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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Ionic liquid ion source emitter arrays fabricated on bulk porous substrates for spacecraft propulsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ionic Liquid Ion Sources (ILIS) are a subset of electrospray capable of producing bipolar beams of pure ions from ionic liquids. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts, characterized by negligible vapor pressures, ...

Courtney, Daniel George

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Carbon Precursors ...  

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ...

3

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Preparation and purification of ionic liquids and precursors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Substantially pure ionic liquids and ionic liquid precursors were prepared. The substantially pure ionic liquid precursors were used to prepare substantially pure ionic liquids.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

5

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

6

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are molten salts with high ionic conductivity,ionic liquids are aprotic molten salts at room temperatures

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

8

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

Koch, Victor R. (Lincoln, MA); Nanjundiah, Chenniah (Lynn, MA); Carlin, Richard T. (Nashua, NH)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research and practical applications. They present a wide range of complex physical and chemical behaviors, including ambient vapor pressures ranging from UHV to weakly volatile, a substantial variety of distinct condensed phases, including multiple crystal isomorphs, glasses, amorphous plastic and liquid crystal phases, deep supercooling, and interesting dynamical and transport phenomena. Experiments and simulations have shown that their intrinsic self-organization at the nanoscale is responsible for several of these properties. The symposium will assemble an international array of speakers to discuss ionic liquids in the context of their heterogeneous environments, solvation, dynamics and transport, interfacial properties,

10

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations Hui Jin, Bernie O'Hare, Jing Dong, Sergei Arzhantsev, Gary A. Baker, James F. Wishart, Alan J. Benesi, and Mark Maroncelli J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 81-92 (2008). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of

11

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids Symposium Schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) (Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) Sunday Morning Structure and Heterogeneity of Ionic Liquids I. James Wishart and Edward Castner Introductory Remarks Andre Pinkert Hydroxyamine ionic liquids and their properties Thomas Strassner TAAILs - Tunable Aryl-Alkyl Ionic Liquids: A new generation of ionic liquids Laura Sprunger Grubbs Thermodynamic Properties of New Generation Ionic Liquids Christopher Hardacre Prediction methods for physical properties of ionic liquids BREAK Patricia Hunt What happens when you functionalise an ionic liquid with a "silicone" side chain? Edward L Quitevis Effect of cation symmetry and nanoscale segregation on the morphology, physical properties, and low-frequency vibrational dynamics of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cation ionic liquids

12

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. Armand, “Room temperature molten salts as lithium batteryZ. Suarez, “Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallic

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fractionation and Removal of Solutes from Ionic Liquids ...  

Recovers biomass solids from ionic liquids without formation of gel phase intermediates; Tested on several ionic liquids; Applications and Industries.

14

Ultrafast Dynamics of Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultrafast Dynamics of Pyrrolidinium Cation Ionic Liquids Hideaki Shirota, Alison M. Funston, James F. Wishart, Edward W. Castner, Jr. J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184512 (2005). Find paper...

15

ADSORPTION SEPARATION PROCESSES FOR IONIC LIQUID CATALYTIC ...  

Presently disclosed are methods and apparatus for separation of reaction products from reaction mixtures in an ionic liquid catalysis process, particularly in ...

16

Ultrastable Superbase-derived Protic Ionic Liquids  

pot reactor) CHEMICALS Ultrastable Superbase-derived Protic Ionic Liquids ORNL-2213 Contact: Greg Flickinger Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box ...

17

Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, an understanding of the interactions of ionizing radiation and photons with ionic liquids is strongly needed. However, the radiation chemistry...

18

Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

19

Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes for Gas Separation  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids have been rapidly gaining attention for various applications including solvent separation and gas capture. These substances are noted for extremely low vapor pressure and high CO2 solubility making them ideal as transport or capture media for CO2 abatement in power generation applications. Ionic liquids, combined with various supports to form membranes, have been proven selective in CO2 separation. Several ionic liquids and a variety of polymer supports have been studied over a temperature range from 37°C to 300°C and have been optimized for stability. The membranes have demonstrated high permeability and high selectivity since the supported ionic liquid membranes incorporate functionality capable of chemically complexing CO2. A study aimed at improving supported ionic liquid membranes will examine their durability with greater transmembrane pressures and the effects on CO2 permeance, CO2/H2 selectivity and thermal stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Ionic Liquids Based on Polynitrile Anions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

W. Marin, and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 7084-7094 (2013). Find paper at ACS Publications or use ACS Articles on Request. Abstract: Ionic liquids (IL) are being...

22

Dynamics of Fast Reactions in Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in "Ionic Liquids IIIA: Properties and Structure" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R., Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 901, Ch. 8, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2005, pp. x-x., in...

23

Synthesis of ionic liquids - Energy Innovation Portal  

New Ionic Liquids with ... was made with United States Government support under Contract No. DE-AC05-960R 22725 between the United States Department of Energy and ...

24

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

25

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids M. F. Thomas, L. Li, J. Handley-Pendleton, D. van der Lelie, J. J. Dunn and J. F. Wishart Bioresource Technology 102, in press. [Find paper at Science Direct] Abstract: The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic

26

New Ionic Liquids with Diverse Properties - Energy Innovation ...  

Hundreds of new ionic liquids can be synthesized using a method invented by ORNL researchers. This innovation makes it possible to produce ionic liqui ...

27

Charge trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids I. A. Shkrob and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 5582-5592 (2009). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a promising class of solvents for applications ranging from photovoltaics to solvent extractions. Some of these applications involve the exposure of the ILs to ionizing radiation, which stimulates interest in their radiation and photo- chemistry. In the case of ILs consisting of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions, ionization, charge transfer and redox reactions yield charge-trapped species thought to be radicals resulting from neutralization of the constituent ions. Using computational chemistry methods and the recent results on electron spin resonance (ESR) and transient absorption

28

Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel Absorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- ionic liquids - for the capture of CO 2 from the flue gas from coal and natural gas-fired power plants. The success of ionic liquids technology will be based on...

29

VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and ?-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20°C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and ?-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. It’s likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

30

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors - Energy ...  

Energy Storage Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing ...

31

Ionic Liquids: Structure and Photochemical Reactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Structure and Photochemical Reactions Structure and Photochemical Reactions E. W. Castner, Jr., C. J. Margulis, M. Maroncelli, and J. F. Wishart in "Annual Reviews of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 62"; Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA, (2011) pp. 85-105. [Find paper at Annual Reviews] Abstract: Ionic liquids are subjects of intense current interest within the physical chemistry community. A great deal of progress has been made in just the past five years toward identifying the factors that cause these salts to have low melting points and other useful properties. Supramolecular structure and organization have emerged as important and complicated topics that may be key to understanding how chemical reactions and other processes are affected by ionic liquids. New questions are posed, and an active

32

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

33

Spheroid-Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Gas Separation Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spheroid-Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Gas Separation Opportunity An innovative approach has been developed allowing the use of high viscosity for gas separations. The method...

34

New Web Database Improves Access to Ionic Liquid Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Web Database Improves Access to Ionic Liquid Data. ... The ILThermo portal on the web is at http://ilthermo.boulder.nist.gov.

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

35

Ionic Liquids as New Solvents for Improved Separation of ...  

A series of ionic liquids (ILs) have recently been applied as new solvents for potentially effective separation of different medical isotopes at ORNL. ...

36

Available Technologies: Ionic Liquids from Lignin-derived ...  

Researchers at the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have developed a technology to convert chemicals derived from lignin into ionic liquids for use in ...

37

Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

38

Ionic Liquids as Lubricants or Additives - Energy Innovation ...  

New ionic liquids invented at ORNL show great promise as lubricants for aluminum and steel in combustion engines, bearings, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

39

Ultrastable Superbase-Derived Protic Ionic Liquids - Energy ...  

Description Protic ionic liquids have had a propensity to degrade over time and in high temperature ... capacitors, metal finishing) Dye ... Development Stage

40

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+ ][Dca ? ]. Figure 2. Aerosol particle size distribution ofhypergolic ionic liquid aerosols Christine J. Koh † , Chen-ionization of evaporated IL aerosols Isolated ion pairs of a

Koh, Christine J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Brownian dynamics determine universality of charge transport in ionic liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is employed to investigate charge transport in a variety of glass-forming ionic liquids over wide frequency, temperature and pressure ranges. Using a combination of Einstein, Einstein-Smoluchowski, and Langevin relations, the observed universal scaling of charge transport in ionic liquids is traced back to the dominant role of Brownian dynamics.

Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Iacob, Ciprian [University of Leipzig; Mierzwa, Michal [University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka, Katowice, Poland; Paluch, Marian [University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka, Katowice, Poland; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Intermolecular Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Edward W. Castner, Jr., James F. Wishart, and Hideaki Shirota Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 1217-1227 (2007). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Ionic liquids can simultaneously assume multiple solvent roles, because they are strongly polar and polarizable solvents and binary solutions and frequently contain very hydrophobic components. When the cation and anion functional groups are tuned appropriately, ionic liquids can be used as designer solvents for a broad range of applications. In this Account, we discuss our spectroscopic studies on the intermolecular interactions, dynamics, solvation, transport, and friction in ionic liquids, as compared with information obtained from macroscopic experiments including viscometry

43

Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent ExtractionAbstract The dissolution of biomass into ionic liquids (ILs)be a promising alternative biomass pretreatment technology,

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes: Achieving a 10,000 GPU Permeance for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture with Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Alongside Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute, CU-Boulder is developing a membrane made of a gelled ionic liquid to capture CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants. The membranes are created by spraying the gelled ionic liquids in thin layers onto porous support structures using a specialized coating technique. The new membrane is highly efficient at pulling CO2 out of coal-derived flue gas exhaust while restricting the flow of other materials through it. The design involves few chemicals or moving parts and is more mechanically stable than current technologies. The team is now working to further optimize the gelled materials for CO2 separation and create a membrane layer that is less than 1 micrometer thick.

None

2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

46

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species James F. Wishart In "Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospects" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R. , Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 856, Ch. 31, pp. 381-395, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003. (ISBN 0-84123-856-1) [Information about the book] Abstract: An understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is important for development of their applications in radioactive material processing and for the application of pulse radiolysis techniques to the general study of chemical reactivity in ionic liquids. The distribution of primary radiolytic species and their reactivities determine the yields of ultimate products and the radiation stability of a particular ionic liquid. This chapter introduces some principles of radiation chemistry and the

47

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

48

Phase-Changing Ionic Liquids: CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids Involving Phase Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Notre Dame is developing a new CO2 capture process that uses special ionic liquids (ILs) to remove CO2 from the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. ILs are salts that are normally liquid at room temperature, but Notre Dame has discovered a new class of ILs that are solid at room temperature and change to liquid when they bind to CO2. Upon heating, the CO2 is released for storage, and the ILs re-solidify and donate some of the heat generated in the process to facilitate further CO2 release. These new ILs can reduce the energy required to capture CO2 from the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant when compared to state-ofthe- art technology.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a facilitated transport mechanism established. The presentation will detail membrane development, the effect of increasing transmembrane pressure, and preliminary results dealing with other gas pairs and contaminants.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Effects of Structural Modification on Ionic Liquid Physical Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Structural Modification on the Physical Properties Effect of Structural Modification on the Physical Properties of Various Ionic Liquids S. I. Lall-Ramnarine, J. L. Hatcher, A. Castano, M. F. Thomas, and J. F. Wishart in "ECS Transactions - Las Vegas, NV, Vol. 33, Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 17" D. Fox et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2010) pp 659 - 665. [Find paper at ECS] Abstract: A few classes of ionic liquids were synthesized and investigated for their physical properties as a function of structural variation. Bis(oxalato)borate (BOB) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2) ionic liquids (ILs) containing pyridinium, 4-dimethylaminopyridinium (DMAP) and pyrrolidinium cations bearing alkyl, benzyl, hydroxyalkyl and alkoxy substituents, were prepared from the corresponding halide salts. The

51

Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel Absorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs as novel absorbents Background There is growing concern among climate scientists that the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere is affecting the global climate in ways that could have serious consequences. One approach to reducing GHG emissions is to scrub CO 2 from the flue gas of power plants and sequester it in geologic formations. Although it is technically feasible to remove CO 2 from flue gas, current processes are too expensive. New, less expensive processes are needed. This project is investigating the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids - for the capture of CO 2 from the flue gas from coal and natural gas-fired power plants. The success of ionic liquids technology

52

Heavy Atom Substitution Effects in Non-Aromatic Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atom Substitution Effects in Non-Aromatic Ionic Liquids: Ultrafast Dynamics and Physical Properties H. Shirota, H. Fukazawa, T. Fujisawa, and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 114,...

53

Trialkylammonio-Dodecaborates: Anions for Ionic Liquids with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trialkylammonio-Dodecaborates: Anions for Ionic Liquids with Potassium, Lithium and Proton as Cations E. Justus, K. Rischka, J. F. Wishart, K. Werner and D. Gabel Chem. Eur. J. 14,...

54

Toward Radiation-Resistant Ionic Liquids. Radiation Stability...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Resistant Ionic Liquids. Radiation Stability of Sulfonyl Imide Anions I. A. Shkrob, T. W. Marin, Sergey D. Chemerisov, J. L. Hatcher, and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B...

55

Spheroid-Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Gas Separation  

  An innovative approach has been developed allowing the use of high viscosity for gas separations. The method involves the encapsulation of ionic liquids (ILs) into polymer spheroids, taking advantage of the gas-absorbing properties and ...

56

Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, we characterize the shear and extensional rheology of dilute to semidilute solutions of cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc). In steady shear flow, the semidilute solutions ...

Haward, Simon J.

57

Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, South Korea h i g h l i g h t s &21; Uranium forms various complexes with ionic liquids. &21; Uranium...

58

Electronically and ionically conductive porous material and method for manufacture of resin wafers therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrically and ionically conductive porous material including a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material. The thermoplastic binder immobilizes the moieties with respect to each other but does not substantially coat the moieties and forms the electrically conductive porous material. A wafer of the material and a method of making the material and wafer are disclosed.

Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

59

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Available Technologies: Sugar Extraction and Ionic Liquid ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Biomass pretreatment for biofuel production; Recovery of products using biphasic liquid-liquid extraction; Recovery and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

A practical form of CO2 capture at water-gas shift conditions in the IGCC process could serve the dual function of producing a pure CO2 stream for sequestration and forcing the equilibrium-limited shift reaction to completion enriching the stream in H2. The shift temperatures, ranging from the low temperature shift condition of 260°C to the gasification condition of 900°C, limit capture options by diminishing associative interactions which favor removal of CO2 from the gas stream. Certain sorption interactions, such as carbonate formation, remain available but generally involve exceptionally high sorbent regeneration energies that contribute heavily to parasitic power losses. Carbon dioxide selective membranes need only establish an equilibrium between the gas phase and sorption states in order to transport CO2, giving them a potential energetic advantage over other technologies. Supported liquid membranes take advantage of high, liquid phase diffusivities and a solution diffusion mechanism similar to that observed in polymeric membranes to achieve superior permeabilities and selectivites. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of ionic liquids including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Improvements to the ionic liquid and support have allowed testing of these supported ionic liquid membranes at temperatures up to 300°C without loss of support mechanical stability or degradation of the ionic liquid. Substantial improvements in selectivity have also been observed at elevated temperature with the best membrane currently achieving optimum performance at 75°C.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Ionic Liquids and Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Species James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3225-3231 (2010). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request View the video on this Perspective article at The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (5:03) Selected for the ACS Special Virtual Issue on Ionic Liquids (March 2011). Abstract: Due to their unique properties, ionic liquids present many opportunities for basic research on the interactions of radiation with materials under conditions not previously available. At the same time, there are practical applied reasons for characterizing, understanding, and being able to predict how ionic-liquid-based devices and industrial-scale systems will perform under conditions of extreme reactivity, including radiation. This

64

Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Charge Delocalization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Resistance Through Charge Delocalization in 1-Benzylpyridinium Ilya A. Shkrob, Timothy W. Marin, Jasmine L. Hatcher, Andrew R. Cook, Tomasz Szreder and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 117, Just Accepted (2013). [Find paper at ACS Publications]. Abstract: Hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) hold promise as replacements for molecular diluents for processing of used nuclear fuel as well as for the development of alternative separations processes, provided that the solvent can be made resistant to ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that 1-benzylpyridinium cations are uniquely suited as radiation resistant cations due to the occurrence of charge delocalization both in their reduced and oxidized form in the ILs. It is suggested that

65

Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to recover to a bleached state upon exposure to heat and solar radiation while being cycled over time from the bleached to the dark state. Most likely the polymers are undergoing degradation reactions which are accelerated by heat and solar exposure while in either the reduced or oxidized states and the performance of the polymers is greatly reduced over time. For this technology to succeed in an exterior window application, there needs to be more work done to understand the degradation of the polymers under real-life application conditions such as elevated temperatures and solar exposure so that recommendations for improvements in to the overall system can be made. This will be the key to utilizing this type of technology in any future real-life applications.

Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7¯ ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

68

High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

Lu, Wen (Littleton, CO)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

69

Ionic liquid ion sources as a unique and versatile option in FIB applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work discusses the potential applicability of point sources to focused ion beam (FIB) technology based on molten salts at room temperature, known as ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). The beam shape and divergence angles for ILIS using the ionic liquid ... Keywords: Focused ion beam, High brightness, Ion etching, Ion source, Ionic liquid, Reactive ion

Carla Perez-Martinez; Stéphane Guilet; Jacques Gierak; Paulo Lozano

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Simulations of ionic liquids near charged walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and anions (cf molten NaCl). • Electrostatic interactions are very important. • The liquid is easily polarised • But solvent cations and anions are larger than Na+ or Cl?, so dispersion interactions are also important They are interesting solvents as well... as being important. examples - dimethylimidazolium salts [dmim][Cl] and [dmim][PF6] butylmethylimidazolium salts [bmim][Cl], [bmim][N(SO2CF3)2], [bmim][PF6], tetraalkyl ammonium salts, tetraalkylphosphonium salts. [dmim]+ 22. Computer simulation of liquids...

Lynden-Bell, Ruth

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

71

Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

Dr. Ramana Reddy

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

73

Extraordinarily Efficient Conduction in a Redox-Active Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iodine added to iodide-based ionic liquids leads to extraordinarily efficient charge transport, vastly exceeding that expected for such viscous systems. Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, in conjunction with dc conductivity, diffusivity and viscosity measurements we unravel the conductivity pathways in 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide melts. This study presents evidence of the Grotthuss mechanism as a significant contributor to the conductivity, and provides new insights into ion pairing processes as well as the formation of polyiodides. The terahertz and transport results are reunited in a model providing a quantitative description of the conduction by physical diffusion and the Grotthuss bond-exchange process. These novel results are important for the fundamental understanding of conduction in molten salts and for applications where ionic liquids are used as charge-transporting media such as in batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells.

Verner K. Thorsmølle; Guido Rothenberger; Daniel Topgaard; Jan C. Brauer; Dai-Bin Kuang; Shaik M. Zakeeruddin; Björn Lindman; Michael Grätzel; Jacques-E. Moser

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

74

MINOR ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS USING ION EXCHANGERS OR IONIC LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to determine if (1) inorganic-based ion exchange materials or (2) electrochemical methods in ionic liquids can be exploited to provide effective Am and Cm separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of inorganic-based ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. Furthermore, we seek to determine whether ionic liquids can serve as the electrolyte that would enable formation of higher oxidation states of Am and other actinides. Experiments indicated that pH, presence of complexants and Am oxidation state exhibit significant influence on the uptake of actinides and lanthanides by layered sodium titanate and hybrid zirconium and tin phosphonate ion exchangers. The affinity of the ion exchangers increased with increasing pH. Greater selectivity among Ln(III) ions with sodium titanate materials occurs at a pH close to the isoelectric potential of the ion exchanger. The addition of DTPA decreased uptake of Am and Ln, whereas the addition of TPEN generally increases uptake of Am and Ln ions by sodium titanate. Testing confirmed two different methods for producing Am(IV) by oxidation of Am(III) in ionic liquids (ILs). Experimental results suggest that the unique coordination environment of ionic liquids inhibits the direct electrochemical oxidation of Am(III). The non-coordinating environment increases the oxidation potential to a higher value, while making it difficult to remove the inner coordination of water. Both confirmed cases of Am(IV) were from the in-situ formation of strong chemical oxidizers.

Hobbs, D.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

75

Theoretical Investigations on Nanoporpus Materials and Ionic Liquids for Energy Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the current context of rapidly depleting petroleum resources and growing environmental concerns, it is important to develop materials to harvest and store energy from renewable and sustainable sources. Hydrogen has the potential to be an alternative energy source, since it has higher energy content than petroleum. However, since hydrogen has very low volumetric energy density, hence it is important to design nano porous materials which can efficiently store large volumes of hydrogen gas by adsorption. In this regard carbon nanotube and Metal Organic Framework (MOFs) based materials are worth studying. Ionic liquids (IL) are potential electrolytes that can improve energy storage capacity and safety in Li ion batteries. Therefore it is important to understand IL's thermodynamic and transport properties, especially when it is in contact with electrode surface and mixed with Li salt, as happens in the battery application. This dissertation presents computation and simulation based studies on: 1. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotube scaffold. 2. Mechanical property and stability of various nanoporous Metal Organic Frameworks. 3. Thermodynamic and transport properties of [BMIM][BF4] ionic liquid in bulk, in Li Salt mixture, on graphite surface and under nanoconfinement. In the first study, we report the effects of carbon nanotube diameter, tube chirality, tube spacer distance, tube functionalization and presence of Li on hydrogen sorption capacity and thermodynamics at different temperature and pressure. In the second one, we observe high pressure induced structural transformation of 6 isoreticular MOFs: IRMOF-1. IRMOF-3, IRMOF-6, IRMOF-8, IRMOF-10 and IRMOF-14, explore the deformation mechanism and effect of Hydrogen inside crystal lattice. In the third study, we observe the equilibrium thermodynamic and transport properties of [BMIM][BF4] ionic liquid. The temperature dependence of ion diffusion, conductivity, dielectric constant, dipole relaxation time and viscosity have been observed and found similar behavior to those of supercooled liquid. The ion diffusion on graphite surfaces and under nanoconfinement was found to be higher compared to those in bulk.

Mani Biswas, Mousumi

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The use of ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS) in FIB applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new monoenergetic, high-brightness ion source can be constructed using an arrangement similar to liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) by substituting the liquid metal with an ionic liquid, or room temperature molten salt. Ion ...

Zorzos, Anthony Nicholas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Synthesis and Characterization of Thiazolium-Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Gas Separations  

SciTech Connect

A series of novel thiazolium-bis(triflamide) based ionic liquids has been synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids such as thermal stability, phase transitions, and infrared spectra were analysed and compared to the imidazolium-based congeners. Several unique classes of ancillary substitutions are examined with respect to impacts on overall structure, in addition to their carbon dioxide absorption properties in supported ionic-liquid membranes for gas separation.

Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Electrochemical comparison and deposition of lithium and potassium from phosphonium- and ammonium-tfsi ionic liquids .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated for use as battery electrolytes. The ILs were synthesized from quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts and TFSI-.… (more)

Vega, Jose A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Ionic Liquid Materials as Gas Chromatography Stationary Phases and Sorbent Coatings in Solid-Phase Microextraction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ionic liquids (ILs) are a class of molten salts with melting points below 100 °C. Their unique properties including high thermal stability, wide viscosity range,… (more)

Zhao, Qichao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Methods of using ionic liquids having a fluoride anion as solvents  

SciTech Connect

A method in one embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having a fluoride anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of about 90.degree. C. or less during the contacting. A method in another embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having an acetate or formate anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of less than about 90.degree. C. during the contacting.

Pagoria, Philip (Livermore, CA); Maiti, Amitesh (San Ramon, CA); Gash, Alexander (Brentwood, CA); Han, Thomas Yong (Pleasanton, CA); Orme, Christine (Oakland, CA); Fried, Laurence (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Investigating the Effects of Radiation on Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents work on the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs). The capability of ILs to dissolve a… (more)

Howett, Susan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

High CO2 Solubility, Permeability and Selectivity in Ionic Liquids with the Tetracyanoborate Anion  

SciTech Connect

Five different ionic liquids containing the tetracyanoborate anion were synthesized and evaluated for CO2 separation performance. Measured CO2 solubility values were exceptionally high compared to analogous ionic liquids with different anions and ranged from 0.128 mol L-1 atm-1 to 0.148 mol L-1 atm-1. In addition, CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity values were measured using a supported ionic liquid membrane architecture and the separations performance of the ionic liquid membranes exceeded the Robeson upper bound. These results establish the distinct potential of the tetracyanoborate, [B(CN)4], anion for the separation of CO2.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Interactions of Ionic Liquids with Uranium and its Bioreduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigated the influence of ionic liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM]{sup +}[PF{sub 6}]{sup -}, N-ethylpyridinium trifluoroacetate [EtPy]{sup +}[CF{sub 3}COO]{sup -} and N-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [Et-Py]{sup +}[BF{sub 4}]{sup -} on uranium reduction by Clostridium sp. under anaerobic conditions. Potentiometric titration, UV-vis spectrophotometry, LC-MS and EXAFS analyses showed monodentate complexation between uranyl and BF{sub 4}{sup -} PF{sub 6}{sup -}; and bidentate complexation with CF{sub 3}COO{sup -}. Ionic liquids affected the growth of Clostridium sp. as evidenced by decrease in optical density, changes in pH, gas production, and the extent of U(VI) reduction and precipitation of U(IV) from solution. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was observed in the presence of [EtPy][BF{sub 4}] and [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] but not with [EtPy][CF{sub 3}COO].

Zhang, C.; Francis, A.

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

84

Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

85

Fabrication of a Miniaturized Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Gas Sensor for Human Health and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication of a Miniaturized Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Gas Sensor for Human Health and Safety temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) gas sensors utilizing electrochemical instrumentation demonstrate promising that enables miniaturized, rapid response, gas sensors to be realized using RTIL interfaces on a permeable

Mason, Andrew

86

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids Ionic Liquids Project No.: FC26-07NT43091 Model of CO2 absorption by an ionic liquid. Model of CO2 absorption by an IL. The model shows that the anions are controlling absorption in ILs. The green units represent anions and the grey units represent cations. The University of Notre Dame is conducting the Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture project (FC26-07NT43091), that builds on the work of its earlier project (FG26-04NT42122), to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids (ILs) - for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Initial efforts focused on "proof-of-concept" exploration, followed by a laboratory-/bench-scale effort. ILs include a broad category

87

The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use in nuclear fuel processing J. F. Wishart and I. A. Shkrob in "Ionic Liquids: From Knowledge to Application" Rogers, R. D., Plechkova, N. V., and Seddon, K. R., Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 1030, Ch. 8, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2009, pp 119-134. (ISBN 978-0-8412-6997-2) [Find chapter at ACS Publications] Abstract: Using ionic liquids as a medium for the processing of spent nuclear fuel, where their safety and process improvement advantages could be significant, promises to substantially contribute to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles to improve the world's energy posture. It is therefore important to study the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids, to determine

88

Relationships between gas-liquid interfacial surface area, liquid saturation, and light transmission in variably saturated porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relationships between gas-liquid interfacial surface area, liquid saturation, and light transmission in variably saturated porous media Abstract Liquid saturation and gas-liquid interfacial area the specific gas-liquid interfacial area from the area under the primarydrainage branch of the Seff -h

Weisbrod, Noam

89

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids Luke D. Simoni-Butanol, Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium, Excess Gibbs Energy Models, Biofuels #12;1 1. Introduction other organic compounds can be produced biologically, and thus can be considered as biofuel candidates

Stadtherr, Mark A.

90

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral Solvents Heather Y. Lee, Joseph B. Issa, Stephan S. Isied, Edward W. Castner, Jr., Yunfeng Pan, Charles L. Hussey, Kwang Soon Lee, and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 5197-5208 (2012). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request. Abstract: The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethyl¬sulfonyl)¬amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a

91

Electrochemical Windows of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids from Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory Calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated the cathodic and anodic limits of six room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) formed from a combination of two common cations, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) and N,N-propylmethylpyrrolidinium (P13), and ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

92

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical catalysis have been employed to enhance the conversion of IL-treated biomasschemical catalysis routes for the breakdown of biomass in ionic liquids would help increase the efficiency of the conversion of biomass

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A Microfabricated Planar Electrospray Array Ionic Liquid Ion Source With Integrated Extractor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a fully microfabricated planar array of externally fed electrospray emitters that produces heavy molecular ions from the ionic liquids ...

Gassend, Blaise

94

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Background Development of innovative environmental control technologies is key to maintaining coal as an affordable and environmentally sound energy source. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control technologies, specifically post-combustion CO 2 capture, for coal- fired power plants is a major focus area in addressing climate change concerns. Post-

95

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO 2 Capture Background Post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture presents technical challenges because the flue gas is at atmospheric pressure and the CO 2 concentration is 10 to 15 volume percent, resulting in a low CO 2 partial pressure and a large volume of gas that needs to be treated. In spite of this difficulty, post-combustion CO 2 capture offers the

96

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL] [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company] [General Motors Company

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

Ring Opened Heterocycles: Promising Ionic Liquids for Gas Separation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

We report on a new class of highly fluid ionic liquids integrating a cation that resembles an opened imidazolium structure with two distinct anions, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [Tf{sub 2}N], and a nitrile-containing anion, [C(CN)3]. These new ionic liquids show exceptional CO{sub 2} permeability values in liquid membrane gas separations with results that equal or exceed the Robeson upper bound. Moreover, these ionic liquids offer ideal CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities competitive with the best results reported to date, exhibiting values that range from 28 to 45. The nitrile containing ionic liquid displayed the highest ideal CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity with a value of 45 which primarily results from a reduction in the nitrogen permeability. In addition to permeability results, CO{sub 2} solubilities were also measured for the this new class of ionic liquids with values similar to the popular 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The CO{sub 2} solubility results were compared to predicted values obtained using both a modified regular solution theory and the quantum chemical Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) method. Agreement between predicted and measured solubility values is also discussed.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Baker, Sheila N [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Ionic Liquids and Applications in Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ionic liquids (ILs) are a class of molten salts with melting points considerably lower than conventional inorganic salts. Their unique properties make them an ideal… (more)

Meng, Yunjing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Benzyl-Functionalized Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for CO2/N2 Separation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, three classes of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), including imidazolium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids with a benzyl group appended to the cation, were synthesized and tested for their performance in separating CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. All RTILs contained the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, permitting us to distinguish the impact of the benzyl moiety attached to the cation on gas separation performance. In general, the attachment of the benzyl group increased the viscosity of the ionic liquid compared with the unfunctionalized analogs and decreased the CO{sub 2} permeability. However, all of the benzyl-modified ionic liquids exhibited enhanced CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities compared with alkyl-based ionic liquids, with values ranging from 22.0 to 33.1. In addition, CO{sub 2} solubilities in the form of Henry's constants were also measured and compared with unfunctionalized analogs. Results of the membrane performance tests and CO{sub 2} solubility measurements demonstrate that the benzyl-functionalized RTILs have significant potential for use in the separation of carbon dioxide from combustion products.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Dai, Thomas N [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Carbon Dioxide Selective Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: The Effect of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is widely viewed as a promising technology for the large scale production of energy in a carbon constrained world. These cycles, which include gasification, contaminant removal, water-gas shift, CO2 capture and compression, and combustion of the reduced-carbon fuel gas in a turbine, often have significant efficiency advantages over conventional combustion technologies. A CO2 selective membrane capable of maintaining performance at conditions approaching those of low temperature water-gas shift (260oC) could facilitate the production of carbon-neutral energy by simultaneously driving the shift reaction to completion and concentrating CO2 for sequestration. Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) have been previously evaluated for this application and determined to be physically and chemically stable to temperatures in excess of 300oC. These membranes were based on ionic liquids which interacted physically with CO2 and diminished considerably in selectivity at higher temperatures. To alleviate this problem, the original ionic liquids were replaced with ionic liquids able to form chemical complexes with CO2. These complexing ionic liquid membranes have a local maximum in selectivity which is observed at increasing temperatures for more stable complexes. Efforts are currently underway to develop ionic liquids with selectivity maxima at temperatures greater than 75oC, the best result to date, but other practical concerns must also be addressed if the membrane is to be realistically expected to function under water-gas shift conditions. A CO2 selective membrane must function not only at high temperature, but also in the presence of all the reactants and contaminants likely to be present in coal-derived fuel gas, including water, CO, and H2S. A study has been undertaken which examines the effects of each of these gases on both complexing and physically interacting supported liquid membranes. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Novel hydrophobic ionic liquids electrolyte based on cyclic sulfonium used in dye-sensitized solar cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel series of hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquids based on six cyclic sulfonium cations were first time synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells as pure solvents for electrolyte system. The chronoamperograms result showed that the length of substituent on sulfonium cations could inhibit the I{sub 3}{sup -} diffusion and the five-ring structure of sulfonium was benefit for fast triiodide ion diffusion. The electrochemical impendence spectra measurement of dye-sensitized solar cells with these ionic liquid electrolytes was carried out and the result indicated that the cations' structure had indeed influence on the cells' performance especially for the fill factor, which was further proved by the measurement result of I-V curves of these dye-sensitized solar cells. The conclusion was obtained that the electron exchange reaction on Pt counter electrode/electrolyte interface dominated the cells' performance for these ionic liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. (author)

Guo, Lei; Pan, Xu; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Changneng; Fang, Xiaqin; Chen, Shuanghong; Dai, Songyuan [Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

104

Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Broadview Heights, OH); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Chandler, AZ); Yoshizawa, Masahiro (Tokyo, JP)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

105

Tuning the Physicochemical Properties of Diverse Phenolic Ionic Liquids for Equimolar CO2 Capture by the Substituent on the Anion  

SciTech Connect

Phenolic ionic liquids for the efficient and reversible capture of CO{sub 2} were designed and prepared from phosphonium hydroxide and substituted phenols. The electron-withdrawing or electron-donating ability, position, and number of the substituents on the anion of these ionic liquids were correlated with the physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids. The results show that the stability, viscosity, and CO{sub 2}-capturing ability of these ionic liquids were significantly affected by the substituents. Furthermore, the relationship between the decomposition temperature, the CO{sub 2}-absorption capacity, and the basicity of these ionic liquids was quantitatively correlated and further rationalized by theoretical calculation. Indeed, these ionic liquids showed good stability, high absorption capacity, and low absorption enthalpy for CO{sub 2} capture. This method, which tunes the physicochemical properties by making use of substituent effects in the anion of the ionic liquid, is important for the design of highly efficient and reversible methods for CO{sub 2}-capture. This CO{sub 2} capture process using diverse phenolic ionic liquids is a promising potential method for CO{sub 2} absorption with both high absorption capacity and good reversibility.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Li, Haoran [Zhejiang University; Wang, Congmin [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Ab Initio Quantum Liquid Water and Aqueous Ionic Solutions |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

250 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Physics A highly accurate and detailed understanding of the microscopic structure of liquid water is of great importance to a number of...

107

High-Performance Supercapacitors Based on Poly(ionic liquid)-Modified  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Performance Supercapacitors Based on Poly(ionic liquid)-Modified Graphene Electrodes Tae Young for supercapacitor electrodes owing to its low mass density, excellent electronic conduc- tivity, and high surface- sition closely related to graphene, is a prom- ising material for supercapacitor applica- tions

108

Separable fluorous ionic liquids for the dissolution and saccharification of cellulose  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

otherwise. The term "high vacuum" refers to vacuum (oil pump containing ionic liquid were concentrated under reduced pressure to yield an orange oil contaminated with white solids. The oil and solids were dissolved in boiling methanol, and the solution was concentrated

Raines, Ronald T.

109

USE OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN PRODUCED WATER CLEAN UP J. McFarlane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

USE OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN PRODUCED WATER CLEAN UP J. McFarlane Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box amounts of contaminated water along with the hydrocarbon phase, termed "produced water" by the industry 1 Agency (EPA) limit on oil and grease content in produced water discharged in the ocean is a daily maximum

110

Influence of Water on Diffusion in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids by NMR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of Water on Diffusion in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids by NMR Sergey Vasenkov AMRIS - Chemical Engineering, University of Florida In this work we applied a novel pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR) NMR and high magnetic field gradients (up to 30 T/m). Application of high field allows for an easy

Weston, Ken

111

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics inIonic Liquids and Neutral Solvents  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a 1-N,1-N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine donor, a proline bridge, and a coumarin 343 acceptor. The photoinduced electron-transfer processes are in the inverted regime (-{Delta}G > {lambda}) in all four solvents, with driving forces of -1.6 to -1.9 eV and estimated reorganization energies of about 1.0 eV. The observed electron-transfer kinetics have broadly distributed rates that are generally slower in the ionic liquids compared to the neutral solvents, which also have narrower rate distributions. To describe the broad distributions of electron-transfer kinetics, we use two different models: a distribution of exponential lifetimes and a discrete sum of exponential lifetimes. Analysis of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling shows that for ionic liquids this intramolecular electron-transfer reaction should be treated using a solvent-controlled electron-transfer model.

Wishart J. F.; Lee, H.Y.; Issa, J.B.; Isied, S.S.; Castner, Jr., E.W.; Pan, Y.; Hussey, C.L.; Lee, K.S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

J-aggregation of ionic liquid solutions of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin  

SciTech Connect

The title porphyrin was dissolved in the hydrophilic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4], and triggered to assemble into J-aggregates by the addition of incremental volumes of water containing various amounts of acid (0.1, 0.2, or 1.0 M HCl). In contrast to recent studies, the current investigation is unique in that it centers on media that contain a predominant ionic liquid component (2.9 5.4 M [bmim][BF4]), as opposed to an aqueous electrolyte containing a small fraction of ionic liquid as dissociated solute. Complex aggregation and underlying photophysical behavior are revealed from absorption spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence, and resonance light scattering studies. Upon addition of aqueous HCl, the efficient formation of H4TPPS2 J-aggregates from the diprotonated form of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (H2TPPS4) occurs in [bmim][BF4]-rich media in a manner highly dependent upon the acidity, TPPS concentration, and solvent composition. The unique features of TPPS aggregation in this ionic liquid were elucidated, including the surprising disassembly of J-aggregates at higher aqueous contents, and our results are described qualitatively in terms of the molecular exciton theory. Finally, the potential of this system for the optical sensing of water at a sensitivity below 0.5 wt% is demonstrated. Overall, our findings accentuate how little is known about functional self-assembly within ionic liquids and suggest a number of avenues for exploring this completely untouched research landscape.

Ali, Maroof [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; Kumar, Vinod [ORNL; Baker, Sheila N [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Pandey, Siddharth [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

2009-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

114

Solubilities of Solutes in Ionic Liquids from a SimplePerturbed-Hard-Sphere Theory  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, several publications have provided solubilities of ordinary gases and liquids in ionic liquids. This work reports an initial attempt to correlate the experimental data using a perturbed-hard-sphere theory; the perturbation is based on well-known molecular physics when the solution is considered as a dielectric continuum. For this correlation, the most important input parameters are hard-sphere diameters of the solute and of the cation and anion that constitute the ionic liquid. In addition, the correlation uses the solvent density and the solute's polarizability and dipole and quadrupole moments, if any. Dispersion-energy parameters are obtained from global correlation of solubility data. Results are given for twenty solutes in several ionic liquids at normal temperatures; in addition, some results are given for gases in two molten salts at very high temperatures. Because the theory used here is much simplified, and because experimental uncertainties (especially for gaseous solutes) are often large, the accuracy of the correlation presented here is not high; in general, predicted solubilities (Henry's constants) agree with experiment to within roughly {+-} 70%. As more reliable experimental data become available, modifications in the characterizing parameters are likely to improve accuracy. Nevertheless, even in its present form, the correlation may be useful for solvent screening in engineering design.

Qin, Yuan; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

115

Supported Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} Separation  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts which are liquid at or around room temperature. These compounds exhibit many outstanding physical properties such as great thermal stability and no measurable vapor pressure. In this work supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were prepared by impregnating pores of ?-alumina inorganic supports with various ionic liquids. In addition to membranes prepared with pure RTILs we were able to synthesize membranes with RTIL mixtures using 1-aminopyridinium iodide dissolved in 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate or methyltrioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. This combination of an RTIL with an organic salt containing an amine group dramatically improved the membrane separation properties. The SILMs displayed CO{sub 2} permeance on the order of 5 × 10{sup ?10} to 5 × 10{sup ?9} mol m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} Pa{sup ?1} combined with CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity of 5–30. Although these values are comparable with the current systems for CO{sub 2} purification, CO{sub 2} permeance is still rather low for these compounds.

Iarikov, D. D.; Hacarlioglu, P.; Oyama, S. T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Gas-liquid critical point in ionic fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the method of collective variables we develop the statistical field theory for the study of a simple charge-asymmetric $1:z$ primitive model (SPM). It is shown that the well-known approximations for the free energy, in particular DHLL and ORPA, can be obtained within the framework of this theory. In order to study the gas-liquid critical point of SPM we propose the method for the calculation of chemical potential conjugate to the total number density which allows us to take into account the higher order fluctuation effects. As a result, the gas-liquid phase diagrams are calculated for $z=2-4$. The results demonstrate the qualitative agreement with MC simulation data: critical temperature decreases when $z$ increases and critical density increases rapidly with $z$.

O. Patsahan; I. Mryglod; T. Patsahan

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

117

Molecular mechanism of gas adsorption into ionic liquids: A molecular dynamics study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been shown to be versatile and tunable solvents that can be used in many chemical applications. In this study, we developed a dynamical, molecular-scale picture of the gas dissolution and interfacial processes in RTILs using molecular simulations. These simulations can provide the free energies associated with transporting a gas solute across various RTIL interfaces and physical insights into the interfacial properties and transport molecular mechanism of gas sorption processes. For CO2 sorption, the features in the potential of mean force (PMF) of CO2 using both polarizable and non-polarizable force fields are similar qualitatively. However, we observed some quantitative differences, and we describe the causes of these differences in this paper. We also show the significant impact of ionic-liquid chemical structures on the gas sorption process, and we discuss their influence on the H2O transport mechanism.

Dang, Liem X.; Chang, Tsun-Mei

2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

118

Ionic-Liquid Induced Changes in Cellulose Structure Associated with Enhanced Biomass Hydrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of varying ionic liquid pretreatment parameters on various sources of lignocellulosic biomass have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fiber diffraction, and compositional analysis. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar analysis were used to relate the observed changes in cellulose structure to biomass digestibility. In this study, the factor most clearly associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis is the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase.

Samayam, Indira P.; Hanson, B. Leif; Langan, Paul; Schall, Constance A. (Toledo)

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

119

Alkyl-methylimidazolium ionic liquids affect the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effect of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate [EMIM][DEP], and 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate [MMIM][DMP] on the growth and glucose fermentation of Clostridium sp. was investigated. Among the three ionic liquids tested, [MMIM][DMP] was found to be least toxic. Growth of Clostridium sp. was not inhibited up to 2.5, 4 and 4 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac], [EMIM][DEP] and [MMIM][DMP], respectively. [EMIM][Ac] at <2.5 g L{sup -1}, showed hormetic effect and stimulated the growth and fermentation by modulating medium pH. Total organic acid production increased in the presence of 2.5 and 2 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac] and [MMIM][DMP]. Ionic liquids had no significant influence on alcohol production at <2.5 g L{sup -1}. Total gas production was affected by ILs at {ge}2.5 g L{sup -1} and varied with type of methylimidazolium IL. Overall, the results show that the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. is not impacted by ILs at concentrations below 2.5 g L{sup -1}.

Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Francis, A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Checkerboard Self-Patterning of an Ionic Liquid Film on Mercury  

SciTech Connect

{angstrom}-resolution studies of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) interfaces are scarce, in spite of their long-recognized importance for the science and many applications of RTILs. We present an {angstrom}-resolution x-ray study of a Langmuir film of an RTIL on mercury. At low (high) coverage [90 (50) {angstrom}{sup 2}/molecule] a mono-(bi)layer of surface-parallel molecules is found. The molecules self-assemble in a lateral ionic checkerboard pattern, unlike the uniform-charge, alternate-ion layers of this RTIL at its bulk-solid interface. A 2D-smectic order is found, with molecules packed in parallel stripes, forming long-range order normal to, but none along, the stripes.

L Tamam; B Ocko; H Reichert; M Deutsch

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Checkerboard Self-Patterning of an Ionic Liquid Film on Mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

{angstrom}-resolution studies of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) interfaces are scarce, in spite of their long-recognized importance for the science and many applications of RTILs. We present an {angstrom}-resolution x-ray study of a Langmuir film of an RTIL on mercury. At low (high) coverage [90 (50) {angstrom}{sup 2}/molecule] a mono-(bi)layer of surface-parallel molecules is found. The molecules self-assemble in a lateral ionic checkerboard pattern, unlike the uniform-charge, alternate-ion layers of this RTIL at its bulk-solid interface. A 2D-smectic order is found, with molecules packed in parallel stripes, forming long-range order normal to, but none along, the stripes.

Ocko, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Reichert, H.; Deutsch, M.

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

122

From molten salts to room temperature ionic liquids: Simulation studies on chloroaluminate systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An interaction potential including chloride anion polarization effects, constructed from first-principles calculations, is used to examine the structure and transport properties of a series of chloroaluminate melts. A particular emphasis was given to the study of the equimolar mixture of aluminium chloride with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, which forms a room temperature ionic liquid EMI-AlCl 4. The structure yielded by the classical simulations performed within the framework of the polarizable ion model is compared to the results obtained from entirely electronic structure-based simulations: An excellent agreement between the two flavors of molecular dynamics is observed. When changing the organic cation EMI+ by an inorganic cation with a smaller ionic radius (Li+, Na+, K+), the chloroaluminate speciation becomes more complex, with the formation of Al2Cl 7- in small amounts. The calculated transport properties (diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivity and viscosity) of EMI-AlCl4 are in good ag...

Salanne, Mathieu; Seitsonen, Ari P; Madden, Paul A; Kirchner, Barbara; 10.1039/C1FD00053E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

Eckert, Charles; Liotta, Charles

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

124

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

Charles Eckert; Charles Liotta

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Shao, Nan [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for DE-FC26-07NT43091 â??Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Captureâ?. A detailed summary is provided of the ionic liquid (IL) discovery process, synthesis and testing results, process / systems modeling, lab-scale operational testing, corrosion testing and commercialization possibilities. The work resulted in the discovery of a new class of ionic liquids (ILs) that efficiently react with CO{sub 2} in a 1:1 stoichiometry with no water present and no increase in viscosity. The enthalpy of reaction was tuned to optimize process economics. The IL was found to have excellent corrosion behavior with and without CO{sub 2} present. In lab-scale tests, the IL was able to effectively remove CO{sub 2} from a simulated flue gas stream, although mass transfer was slower than with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) due to higher viscosities. The non-volatile nature of the solvent and its high thermal stability, however, make it an intriguing option. An independent systems analysis indicates that the economics of using the best IL discovered to date (NDIL0157), are at least comparable to â?? and potentially slightly better than -â?? the Fluor Econamine FG PlusTM process (DOE Case 12). Further work should be directed at improving mass transfer / lowering viscosity and developing commercial synthesis routes to make these ILs at scale in an inexpensive manner. Demonstration of the process at larger scales is also warranted, as is the exploration of other process configurations that leverage the anhydrous nature of the solvent and its extremely low volatility.

Maginn, Edward

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLE-ENHANCED IONIC LIQUIDS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was completed on nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids as an alternative to conventional organic based heat transfer fluids (HTFs). These nanoparticle-based HTFs have the potential to deliver higher thermal conductivity than the base fluid without a significant increase in viscosity at elevated temperatures. The effect of nanoparticle morphology and chemistry on thermophysical properties was examined. Whisker shaped nanomaterials were found to have the largest thermal conductivity temperature dependence and were also less likely to agglomerate in the base fluid than spherical shaped nanomaterials.

Fox, E.

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Pysico-chemical properties of hydrophobic ionic liquids containing 1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium cations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. A. Z. Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallicambient-temperature molten salts. Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35,are room-temperature molten salts with melting points near

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Lee, Jong-Min; Prausnitz, John M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Ionic liquid pretreatment of poplar wood at room temperature: swelling and incorporation of nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass represents a potentially sustainable source of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals. It could satisfy the energy needs for transportation and electricity generation, while contributing substantially to carbon sequestration and limiting the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Potential feedstocks are abundant and include crops, agricultural wastes, forest products, grasses, and algae. Among those feedstocks, wood is mainly constituted of three components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass typically consists of three steps: (1) pretreatment; (2) hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars; and (3) fermentation of the sugars into liquid fuels (ethanol) and other commodity chemicals. The pretreatment step is necessary due to the complex structure of the plant cell wall and the chemical resistance of lignin. Most current pretreatments are energy-intensive and/or polluting. So it is imperative to develop new pretreatments that are economically viable and environmentally friendly. Recently, ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest, due to their ability to dissolve biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, native switchgrass, and others. Ionic liquids are also considered green solvents, since they have been successfully recycled at high yields for further use with limited efficiency loss. Also, a few microbial cellulases remain active at high ionic liquid concentration. However, all studies on the dissolution of wood in ionic liquids have been conducted so far at high temperatures, typically above 90 C. Development of alternative pretreatments at room temperature is desirable to eliminate the additional energy cost. In this study, thin sections of poplar wood were swollen at room temperature by a 3 h ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate or EMIMAc) pretreatment. The pretreated sample was then exposed to an aqueous suspension of nanoparticles that resulted in the sample contraction and the deposition of nanoparticles onto the surface and embedded into the cell wall. To date, both silver and gold particles ranging in size from 40-100 nm have been incorporated into wood. Penetration of gold nanoparticles of 100 nm diameter in the cell walls was best confirmed by near-infrared confocal Raman microscopy, since the deposition of gold nanoparticles induces a significant enhancement of the Raman signal from the wood in their close proximity, an enhancement attributed to the surface-enhanced Raman effect (SERS). After rinsing with water, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman images of the same areas show that most nanoparticles remained on the pretreated sample. Raman images at different depths reveal that a significant number of nanoparticles were incorporated into the wood sample, at depths up to 4 {micro}m, or 40 times the diameter of the nanoparticles. Control experiments on an untreated wood sample resulted in the deposition of nanoparticles only at the surface and most nanoparticles were removed upon rinsing. This particle incorporation process enables the development of new pretreatments, since the nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio and could be chemically functionalized. Other potential applications for the incorporated nanoparticles include isotope tracing, catalysis, imaging agents, drug-delivery systems, energy-storage devices, and chemical sensors.

Lucas, Marcel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Gregory L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Steven A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rector, Kirk D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Influence of Solid-Liquid-Liquid Interactions on Multiphase Transport Behavior in Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow of oil, water and gas in the complex network of paths in petroleum reservoir rocks constitutes probably the most complex embodiment of interfacial interactions and their consequences on multiphase transport behavior in porous media. The fact ...

Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Effects of capillary heterogeneity on vapor-liquid counterflow in porous media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on a continuum description, the effect of capillary heterogeneity, induced by variation in permeability, on the steady state, countercurrent, vapor-liquid flow in porous media is analyzed. It is shown that the heterogeneity acts as a body force, that may enhance or diminish gravity effects on heat pipes. Selection rules that determine the steady states reached in homogeneous, gravity-driven heat pipes are also formulated. It is shown that the ``infinite`` two-phase zone may terminate by a substantial change in the permeability somewhere in the medium. The two possible sequences, liquid - liquid dominated - dry, or liquid - vapor dominated - dry find applications in geothermal systems. Finally, it is shown that although weak heterogeneity affects only gravity controlled flows, stronger variations in permeability can give rise to significant capillary effects.

Stubos, A.K.; Satik, C.; Yortsos, Y.C.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Effects of capillary heterogeneity on vapor-liquid counterflow in porous media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on a continuum description, the effect of capillary heterogeneity, induced by variation in permeability, on the steady state, countercurrent, vapor-liquid flow in porous media is analyzed. It is shown that the heterogeneity acts as a body force, that may enhance or diminish gravity effects on heat pipes. Selection rules that determine the steady states reached in homogeneous, gravity-driven heat pipes are also formulated. It is shown that the infinite'' two-phase zone may terminate by a substantial change in the permeability somewhere in the medium. The two possible sequences, liquid - liquid dominated - dry, or liquid - vapor dominated - dry find applications in geothermal systems. Finally, it is shown that although weak heterogeneity affects only gravity controlled flows, stronger variations in permeability can give rise to significant capillary effects.

Stubos, A.K.; Satik, C.; Yortsos, Y.C.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

Yu, Bo [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Sun, Xiaoqi [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Unusual mechanism for the short-range electron transfer within gold-alkanethiol-ionic-liquid films of subnanometer thickness  

SciTech Connect

Exploiting nanoscopically tunable composite gold-alkanethiol-ionic-liquid/ferrocene self-assembled systems with tunable electron transfer distance, we discovered in the case of thinner alkanethiol films a thermally activated electron transfer pattern totally controlled by the viscosity-related slow relaxation mode(s) of the ionic liquid acting as the reactant's fluctuating environment. This pattern manifested through the activation enthalpy and volume parameters that are identical to those for viscous flow was explained in terms of the extreme adiabatic mechanism with a vanishing Marcus barrier (via the exponential Franck-Condon-like term approaching unity).

Khoshtariya, Dimitri E. [Department of Physics and Institute for Biophysics and Bionanosciences, I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, I. Chavchavadze Avenue 3, 0128 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Egerlandstrasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics and Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Gotua 12, 0160 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Dolidze, Tina D. [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Egerlandstrasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics and Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Gotua 12, 0160 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Eldik, Rudi van [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Egerlandstrasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Impact of Mixed Feedstocks and Feedstock Densification on Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background: Lignocellulosic biorefineries must be able to efficiently process the regional feedstocks that are available at cost-competitive prices year round. These feedstocks typically have low energy densities and vary significantly in composition. One potential solution to these issues is blending and/or densifying the feedstocks in order to create a uniform feedstock. Results/discussion: We have mixed four feedstocks - switchgrass, lodgepole pine, corn stover, and eucalyptus - in flour and pellet form and processed them using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Sugar yields from both the mixed flour and pelletized feedstocks reach 90% within 24 hours of saccharification. Conclusions: Mixed feedstocks, in either flour or pellet form, are efficiently processed using this pretreatment process, and demonstrate that this approach has significant potential.

Jian Shi; Vicki S. Thompson; Neal A. Yancey; Vitalie Stavila; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Lubricants or lubricant additives composed of ionic liquids containing ammonium cations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lubricant or lubricant additive is an ionic liquid alkylammonium salt. The alkylammonium salt has the structure R.sub.xNH.sub.(4-x).sup.+,[F.sub.3C(CF.sub.2).sub.yS(O).sub.2].sub.2N.sup- .- where x is 1 to 3, R is independently C.sub.1 to C.sub.12 straight chain alkyl, branched chain alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkyl substituted cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl substituted alkyl, or, optionally, when x is greater than 1, two R groups comprise a cyclic structure including the nitrogen atom and 4 to 12 carbon atoms, and y is independently 0 to 11. The lubricant is effective for the lubrication of many surfaces including aluminum and ceramics surfaces.

Qu, Jun (Knoxville, TN); Truhan, Jr.,; John J. (Cookeville, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN); Blau, Peter J. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

137

Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

138

Dynamic coupling between a multistable defect pattern and flow in nematic liquid crystals confined in a porous medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a nematic liquid crystal is confined in a porous medium with strong anchoring conditions, topological defects, called disclinations, are stably formed with numerous possible configurations. Since the energy barriers between them are large enough, the system shows multistability. Our lattice Boltzmann simulations demonstrate dynamic couplings between the multistable defect pattern and the flow in a regular porous matrix. At sufficiently low flow speed, the topological defects are pinned at the quiescent positions. As the flow speed is increased, the defects show cyclic motions and nonlinear rheological properties, which depend on whether or not they are topologically constrained in the porous networks. In addition, we discovered that the defect pattern can be controlled by controlling the flow. Thus, the flow path is recorded in the porous channels owing to the multistability of the defect patterns.

Takeaki Araki

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

139

Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions  

SciTech Connect

The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Varanasi, Patanjali [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Singh, Seema [Joint Bioenergy Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Hazardous Materials j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / j h a z m a t Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption C. Zhang a,b,∗ , S.V. Malhotra b,1 , A.J. Francis c,d a College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China 300071 b Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07104 USA c Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 USA d Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 South Korea h i g h l i g h t s * Three ILs showed varying degrees of toxicity to Clostridium sp.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Membranes Containing Cellulose or Chitin Barrier Layers Fabricated by Ionic Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The barrier layer of high-flux ultrafiltration (UF) thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membranes for purification of wastewater (e.g., bilge water) have been prepared by using cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend, regenerated from an ionic liquid. The structures and properties of regenerated cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend were analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface morphology, pore size and pore size distribution of TFNC membranes were determined by SEM images and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) methods. An oil/water emulsion, a model of bilge water, was used as the feed solution, and the permeation flux and rejection ratio of the membranes were investigated. TFNC membranes based on the cellulose-chitin blend exhibited 10 times higher permeation flux when compared with a commercial UF membrane (PAN10, Sepro) with a similar rejection ratio after filtration over a time period of up to 100 h, implying the practical feasibility of such membranes for UF applications.

H Ma; B Hsiao; B Chu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

143

Explaining the differential solubility of flue gas components in ionic liquids from first-principle calculations  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas is greatly responsible for acid rain formation and global warming. New generation ionic liquids (ILs) have potential in controlling the flue gas emissions, as they acquire high absorptivity for the component gases SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, etc. The association of the IL-gas interactions to the absorptivity of gas molecules in ILs is, however, poorly understood. In this paper, we present a molecular level description of the interactions of ILs with SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} and show its implications to the differential gas solubility. Our results indicate that the IL anion-gas interactions play a key role in deciding the gas solubility in ILs, particularly for polar gases such as SO{sub 2}. On the other hand, regular solution assumption applies to -2 solubility. In accordance with the previous theoretical and experimental findings, our results also imply that the IL anions dominate the interactions with gas molecules while the cations play a secondary role and the underlying fluid structures of the ILs remain unperturbed by the addition of gas molecules.

Prasad, B.R.; Senapati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Biotechnology

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Investigation of transport and mechnical properties for hollow fibers containing ionic liquids for pre-combustion CO2 capture  

SciTech Connect

Currently available techniques for CO{sub 2} separation from flue or fuel gas cannot economically capture CO{sub 2} for sequestration. Membranes offer several advantages in CO{sub 2} separation such as simple operation, low water consumption, and in some cases higher energy efficiency. However, traditional polymer membranes are limited by the separation characteristics of the polymer and often suffer from low permeability and selectivity. Several research groups have attempted to overcome these limitations by using supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) in which an ionic liquid (IL) is suspended within the pores of a membrane support and serves as the active gas separation component of the membrane. For industrial applications, hollow fibers are preferred over flat membranes due to their smaller footprint, ease of high efficiency module design and low fabrication cost. In an attempt to investigate and address these issues, polymeric hollow fiber-based ionic liquid membranes were fabricated. Matrimid® and [hmim][Tf{sub 2}N] (1-hexyl-3-methylimidalzolium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl) imide) were selected as the polymeric and ionic liquid materials, and the fibers were fabricated via nonsolvent-induced phase separation/extraction, employing a single layer spinneret extrusion system. The system takes advantage of the fiber morphology to enable more efficient mass transfer than traditional membranes geometries. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} transport properties will be reported for the Matrimid hollow fibers from 37 to 150 {degrees}C. Also, several mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus, and glass transition temperature have been measured for the fiber using dynamic mechanical analysis.

Hopkinson, D., Wickramanayake, S., Myers, C., Sui, L., Nicola, M., Luebke, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Lithium Ion Transport Mechanism in Ternary Polymer Electrolyte-Ionic Liquid Mixtures - A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lithium transport mechanism in ternary polymer electrolytes, consisting of PEO/LiTFSI and various fractions of the ionic liquid N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, are investigated by means of MD simulations. This is motivated by recent experimental findings [Passerini et al., Electrochim. Acta 2012, 86, 330-338], which demonstrated that these materials display an enhanced lithium mobility relative to their binary counterpart PEO/LiTFSI. In order to grasp the underlying microscopic scenario giving rise to these observations, we employ an analytical, Rouse-based cation transport model [Maitra at al., PRL 2007, 98, 227802], which has originally been devised for conventional polymer electrolytes. This model describes the cation transport via three different mechanisms, each characterized by an individual time scale. It turns out that also in the ternary electrolytes essentially all lithium ions are coordinated by PEO chains, thus ruling out a transport mechanism enhanced by the presence of ionic-liquid molecules. Rather, the plasticizing effect of the ionic liquid contributes to the increased lithium mobility by enhancing the dynamics of the PEO chains and consequently also the motion of the attached ions. Additional focus is laid on the prediction of lithium diffusion coefficients from the simulation data for various chain lengths and the comparison with experimental data, thus demonstrating the broad applicability of our approach.

Diddo Diddens; Andreas Heuer

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

147

Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Fluid Hyphenated Techniques for Dissolution and Separation of Lanthanides, Actinides, and Fission Products  

SciTech Connect

This project is investigating techniques involving ionic liquids (IL) and supercritical (SC) fluids for dissolution and separation of lanthanides, actinides, and fission products. The research project consists of the following tasks: Study direct dissolution of lanthanide oxides, uranium dioxide and other actinide oxides in [bmin][Tf{sub 2}N] with TBP(HNO{sub 3}){sub 1.8}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.6} and similar types of Lewis acid-Lewis base complexing agents; Measure distributions of dissolved metal species between the IL and the sc-CO{sub 2} phases under various temperature and pressure conditions; Investigate the chemistry of the dissolved metal species in both IL and sc-CO{sub 2} phases using spectroscopic and chemical methods; Evaluate potential applications of the new extraction techniques for nuclear waste management and for other projects. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) and ionic liquids are considered green solvents for chemical reactions and separations. Above the critical point, CO{sub 2} has both gas- and liquid-like properties, making it capable of penetrating small pores of solids and dissolving organic compounds in the solid matrix. One application of sc-CO{sub 2} extraction technology is nuclear waste management. Ionic liquids are low-melting salts composed of an organic cation and an anion of various forms, with unique properties making them attractive replacements for the volatile organic solvents traditionally used in liquid-liquid extraction processes. One type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation [bmin] with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion [Tf{sub 2}N] is of particular interest for extraction of metal ions due to its water stability, relative low viscosity, high conductivity, and good electrochemical and thermal stability. Recent studies indicate that a coupled IL sc-CO{sub 2} extraction system can effectively transfer trivalent lanthanide and uranyl ions from nitric acid solutions. Advantages of this technique include operation at ambient temperature and pressure, selective extraction due to tunable sc-CO{sub 2} solvation strength, no IL loss during back-extraction, and no organic solvent introduced into the IL phase.

Wai, Chien M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Bruce Mincher

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

THE POTENTIAL OF NANOPARTICLE ENHANCED IONIC LIQUIDS (NEILS) AS ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interest in capturing the energy of the sun is rising as demands for renewable energy sources increase. One area of developing research is the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), where the solar energy is concentrated by using mirrors to direct the sunlight towards a collector filled with a heat transfer fluid (HTF). The HTF transfers the collected energy into pressurized steam, which is used to generate energy. The greater the energy collected by the HTF, the more efficent the electrical energy production is, thus the overall efficiency is controlled by the thermal fluid. Commercial HTFs such as Therminol{reg_sign} (VP-1), which is a blend of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, have a significant vapor pressure, especially at elevated temperatures. In order for these volatile compounds to be used in CSP systems, the system either has to be engineered to prevent the phase change (i.e., volatilization and condensation) through pressurization of the system, or operate across the phase change. Over thirty years ago, a class of low-melting organic compounds were developed with negligible vapor pressure. These compounds are referred to as ionic liquids (ILs), which are organic-based compounds with discrete charges that cause a significant decrease in their vapor pressure. As a class, ILs are molten salts with a melting point below 100 C and can have a liquidus range approaching 400 C, and in several cases freezing points being below 0 C. Due to the lack of an appreciable vapor pressure, volatilization of an IL is not possible at atmospheric pressure, which would lead to a simplification of the design if used as a thermal fluid and for energy storage materials. Though the lack of a vapor pressure does not make the use of ILs a better HTF, the lack of a vapor pressure is a compliment to their higher heat capacity, higher volummetric density, and thus higher volumetric heat capacity. These favorable physical properties give ILs a pontential advantage over the current commerically used thermal fluids. Also within the past decade nanofluids have gained attention for thermal conductivity enhancment of fluids, but little analysis has been completed on the heat capacity effects of the nanoparticle addition. The idea of ILs or nanofluids as a HTF is not new, as there are several references that have proposed the idea. However, the use of ionic liquid nanofluids containing nanomaterials other than carbon nanotubes has never before been studied. Here, for the first time, nano-particle enhanced ILs (NEILs) have been shown to increase the heat capacity of the IL with no adverse side effects to the ILs thermal stability and, only at high nanoparticle loading, are the IL physical properties affected. An increase of volumetric heat capacity translates into a better heat transfer fluid as more energy is stored per volumetric unit in the solar concentrating section, thus more efficency in increased steam pressure. Results show that the properties of the NEIL are highly dependant on the suspended nanomaterial and careful materials selection is required to fully optimize the nanofluid properties.

Fox, E.; Bridges, N.; Visser, A.

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

149

Identification of a haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to be very effective solvents for biomass pretreatment. It is known that some ILs can have a strong inhibitory effect on fungal cellulases, making the digestion of cellulose inefficient in the presence of ILs. The identification of IL-tolerant enzymes that could be produced as a cellulase cocktail would reduce the costs and water use requirements of the IL pretreatment process. Due to their adaptation to high salinity environments, halophilic enzymes are hypothesized to be good candidates for screening and identifying IL-resistant cellulases. Using a genome-based approach, we have identified and characterized a halophilic cellulase (Hu-CBH1) from the halophilic archaeon, Halorhabdus utahensis. Hu-CBH1 is present in a gene cluster containing multiple putative cellulolytic enzymes. Sequence and theoretical structure analysis indicate that Hu-CBH1 is highly enriched with negatively charged acidic amino acids on the surface, which may form a solvation shell that may stabilize the enzyme, through interaction with salt ions and/or water molecules. Hu-CBH1 is a heat tolerant haloalkaliphilic cellulase and is active in salt concentrations up to 5 M NaCl. In high salt buffer, Hu-CBH1 can tolerate alkali (pH 11.5) conditions and, more importantly, is tolerant to high levels (20percent w/w) of ILs, including 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl). Interestingly, the tolerances to heat, alkali and ILs are found to be salt-dependent, suggesting that the enzyme is stabilized by the presence of salt. Our results indicate that halophilic enzymes are good candidates for the screening of IL-tolerant cellulolytic enzymes.

Zhang, Tao; Datta, Supratim; Eichler, Jerry; Ivanova, Natalia; Axen, Seth D.; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Chen, Feng; Kyrpides, Nikos; Hugenholtz, Philip; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Sale, Kenneth L.; Simmons, Blake; Rubin, Eddy

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

150

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER OF IONIC LIQUID IN A RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE HEATED FROM BELOW  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an experimental study of natural convection heat transfer for an Ionic Liquid. The experiments were performed for 1-butyl-2, 3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}]) at a Raleigh number range of 1.26 x 10{sup 7} to 8.3 x 10{sup 7}. In addition to determining the convective heat transfer coefficients, this study also included experimental determination of thermophysical properties of [C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}] such as, density, viscosity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. The results show that the density of [C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}] varies from 1.437-1.396 g/cm{sup 3} within the temperature range of 10-50 C, the thermal conductivity varies from 0.105-0.116 W/m.K between a temperature of 10 to 60 C, the heat capacity varies from 1.015 J/g.K - 1.760 J/g.K within temperature range of 25-340 C and the viscosity varies from 18cp-243cp within temperature range 10-75 C. The results for density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and viscosity were in close agreement with the values in the literature. Measured dimensionless Nusselt number was observed to be higher for the ionic liquid than that of DI water. This is expected as Nusselt number is the ratio of heat transfer by convection to conduction and the ionic liquid has lower thermal conductivity (approximately 18%) than DI water.

Fox, E.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

151

Structure and Dynamics of N, N-diethyl-N-methylammonium Triflate Ionic Liquid, Neat and with Water, from Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations the properties (structure, thermodynamics, ion transport, and dynamics) of the protic ionic liquid N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-ammonium triflate (dema:Tfl) and of selected aqueous mixtures of dema:Tfl. This ionic liquid, a good candidate for a water-free proton exchange membrane, is shown to exhibit high ion mobility and conductivity. For bulk melts in the temperature range of 303-453K, both liquid densities and enthalpies of vaporization are found to decrease roughly linearly with increasing temperature. The radial distribution functions reveal a significant long-range structural correlation. The ammonium cations [dema]+ are found to diffuse slightly faster than the triflate anions [Tfl]-, and both types of ions exhibit enhanced mobility at higher temperatures, leading to higher ionic conductivity of these ionic liquids. Analysis of the dynamics of ion pairing clearly points to the existence of long-lived contact ion pairs in this ionic liquid. We also examined the effects of water on the ionic properties of dema:Tfl-water mixtures. From the structural analysis it was found that water molecules tend to replace counter ions in the coordination shell and hydrogen bond to both ions, thus weakening their mutual association. As water concentration increases, water molecules start to connect with each other and eventually form a large network that percolates through the system. It is also found that water has a strong influence on the ion dynamics in the mixtures. As the concentration of water increases, both translational and rotational motion of [dema]+ and [Tfl]- are significantly enhanced. As a result, higher ionic conductivity is observed with increased hydration level. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

152

Effect of H{sub 2}O on the desulfurization of simulated flue gas by an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect

Functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) have been demonstrated to absorb SO{sub 2} from mixed gases or simulated flue gases efficiently. However, after absorbing a large amount of SO{sub 2}, the viscosity of the ILs increases greatly, which might limit their eventual applications in large-scale desulfurization from mixed gases or flue gases. In this work, the effect of the presence of water in a simulated flue gas on the absorption of SO{sub 2} by a functionalized ionic liquid, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium lactate, has been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the presence of water in the simulated flue gas can decrease the viscosity of the IL greatly, and it has no effect on the absorptivity of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. The densities of the IL absorbing SO{sub 2} from the flue gas with or without water are also studied. They increase with the increase of the amount of SO{sub 2} absorbed from the flue gas in both cases.

Ren, S.H.; Hou, Y.C.; Wu, W.Z.; Chen, X.T.; Fan, J.L.; Zhang, J.W. [Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Preparation of silica aerogel using ionic liquids as solvents Sheng Dai,*a Y. H. Ju,ac H. J. Gao,b J. S. Lin,b S. J. Pennycookb and C. E. Barnesc  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preparation of silica aerogel using ionic liquids as solvents Sheng Dai,*a Y. H. Ju,ac H. J. Gaord December 1999 Ionic liquids have been used as effective solvents to synthesize aerogels; a long aging time can be used to produce stable aerogel structures without the need for supercritical drying

Gao, Hongjun

154

Reversible uptake of COS, CS2 and SO2; Ionic liquids with O-alkylxanthate, O-alkylthiocarbonate, and O-alkylsulfite anions  

SciTech Connect

Further development of CO2 binding organic liquids to capture and release carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide and sulfur dioxide. This paper investigates a brand new class of ionic liquids which have potential as chemical sensors for acid gas capture. Applications to flue gas scrubbing are discussed with an emphasis on capture and release of COS, CS2 and SO2 with amidine and guanidine bases with alcohols. Formal spectroscopic characterization is presented.

Heldebrant, David J.; Yonker, Clement R.; Jessop, Philip G.; Phan, Lam

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

155

Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatments were studied to develop the first direct side-by-side comparative assessment on their respective impacts on biomass structure, composition, process mass balance, and enzymatic saccharification efficiency. AFEX pretreatment completely preserves plant carbohydrates, whereas IL pretreatment extracts 76% of hemicellulose. In contrast to AFEX, the native crystal structure of the recovered corn stover from IL pretreatment was significantly disrupted. For both techniques, more than 70% of the theoretical sugar yield was attained after 48 h of hydrolysis using commercial enzyme cocktails. IL pretreatment requires less enzyme loading and a shorter hydrolysis time to reach 90% yields. Hemicellulase addition led to significant improvements in the yields of glucose and xylose for AFEX pretreated corn stover, but not for IL pretreated stover. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of IL and AFEX pretreatment, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Li, Chenlin [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Ong, Markus [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Balan, Venkatesh [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Dale, Bruce E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

FRAGMENTATION OF COAL AND IMPROVED DISPERSION OF LIQUEFACTION CATALYSTS USING IONIC LIQUIDS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal has been utilized for coal-to-liquid fuels and coal-to-chemical industries both historically in South Africa and recently in China. Abundant bituminous and low-rank coal reserves… (more)

Cetiner, Ruveyda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Use of Ionic Liquids as Physical Solvents for Selective Capture of CO2 from Fuel Gas Streams  

SciTech Connect

This study is to investigate the potential use of ionic liquids (ILs) as physical solvents for selective CO2 capture from post water-gas-shift reactor streams at elevated pressures and temperatures. The equilibrium gas solubility (x*) and the volumetric mass transfer coefficients (kLa) for CO2 and H2 in two different ILs (TEGO IL K5 and TEGO IL P51P) were determined. The data were obtained in an agitated reactor, equipped with sight-windows, in wide ranges of pressures, temperatures, mixing speeds, and liquid heights. Under the operating conditions investigated, the CO2 solubilities in the two ILs increased with pressure at constant temperature and decreased with temperature at constant pressure. Also, the volumetric liquid-side mass transfer coefficients of CO2 increased with mixing speed, pressure, and temperature and decreased with liquid height. The CO2 solubilities in the TEGO IL K5 were greater than those in the other two ILs at 500 K. Under similar operating conditions, the CO2 solubilities in the two ILs were greater than those of H2, which reflects the selective nature of ILs for CO2 capture. In addition, the ILs appeared to have negligible vapor pressure up to 500 K, which presents an advantage over conventional physical solvents currently employed for CO2 capture from post water-gas-shift reactor streams. This study demonstrated the thermal stability of the ILs and highlighted their ability to selectively capture CO2 at temperatures up to 500 K and pressures as high as 30 bars.

Heintz, Y.J.; Sehabiague, L.; Morsi, B.I.; Jones, K.L.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

AGING EFFECTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF IMIDAZOLIUM, QUATERNARY AMMONIUM, PYRIDINIUM AND PYRROLIDINIUM-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USED IN FUEL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long term aging effect of temperature on these materials. Imizadolium, quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidnium-based ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 hours (15 weeks) at 200?C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. It was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

Fox, E.

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

160

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Porous Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We reformulate and extend porous electrode theory for non-ideal active materials, including those capable of phase transformations. Using principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we relate the cell voltage, ionic ...

Ferguson, Todd Richard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Using Hydrophilic Ionic Liquid, [bmim]BF 4 – Ethylene Glycol System as a Novel Media for the Rapid Synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we present a novel method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. We utilize the charge compensatory effect of ionic liquid [bmim]BF4 in conjunction with ethylene glycol for providing electro-steric stabilization to copper nanoparticles prepared from copper sulphate using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formed copper nanoparticles showed extended stability over a period of one year. Copper nanoparticles thus prepared were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction measurements (pXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quasi elastic light scattering (QELS) techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD) analysis revealed relevant Bragg’s reflection for crystal structure of copper. Powder X-ray diffraction plots also revealed no oxidized material of copper nanoparticles. TEM showed nearly uniform distribution of the particles in methanol and confirmed by QELS. Typical applications of copper nanoparticles include uses in conductive films, lubrication and nanofluids. Currently efforts are under way in our laboratory for using these nanoparticles as catalysts for a variety of organic reactions.

Manika Dewan; Ajeet Kumar; Amit Saxena; Arnab De; Subho Mozumdar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Li, Huaqing [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Investigation of the Effect of Functional Group Substitutions on the Gas-Phase Electron Affinities and Ionization Energies of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids Ions using Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cathodic and anodic stabilities of room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are important factors in their applications in electrochemical devices. In this work, we investigated the electron affinities of cations and ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

164

The Open-Access Journal for the Basic Principles of Diffusion Theory, Experiment and Application Application of Low Field and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy to Study the Liquid/Liquid Interface in Porous Space of Clay Minerals and Shales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In petroleum research understanding displacement, redistribution, and adsorption of oil and water plays an important role. To study complex multi-component systems such as liquid/liquid/mineral interactions in the porous space of clays and shales we applied low field (2 – 15 MHz) and high resolution (300 MHz) NMR spectroscopy. The detailed NMR analysis shows that the results from low field NMR measurements are in good correlation with the solid-state data. Consequently the process of liquid/liquid displacement can be characterised by considering the relaxation times, signal amplitudes and chemical shifts together.

Artem Borysenko; Ben Clennell; Iko Burgar; David Dewhurst; Rossen Sedev; John Ralston

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of ionic liquids containing tetrakis(perfluorophenyl)borate, tetraphenylborate and trifluorophenylborate anions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of ionic liquidsa, b a b Department of Chemical Engineering, University ofTel: 00 1 510 642 4482. Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Yakelis, Neal; Prausnitz, John M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

NIST: Characterization of Porous Transport Media for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... properties of a porous transport layer (PTL) – porosity distribution, liquid saturation as a function of pressure, liquid and gas permeability, thermal ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

167

Synthesis of Ionic Liquids  

Chemical separation, such as processes producing alkanes from olefins, often requires series of distillation steps that are highly energy intensive.

168

Ionic Liquids: Solvent for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TX 77478 281-494-2516 WEBSITE: www.netl.doe.gov CUSTOMER SERVICE: 1-800-553-7681 NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov...

169

Syngas production from heavy liquid fuel reforming in inert porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the low H2 density is the movement: the power required to pump hydrogen is around 4.5 times higher than for natural gas per unit of delivered energy [17]. Hydrogen can be stored on-board a vehicle as a compressed gas, as a liquid in cryogenic containers... and the transportation system are mainly based on the combustion of fossil fuels, generally defined as oil, coal and natural gas, as shown in Fig. 1.1. There are several issues to be considered about fossil fuel consumption. First of all, the greenhouse gas emission, due...

Pastore, Andrea

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

170

Template-free synthesis of CdS hollow nanospheres based on an ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal process and their application in photocatalysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polycrystalline CdS hollow nanospheres with diameter of about 130 nm have been successfully synthesized in high yield by an ionic liquid (IL) assisted template-free hydrothermal method for the first time. Both the molar ratios of Cd/S precursor in the solution and the reaction temperature play important roles in the formation of the CdS hollow nanospheres. The concentrations of capping agent hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) are also crucial for the morphology and size of the final product. IL was found to be a key component in the formation of CdS hollow structures, because solid spheres were obtained in the absence of IL. A subsequent growth mechanism of hollow interior by localized Ostwald ripening process has been further discussed. Such hollow structures show high photocatalytic ability in the photodegradation of methylene blue. - Graphical abstract: TEM images of typical as-prepared CdS hollow nanospheres.

Li Xinping; Gao Yanan; Yu Li [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Zheng Liqiang, E-mail: lqzheng@sdu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

New Directions for the Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2: Supramolecular, scCO2 or Biphasic Ionic Liquid-scCO2 Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is an urgent need for the discovery of carbon-neutral sources of energy to avoid the consequences of global warming caused by ever-increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. An attractive possibility is to use CO{sub 2} captured from industrial emissions as a feedstock for the production of useful fuels and precursors such as carbon monoxide and methanol. An active field of research to achieve this goal is the development of catalysts capable of harnessing solar energy for use in artificial photosynthetic processes for CO{sub 2} reduction. Transition-metal complexes are excellent candidates, and it has already been shown that they can be used to reduce CO{sub 2} with high quantum efficiency. However, they generally suffer from poor visible light absorption, short catalyst lifetimes, and poor reaction rates. In this Perspective, the field of photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction is introduced, and recent developments that seek to improve the efficiency of such catalytic processes are highlighted, especially CO{sub 2} reduction with supramolecules and molecular systems in supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) or biphasic ionic liquid-scCO{sub 2} mixtures.

Grills, D.C.; Fujita, E.

2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

173

[CuCln](2-n) Ion-Pair Species in 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid-Water Mixtures: Ultraviolet-Visible, X-ray Absorbtion Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report details of the coordination environment about Cu(II) in a pure ionic liquid, 1- ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl) and in mixtures containing varying amounts of water from 0-100% of the [EMIM]Cl. There are many stages in the ion pairing of the divalent cation, Cu(II) including the contact ion pairing of Cu2+ with multiple Cl- to form various CuCln (2-n) polyanions. Thereis also the subsequent solvation and ion pairing of the polychlorometallate anion with the EMIM+ cation. Using a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), UV-Vis spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations (TDDFT) we are able to follow the detailed structural changes about Cu(II). Ion pair formation is strongly promoted in [EMIM]Cl by the low dielectric constant and by the extensive breakdown of the water hydrogen bond network in [EMIM]Cl/water mixtures. In the [EMIM]Cl solvent the CuCl4 2- species dominates and it’s geometry is quite similar to gas-phase structure. These results are important in understanding catalysis and separation processes involving transition metals in ionic liquid systems.

Li, Guosheng; Camaioni, Donald M.; Amonette, James E.; Zhang, Z. Conrad; Johnson, Timothy J.; Fulton, John L.

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

174

Variably porous structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a monolithic porous structure, comprises electrodepositing a material on a template; removing the template from the material to form a monolithic porous structure comprising the material; and electropolishing the monolithic porous structure.

Braun, Paul V. (Savoy, IL); Yu, Xindi (Urbana, IL)

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

175

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.

Han, legal representative, Amy Qi (Hockessin, DE); Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

176

Standard and High Speed Atomic Force Microscopy of Porous ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Frontiers of Materials Science: Fundamentals of Porous ... insight into material performance due to the nanoscale topographic and/or property mapping ... Separately, for human tooth cross sections measured in liquid, a range of ...

177

Impact of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone architecture on mass removal mechanisms in strongly layered heterogeneous porous media during soil vapor extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An existing multiphase flow simulator was modified in order to determine the effects of four mechanisms on NAPL mass removal in a strongly layered heterogeneous vadose zone during soil vapor extraction (SVE): a) NAPL flow, b) diffusion and dispersion from low permeability zones, c) slow desorption from sediment grains, and d) rate-limited dissolution of trapped NAPL. The impact of water and NAPL saturation distribution, NAPL type (i.e., free, residual, or trapped) distribution, and spatial heterogeneity of the permeability field on these mechanisms were evaluated. Two different initial source zone architectures (one with and one without trapped NAPL) were considered and these architectures were used to evaluate seven different SVE scenarios. For all runs, slow diffusion from low permeability zones that gas flow bypassed was a dominant factor for diminished SVE effectiveness at later times. This effect was more significant at high water saturation due to the decrease of gas-phase relative permeability. Transverse dispersion contributed to fast NAPL mass removal from the low permeability layer in both source zone architectures, but longitudinal dispersion did not affect overall mass removal time. Both slow desorption from sediment grains and rate-limited mass transfer from trapped NAPL only marginally affected removal times. However, mass transfer from trapped NAPL did affect mass removal at late time, as well as the NAPL distribution. NAPL flow from low to high permeability zones contributed to faster mass removal from the low permeability layer, and this effect increased when water infiltration was eliminated. These simulations indicate that if trapped NAPL exists in heterogeneous porous media, mass transfer can be improved by delivering gas directly to zones with trapped NAPL and by lowering the water content, which increases the gas relative permeability and changes trapped NAPL to free NAPL.

Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charlie; Valocchi, Albert J.; Oostrom, Martinus

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

178

Tailored Porous Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

179

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

180

Ionic Liquids Used As Cleaning Solvents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental Assessment of Li-CNT Battery Production ... The Production of High-Quality Magnesite Ore Concentrate With Permroll Type Magnetic Separator.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a Li-Li cell. 0.1 mA, 50 min -0.1 mA, 50 min E (volts)E (volts)E (Volts) E (Volts) Time (Sec) Time (Sec) Figure 16. First

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Available Technologies: Enhanced Ionic Liquid Biomass ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Lignocellulosic biofuel production; Biomass pretreatment; Sugar production; Materials and processes using recovered lignin

183

Thermophilic Cellulases Compatible with Ionic Liquid ...  

Potential for consolidated pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass; Applications and Industries. Deconstruction of biomass for ...

184

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors  

• The global market for Membrane Separation Technologies is forecast to reach US $16 billion by the year 2017, driven by the increasing

185

Carbon Capture with Ionic Liquid Sorbents Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview Fossil fuels will be used to provide clean, affordable energy well into the 21 st century,...

186

Ionic Liquid Functionalized Mesoporous Sorbents In Hollow ...  

Patent applications directed towards this invention may not have been filed with any patent office. Disclosure Number 201202791 Technology Summary See ...

187

Electrochemistry of Porous Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dec 31, 2012 ... Electrochemistry of Porous Materials is the book under review. The book is written by Antonio Domenech Carbo,and published by CRC press.

188

Open-cell glass crystalline porous material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An open-cell glass crystalline porous material made from hollow microspheres which are cenospheres obtained from fly ash, having an open-cell porosity of up to 90 vol. % is produced. The cenospheres are separated into fractions based on one or more of grain size, density, magnetic or non-magnetic, and perforated or non-perforated. Selected fractions are molded and agglomerated by sintering with a binder at a temperature below the softening temperature, or without a binder at a temperature about, or above, the softening temperature but below the temperature of liquidity. The porous material produced has an apparent density of 0.3-0.6 g/cm.sup.3, a compressive strength in the range of 1.2-3.5 MPa, and two types of openings: through-flow wall pores in the cenospheres of 0.1-30 micrometers, and interglobular voids between the cenospheres of 20-100 micrometers. The porous material of the invention has properties useful as porous matrices for immobilization of liquid radioactive waste, heat-resistant traps and filters, supports for catalysts, adsorbents and ion-exchangers.

Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Sharonova, Olga M. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana A. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Zykova, Irina D. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Revenko, Yurii A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Lubtsev, Rem I. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Macheret, Yevgeny (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Ventilation of porous media  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for distributing gases throughout the interstices of porous materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of porous materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction.

Neeper, D.A.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Ventilation of porous media  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are presented for distributing gases throughout the interstices of porous materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of porous materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction. 10 figures.

Neeper, D.A.

1994-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

191

Preparation of asymmetric porous materials  

SciTech Connect

A method for preparing an asymmetric porous material by depositing a porous material film on a flexible substrate, and applying an anisotropic stress to the porous media on the flexible substrate, where the anisotropic stress results from a stress such as an applied mechanical force, a thermal gradient, and an applied voltage, to form an asymmetric porous material.

Coker, Eric N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

192

Ionic (Proton) Transport Hydrogen Separation Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Proton) (Proton) Transport Hydrogen Separation Systems Summary Session Participants -- Ionic Transport Balachandran, Balu Cornelius, Chris Fleming, Greg Glass, Robert Hartvigsen, Joseph Higgins, Richard King, David Paster, Mark Paul, Dilo Robbins, John Samells, Anthony Schwartz, Michael Schinski, Bill Smith, Ronald Van Bibber, Lawrence Zalesky, Rick Argonne National Laboratory Sandia National Laboratory Air Liquide Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Cerametec, Inc. CeraMem Corporation Battelle, PNNL DOE Science Applications International Corporation ExxonMobil Eltron Research, Inc. ITN Energy Systems ChevronTexaco SRI Consulting SAIC ChevronTexaco Technology Ventures Performance Goals 4-5 years (5 years upper limit) (100,000 hrs is 12 years) High durability 250-350

193

Energy Harvesting Applications of Ionic Polymers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Energy Harvesting Applications of Ionic Polymers Benjamin R. Martin Abstract The purpose of this thesis is the development and analysis of applications for ionic polymers… (more)

Martin, Benjamin Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

journal Solid State Ionics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic acid solutions journal Solid State Ionics year month abstract p Proton exchange membranes are key solid state ion carriers in many relevant energy technologies including flow batteries fuel cells and solar fuel generators In many of these systems the membranes are in contact with electrolyte solutions In this paper we focus on the impact of different HBr a flow battery and exemplary acid electrolyte external concentrations on the conductivity of Nafion a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is commonly used in many energy related applications The peak and then decrease in conductivity is correlated with measured changes in the water and HBr content within the membrane In addition small angle x ray scattering is used to probe the nanostructure to

195

Porous metallic bodies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

Landingham, R.L.

1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

196

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_GATech_Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for SOFC Cathodes Matthew E. Lynch, Lei Yang, Meilin Liu Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 771 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Telephone: 404-894-6114 Email: meilin.liu@mse.gatech.edu Porous cathodes are of primary importance to the electrochemical operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The compound La 1-x Sr x Co 1-y Fe y O 3-δ (LSCF) is a candidate material for the cathode, and shows good mixed ionic-electronic conductivity as well as good activity toward the oxygen reduction

197

Heat pipe effect in porous medium  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis a parametric study of the thermal and hydrologic characteristics of the fractured porous tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was conducted. The effects of different fracture and matrix properties including permeability, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity, and tortuosity on heat pipe performance in the vicinity of the waste package were observed. Computer simulations were carried out using TOUGH code on a Cray YMP-2 supercomputer. None of the fracture parameters affected the heat pipe performance except the mobility of the liquid in the fracture. Matrix permeability and thermal conductivity were found to have significant effect on the heat pipe performance. The effect of mass injection was studied for liquid water and air injected at the fracture boundary. A high rate of mass injection was required to produce any effect on the heat pipe. The fracture-matrix equilibrium is influenced by the matrix permeability and the matrix thermal conductivity.

Joseph, M.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Excitations of superfluid 4 He in porous media: Aerogel and Vycor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Excitations of superfluid 4 He in porous media: Aerogel and Vycor O. Plantevin and B. Fa structure factor S(Q, ) and the elementary excitations of liquid 4 He immersed in aerogel and Vycor. In both and superfluid density, S(T), of liquid 4 He in aerogel and Vycor have been made over the past 30 years.1

Glyde, Henry R.

199

Novel Processing for Porous Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 27, 2009 ... Macro-Porous Ceramics through Novel Processing Approaches: Tatsuki Ohji1; Manabu Fukushima1; Yu-ichi Yoshizawa1; 1National Institute of ...

200

Graphene Enhances Li Storage Capacity of Porous Single-crystalline Silicon Nanowires  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO{sub 3} etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g{sup -1} that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g{sup -1} of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

Wang, X.; Han, W.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Rigid porous filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

Chiang, Ta-Kuan (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Dennis, Richard A. (Morgantown, WV)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Corrosion resistance characterization of porous alumina membrane supports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tubular porous alumina ceramic membrane supports were fabricated by an extrusion-drying-sintering process and then characterized in detail in terms of corrosion resistance in both H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH aqueous solutions. Variations in the properties of the alumina supports such as mass loss percent, mechanical strength, open porosity and pore size distribution were studied before and after corrosion under different conditions. In addition, the microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction before and after corrosion. The fabricated porous alumina supports offer possibilities for some potential applications as micro-filtration or ultra-filtration membrane supports, as well as in the pre-treatment of strongly acidic industrial waste-liquids. - Research highlights: {yields} Porous alumina membrane supports fabricated by extrusion-drying-sintering process. {yields} Corrosion resistance in 20 wt.% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 1, 5, 10 wt.% NaOH aqueous solutions. {yields} Rapid mass loss and loss of flexural strength occurred in hot NaOH solution. {yields} Resistant to strong acid corrosion with low mass loss, low flexural strength loss. {yields} Porous alumina supports have potential for treatment of strong acid waste liquids.

Dong Yingchao, E-mail: dongyc9@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Materials and Surface Science Institute (MSSI), University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); USTC Lab for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) (China); Key Lab of Jiangxi Universities for Inorganic Membranes, National Engineering Research Center for Domestic and Building Ceramics, Jingdezhen Ceramic University (JCU) (China); Lin Bin [USTC Lab for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) (China); Zhou Jianer [Key Lab of Jiangxi Universities for Inorganic Membranes, National Engineering Research Center for Domestic and Building Ceramics, Jingdezhen Ceramic University (JCU) (China); Zhang Xiaozhen [USTC Lab for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) (China); Key Lab of Jiangxi Universities for Inorganic Membranes, National Engineering Research Center for Domestic and Building Ceramics, Jingdezhen Ceramic University (JCU) (China); Ling Yihan; Liu Xingqin; Meng Guangyao [USTC Lab for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) (China); Hampshire, Stuart [Materials and Surface Science Institute (MSSI), University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Combustion in porous media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 2.8-liter tube-shaped combustion vessel was constructed to study flame propagation and quenching in porous media. For this experiment, hydrogen-air flames propagating horizontally into abed of 6 mm diameter glass beads were studied. Measurements of pressure and temperature along the length of the tube were used to observe flame propagation of quenching. The critical hydrogen concentration for Hz-air mixtures was found to be 11.5%, corresponding to a critical Peclet number of Pe* = 37. This value is substantially less than the value of Pe* = 65 quoted in the literature, for example Babkin et al. (1991). It is hypothesized that buoyancy and a dependence of Pe on the Lewis number account for the discrepancy between these two results.

Dillon, J. [California Inst. of Technology, CA (US)

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Porous insulation in HVAC systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Porous insulation used to line the air stream surfaces of HVAC equipment provides a locus for the accumulation of dirt and debris. Dirt and debris are hydrophilic and the insulation on the air stream surfaces of mechanical cooling systems thus provides a niche for mold growth. The mold growing on porous insulation unlike moldy debris on a hard surface such as sheetmetal cannot be removed by duct cleaning. Actions for proactively preventing biocontamination of HVAC insulation include the following. (1) Porous insulation shall not be used to line the air stream surfaces of HVAC plenums where wetting is likely such as in the vicinity of cooling coils

Philip R. Morey

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Ionic Power Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ionic Power Systems Ltd Ionic Power Systems Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Ionic Power Systems Ltd. Place San Diego, California Zip 92126 Product Ionix Power Systems, Ltd. is a developer of new and innovative products and tools designed to aid in the development of next-generation energy technologies such as batteries, fuel cells, and advanced capacitors. References Ionic Power Systems Ltd.[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ionic Power Systems Ltd. is a company located in San Diego, California . References ↑ "Ionic Power Systems Ltd." Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Ionic_Power_Systems_Ltd&oldid=347099" Categories:

206

Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

208

Electroosmosis in homogeneously charged micro- and nanoscale random porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used in generations of multiphase porous structures based onof various multiphase micro porous media including granularfor reproducing multiphase granular porous microstructures [

Wang, Moran; Chen, Shiyi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Liquid-permeable electrode  

SciTech Connect

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, G.R.

1980-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

210

Liquid-permeable electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Heat and mass transfer in unsaturated porous media. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary study of heat and water transport in unsaturated porous media is reported. The project provides background information regarding the feasibility of seasonal thermal energy storage in unconfined aquifers. A parametric analysis of the factors of importance, and an annotated bibliography of research findings pertinent to unconfined aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) are presented. This analysis shows that heat and mass transfer of water vapor assume dominant importance in unsaturated porous media at elevated temperature. Although water vapor fluxes are seldom as large as saturated medium liquid water fluxes, they are important under unsaturated conditions. The major heat transport mechanism for unsaturated porous media at temperatures from 50 to 90/sup 0/C is latent heat flux. The mechanism is nonexistent under saturated conditions but may well control design of unconfined aquifer storage systems. The parametric analysis treats detailed physical phenomena which occur in the flow systems study and demonstrates the temperature and moisture dependence of the transport coefficients of importance. The question of design of an unconfined ATES site is also addressed by considering the effects of aquifer temperature, depth to water table, porous medium flow properties, and surface boundary conditions. Recommendations are made for continuation of this project in its second phase. Both scientific and engineering goals are considered and alternatives are presented.

Childs, S.W.; Malstaff, G.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Process for forming a porous silicon member in a crystalline silicon member  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

On the transport of emulsions in porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tions related to multiphase ?ow in porous media. We haveof multiphase ?ow. Key words: emulsion, porous media,

Cortis, Andrea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to match voltage and current requirements [West, et al. ,requirements [Humble, et al. , 2003]. The prototypes had operating voltages

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Lipid Extraction From Microalgae Using A Single Ionic Liquid ...  

... to a top phase where it is ... Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Lipid Extraction From Microalgae Using A Single ...

217

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes." Scienceal. , 2010]. Lithium and lithium-ion battery chemistries areof lithium-ion microarray battery." Electrochemistry

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Gas Solubilities in Ionic Liquids: Experimental Measurements and Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solvents play an extremely important role in many industrial processes, acting as a media for chemical reactions or for extraction of products. Typically, these solvents… (more)

Anthony, Jennifer Lynn

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ink-jet printed carbon supercapacitor electrodes on gold,Ink-jet printed carbon supercapacitor electrodes on gold,Microcapacitors Thin film supercapacitor (TFSC) research has

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Structure of Ionic Liquids with Linear, Branched and Cyclic Alkyl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Edward W. Castner J. Phys. Chem. B 117, Just Accepted (2013). Find paper at ACS Publications Abstract: X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations have been...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Initial Stages of Radiation Damage in Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemerisov, and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 11786-11793 (2007). Find paper at ACS Publications or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Radical intermediates generated...

222

Using Ionic Liquids to Make Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes - Energy ...  

... used fabrication method is anodization of titanium metal in aqueous or organic polarized electrolytes baths containing fluoride species such as NH4F, HF, or NaF.

223

Using Ionic Liquids to Make Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes  

or organic polarized electrolytes baths containing fluoride species such as NH 4 F, HF, or NaF. However, anodization-produced TiO 2 NT arrays are usually covered by

224

Tunable wavelength soft photoionization of ionic liquid vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and controversies. Angewandte Chemie; 47, 654 (2008). I.Zeitschrift Fur Physikalische Chemie- International JournalZeitschrift Fur Physikalische Chemie- International Journal

Strasser, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Ionic Liquids as New Solvents for Improved Separation of ...  

•Graphite reactor, plutonium (Pu) pilot plant, proved the feasibility of Pu separation for the atomic bomb.

226

Ionic Liquids as New Solvents for Improved Separation of ...  

Energy and Transportation Science Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Licensing Contact David L. Sims Technology Commercialization Manager,

227

Ionic Liquids for Use in Ultracapacitor and Graphene-Based ...  

Home » Application 20110080689. Site Map; Printable Version; Share this resource. About; Search; ... some of which may be suitable for use in an ultracapacitor, ...

228

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

devices categorized according to power consumption anddevices categorized according to power consumption anddevices are categorized according to their power consumption

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Examination of Coal Solubility and Fragmentation with Various Ionic Liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The organic component of coal is heterogeneous and often has a complicated networkstructure. When exposed to certain solvents, swelling and partial dissolution often occurs.However, due… (more)

Pulati, Nuerxida

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Global transcriptome response to ionic liquid by a tropical ...  

is a key strategy for reducing dependence on fossil fuels and carbon emissions (1). Although lignocellulose stored within the

231

Spheroid-Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Gas Separation  

Combustion of fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide (CO 2), a greenhouse gas contributing to global climate change. As the demand for energy continues

232

Nanoparticle-Enhanced Ionic Liquids (NEILs) - Energy Innovation Portal  

Heat Transfer Fluids with high volumetric heat capacity as well as ... Building Energy ... NEILs were used in the solar concentrating section of the system ...

233

Tunable wavelength soft photoionization of ionic liquid vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

high order harmonic generation source producing ultrafasthigh order harmonic generation light source. The combined PEorder harmonic generation EUV source, photoelectrons are

Strasser, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Molecular dynamics modeling of ionic liquids in electrospray propulsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Micro-propulsion has been studied for many years due to its applications in small-to-medium sized spacecraft for precise satellite attitude control. Electrospray thrusters are promising thrusters built upon the state of ...

Takahashi, Nanako

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the electrodes determine a battery’s capacity and power. Inthe printed battery’s discharge capacity increased more thanrates, the battery will exhibit reduced capacities due to

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Frequency, Tunable MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester and aFrequency, Tunable MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester and a

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Application of Ionic Liquid Extractants on Rare Earths Green ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of Indonesia Rare Earth Minerals and their Potential Processing Techniques · Characterization of Rare Earth Minerals with Field Emission ...

238

Physical and Electrochemical Properties of Ionic Liquids for Na ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of Hybrid Supercapacitors for Portable Power Applications ... Planar Sodium Metal Halide Battery for Renewable Integration and Grid Applications.

239

Free energy of ionic hydration  

SciTech Connect

The hydration free energies of ions exhibit an approximately quadratic dependence on the ionic charge, as predicted by the Born model. We analyze this behavior using second-order perturbation theory. The average and the fluctuation of the electrostatic potential at charge sites appear as the first coefficients in a Taylor expansion of the free energy of charging. Combining the data from different charge states (e.g., charged and uncharged) allows calculation of free-energy profiles as a function of the ionic charge. The first two Taylor coefficients of the free-energy profiles can be computed accurately from equilibrium simulations, but they are affected by a strong system-size dependence. We apply corrections for these finite-size effects by using Ewald lattice summation and adding the self-interactions consistently. An analogous procedure is used for the reaction-field electrostatics. Results are presented for a model ion with methane-like Lennard-Jones parameters in simple point charge water. We find two very closely quadratic regimes with different parameters for positive and negative ions. We also studied the hydration free energy of potassium, calcium, fluoride, chloride, and bromide ions. We find negative ions to be solvated more strongly (as measured by hydration free energies) compared to positive ions of equal size, in agreement with experimental data. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Hummer, G.; Pratt, L.R.; Garcia, A.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

240

Spatially Resolved Porous Electrode Theory for Rechargeable ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors. Presentation Title, Spatially Resolved Porous Electrode Theory for ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Fabrication and Characterization of Reticulated, Porous Mesh ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2010 ... Fabrication and Characterization of Reticulated, Porous Mesh Arrays and Foams for Aerospace Applications by Additive Manufacturing Using ...

242

Hierarchical Template of Porous Carbon for Multifunctional ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hierarchical Template of Porous Carbon for Multifunctional Applications · Interstitial Hydride ... Structurally Dynamic Metal Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

243

Metal recovery from porous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF.sub.4 and HNO.sub.3 and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200.degree. C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

Sturcken, Edward F. (P.O. Box 900, Isle of Palms, SC 29451)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T.sub.2 gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon.

Tam, Shiu-Wing (Downers Grove, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Mesoscopic predictions of the effective thermal conductivity for microscale random porous media.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

microstructures of multiphase porous media. A latticeequation with complex multiphase porous geometries, aprobabilities. For multiphase porous media systems ?N ? 3?

Wang, Moran; Wang, Jinku; Pan, Ning; Chen, Shiyi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Metal recovery from porous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Sturcken, E.F.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

KHALIL AMINE, PH  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems (BES DOE) Chemistry of martian soils (MFRPNASA) Ionic liquids for technetium removal (AFCI NE DOE) Surface modified porous glass for sequestration of...

248

Method of preparing thin porous sheets of ceramic material  

SciTech Connect

A method of forming thin porous sheets of ceramic material for use as electrodes or other components in a molten carbonate fuel cell is disclosed. The method involves spray drying a slurry of fine ceramic particles in liquid carrier to produce generally spherical agglomerates of high porosity and a rough surface texture. The ceramic particles may include the electrode catalyst and the agglomerates can be calcined to improve mechanical strength. After slurrying with suitable volatile material and binder tape casting is used to form sheets that are sufficiently strong for further processing and handling in the assembly of a high temperature fuel cell.

Swarr, Thomas E. (South Windsor, CT); Nickols, Richard C. (East Hartford, CT); Krasij, Myron (Avon, CT)

1987-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

249

Interface effects on multiphase flows in porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most models for multiphase flows in a porous medium are based on the straightforward extension of Darcy's law, in which each fluid phase is driven by its own pressure gradient. The pressure difference between the phases is thought to be an effect of surface tension and is called capillary pressure. Independent of Darcy's law, for liquid imbibition processes in a porous material, diffusion models are sometime used. In this paper, an ensemble phase averaging technique for continuous multi phase flows is applied to derive averaged equations and to examine the validity of the commonly used models. The closure for the averaged equations is quite complicated for general multiphase flows in a porous material. For flows with a small ratio of the characteristic length of the phase interfaces to the macroscopic length, the closure relations can be simplified significantly by an approximation with a second order error in the length ratio. The approximation reveals the information of the length scale separation obscured during the ensemble averaging process, and leads to an equation system similar to Darcy's law, but with additional terms. Based on interactions on phase interfaces, relations among closure quantities are studied.

Zhang, Duan Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Laboratory setup and results of experiments on two-dimensional multiphase flow in porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the event of an accidental release into earth's subsurface of an immiscible organic liquid, such as a petroleum hydrocarbon or chlorinated organic solvent, the spatial and temporal distribution of the organic liquid is of great interest when considering efforts to prevent groundwater contamination or restore contaminated groundwater. An accurate prediction of immiscible organic liquid migration requires the incorporation of relevant physical principles in models of multiphase flow in porous media; these physical principles must be determined from physical experiments. This report presents a series of such experiments performed during the 1970s at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland. The experiments were designed to study the transient, two-dimensional displacement of three immiscible fluids in a porous medium. This experimental study appears to be the most detailed published to date. The data obtained from these experiments are suitable for the validation and test calibration of multiphase flow codes. 73 refs., 140 figs.

McBride, J.F. (ed.) (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Graham, D.N. (ed.); Schiegg, H.O. (SIMULTEC Ltd., Meilen/Zurich (Switzerland))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic concepts and applications as well as present future directions for the liquid-liquid extraction process.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Metal recovery from porous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF[sub 4] and HNO[sub 3] and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200 C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

Sturcken, E.F.

1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

253

POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

Sexton, W.

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

254

Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600{degree}C to 800{degree}C is discussed. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

Krumpelt, M.; Bloom, I.D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Myles, K.M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Activation of porous MOF materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the treatment of solvent-containing MOF material to increase its internal surface area involves introducing a liquid into the MOF in which liquid the solvent is miscible, subjecting the MOF to supercritical conditions for a time to form supercritical fluid, and releasing the supercritical conditions to remove the supercritical fluid from the MOF. Prior to introducing the liquid into the MOF, occluded reaction solvent, such as DEF or DMF, in the MOF can be exchanged for the miscible solvent.

Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

257

Porous Ceramics and Coatings - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 18, 2010 ... Gelcasting for Bulk, Laminate, and Porous Ceramics: Katherine Faber1; Noah Shanti1; 1Northwestern University Near-net forming gelcasting ...

258

Porous Coordination Polymer Composite Membranes for Gas ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This novel architecture should allow the porous coordination polymer to sieve the gas molecules, while being bound into a sealable, gas-tight structure which is ...

259

Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

Yaghi, Omar M.; Czaja, Alexander U.; Wang, Bo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L.

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

260

Digital Construction and Characterization of Reticulated Porous ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this approach, a porous structure is numerically generated starting with Powell's ... Application of Conical Beam X-Ray Tomography to Multi-Phase Materials.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hierarchically Ordered Porous Carbon Films for Commercial ...  

Technology Marketing Summary Porous carbon films that can be optimized and assembled as electrodes in a device to desalinate water have been ...

262

POROUS SUBSTRATES FILLED WITH NANOMATERIALS - Energy ...  

A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon ...

263

Hierarchically Ordered Porous Carbon Films for Commercial ...  

for kinetic adsorption. The ORNL invention offers both a method for making new, hierarchically ordered porous carbon films and describes a capacitive deionization

264

Mechanical Reliability Study on Porous Brittle Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Mechanical Reliability Study on Porous Brittle Materials. Author(s), Xiaofeng Fan, Eldon D Case, Fei Ren, Yutian Shu, Melissa J Baumann .

265

THE RANDOM CHOICE METHOD FOR CALCULATING FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN A POROUS MEDIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Multiphase fluid displacement in a porous mediumIntroduction Multiphase fluid displacement in a porous

Albright, N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A Parallel Second-Order Adaptive Mesh Algorithm for Incompressible Flow in Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solving multiphase, incompressible ?ows in porous media. Wemultiphase, multicomponent incompressible ?ow in hetero- geneous porous

Pau, George Shu Heng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Computing the Seismic Attenuation in Complex Porous Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and dispersion of compressional waves in ?uid- ?lled porous rocks with partial gasand dispersion of compressional waves in ?uid- ?lled porous rocks with partial gas

Masson, Yder Jean

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Porous Power Technologies LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Porous Power Technologies LLC Porous Power Technologies LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Porous Power Technologies LLC Name Porous Power Technologies LLC Address 2765 Dagny Way, Suite 200 Place Lafayette, Colorado Zip 80026 Sector Efficiency Product Laminable, porous, absorbent Li-ion batteries Website http://www.porouspower.com/ Coordinates 40.0130129°, -105.1327972° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.0130129,"lon":-105.1327972,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

269

Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

Lantz, Jeffrey W. (Albuquerque, NM); Stalford, Harold L. (Norman, OK)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

270

Supported liquid membrane system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cell apparatus for a supported liquid membrane including opposing faceplates, each having a spirally configured groove, an inlet groove at a first end of the spirally configured groove, and an outlet groove at the other end of the spirally configured groove, within the opposing faces of the faceplates, a microporous membrane situated between the grooved faces of the faceplates, said microporous membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for a predetermined chemical species within the pores of said membrane, means for aligning the grooves of the faceplates in an directly opposing configuration with the porous membrane being situated therebetween, such that the aligned grooves form a pair of directly opposing channels, separate feed solution and stripping solution compartments connected to respective channels between the faceplates and the membrane, separate pumping means for passing feed solution and stripping solution through the channels is provided.

Takigawa, D.Y.; Bush, H. Jr.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Alteration of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon hydration in high dielectric liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the modification of gas phase ion polarizabilities upon solvation in polar solvents and ionic liquids. To this aim, we develop a classical electrostatic theory of charged liquids composed of solvent molecules modeled as finite size dipoles, and embedding polarizable ions that consist of Drude oscillators. In qualitative agreement with ab-initio calculations of polar solvents and ionic liquids, the hydration energy of a polarizable ion in both type of dielectric liquid is shown to favor the expansion of its electronic cloud. Namely, the ion carrying no dipole moment in the gas phase acquires a dipole moment in the liquid environment, but its electron cloud also reaches an enhanced rigidity. We find that the overall effect is an increase of the gas phase polarizability upon hydration. In the specific case of ionic liquids, it is shown that this hydration process is driven by a collective solvation mechanism where the dipole moment of a polarizable ion induced by its interaction with surrounding ions self-consistently adds to the polarization of the liquid, thereby amplifying the dielectric permittivity of the medium in a substantial way. We propose this self-consistent hydration as the underlying mechanism behind the high dielectric permittivities of ionic liquids composed of small charges with negligible gas phase dipole moment. Hydration being a correlation effect, the emerging picture indicates that electrostatic correlations cannot be neglected in polarizable liquids.

Sahin Buyukdagli; Tapio Ala-Nissila

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

272

Ionic electrostatic excitations along biological membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical analysis of ionic electrostatic excitations of a charged biological membrane is presented within the framework of the fluid theory for surface ions inside and outside the cell, in conjunction with the Poisson's equation. General expressions of dispersion relations are obtained for electrostatic oscillations of intrinsic cellular with different shapes and symmetries.

Moradi, Afshin [Department of Nano Science, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah 67178-63766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Department of Nano Science, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran 19395-5531 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

METHOD OF IMPREGNATING A POROUS MATERIAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of impregnating a porous body with an inorganic uranium- containing salt is outlined and comprises dissolving a water-soluble uranium- containing salt in water; saturating the intercommunicating pores of the porous body with the salt solution; infusing ammonia gas into the intercommunicating pores of the body, the ammonia gas in water chemically reacting with the water- soluble uranium-containing salt in the water solvent to form a nonwater-soluble uranium-containing precipitant; and evaporating the volatile unprecipitated products from the intercommunicating pores whereby the uranium-containing precipitate is uniformly distributed in the intercommunicating peres of the porous body.

Steele, G.N.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Simulation of a Heat Transfer in Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We are motivated to model a heat transfer to a multiple layer regime and their optimization for heat energy resources. Such a problem can be modeled by a porous media with different phases (liquid and solid). The idea arose of a geothermal energy reservoir which can be used by cities, e.g. Berlin. While hot ground areas are covered to most high populated cites, the energy resources are important and a shift to use such resources are enormous. We design a model of the heat transport via the flow of water through the heterogeneous layer of the underlying earth sediments. We discuss a multiple layer model, based on mobile and immobile zones. Such numerical simulations help to economize on expensive physical experiments and obtain control mechanisms for the delicate heating process.

Juergen Geiser

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

275

Structure, ionic Conductivity and mobile Carrier Density in Fast Ionic Conducting Chalcogenide Glasses  

SciTech Connect

This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M{sub 2}S + (0.1 Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2}) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass forming range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2} was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M{sub 2}S + (0.1Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2}) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na{sub 2}S + B{sub 2}S{sub 3} (x {le} 0.2) glasses by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Similar results were obtained both in neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments. The results provide direct structural evidence that doping B{sub 2}S{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}S creates a large fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated boron in the glass. The final section is the general conclusion of this thesis and the suggested future work that could be conducted to expand upon this research.

Wenlong Yao

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

276

Porous Power Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Porous Power Technologies Porous Power Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name Porous Power Technologies Place Lafayette, Colorado Zip 80026 Product Porous Power is a Colorado-based developer of microporous, laminatable battery separators. Coordinates 42.706102°, -88.48126° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.706102,"lon":-88.48126,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

277

Electrolytic Infiltration into Laser Sintered Porous Graphite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing V. Presentation Title, Electrolytic Infiltration into Laser Sintered Porous Graphite ... Tensile and Fatigue Testing of 304 Stainless Steel after Gaseous Hydrogen ...

278

Multiphase flow in fractured porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major goal of this research project was to improve the understanding of the gas-oil two-phase flow in fractured porous media. In addition, miscible displacement was studied to evaluate its promise for enhanced recovery.

Firoozabadi, A.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Three-dimensional effect on the effective thermal conductivity of porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conductivity of multiphase random porous media. The energymorphology of multiphase random porous media. Wang’sfor multiphase conjugate heat transfer through a porous

Wang, Moran R Dr.; Wang, J K; Pan, N; Chen, S Y; He, J H

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Mesoscopic simulations of phase distribution effects on the effective thermal conductivity of microgranular porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will be weakened. For multiphase porous media, the degree ofmicrostructures of multiphase porous media with emphasis onmaterials [38,39]. For multiphase porous media systems ( n ?

Wang, Moran Dr.; Pan, Ning; Wang, Jinku; Chen, Shiyi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Efficient Schemes for Reducing Numerical Dispersion in Modeling Multiphase Transport through Porous and Fractured Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

within a fluid in a multiphase- porous-medium system isand radiation in a multiphase, multicomponent, porous mediumModeling Multiphase Transport through Porous and Fractured

Wu, Yu-Shu; Forsyth, Peter A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Analytical Solution to the Riemann Problem of Three-Phase Flow in Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties governing multiphase ?ow in porous media. Waterof multicomponent, multiphase displacement in porous media.e?ects We study multiphase ?ow in porous media under the

Juanes, Ruben; Patzek, Tadeusz W.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

1980-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

284

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

285

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Definition of a facility for experimental studies of two-phase flows and heat transfer in porous materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A facility-development effort is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in order to create an experimental capability for the study of two-phase, steam/water flows through a variety of porous media. The facility definition phase of this project is described. Equations are derived for the steady, adiabatic, macroscopically-linear two-phase flow of a single-component fluid through a porous medium, including energy transfer both by convection and conduction. These equations are then solved to give relative permeabilities for the steam and water phases as functions of known and/or measurable quantities. A viable experimental approach was thereby formulated, leading to the definition of facility components and instrumentation requirements, including the application of gamma-beam densitometry for the measurement of liquid-saturation distributions in porous media. Finally, a state-of-the-art computer code was utilized to numerically simulate the proposed experiments, providing an estimate of the facility operating envelope.

Reda, D.C.; Eaton, R.R.

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Low-frequency dilatational wave propagation through unsaturated porous media containing two immiscible fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the porous medium frame K b , the multiphase interstitialin a porous medium to be represented by a single multiphase

Lo, W.-C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Upscaling solute transport in naturally fractured porous media with the continuous time random walk method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fracture model for multiphase ?ow in porous media. AIChEsingle- and multiphase transport in fractured porous media

Geiger, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Theoretical Studies of Non-Newtonian and Newtonian Fluid Flow through Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Modeling Fluid and Heat Flow in Fractured Porous Media,"Newtonian fluid flow through porous or fractured media. The

Wu, Y.S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Transient Steam Flow in Porous Media - Theory and Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption of steam in porous media, leading to a delay in steam pressure breakthrough, has been incorporated into a revised model of steam flow in a porous medium.

Herkelrath, W.N.; Moench, A.F.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

292

Investigation of polarization anisotropy in individual porous silicon nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polarization anisotropy is investigated in single porous silicon nanoparticles containing multiple chromophores. Two forms of nanoparticle samples are studied; low current density (LCD) and high current density (HCD). Photoluminescence measurements reveal ... Keywords: Anisotropy, Photoluminescence, Polarization, Porous silicon, Silicon nanocrystal

Daniel J. Gargas; Donald J. Sirbuly; Michael D. Mason; Paul J. Carson; Steven K. Buratto

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

The Current-voltage Characteristics of Grain Boundaries in Ionic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Current-voltage Characteristics of Grain Boundaries in Ionic ... A High-temperature Mössbauer Study of Iron-doped Ruddlesden-popper  ...

294

Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in Fossil Fuel Based Power Plants. Author(s), Junhang Dong, Xiling Tang, Kurtis  ...

295

Utilizing Nanoscale Interfacial Films to Tailor Battery and Other Ionic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Such nanoscale intergranular and surficial films can be utilized to engineer lithium-ion battery cathode and anode materials, as well as solid-state ionic ...

296

Nanoscale Interfacial Films in Battery and Ionic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Nanoscale Interfacial Films in Battery and Ionic Materials. Author(s), Jian Luo, Jiajia Huang, Mojtaba Samiee. On-Site Speaker (Planned) ...

297

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different. In addition, when they vaporize the liquids expand to enormous volumes. For example, liquid nitrogen

298

Joining of porous silicon carbide bodies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of joining two porous bodies of silicon carbide is disclosed. It entails utilizing an aqueous slip of a similar silicon carbide as was used to form the porous bodies, including the sintering aids, and a binder to initially join the porous bodies together. Then the composite structure is subjected to cold isostatic pressing to form a joint having good handling strength. Then the composite structure is subjected to pressureless sintering to form the final strong bond. Optionally, after the sintering the structure is subjected to hot isostatic pressing to further improve the joint and densify the structure. The result is a composite structure in which the joint is almost indistinguishable from the silicon carbide pieces which it joins.

Bates, Carl H. (Worcester, MA); Couhig, John T. (Worcester, MA); Pelletier, Paul J. (Thompson, CT)

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Flow of particle suspensions through porous media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new attempt is made to study the mechanisms of particle invasions into porous media. The following subjects are described: A critical survey of the literature indicating that the mechanism of particle invasions is not known in sufficient detail. The pros and cons of existing particle measuring devices are briefly described. Results from a new laboratory study on particle characterizations are given. The results of the laboratory studies on the flow of particle suspensions through porous media (up to 200 md) are discussed. The effects of flow rate and particle concentrations on the amount of damage (i.e., permeability impairment) and depth of penetration (from core inlet towards outlet) are particularly emphasized. Filter methods (e.g., using millipore filter) cannot be used to determine particle invasions into porous medium. Any predictions of the injection problems based on millipore (or any other filter) measurements are useless and should be discarded.

Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.; Harouaka, A.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

300

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen Previous Video (Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Pennies) Shattering Pennies Liquid Nitrogen Cooled...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Fundamentals of Porous Materials from Development to Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Frontiers of Materials Science: Fundamentals of Porous Materials from ...

302

The Effect of Pressure in Gas Separations Utilizing Porous ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Porous graphene, a stable 2-D polyphenylene network resembling graphene with periodically missing benzene rings, has recently been  ...

303

A Novel Charged Medium Consisting of Gas-Liquid Interfacial Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Due to the unique properties of ionic liquids such as their extremely low vapor pressure and high heat capacity, we succeed in creating the reactive gas (plasmas)--liquid (ionic liquids) interfacial field under a low gas pressure condition, where the plasma ion behavior can be controlled. The effects of the plasma ion irradiation on the liquid medium are quantitatively revealed for the first time. In connection with the plasma ion irradiation, the potential structure and optical emission properties of the gas-liquid interfacial plasma are investigated by changing a polarity of the electrode in the liquid to evaluate the plasma-liquid interactions. These results would contribute to synthesizing the metal nanoparticles with carbon nanotubes as a template in the ionic liquid. It is found that the high density, mono-dispersed, and isolated metal nanoparticles are synthesized between or inside the carbon nanotubes by controlling the gas-liquid interfacial plasmas. Furthermore, we can form novel nano-bio composite materials, such as DNA encapsulated carbon nanotubes using the plasma ion irradiation method in an electrolyte plasma with DNA, and demonstrate modifications of the electrical properties of the carbon nanotubes depending on the kinds of encapsulated DNA for the first time.

Kaneko, Toshiro; Hatakeyama, Rikizo [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

304

Impact dynamics of porous powder. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The shock adiabats have been built experimentally in the range of moderate pressures for three porous materials: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} wheat flour, and their mixture. The model, which describes the behavior of porous powder materials under large-amplitude dynamic loading, has been constructed. The model applicability to describing the shock wave processes is confirmed by good agreement of the calculated shock adiabats and the data obtained in the experiments. The compressive strength of compacted samples has been determined. The possible trend of further researches is presented in conclusion. 15 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

Titov, V.M.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

SciTech Connect

Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping (Hoffman Estates, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yuan, Shengwen (Chicago, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

306

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping (Hoffman Estates, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yuan, Shengwen (Chicago, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

307

Bounds on Transport Coefficients of Porous Media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analytical formulation of conductivity bounds by Bergman and Milton is used in a different way to obtain rigorous bounds on the real transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and/or fluid permeability) of a fluid-saturated porous medium. These bounds do not depend explicitly on the porosity, but rather on two formation factors--one associated with the pore space and the other with the solid frame. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for transport in random polycrystals of porous-material laminates will also be discussed.

Berryman, J G

2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

308

AC impedance analysis of Au/porous silicon contacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present the AC impedance analysis of Au/porous silicon contacts in order to investigate their conduction mechanisms. The porous silicon layer was obtained by electrochemical etching of the p-Si wafer. The measurements were made between ... Keywords: AC electrical conductivity, Electrical equivalent circuit, Porous silicon

F. Fonthal; T. Trifonov; A. Rodriguez; L. F. Marsal; J. Pallarès

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Final Report for DE-FG02-93ER14376,Ionic Transport in Electrochemical Media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was a molecular dynamics study of the relevant issues associated with the structure and transport of lithium in polymer electrolytes such as polyethylene oxide(PEO). In close collaboration with quantum chemist Larry Curtiss and neutron scatterers David Lee Price and Marie-Louise Saboungi at Argonne, we used molecular dynamics to study the local structure and dynamics and ion transport in the polymer. The studies elucidated the mechanism of Li transport in PEO, revealing that the rate limiting step is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the torsion forces in the backbone of the polymer. Because the torsion forces are difficult to manipulate chemically, this makes it easier to understand why improving the conductivity of PEO based electrolytes has proven to be very difficult. We studied the transport properties of cations in ionic liquids as possible additives to polymer membranes for batteries and fuel cells and found preliminary indications that the transport is enhanced near phase separation in acid-ionic liquid mixtures.

J. W. Halley

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

310

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Method of making porous ceramic fluoride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making a porous ceramic composite where fumed silica particles are coated with a nitrate, preferably aluminum nitrate. Next the nitrate is converted to an oxide and formed into a desired configuration. This configuration is heated to convert the oxide to an oxide silicate which is then react with HF, resulting in the fluoride ceramic, preferably aluminum fluoride.

Reiner, Robert H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Heat and mass transfer in porous media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Field test data on the OOSI MR3 experiments are used as a basis for exhibiting the computational capabilities of the WAFE computer code, which is a generalized tool for the analysis of heat and mass transfer in multi-dimensional domains of porous geothermal materials.

Cook, T.L.; Harlow, F.H.; Travis, B.J.; Bartel, T.J.; Tyner, C.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Zein Recovery Using Non-Porous Membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane process for treating zein solutions to increase the zein concentration in the solution. The process uses a non-porous membrane that preferentially permeates the solvent and rejects the zein. Optionally, the process can be operated as a diafiltration process to yield a concentrate of high zein purity.

Mairal, Anurag P. (Fremont, CA); Ng, Alvin (Palo Alto, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

314

Porous ceramics and method for making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The fabrication of a porous ceramic composite is described. Fumed silica particles are coated with a nitrate, preferably aluminum nitrate. Next the nitrate is converted to an oxide and formed into a desired configuration. This configuration is heated to convert the oxide to an oxide silicate which is then react with HF, resulting in the fluoride ceramic, preferably aluminum fluoride.

Reiner, R.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

1989-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

315

Measurement of pH in high ionic strength solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A practical method is described for measuring pH in solutions of high ionic strength (e.g., brines, process solutions). The pH is determined by integratively measuring the potential due to H{sup +} and the potential due to another cation or anion and relating the combined electrical potential to a calculated pH for high ionic strength solutions.

Knauss, K.G.; Wolery, T.J.; Jackson, K.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Liquid ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For 350 million years, fish have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this condition, surface tension increases because the pulmonary surfactant system is damaged, causing alveolar collapse, atelectasis, increased right-to-left shunt and hypoxaemia. 69 The aims of treatment are: (i) to offset increased forces causing lung collapse by applying mechanical ventilation with PEEP; (ii) to decrease alveolar surface tension with exogenous surfactant; (iii) to eliminate the air-liquid interface by filling the lung with a fluid in

U. Kaisers; K. P. Kelly; T. Busch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Two-Phase Flow Within Porous Media Analogies: Application Towards CO2 Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration (GCO2S) involves the capture of large quantities of CO2 from point-source emitters and pumping this greenhouse gas to subsurface reservoirs (USDOE, 2006). The mechanisms of two-phase fluid displacement in GCO2S, where a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid in a heterogeneous porous domain is similar to enhanced oil recovery activities. Direct observation of gas-liquid interface movement in geologic reservoirs is difficult due to location and opacity. Over the past decades, complex, interconnected pore-throat models have been developed and used to study multiphase flow interactions in porous media, both experimentally (Buckley, 1994) and numerically (Blunt, 2001). This work expands upon previous experimental research with the use of a new type of heterogeneous flowcell, created with stereolithography (SL). Numerical solutions using the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) model with the same flowcell geometry, are shown to be in good agreement with the drainage experiments, where the defending fluid wets the surface. This computational model is then used to model imbibition, the case of the invading fluid preferentially wetting the surface. Low capillary flows and imbibition conditions are shown to increase the storage volume of the invading fluid in the porous medium.

Crandall, D.M. Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY); Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

318

A unified numerical framework model for simulating flow, transport, and heat transfer in porous and fractured media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or chemical species in a multiphase porous medium system canand radiation in a multiphase, multicomponent, porous mediummultiphase flow, multicomponent transport, and heat transfer in porous

Wu, Yu-Shu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Numerical simulation of single-phase and multiphase non-Darcy flow in porous and fractured reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

well tests, multiphase flow, porous and fracturedin modeling multiphase flow in porous and fractured media,”description of multiphase flow through porous media: S w + S

Wu, Yu-Shu

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Porous fission fragment tracks in fluorapatite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fission tracks caused by the spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U in minerals, as revealed by chemical etching, are extensively used to determine the age and thermal history of Earth's crust. Details of the structure and annealing of tracks at the atomic scale have remained elusive, as the original track is destroyed during chemical etching. By combining transmission electron microscopy with in situ heating, we demonstrate that fission tracks in fluorapatite are actually porous tubes, instead of having an amorphous core, as generally assumed. Direct observation shows thermally induced track fragmentation in fluoapatite, in clear contrast to the amorphous tracks in zircon, which gradually ''fade'' without fragmentation. Rayleigh instability and the thermal emission of vacancies control the annealing of porous fission tracks in fluorapatite.

Li Weixing; Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1005 (United States); Wang Lumin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Sun Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Lang, Maik [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1005 (United States); Trautmann, Christina [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Plasma Propagation Through Porous Dielectric Sheets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—The propagation of plasmas through porous materials is one extreme example of a packed-bed reactor. Mechanisms for atmospheric-pressure plasmas flowing through porous dielectric films are computationally investigated. Images of this plasma flow are discussed. Index Terms—Photoionization, plasma functionalization. ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE plasmas (APPs) in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configurations are widely used for remediation of toxic gases. One such configuration is a packed-bed reactor where the plasma flows along the surface of high-dielectric-constant (?) beads where electric fields are intensified by the gradient in ? [1]. Typical DBD plasmas operate in air at atmospheric pressure at a few to tens of kilohertz, having electrode separations of a few millimeters to a centimeter. One extreme example of a packed-bed DBD reactor

Mingmei Wang; John E. Foster; Mark J. Kushner

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Structural simulations of nanomaterials self-assembled from ionic macrocycles.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent research at Sandia has discovered a new class of organic binary ionic solids with tunable optical, electronic, and photochemical properties. These nanomaterials, consisting of a novel class of organic binary ionic solids, are currently being developed at Sandia for applications in batteries, supercapacitors, and solar energy technologies. They are composed of self-assembled oligomeric arrays of very large anions and large cations, but their crucial internal arrangement is thus far unknown. This report describes (a) the development of a relevant model of nonconvex particles decorated with ions interacting through short-ranged Yukawa potentials, and (b) the results of initial Monte Carlo simulations of the self-assembly binary ionic solids.

van Swol, Frank B.; Medforth, Craig John (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Pore-scale analysis of solubilization and mobilization of trapped NAPL blobs in porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NAPL (non-aqueous phase liquid) blob mobilization and solubilization models were developed to predict residual NAPL fate and describe flow dynamics of various displacing phases (water and surfactant foam). The models were achieved by pore-scale mass and force balances and were focused on the understanding of the physico-chemical interactions between NAPL blobs and the displacing phases. The pore-level mass balance indicated changes in NAPL saturation instead of mass reduction occurring with blob solubilization. The force balance was used to explain the complex flow configurations among NAPL blobs and the displacing phases. Some factors such as the wettability and the spreading/entering coefficients were useful in determining flow configurations. From the models developed in this study, dimensional analysis was performed to identify NAPL blob motion during water or surfactant foam flooding. In non-dimensionalized forms, a Trapping number employed as an indicator of blob displacement performance was modified to quantify the onset of blob mobilization. Its value for water flooding was nearly 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than that of surfactant foam flooding. Next, to investigate the blob flow regime in porous media, a blob velocity was computed. Regardless of the displacing phases, a blob’s velocity increased with increasing blob sizes after commencement of blob motion, and the velocity of DNAPL (dense non-aqueous phase liquid) blobs was greater than that of LNAPL (light non-aqueous phase liquid) blobs. From this investigation, it is expected that the pore-scale solubilization and mobilization models would provide better understanding leading to a predictive capability for the flow behavior of NAPL blobs removed by various displacing phases in a porous medium. Additionally, the models based on newly approached concepts and modified governing equations would be useful in conceptualization, as well as the model prediction of other immiscible or miscible fluids flowing through a porous medium. Further, the models developed in our study would be a useful contribution to the study of small-scale contaminants or substances such as particle and bacterial transport in porous media.

Yoon, Sun Hee

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

SPUTTERING FROM A POROUS MATERIAL BY PENETRATING IONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Porous materials are ubiquitous in the universe and weathering of porous surfaces plays an important role in the evolution of planetary and interstellar materials. Sputtering of porous solids in particular can influence atmosphere formation, surface reflectivity, and the production of the ambient gas around materials in space. Several previous studies and models have shown a large reduction in the sputtering of a porous solid compared to the sputtering of the non-porous solid. Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the sputtering of a nanoporous solid with 55% of the solid density. We calculate the electronic sputtering induced by a fast, penetrating ion, using a thermal spike representation of the deposited energy. We find that sputtering for this porous solid is, surprisingly, the same as that for a full-density solid, even though the sticking coefficient is high.

Rodriguez-Nieva, J. F. [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Bringa, E. M. [CONICET and Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Cassidy, T. A. [CalTech/JPL, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Johnson, R. E.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A. [Laboratory for Atomic and Surface Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Caro, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 94551 (United States); Loeffler, M. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrochemistry Branch, Code 691, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Farkas, D. [Department of Materials Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

326

Enhanced ionic conductivity in oxide heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices used to generate energy out of hydrogen. In a fuel cell, two conducting electrodes are separated by an electrolyte that is permeable to ions (either hydrogen or oxygen, depending on the fuel-cell category) but not to electrons. An electrode catalytic process yields the ionic species, which are transported through the electrolyte, while electrons blocked by the electrolyte pass through the external circuit. Polymeric membrane (PEMFC) or phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) operating at low temperatures are the preferred option for transportation because of their quite large efficiencies (50%), compared with gasoline combustion engines (25%). Other uses are also being considered, such as battery replacements for personal electronics and stationary or portable emergency power. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), operating at high temperatures, are a better option for stationary power generation because of their scalability. Here O{sup 2-} ions are the mobile species that travel at elevated temperatures (800-1000 C) through a solid electrolyte material to react with H{sup +} ions in the anode to produce water (Fig. 1). The high operating temperatures of solid oxide fuel cells are a major impediment to their widespread use in power generation. Thus, reducing this operating temperature is currently a major materials research goal, involving the search for novel electrolytes as well as active catalysts for electrode kinetics (oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation). Among oxide-ion conductors, those of anion-deficient fluorite structures such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), xY{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(1-x) ZrO{sub 2}, are extensively used as electrolytes in SOFCs. Doping with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is known to stabilize the cubic fluorite structure of ZrO{sub 2} and to supply the oxygen vacancies responsible for the ionic conduction. These materials are characterized by a large number of mobile oxygen vacancies, which are randomly distributed in the structure, and thus give rise to a completely disordered anion (oxygen) sublattice. Traditionally, the main strategy to reduce the operating temperature has been to search for novel electrolyte materials with larger oxide-ion conductivity values. Only recently has the use of artificial nanostructures appeared as a promising new direction for dramatically improved properties.

Garcia-Barriocanal, Javier [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Rivera-Calzada, Alberto [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Sefrioui, Z. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Iborra, Enrique [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain; Leon, C. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Santamaria, J. [Universidad Complutense, Spain

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Li batteries with porous sol-gel cathodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure presented is a high-capacity micro battery, lithium based, consisting of porous cathode, solid electrolyte and silver anode. A spinel LiNi"0"."4La"0"."1Mn"1"."5O"4 sol-gel layer was deposited on a porous ceramic substrate to give high specific ... Keywords: Layer oxides, Li ion batteries, Porous cathode, Sol-gel

Antonela Dima; Francesco Della Corte; Maurizio Casalino; Ivo Rendina

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Electronically and ionically conducting electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite article comprising a porous cermet electrode on a dense solid electrolyte and method of making same. The cerment electrode comprises beta-type-alumina and refractory metal.

Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Weber, Neill (Murray, UT)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Porous Polymer Coatings: a Versatile Approach to ...  

The low surface energy of apolar liquids makes super- ... membrane only diesel fuel passes through it by gravity and it can

330

Towards improved methods for determining porous media multiphase flow functions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The mathematical modeling and simulation of the flow of fluid through porous media are important in many areas. Relative permeability and capillary pressure functions are… (more)

Xue, Song

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Modeling multiphase flow in porous medium systems at multiple scales.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Problems involving multiphase flow and transport in porous media arise in a number of scientific and engineering applications including oil reservoir engineering and groundwater remediation.… (more)

Li, Huina.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

013 Characterization of the Sintered Porous Zirconia Dissolves the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Porous zirconia was synthesized in order to overcome this problem. To avoid .... 166 Multi-Phase-Field Simulation in a Low Carbon Steel for Continuous Cooling  ...

333

Human Liver Cell Culturing in Porous Hydroxyapatite/Hydrogel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of Cold Work and Aging on a Cobalt-Nickel Based Multiphase Alloy ... Freeze-Cast Preparation of Porous Bioceramics with Controlled Silver Release.

334

High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And Implications For Flux Measurement And Fractionation Jump...

335

A7: Adaptive Porous Materials for Gas Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The presentation will report the synthesis of alternative porous materials, ... A14: Study on the Combustion Characteristics and Kinetics of Pulverized Coal in ...

336

Ice-templated Porous Ceramic Structures for Energy Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied the ice-templating method for filters and battery electrode applications with the hierarchical pore structure. The porous Si structure was ...

337

Fabrication of Highly Porous Alumina Prepared by Gelation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Manabu Fukushima, Sakae Tsuda, Yu-ichi Yoshizawa. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Manabu Fukushima. Abstract Scope, Macro-porous alumina

338

Hydraulic properties of adsorbed water films in unsaturated porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ionic strength and unit hydraulic head gradient. Figure 7.of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity on matricYork. Durner, W. (1994), Hydraulic conductivity estimation

Tokunaga, Tetsu K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Theoretical Studies of Non-Newtonian and Newtonian Fluid Flow through Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Multicomponent, Multiphase Displacement in Porous Media,"C. M. (1981) : Multiphase Flow in Porous Media, Technip,porous media can always be considered as a special case of the multiphase

Wu, Y.S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Non-darcy flow behavior mean high-flux injection wells in porous and fractured formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase and Multiphase Non-Darcy Flow in Porous and FracturedFormulation A multiphase system in a porous or fracturedand multiphase non-Darcy flow in multidimensional porous and

Wu, Yu-Shu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Flow-Assisted Flame Propagation Through a Porous Combustible in Microgravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P.J. Pagni and T.G. Peterson, “Flame Spread Through PorousT. Niioka, ”Flow-Assisted Flame Propagation Through a PorousMarch 2002 Flow-Assisted Flame Propagation Through a Porous

Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Rich, David B; Rein, Guillermo; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Hanai, H.; Niioka, T.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Chromatin ionic atmosphere analyzed by a mesoscale electrostatic approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Characterizing the ionic distribution around chromatin is important for understanding the electrostatic forces governing chromatin structure and function. Here we develop an electrostatic model to handle multivalent ions and compute the ionic distribution around a mesoscale chromatin model as a function of conformation, number of nucleosome cores, and ionic strength and species using Poisson-Boltzmann theory. This approach enables us to visualize and measure the complex patterns of counterion condensation around chromatin by examining ionic densities, free energies, shielding charges, and correlations of shielding charges around the nucleosome core and various oligonucleosome conformations. We show that: counterions, especially divalent cations, predominantly condense around the nucleosomal and linker DNA, unburied regions of histone tails, and exposed chromatin surfaces; ionic screening is sensitively influenced by local and global conformations, with a wide ranging net nucleosome core screening charge (56–100e); and screening charge correlations reveal conformational flexibility and interactions among chromatin subunits, especially between the histone tails and parental nucleosome cores. These results provide complementary and detailed views of ionic effects on chromatin structure for modest computational resources. The electrostatic model developed here is applicable to other coarse-grained macromolecular complexes.

Hin Hark Gan; Tamar Schlick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using liquid-liquid extraction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated liquid-liquid extraction as a treatment method for biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW). Distribution coefficients for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were determined for the following solvents: methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), n-butyl acetate, n-butanol, MIBK/n-butyl acetate (50:50 vol), MIBK/n-butanol (50:50 vol), tri-butyl phosphate, tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO)/MIBK (10:90 wt), TOPO/kerosene (10:90 wt), kerosene, and toluene. The best distribution coefficient of 1.3 was given by n-butanol. Chemical analysis of the wastewater by gas chromatography (GC) showed acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations of about 4000 mg/1. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were identified in trace amounts. These five compounds accounted for 45% of the measured COD of 29,000 mg/1. Because of the presence of carboxylic acids, pH was expected to affect extraction of the wastewater. At low pH the acids should be in the acidic form, which increased extraction by MIBK. Extraction by n-butanol was increased at high pH, where the acids should be in the ionic form.

Bell, N.E.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Ionic conductivities of lithium phosphorus oxynitride glasses, polycrystals, and thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various lithium phosphorus oxynitrides have been prepared in the form of glasses, polycrystals, and thin films. The structures of these compounds were investigated by X-ray and neutron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ac impedance measurements indicate a significant improvement of ionic conductivity as the result of incorporation of nitrogen into the structure. In the case of polycrystalline Li{sub 2.88}PO{sub 3.73}N{sub 0.14} with the {gamma}-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} structure, the conductivity increased by several orders of magnitude on small addition of nitrogen. The highest conductivities in the bulk glasses and thin films were found to be 3.0 {times} 10{sup -7} and 8.9 {times} 10{sup -7} S{center_dot}cm{sup -1} at 25{degrees}C, respectively.

Wang, B.; Bates, J.B.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Sales, B.C.; Kwak, B.S.; Zuhr, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Robertson, J.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

A Physically Based Approach for Modeling Multiphase Fracture-Matrix Interaction in Fractured Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in modeling multiphase flow in porous and fractured media,multiphase tracer transport in heterogeneous fractured porousof multiphase flow through fractured or porous media.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

A Physically Based Approach for Modeling Multiphase Fracture-Matrix Interaction in Fractured Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured porous media, Soc.flow through unsaturated fractured porous media, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

High-throughput Characterization of Porous Materials Using Graphics Processing Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A.E. ; Purcell, T. Computer Graphics Forum 2007, 26(1), 80-of Porous Materials Using Graphics Processing Units Jihanof Porous Materials Using Graphics Processing Units Jihan

Kim, Jihan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Characterizing unsaturated diffusion in porous tuff gravel  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (for example, the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent to which surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents were calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s for tuff gravel. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel at very low water contents.

Hu, Qinhong; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Wang, Joseph, S.Y.

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

350

Lithium intercalation in porous carbon anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon foams derived from the phase separation of polyacrylonitrile/solvent mixtures were investigated as lithium intercalation anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The carbon foams have a bulk density of 0.35--0.5 g/cm{sup 3}, low surface area (< 50 m{sup 2}/g), and an average cell size of 5--10 {mu}m. Polyacrylonitrile-based carbon foams doped with phosphoric acid had capacity as high as 450 mAh/g. Carbon capacity increased with increasing phosphoric acid concentration in the doping solution. The doped porous carbon anodes exhibited good cyclability and excellent coulombic efficiency.

Tran, T.D.; Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.; Mayer, S.T. [Polystor Corp., Livermore, CA (United States)

1994-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

351

A rigid porous filter and filtration method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Production of porous coating on a prosthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preselected surface areas of a prosthesis are covered by a blend of matching primary metallic particles and expendable particles. The particles are compressed and heated to assure that deformation and metallurgical bonding occurs between them and between the primary particles and the surface boundaries of the prosthesis. Porosity is achieved by removal of the expendable material. The result is a coating including discrete bonded particles separated by a network of interconnected voids presenting a homogeneous porous coating about the substrate. It has strength suitable for bone implant usage without intermediate adhesives, and adequate porosity to promote subsequent bone ingrowth.

Sump, Kenneth R. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m

Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dauchier, Jean-Michel (Martignas, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

354

A viscoelastic representation of wave attenuation in porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theories developed by White and co-workers describe the complex moduli of a medium partially saturated with spherical gas pockets and those of stratified layers composed of two heterogeneous porous media. A generalization to gas patches of arbitrary ... Keywords: Mesoscopic loss, Porous media, Wave attenuation, Zener model

Stefano Picotti; José M. Carcione; J. Germán Rubino; Juan E. Santos; Fabio Cavallini

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E. (Speonk, NY); Wolf, Alfred P. (Setauket, NY); Hembree, Wylie C. (Woodcliff Lake, NJ)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Combustion fronts in porous media with two layers Steve Schecter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion fronts in porous media with two layers layer 1 layer 2 Steve Schecter North Carolina Subject: Propagation of a combustion front through a porous medium with two parallel layers having different properties. · Each layer admits a traveling combustion wave. · The layers are coupled by heat

Schecter, Stephen

357

Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance Stephanie L for supercapacitor applications. Surface modification increases the amount of nitrogen by four times when compared elements in highly porous carbon used for electric double-layer supercapacitors.1 These elements modify

Cao, Guozhong

358

Capillary Rise and Imbibition of Liquids in Nanoporous Matrices: Rheological Concepts and Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid flow propelled by capillary forces is one of the most important transport mechanisms in porous environments. It is governed by a fascinating interplay of interfacial, viscous drag as well as gravitational forces which liquids encounter upon invasion into geometries with often complex topologies, such as capillary networks of trees or interconnected fractures in soils and ice. Here, we present fundamentals, concepts and an experimental, gravimetric study on the capillarity-driven invasion dynamics of liquids in networks of pores a few nanometers across in monolithic, nanoporous silica glass (porous Vycor). A variation of the complexity of the building blocks of the liquids investigated along with a variation of the humidity and the temperature upon spontaneous imbibition allows us to gain information regarding the fluidity and capillarity of liquids in such nanoporous environments. We observe square-root of time imbibition dynamics for all liquids applied, which we can quantitatively describe by both a conserved bulk fluidity in the pore center and bulk capillarity at the advancing menisci, if we assume a sticky boundary layer (negative velocity slip length). Moreover, pecularities of nanopore-confined liquids, such as transport via the vapor phase leading to preadsorbed liquid layers, have to be properly accounted for. Upon increasing the chain-length in the case of the n-alkanes, we found hints towards a transition from stick- to slip-flow at the pore walls with increasing chain-length and thus polymeric behavior. Meniscus freezing is reported for n-tetracosane confined in porous Vycor. For the rheology of a rod-like liquid nematogen (8OCB) we found no hints of the viscosity drop upon entering into the nematic phase, typical of the bulk rheology of this liquid crystal.

Simon Gruener; Patrick Huber

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

359

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent tc the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

1991-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

360

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

362

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

364

Heat exchangers comprising at least one porous member positioned within a casing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heat exchanger and associated methods for sublimating solid particles therein, for conveying fluids therethrough, or both. The heat exchanger includes a chamber, and a porous member having a porous wall having pores in communication with the chamber and an interior of the porous member. A first fluid is conveyed into the porous member while a second fluid is conveyed into the porous member through the porous wall. The second fluid may form a positive flow boundary layer along the porous wall to reduce or eliminate substantial contact between the first fluid and the interior of the porous wall. The combined first and second fluids are conveyed out of the porous member. Additionally, the first fluid and the second fluid may each be conveyed into the porous member at different temperatures and may exit the porous member at substantially the same temperature.

Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

365

Fluid Flow Within Fractured Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractures provide preferential flow paths to subterranean fluid flows. In reservoir scale modeling of geologic flows fractures must be approximated by fairly simple formulations. Often this is accomplished by assuming fractures are parallel plates subjected to an applied pressure gradient. This is known as the cubic law. An induced fracture in Berea sandstone has been digitized to perform numerical flow simulations. A commercially available computational fluid dynamics software package has been used to solve the flow through this model. Single phase flows have been compared to experimental works in the literature to evaluate the accuracy with which this model can be applied. Common methods of fracture geometry classification are also calculated and compared to experimentally obtained values. Flow through regions of the fracture where the upper and lower fracture walls meet (zero aperture) are shown to induce a strong channeling effect on the flow. This model is expanded to include a domain of surrounding porous media through which the flow can travel. The inclusion of a realistic permeability in this media shows that the regions of small and zero apertures contribute to the greatest pressure losses over the fracture length and flow through the porous media is most prevalent in these regions. The flow through the fracture is shown to be the largest contributor to the net flow through the media. From this work, a novel flow relationship is proposed for flow through fractured media.

Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.; Bromhal, G.S.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

367

Estimating Liquid Fluxes in Thermally Perturbed Fractured Rock Using Measured Temperature Profiles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new temperature-profile method was recently developed for analyzing perturbed flow conditions in superheated porous media. The method uses high-resolution temperature data to estimate the magnitude of the heat-driven liquid and gas fluxes that form as a result of boiling, condensation, and recirculation of pore water. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of this new method to the more complex flow behavior in fractured formations with porous rock matrix. In such formations, with their intrinsic heterogeneity, the porous but low-permeable matrix provides most of the mass and heat storage capacity, and dominates conductive heat transfer, Fractures, on the other hand, offer highly effective conduits for gas and liquid flow, thereby generating significant convective heat transfer. After establishing the accuracy of the temperature-profile method for fractured porous formations, we apply the method in analyzing the perturbed flow conditions in a large-scale underground heater test conducted in unsaturated fractured porous tuff. The flux estimates for this test indicate a significant reflux of water near the heat source, on the order of a few hundred millimeter per year-much larger than the ambient percolation flux of only a few millimeter per year.

J.T. Birkholzer

2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

368

Radiological Issues for the Thin Liquid Walls of ARIES-IFE Study  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants employ liquid wall materials to protect the structure against the energetic x-rays, ions, and debris emitted from the target following each shot. The objective of this assessment is to identify the radiological issues of the candidate liquid wall materials (Pb, LiPb, Sn, and Flibe) using the ARIES-IFE radiation chamber environment. The issues to be addressed include the radioactivity level and liquid waste minimization for waste management. Specifically, the liquids are evaluated with regard to the Class C limitation for waste disposal, a top-level requirement for all ARIES power plant designs. Two extreme cases were analyzed; the worst case is separation of the liquid wall material (highest radiation exposure) and the breeder (lowest radiation exposure), and the best case is the mixing of the two liquid streams. Both tangential and porous wall injection schemes were examined. Pb and LiPb are more radioactive than Sn and Flibe. For the liquid breeder system, the porous wall injection scheme with mixed liquid flows results in the lowest waste disposal rating and smallest waste stream achieved in our study.

El-Guebaly, L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Wilson, P. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Henderson, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Waganer, L. [Boeing Company (United States); Raffray, R. [University of California-San Diego (United States)

2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

Gopalan, Srikanth (Westborough, MA); Pal, Uday B. (Dover, MA); Karthikeyan, Annamalai (Quincy, MA); Hengdong, Cui (Allston, MA)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Recovery of Mercury From Contaminated Liquid Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Base Contract program emphasized the manufacture and testing of superior sorbents for mercury removal, testing of the sorption process at a DOE site, and determination of the regeneration conditions in the laboratory. During this project, ADA Technologies, Inc. demonstrated the following key elements of a successful regenerable mercury sorption process: (1) sorbents that have a high capacity for dissolved, ionic mercury; (2) removal of ionic mercury at greater than 99% efficiency; and (3) thermal regeneration of the spent sorbent. ADA's process is based on the highly efficient and selective sorption of mercury by noble metals. Contaminated liquid flows through two packed columns that contain microporous sorbent particles on which a noble metal has been finely dispersed. A third column is held in reserve. When the sorbent is loaded with mercury to the point of breakthrough at the outlet of the second column, the first column is taken off-line and the flow of contaminated liquid is switched to the second and third columns. The spent column is regenerated by heating. A small flow of purge gas carries the desorbed mercury to a capture unit where the liquid mercury is recovered. Laboratory-scale tests with mercuric chloride solutions demonstrated the sorbents' ability to remove mercury from contaminated wastewater. Isotherms on surrogate wastes from DOE's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee showed greater than 99.9% mercury removal. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests on actual Y-12 Plant wastes were also successful. Mercury concentrations were reduced to less than 1 ppt from a starting concentration of 1,000 ppt. The treatment objective was 50 ppt. The sorption unit showed 10 ppt discharge after six months. Laboratory-scale tests demonstrated the feasibility of sorbent regeneration. Results show that sorption behavior is not affected after four cycles.

1998-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

371

Glossary Term - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lepton Previous Term (Lepton) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Mercury) Mercury Liquid Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen boils in a frying pan on a desk. The liquid state of the element...

372

Liquid foams of graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Synthesis and Characterization of Porous Metal Phosphonates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation focuses on the challenge of developing porous metal arylphosphonates with both high crystallinity and functional porosity by using different synthetic approaches. Metal phosphonates are an extensive class of materials based upon extended inorganic-organic architectures such as chains, layers and three-dimensional networks. Metal phosphonates generally favor extended inorganic architectures leading to pillared materials with no porosity. We found that the use of template molecules, type of ligand and choice of metal ions could be used to deviate from the pillared structure. Many of these structures had interesting properties that were explored. The results can be divided into three areas: We developed non-pillared monovalent metal phosphonates by investigating both the role of water and template molecules in the solvothermal synthesis. The role of water in solvothermal reactions was found to have a profound influence on the structure of monovalent metal phosphonates and the structures could be tailored from zero/one-dimensional to two-dimensional. Non-pillared structures could be synthesized by using template molecules. For a zinc phosphonate, we converted a layered structure into a three-dimensional framework by using small template molecules in the solvothermal reaction. The compound exhibited reversible dehydration behavior. The change in the framework structure and guest positions was monitored during this process. Two different ligands were used in the development of porous aluminum phosphonates. One series exhibited reversible dehydration behavior, which had a dramatic influence on permanent porosity of the material. The stability of the dehydrated phase is a result of the geometry of the aluminum atom, which in some cases has coordinatively unsaturated metal sites. The second series was developed with ion exchange applications in mind therefore the pore environment was tailored to favor ion exchange processes. The most important aspect is that these compounds exhibit high selectivity for Th^(4+) ions. In total 28 new compounds were prepared, and their utility and structures clarified.

Kinnibrugh, Tiffany Lewis

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Elucidating through-plane liquid water profile in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, a numerical model incorporating micro-porous layers (MPLs) is presented for simulating water transport within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and MPLs as well as across their interfaces in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. One-dimensional analysis is conducted to investigate the impacts of MPL and GDL properties on the liquid-water profile across the anode GDL-MPL and cathode MPL-GDL regions. Furthermore, two-dimensional numerical simulations that take MPLs into account are also carried out to elucidate liquid water transport, particularly through-plane liquid-water profile in a PEM fuel cell. Results from case studies are presented.

Wang, Yun (University of California, Irvine, CA); Chen, Ken Shuang

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Pore-scale simulations of drainage of heterogeneous and anisotropic porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical model based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) was used to simulate pore-scale liquid and gas flow in synthetic two-dimensional porous media consisting of non-overlapping grains. The model was used to study effects of pore scale heterogeneity and anisotropy on unsaturated flow and the saturation-pressure relationship. Pore scale anisotropy was created by using co-oriented non overlapping elliptical grains, and heterogeneity was created by inserting a micro-fracture in the middle of the porous domain consisting of non-overlapping circular grains. The effect of wetting fluid properties on drainage was also investigated. Capillary-pressure saturation curves resulting from fluid drainage through boundaries parallel and perpendicular the fracture alignment were qualitatively similar to those observed in gap-graded sediments with bimodal grain-size and pore-size distributions. Those derived from drainage on a boundary oriented perpendicular to particle and fracture alignment were qualitatively similar to those for mono-modal pore-size distributions. It is shown that pore-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy can gave rise to capillary pressure-saturation relationships and entry (bubbling) pressures that depend on flow direction suggesting that these properties should be described by tensor rather than scalar quantities.

Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ward, Anderson L.; Meakin, Paul

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ions from water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K. ; Khan, R. H. Low dose mercury toxicity and human health.Gochfeld, M. Cases of mercury exposure, bioavailability, andto enhanced extraction for mercury. Acknowledgements For

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Von Stosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Evaluation of Ionic Liquids in Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

under vacuum with heating N N NH 2 BF 4 2 + CO 2 N N N H N N H 3 N O O 2 BF 4 Bates, E. D.; Mayton, R. D.; Ntai, I.; Davis, J. H., J. Am. Chem., 2002, 124, 926....

378

Redox-active Ionic Liquids in Energy Storage: Application to Li-ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric Cell-impedance Spectroscopy at the Biological-inorganic Interface, Shewanella Oneidensis - Gold, for Microbial Fuel Cell Applications · Encapsulating ...

379

Reactions of Hydrogen Atoms in the Ionic Liquid R4NNTf2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neta and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 9794-9799 (2003). Find paper at ACS Publications or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Reactions of hydrogen atoms with...

380

Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circle of Figure 8. 0.1 mA, 50 min -0.1 mA, 50 min E (volts)E (volts)E (Volts) E (Volts) E (Volts) Time (Sec) Time (Sec) Figure

Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ions from water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was activated by heating at 150 °C in a vacuum oven for 24by heating at 150 °C for 24 h in a vacuum oven. Then, 5 g of

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Von Stosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One approach to reducing the costs of advanced biofuel production from cellulosic biomass is to engineer a single microorganism to both digest plant biomass and produce hydrocarbons that have the properties of petrochemical ...

Bokinsky, Gregory

383

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experimental assistance at the SSRL. 2.6. References Bates,assistance at the SSRL, and Dr. Yuri Melnichenko and Dr.Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). The beamline was configured

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basicthe SSRL. Both are national user facilities supported by theBoth are national user facilities supported by the

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions Simon J. Haward1*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-anhydroglucopyranose building blocks are substituted by ethers or esters. 1-4 The extensive inter-chain and intra-chain hydrogen and other desirable properties that drive its use in textile fibers, films, nanoparticles, aerogels

386

In-situ Analysis of Zinc Electrodeposition within an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chloride low temperature molten salt. Electrochimica Acta,room temperature molten salt. Journal of the Electrochemical

Keist, Jayme

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Solubilities of Solutes in Ionic Liquids from a Simple Perturbed-Hard-Sphere Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data series: gases in molten salts. Oxford: Pergamon Press.for gases in two molten salts at very high temperatures.For high-temperature molten salts, we use ion diameters that

Qin, Yuan; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Technical Highlights for July 2012 New Collaboration Underway to Investigate Ionic Liquids for Enhancing Engine Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ORNL and the Center for Applied Energy Research, which is associated with the University of Kentucky Universities (ORAU). The students came from universities across the nation and from hometowns as far away and researchers from the University of Michigan, Queen's University of Belfast, and Institute of Chemical

389

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12:338–345 6. Demirbas A (2008) Biofuels sources, biofuelpolicy, biofuel economyand global biofuel projections. Energy Convers Manage 7. Di

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increase in the block copolymer glass transition temperaturedecrease in the block copolymer glass transition temperatureto the change in the block copolymer’s glass transition

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Phase Behavior of Polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) Copolymers in a Selective Ionic Liquid Solvent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the change i n the block copolymer's glass transitionthe glass transition temperature o f the neat block copoly-and block copolymers. The addition o f salt to P E O increases the glass

Virgili, Justin M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Breathing liquid oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

question is interesting though because it would be desirable to breath liquid instead of gas under certain conditions. Special liquids are being designed to carry dissolved...

393

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream If you have access to liquid nitrogen and the proper safety equipment and training, try this in place of your normal cryogenics demonstration Download...

394

Polyhedral Ionic Molecules Alexander I. Boldyrev and Jack Simons*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Chemistry, The UniVersity of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 ReceiVed NoVember 25, 1996. ReVised Manuscript species composed of closed-shell atomic ions are known to prefer densely packed structures similar, for example, in alkali halide tetramers, no other ionic polyhedral structures containing only atomic ions

Simons, Jack

395

Non-equilibrium effects and multiphase flow in porous media.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??We encounter flow in porous media, knowingly or otherwise, on a daily basis; percolation of precipitation into top soil, ground-water supplies obtained from aquifers (ground-water… (more)

Aryana, Saman Afqahi.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Gasification and combustion modeling for porous char particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasification and combustion of porous char particles occurs in many industrial applications. Reactor-scale outputs of importance depend critically on processes that occur at the particle-scale. Because char particles often ...

Singer, Simcha Lev

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by ...

Bazant, Martin Z.

398

Simulation of filtration for suspension transport in porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the development and application of a novel method for analyzing the filtration of particles transported through a granular porous medium. The proposed analysis considers the deposition of particles ...

Kim, Yun Sung, 1974-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Comparison of porous and nonporous materials for methane storage  

SciTech Connect

Sublimed, low-density p-tert-buytlcalix(4)arene absorbs methane more readily at room temperature and 1 atm pressure than do either single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) or a comparaitive porous metal-organic framework (MOF-1).

Thallapally, Praveen K.; Kirby, Karen A.; Atwood, Jerry L.

2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

400

Modeling of Porous Electrodes in Molten-Salt Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Porous Electrodes in Molten-Salt Systems^ John Newmanon High-Temperature Molten Salt B a t - teries, Argonneby the modeling of molten-salt cells, including some

Newman, John

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

402

Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI); Hill, Jr., Charles G. (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag. A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above.

Arora, Michelle B. (Woodridge, IL); Hestekin, Jamie A. (Morton Grove, IL); Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); St. Martin, Edward J. (Libertyville, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

404

Liquid-permeable electrode. [Patent application  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to electrodes for use in electrolytic cells and to a method for preparing the electrodes. It specifically relates to fluid-permeable electrodes suitable for use as anodes and cathodes in electrolytic hydrogen generation cells in which it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction. The electrode is prepared by mixing about 10 parts by weight of activated charcoal with from 6 to 10 parts by weight of a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin to form a mixture, compacting the mixture in a heated mold of the desired shape to melt the resin and form a green electrode and heating the green electrode to from about 550 to 750/sup 0/C in a nonoxidizing atmosphere for a period of time sufficient to pyrolyze the resin and volatilize from about 40 to 60 weight percent of the resin present in the green compact to form a porous, rigid, liquid-permeable structure.

Folser, G.R

1978-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

405

Poroelastic response of orthotropic fractured porous media  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm is presented for inverting either laboratory or field poroelastic data for all the drained constants of an anisotropic (specifically orthotropic) fractured poroelastic system. While fractures normally weaken the system by increasing the mechanical compliance, any liquids present in these fractures are expected to increase the stiffness somewhat, thus negating to some extent the mechanical weakening influence of the fractures themselves. The analysis presented quantifies these effects and shows that the key physical variable needed to account for the pore-fluid effects is a factor of (1 - B), where B is Skempton's second coe#14;fficient and satisfies 0 {<=} #20; B < 1. This scalar factor uniformly reduces the increase in compliance due to the presence of communicating fractures, thereby stiffening the fractured composite medium by a predictable amount. One further goal of the discussion is to determine how many of the poroelastic constants need to be known by other means in order to determine the rest from remote measurements, such as seismic wave propagation data in the field. Quantitative examples arising in the analysis show that, if the fracture aspect ratio a{sub f} ~ 0.1 and the pore fluid is liquid water, then for several cases considered Skempton's B ~ 0:9, so the stiffening effect of the pore-liquid reduces the change in compliance due to the fractures by a factor 1-B ~ 0.1, in these examples. The results do however depend on the actual moduli of the unfractured elastic material, as well as on the pore-liquid bulk modulus, so these quantitative predictions are just examples, and should not be treated as universal results. Attention is also given to two previously unremarked poroelastic identities, both being useful variants of Gassmann's equations for homogeneous -- but anisotropic -- poroelasticity. Relationships to Skempton's analysis of saturated soils are also noted. The paper concludes with a discussion of alternative methods of analyzing and quantifying fluid-substitution behavior in poroelastic systems, especially for those systems having heterogeneous constitution.

Berryman, J.G.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Ionically Conducting Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Separation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND SEPARATION Presented by Tony Sammells Eltron Research Inc. Boulder, Colorado www.eltronresearch.com Presented at DOE Hydrogen Separations Workshop Arlington, Virginia September 8, 2004 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. TO BE DISCUSSED * Membranes for Hydrogen Production - Compositions - Feedstocks - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles * Membranes for Hydrogen Separation - Compositions - Ex Situ vs. In Situ WGS - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles ELTRON RESEARCH INC. OVERALL SCHEME FOR CONVERTING FEEDSTOCK TO HYDROGEN WITH SIMULTANEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION Oxygen Transport Membrane Hydrogen Transport Membrane Natural Gas Coal Biomass Syngas CO/H 2 WGS H 2 O CO 2 /H 2 1618afs.dsf H 2 CO 2 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. INCENTIVES FOR OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR

407

Anomalous high ionic conductivity of nanoporous -Li3PS4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes hold the promise for enabling high-energy battery chemistries and circumventing safety issues of conventional lithium batteries1-3. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity and broad electrochemical window in solid electrolytes is a grand challenge for the synthesis of battery materials. Herein we show an enhancement of room-temperature lithium-ion conductivity of 3 orders of magnitude by creating nanostructured Li3PS4. This material has a wide (5V) electrochemical window and superior chemical stability against lithium metal. The nanoporous structure of Li3PS4 reconciles two vital effects that enhance ionic conductivity: (1) The reduced dimension to nanometer-sized framework stabilizes the high conduction beta phase that occurs at elevated temperatures1,4; and (2) The high surface-to-bulk ratio of nanoporous -Li3PS4 promotes surface conduction5,6. Manipulating the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes has far-reaching implications for materials design and synthesis in a broad range of applications such as batteries, fuel-cells, sensors, photovoltaic systems, and so forth3,7.

Liu, Zengcai [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Response to “Comments on Abrupt-Interface Solution for Carbon Dioxide Injection into Porous Media by Dentz and Tartakovsky (2008)” by Lu et al.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

continuum mechanics for multiphase porous-media ?ow includ-Brenner, H. : Multiphase ?ow in porous media. Ann. Rev.

Dentz, Marco; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

411

Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: A comparison of Richards' and two-phase flow approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model for multiphase ?ow and transport in porous mediaMultiphase ?ow ?elds in in-situ air sparging and its effect on remediation. Transp Porous

Wang, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Numerical simulation of single-phase and multiphase non-Darcy flow in porous and fractured reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured porous media, Soc.flow of single-phase and multi-phase fluids in porous and fractured media.

Wu, Yu-Shu

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

A unified numerical framework model for simulating flow, transport, and heat transfer in porous and fractured media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flow, Transport, and Heat Transfer in Porous and Fracturedtransport, and heat transfer in porous and fracturedflow, chemical transport, and heat transfer in rock. These

Wu, Yu-Shu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves U.S. natural gas liquids proved reserves decreased 7 percent to 7,459 million ...

415

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Phenomenological study of Au and Pt nanowires grown in porous alumina scaffolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Porous anodic aluminum oxide, commonly known as AAO, has been widely used as a scaffold to synthesize nanowires and nanotubes. The porous alumina structure can be obtained from a simple electrochemical oxidation process, ...

Shin, Yong Cheol, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Study of gas flow dynamics in porous and granular media with laser-polarized ¹²?Xe NMR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of gas flow dynamics in porous and granular media by using laser-polarized ¹²?Xe . Two different physical processes, the gas transport in porous rock cores and ...

Wang, Ruopeng, 1972-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Discrete particle transport in porous media : discrete observations of physical mechanisms influencing particle behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An understanding of how discrete particles in the micron to submicron range behave in porous media is important to a number of environmental problems. Discrete particle behavior in the interior of a porous medium is complex ...

Yoon, Joon Sik, 1973-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And Implications For Flux Measurement And Fractionation Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And Implications For Flux Measurement And Fractionation Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Diffuse emissions of CO2 are known to be large around some volcanoes and hydrothermal areas. Accumulation-chamber measurements of CO2 flux are increasingly used to estimate the total magmatic or metamorphic CO2 released from such areas. To assess the performance of accumulation chamber systems at fluxes one to three orders of magnitude higher than normally encountered in soil respiration studies, a test system was

420

Vibrations of a Hollow Nanosphere with a Porous Thin Shell in Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

*,, The Open Laboratory of Bond-Selective Chemistry, Departmental of Chemical Physics, University of Science time, Rayleigh3 discussed the flexural vibrations of an open shell or bowl, which is different from

Wu, Chi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell. [lithium aluminate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H/sub 2/ and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55 to 65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

Singh, R.N.; Dusek, J.T.

1979-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

422

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

Tam, Shiu-Wing (Downers Grove, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

Tam, Shiu-Wing (Downers Grove, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Convective instabilities in superposed porous and fluid layers in the presence of Coriolis forces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal convection in a two-layer system consisting of a horizontal fluid layer overlying a layer of porous medium saturated with the same fluid, with uniform heating from below in the presence of Coriolis forces is investigated. The flow in porous medium ... Keywords: Brinkman model, Coriolis forces, superposed porous/fluid layers, thermal convection

Abdullah A. Abdullah; Hanadi M. Banjar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

Tam, S.W.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

426

Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An illumination source is disclosed comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

Tam, S.W.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

427

Performance of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load silicon crystal monochromators with porous media augmentation  

SciTech Connect

The performance of two Si crystal x-ray monochromators internally cooled with liquid nitrogen was tested on the F2-wiggler beamline at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Both crystals were (111)-oriented blocks of rectangular cross section having identical dimensions. Seven 6.4-mm-diameter coolant channels were drilled through the crystals along the beam direction. In one of the crystals, porous Cu mesh inserts were bonded into the channels to enhance the heat transfer. The channels of the second crystal were left as drilled. Symmetric, double-crystal rocking curves were recorded simultaneously for both the first and third order reflections at 8 and 24 keV. The power load on the cooled crystal was adjusted by varying the horizontal beam size using slits. The measured Si(333) rocking curve of the unenhanced crystal at 24 keV at low power was 1.9 arcsec FWHM. The theoretical width is 0.63 arcsec. The difference is due to residual fabrication and mounting strain. For a maximum incident power of 601 W and an average power density of about 10 W/MM{sup 2}, the rocking curve was 2.7 arcsec. The rocking curve for the enhanced crystal at low power was 2.4 arcsec. At a maximum incident power of 1803 W and an average power density of about 19 W/mm{sup 2} the rocking curve width was 2.2 arcsec FWHM. The use of porous mesh augmentation is a simple, but very effective, means to improve the performance of cryogenically cooled Si monochromators exposed to high power x-ray beams.

Rogers, C.S.; Mills, D.M.; Assoufid, L.; Graber, T.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Modeling of Electronic and Ionic Transport Resistances Within Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work, a mathematical model is reported and validated, which describes the performance of porous electrodes under low and high rates of discharge. This… (more)

Stephenson, David E 1983-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Lithium Super-Ionic Sulfide Carbon (LiSISC) Composite for Li-S ...  

Lithium Super-Ionic Sulfide Carbon (LiSISC) Composite for Li-S Batteries Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing ...

430

Cathode porous transport irreversibility model for PEM fuel cell design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence is studied of slip-irreversibility at the interface between the gas diffusion layer, also referred to here as the porous transport layer, and the catalyst layer of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A two-dimensional cathode ... Keywords: catalyst layer, exergy, gas diffusion layer, slip flow irreversibility

E. O. B. Ogedengbe; M. A. Rosen

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Domain decomposition strategies for nonlinear flow problems in porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Domain decomposition (DD) methods, such as the additive Schwarz method, are almost exclusively applied to linearized equations. In the context of nonlinear problems, these linear systems appear as part of a Newton iteration. However, applying DD methods ... Keywords: ASPIN, Domain decomposition, Nonlinear multiphase flow, Nonlinear preconditioning, Nonlinear solvers, Porous media

Jan Ole Skogestad; Eirik Keilegavlen; Jan M. Nordbotten

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

High-strength porous carbon and its multifunctional applications  

SciTech Connect

High-strength porous carbon and a method of its manufacture are described for multifunctional applications, such as ballistic protection, structural components, ultracapacitor electrodes, gas storage, and radiation shielding. The carbon is produced from a polymer precursor via carbonization, and optionally by surface activation and post-treatment.

Wojtowicz, Marek A; Rubenstein, Eric P; Serio, Michael A; Cosgrove, Joseph E

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

Boundary layer solutions for natural convection in porous media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An approximate solution is developed for natural convection in porous media resulting from localized heat sources. The method is applicable for moderate levels of convection. Results of the method compare well with those of other calculational methods and with experimental data. The solution for a spherical source can be used as an indirect method for the determination of permeability in some cases.

Hardee, H.C.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Capture and release of mixed acid gasses with binding organic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reversible acid-gas binding organic liquid systems that permit separation and capture of one or more of several acid gases from a mixed gas stream, transport of the liquid, release of the acid gases from the ionic liquid and reuse of the liquid to bind more acid gas with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems. These systems utilize acid gas capture compounds made up of strong bases and weak acids that form salts when reacted with a selected acid gas, and which release these gases when a preselected triggering event occurs. The various new materials that make up this system can also be included in various other applications such as chemical sensors, chemical reactants, scrubbers, and separators that allow for the specific and separate removal of desired materials from a gas stream such as flue gas.

Heldebrant, David J. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

435

Golden Sections of Interatomic Distances as Exact Ionic Radii and Additivity of Atomic and Ionic Radii in Chemical Bonds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Golden ratio which appears in the geometry of a variety of creations in Nature is found to arise right in the Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom due to the opposite charges of the electron and proton. The bond length of the hydrogen molecule is the diagonal of a square on the Bohr radius and hence also has two Golden sections, which form the cationic and anionic radii of hydrogen. It is shown here that these radii account for the bond lengths of many hydrides when added to the atomic and Golden ratio based ionic radii of many other atoms.

Raji Heyrovska

2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

436

Separation of gases with solid electrolyte ionic conductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors have developed a novel method of gas separation based on electrolyte ionic membrane technology. Separation of one gas from another occurs through an ion-conducting membrane by the passage of selected ions. Most systems studied have focused on oxygen ion conduction for the separation of oxygen from air, although protonic and halide-conducting solid materials also exist. As an example of this system, this paper concentrates on a study of a membrane reactor used in the production of syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) from methane. The membrane material is a modified perovskite-type oxide exhibiting mixed (electronic/ionic) conductivity. Mixed-conductivity oxides are promising materials for oxygen-permeating membranes that can operate without electrodes or external electrical circuitry. Extruded tubes of this material have been evaluated in a reactor operating at {approx} 850 C for partial oxidation of methane into syngas in the presence of a reforming catalyst. Separated oxygen on one side of the reactor wall was obtained from air on the other side. Methane conversion efficiencies of > 99% were observed, and some of the reactor tubes have been operated for > 1,000 h. Membrane tubes were fabricated from calcined powders by a plastic extrusion technique. Characterization of the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of this material confirmed the stability exhibited in the reactor.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Maiya, P.S.; Mieville, R.L.; Ma, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Exploration and Production, Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

438

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

439

The Fluctuations of Blocked Ionic Current Reveal the Instantaneous Statuses of DNA in Graphene Nanopore  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extracting the sequence information of DNA from the blocked ionic current is the crucial step of the ionic current-based nanopore sequencing approaches. The thinnest graphene nanopore, which contained only one layer of carbon atoms, potentially has ultra-high DNA sequencing sensitivity. However, the dynamical translocation information of DNA contained in the blocked ionic current has not been well understood to date. In this letter, an assessment to the sensitivity of ionic current-based graphene nanopore DNA sensing approach was carried out using molecular dynamics simulations. By filtering the molecular thermal motion induced noise of ionic current, we found that the instantaneous conformational variations of DNA in graphene nanopore could be revealed from the fluctuations of the denoised ionic current. However, the blockage of ionic current which induced by the proximity of the DNA base-pairs to the nanopore (within 1.5 nm) was also observed. Although the expected single-base resolution of graphene nanopore should be enhanced by further studies, our findings indicated that the ionic current-based graphene nanopore sensing approach has high sensitivity to the instantaneous translocation status of DNA.

Wenping Lv; Ren'an Wu

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Gas scrubbing liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowrie, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sease, John D. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Liquid level detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses a method. It is for detecting presence of a liquid level at a first predetermined point along the depth of a borehole.

Fryer, C.D.; Stie, K.E.; Wedel, M.W.; Stamper, K.R.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

442

RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

Batzer, T.H.

1962-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

443

Why have we stopped research on liquid centrifugal separation  

SciTech Connect

Using high-temperature high-speed liquid centrifuges for lanthanides and actinides separation was originally proposed as a physical separation method in the Los Alamos ADTT/ATW concept [C. Bowman, LA-UR-92-1065 (1992)]. The authors investigated centrifugal separation in a concerted effort of experiments, theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. They discovered that owing to the ionic-composition-dependence of the sedimentation coefficients for the fission products and actinides, separation by grouping of molecular densities would not work in general in the molten salt environment. Alternatively the lanthanides and actinides could be transferred to a liquid metal carrier (e.g. bismuth) via reductive extraction and then separated by liquid centrifuges, but the material and technical challenges are severe. Meanwhile the authors have established that the reductive extraction procedure itself can be used for desired separations. Unlike conventional aqueous-based reprocessing technologies, reductive extraction separation uses only reagent (Li) that reconstitutes carrier salts (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) and a processing medium (Bi) that can be continuously recycled and reused, with a nearly-pure fission products waste stream. The processing units are compact and reliable, and can be built at relatively low cost while maintaining high throughput. Therefore the research effort on developing liquid centrifuges for separations in ADTT/ATW was terminated in late 1995. This paper will discuss the various aspects involved in reaching this decision.

Li, N.

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

444

Aging of SRC liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viscosity of SRC?LL liquid increases when subjected to accelerated aging by bubbling oxygen in the presence of copper strip at 62°C. Precipitates are formed and can be separated from the aged liquid by Soxhlet extraction with pentane. A 30?70 blend of SRC?I with SRC?LL was subjected to oxygen aging in the absence of copper

T. Hara; L. Jones; K. C. Tewari; N. C. Li

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Radioactive Liquid Processing Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents guidance for utility liquid radwaste processing program managers. The document is a summation of utility and vendor processing experience, and is intended for use as a tool to enhance liquid radwaste processing programs. Utilization of this information will result in optimized system performance, and a reduction in waste volumes and program costs.

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

447

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Multiphysics simulation of corona discharge induced ionic wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ionic wind devices or electrostatic fluid accelerators are becoming of increasing interest as tools for thermal management, in particular for semiconductor devices. In this work, we present a numerical model for predicting the performance of such devices, whose main benefit is the ability to accurately predict the amount of charge injected at the corona electrode. Our multiphysics numerical model consists of a highly nonlinear strongly coupled set of PDEs including the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow, Poisson's equation for electrostatic potential, charge continuity and heat transfer equations. To solve this system we employ a staggered solution algorithm that generalizes Gummel's algorithm for charge transport in semiconductors. Predictions of our simulations are validated by comparison with experimental measurements and are shown to closely match. Finally, our simulation tool is used to estimate the effectiveness of the design of an electrohydrodynamic cooling apparatus for power electronics applicat...

Cagnoni, Davide; Christen, Thomas; de Falco, Carlo; Parolini, Nicola; Stevanovi?, Ivica

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Impact of wettability correlations on multiphase flow through porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the multiphase displacement through porous media with homogeneous wettability and its relation to the pore geometry. However, the role of wettability at the scale of the pore remains still little understood. In the present study the displacement of immiscible fluids through a two-dimensional porous medium is simulated by means of a mesoscopic particle approach. The substrate is described as an assembly of non-overlapping circular disks whose preferential wettability is distributed according to prescribed spatial correlations, from pore scale up to domains at system size. We analyze how this well-defined heterogeneous wettability affects the flow and try to establish a relationship among wettability-correlations and large-scale properties of the multiphase flow.

Marta S. de La Lama; Martin Brinkmann

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

450

Flow-induced channelization in a porous medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a theory for erosional channelization induced by fluid flow in a saturated granular porous medium. When the local fluid flow-induced stress is larger than a critical threshold, grains are dislodged and carried away so that the porosity of the medium is altered by erosion. This in turn affects the local hydraulic conductivity and pressure in the medium and results in the growth and development of channels that preferentially conduct the flow. Our multiphase model involves a dynamical porosity field that evolves along with the volume fraction of the mobile and immobile grains in response to fluid flow that couples the spatiotemporal dynamics of the three phases. Numerical solutions of the resulting initial boundary value problem show how channels form in porous media and highlights how heterogeneity in the erosion threshold dictates the form of the patterns and thus the ability to control them.

Mahadevan, Amala

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Domain Decomposition for Flow in Porous Media with Fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this article. The fractures that we are concerned with are filled with debris so we consider them as porous media. The permeability in the fracture is large in comparison with that in the surrounding rock, so the fluid circulates faster in the fracture. Thus we have a highly heterogeneous porous medium. One idea that has been used to take this into account is to treat the fracture as an interface and to assume that the fluid that flows into the fracture stays in the fracture. In fact, in many models the contrast in permeabilities is of such an order that the flow outside of the fracture is neglected. However, here we are concerned with the situation in which the exchange between the fracture and the rest of the domain is significant. To deal with this case we need to model both what happens in the fracture and what happens outside the fracture. One

Clarisse Alboin; Jerome Jaffre; Jean Roberts; Christophe Serres

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT); Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

453

Nonlinear Dynamics of Capacitive Charging and Desalination by Porous Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by super-capacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization (or desalination), and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a salinity difference. Here, we present a unified mean-field theory for capacitive charging and desalination by ideally polarizable porous electrodes (without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions) in the limit of thin double layers (compared to typical pore dimensions). We illustrate the theory in the case of a dilute, symmetric, binary electrolyte using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model of the double layer, for which simple formulae are available for salt adsorption and capacitive charging of the diffuse part of the double layer. We solve the full GCS mean-field theory numerically for realistic parameters in capacitive deionization, and we derive reduced models for two limiting regimes wi...

Biesheuvel, P M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

455

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

456

Porous coatings from wire mesh for bone implants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of coating areas of bone implant elements and the resulting implant having a porous coating are described. Preselected surface areas are covered by a preform made from continuous woven lengths of wire. The preform is compressed and heated to assure that diffusion bonding occurs between the wire surfaces and between the surface boundaries of the implant element and the wire surfaces in contact with it. Porosity is achieved by control of the resulting voids between the bonded wire portions.

Sump, Kenneth R. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Free-standing luminescent layers of porous silicon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Free-standing layers of porous silicon with a thickness ranging from 50 to 200 {mu}m have been fabricated using an electrolyte composed of HF and acetic acid. Chemical aspects of the etching process associated with the evolution of gases that favor detachment of layers from substrates are considered. The layers exhibit stable photoluminescence in the visible spectral region observed from both of their sides.

Goryachev, D. N., E-mail: Dmitri.Goryachev@mail.ioffe.ru; Belyakov, L. V.; Sreseli, O. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

ENCAPSULATION OF PALLADIUM IN POROUS WALL HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new encapsulation method was investigated in an attempt to develop an improved palladium packing material for hydrogen isotope separation. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) were produced by using a flame former, heat treating and acid leaching. The PWHGMs were then filled with palladium salt using a soak-and-dry process. The palladium salt was reduced at high temperature to leave palladium inside the microspheres.

Heung, L; George Wicks, G; Ray Schumacher, R

2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

459

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model of non-aqueous phase liquid flow and dissolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model was developed to simulate the flow of mixtures of aqueous and non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media and the dissolution of the non-aqueous phase in the aqueous phase. The model was used to study the effects of pore-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy on the steady state dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) saturation when gravity driven DNAPL displaces water from initially water saturated porous media. Pore-scale anisotropy was created by using co-oriented non overlapping elliptically shaped grains to represent the porous media. After a steady state DNAPL saturation was reached, water was injected until a new steady state DNAPL saturation was reached. The amount of trapped DNAPL was found to be greater when DNAPL is displaced in the direction of the major axes of the soil grains than when it is displaced in the direction of the minor axes of the soil grains. The amount of trapped DNAPL was also found to increase with decreasing initial saturation of the continuous DNAPL phase. For the conditions used in our simulations, the saturation of the trapped NAPL with a smaller initial DNAPL saturation was more than 3 times larger than the amount of trapped DNAPL with a larger initial saturation. These simulations were carried out assuming that the DNAPL did not dissolve in water. Simulations including the effect of dissolution of DNAPL in the aqueous phase were also performed, and effective (macroscopic) mass transfer coefficients were determined.

Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul; Ward, Anderson L.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Chemical cleaning of porous stainless steel cross-flow filter elements for nuclear waste applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) currently under construction for treatment of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site will rely on cross-flow ultrafiltration to provide solids-liquid separation as a core part of the treatment process. To optimize process throughput, periodic chemical cleaning of the porous stainless steel filter elements has been incorporated into the design of the plant. It is currently specified that chemical cleaning with nitric acid will occur after significant irreversible membrane fouling is observed. Irreversible fouling is defined as fouling that cannot be removed by backpulsing the filter. PNNL has investigated chemical cleaning processes as part of integrated tests with HLW simulants and with actual Hanford tank wastes. To quantify the effectiveness of chemical cleaning, the residual membrane resistance after cleaning was compared against the initial membrane resistance for each test in a series of long-term fouling tests. The impact of the small amount of residual resistance in these tests could not be separated from other parameters and the historical benchmark of >1 GPM/ft2 for clean water flux was determined to be an adequate metric for chemical cleaning. Using the results from these tests, a process optimization strategy is presented suggesting that for the simulant material under test, the value of chemical cleaning may be suspect. The period of enhanced filtration may not be enough to offset the down time required for chemical cleaning, without respect to the other associated costs.

Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid porous" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Sol-gel derived ceramic electrolyte films on porous substrates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for the deposition of sol-gel derived thin films on porous substrates has been developed; such films should be useful for solid oxide fuel cells and related applications. Yttria-stabilized zirconia films have been formed from metal alkoxide starting solutions. Dense films have been deposited on metal substrates and ceramic substrates, both dense and porous, through dip-coating and spin-coating techniques, followed by a heat treatment in air. X-ray diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phases formed and the extent of reactions with various substrates which may be encountered in gas/gas devices. Surface coatings have been successfully applied to porous substrates through the control of substrate pore size and deposition parameters. Wetting of the substrate pores by the coating solution is discussed, and conditions are defined for which films can be deposited over the pores without filling the interiors of the pores. Shrinkage cracking was encountered in films thicker than a critical value, which depended on the sol-gel process parameters and on the substrate characteristics. Local discontinuities were also observed in films which were thinner than a critical value which depended on the substrate pore size. A theoretical discussion of cracking mechanisms is presented for both types of cracking, and the conditions necessary for successful thin formation are defined. The applicability of these film gas/gas devices is discussed.

Kueper, T.W.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Gas-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media: Comparison of Models Stephen W. Webb  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Gas-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media: Comparison of Models Gas-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media: Comparison of Models Stephen W. Webb Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87 185 ABSTRACT Two models are commonly used to analyze gas- phase diffusion in porous media in the presence of advection, the Advective-Dispersive Model (ADM) and the Dusty-gas Model (DGM). The ADM, which is used in TOUGH2, is based on a simple linear addition of advection calculated by Darcy's law and ordinary diffusion using Fick's law with a porosity- tortuosity-gas saturation multiplier to account for the porous medium. Another approach for gas-phase transport in porous media is the Dusty-Gas Model. This model applies the kinetic theory of gases to the gaseous components and the porous media (or "dust") to combine transport due to diffusion and

463

A Study of Heat Transfer in a Composite Wall Collector System with Porous Absorber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, heat transfer and flow in a composite solar wall with porous absorber has been studied. The unsteady numerical simulation is employed to analyze the performance of the flow and temperature field in the composite solar wall. The excess heat is stored in the porous absorber and wall by the incident solar radiation and there is a temperature gradient in the porous layer. Therefore, the porous absorber works as thermal insulator in a degree when no solar shining is available. The influence of the porosity within the porous absorber on the air flow in the porous absorber is significant. The results show that all these factors should be taken into account for a better design of a heating system.

Chen, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

High-performance porous silicon solar cell development. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the program was to demonstrate use of porous silicon in new solar cell structures. Porous silicon technology has been developed at Spire for producing visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The major aspects that they have demonstrated are the following: porous silicon active layers have been made to show photovoltaic action; porous silicon surface layers can act as antireflection coatings to improve the performance of single-crystal silicon solar cells; and porous silicon surface layers can act as antireflection coatings on polycrystalline silicon solar cells. One problem with the use of porous silicon is to achieve good lateral conduction of electrons and holes through the material. This shows up in terms of poor blue response and photocurrents which increase with increasing reverse bias applied to the diode.

Maruska, P. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

connected to the cooler and condenser through a liquid feedmixed with liquid) to a condenser attached to the coolervacuum failure. Tube to Condenser Magnet Coil Magnet Mandrel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Coupled modeling of non-isothermal multiphase flow, solutetransport and reactive chemistry in porous and fractured media: 1. ModelDevelopment and Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport and chemical reactions can be used for the assessment of acid mine drainage remediation, mineral deposition, waste disposal sites, hydrothermal convection, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. Here they present a numerical simulation model, TOUGHREACT, which considers non-isothermal multi-component chemical transport in both liquid and gas phases. A wide range of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered. The model can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The model can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions is considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, cation exchange, and surface complexation. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can proceed either subject to local equilibrium or kinetic conditions. The coupled model employs a sequential iteration approach with reasonable computing efficiency. The development of the governing equations and numerical approach is presented along with the discussion of the model implementation and capabilities. The model is verified for a wide range of subsurface physical and chemical processes. The model is well suited for flow and reactive transport in variably saturated porous and fractured media. In the second of this two-part paper, three applications covering a variety of problems are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model.

Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

469

Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

470

Fabrication of Porous Metals with Directional Pores through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas-forming compounds such as hydrides were added into the molten metal to ... of Iron Compounds Complex Particles by Pulsed Laser Irradiation in Liquids.

471

Fast, Low Cost Method for Manufacturing Porous Structures for ...  

Fuel cell or catalyst deposition supports; Gas diffusion layers; Filtration or reactive filtration structures for hot gas and liquid, water, air, ...

472

In-Situ Neutron Diffraction Study of Porous NiO-YSZ Composite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, In-Situ Neutron Diffraction Study of Porous NiO-YSZ Composite ... Gas Turbines of the Future: Hydrogen and Oxy-Combustion Environments.

473

Heat transfer through porous multiphase systems measurement, modelling and applications in printing of coated papers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work examines the thermal transfer through porous media by means of measurement of the effective thermal conductivity and modelling of the structural parameters. While… (more)

Gerstner, Philip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Phase Field Simulation of Ni4Ti3 Precipitation in Porous NiTi Shape ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Generally, porous NiTi alloys may undergo thermomechnical treatment which .... of First Derivative of Dilatation in Low Carbon Steels Multi-Phase Presenting.

475

On some problems in the simulation of flow and transport through porous media.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dynamic solution of multiphase flow through porous media is of special interest to several fields of science and engineering, such as petroleum, geology and… (more)

Thomas, Sunil George

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Nano-laminated Ti3Al Porous Structure Produced by Hot Forging ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extending Bulk CALPHAD Methods to Interfaces and Nanomaterials to Help ... Ti3Al Porous Structure Produced by Hot Forging and Selective Dissolution.

477

Manipulation of surface chemistry and nanostructure in porous silicon-based chemical sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

porous film followed by heating in an oven at 180 °C for 30in base, followed by heating in an oven at 70 ?C for 1 hour.

Ruminski, Anne Marie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Heat transfer modeling at an interface between a porous medium and a free region.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work deals with the study of heat transfer between a porous medium and a free medium, using multi scale approaches. First, we derive the… (more)

D'hueppe, Aliénor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Heat transfer to and from a reversible thermosiphon placed in porous media.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary focus of this work is an assessment of heat transfer to and from a reversible thermosiphon imbedded in porous media. The interest in… (more)

Kekelia, Bidzina

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Energy Absorption of Novel Macro-Porous Three-phase Syntactic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Energy Absorption of Novel Macro-Porous Three-phase ... and high-momentum impacts to critical infrastructure, it has become increasingly ...

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481

Numerical study of natural convection in a vertical porous annulus with discrete heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

insulation for building, porous heat exchangers and many others applications. Havstad and Burns [11] used practical applications. These include geothermal engineering, thermal insulation systems, packed bed

Lopez, John M.

482

Development of enzymatic biofuel cell based on carbon nanotube electrodes on porous silicon.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work presented in this thesis has focused on designing and characterizing biofuel cell electrodes using porous silicon (p-Si) as the substrate or current collecting… (more)

Yang, Fan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

VOLUME 85, NUMBER 18 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 30 OCTOBER 2000 Phonons, Rotons, and Layer Modes of Liquid 4He in Aerogel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and Layer Modes of Liquid 4He in Aerogel B. Fåk* and O. Plantevin Département de Recherche Fondamentale sur filled aerogel. Using complementary high-energy resolution and high statistical precision neutron scattering instruments, and two different 87% porous aerogel samples, we show that the three-dimensional (3D

Glyde, Henry R.

484

Laboratory Studies of Lead Removal from Liquid Scintillator in Preparation for KamLAND's Low Background Phase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The removal of Radon induced Lead from liquid scintillator was extensively studied in preparation for KamLAND's low background phase. This work presents the results from laboratory experiments performed at the University of Alabama and their implications for KamLAND and future low background experiments using carbon based liquid scintillator. It was observed that distillation was the most effective purification procedure and that one must consider a non-polar and non-ionic component of Lead in order to reach the levels of radio-purity required for these new class of ultra-low background experiments.

Keefer, Gregory [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

485