energy) heavy ion irradiation. Porous silicon samples with 41%-75% porosity are irradiated with 110 MeV uranium ions at six different fluences. Structural characterisation by micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM imaging show that swift heavy ion irradiation causes the creation of an amorphous phase in porous Si but without suppressing its porous structure. We demonstrate that the amorphization of porous silicon is caused by electronic-regime interactions, which is the first time such an effect is obtained in crystalline silicon with single-ion species. Furthermore, the impact on the thermal conductivity of porous silicon is studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning thermal microscopy. The creation of an amorphous phase in porous silicon leads to a reduction of its thermal conductivity, up to a factor of 3 compared to the non-irradiated sample. Therefore, this technique could be used to enhance the thermal insulation properties of porous Si. Finally, we show that this treatment can be combined with pre-oxidation at 300 Degree-Sign C, which is known to lower the thermal conductivity of porous Si, in order to obtain an even greater reduction.

Newby, Pascal J. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Innovation Technologique (3IT), Universite de Sherbrooke, CNRS UMI-LN2, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K0A5 (Canada); Canut, Bruno; Bluet, Jean-Marie; Lysenko, Vladimir [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Gomes, Severine [Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, CETHIL-UMR5008, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Isaiev, Mykola; Burbelo, Roman [Faculty of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrs'ka St., Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Termentzidis, Konstantinos [Laboratoire LEMTA, Universite de Lorraine-CNRS UMR 7563, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France); Chantrenne, Patrice [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, MATEIS-UMR CNRS 5510, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Frechette, Luc G. [Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Innovation Technologique (3IT), Universite de Sherbrooke, CNRS UMI-LN2, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K0A5 (Canada)

2013-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

498

Liquid-level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

Not Available

1981-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

499

Nuclear fusion reaction rates for strongly coupled ionic mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the effect of plasma screening on nuclear reaction rates in dense matter composed of atomic nuclei of one or two types. We perform semiclassical calculations of the Coulomb barrier penetrability taking into account a radial mean-field potential of plasma ions. The mean-field potential is extracted from the results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of radial pair distribution functions of ions in binary ionic mixtures. We calculate the reaction rates in a wide range of plasma parameters and approximate these rates by an analytical expression that is expected to be applicable to multicomponent ion mixtures. Also, we analyze Gamow-peak energies of reacting ions in various nuclear burning regimes. For illustration, we study nuclear burning in {sup 12}C-{sup 16}O mixtures.

Chugunov, A. I.; DeWitt, H. E. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

500

Low velocity ion stopping in binary ionic mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attention is focused on the low ion velocity stopping mechanisms in multicomponent and dense target plasmas built of quasiclassical electron fluids neutralizing binary ionic mixtures, such as, deuterium-tritium of current fusion interest, proton-heliumlike iron in the solar interior or proton-helium ions considered in planetology, as well as other mixtures of fiducial concern in the heavy ion beam production of warm dense matter at Bragg peak conditions. The target plasma is taken in a multicomponent dielectric formulation a la Fried-Conte. The occurrence of projectile ion velocities (so-called critical) for which target electron slowing down equals that of given target ion components is also considered. The corresponding multiquadrature computations, albeit rather heavy, can be monitored analytical through a very compact code operating a PC cluster. Slowing down results are systematically scanned with respect to target temperature and electron density, as well as ion composition.

Tashev, Bekbolat; Baimbetov, Fazylkhan [Department of Physics, Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96, Almaty 480012 (Kazakhstan); Deutsch, Claude [LPGP (UMR-CNRS 8578), Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay (France); Fromy, Patrice [Direction de l'Informatique, Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay (France)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z