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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

2

Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Synthesis and applications of imidazolium-based ionic liquids and their polymer derivatives .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??"Imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been increasingly used as green solvents to replace the volatile and relatively toxic organic solvents, in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, materials… (more)

Oh, Woon Su, 1974-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Short Time Dynamics of Ionic Liquids in AIMD-Based Power Spectra  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Short Time Dynamics of Ionic Liquids in AIMD-Based Power Spectra ... A Car-Parrinello study of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride water mixture ...

Katharina Wendler; Martin Brehm; Friedrich Malberg; Barbara Kirchner; Luigi Delle Site

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

5

Survey on ionic liquids effect based on metal anions over the thermal stability of heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A survey on the effect of ionic liquids (ILs) over the thermal stability of a heavy Mexican oil was performed. ILs used were based on [Cnim]+ and [Cnpyr]+ organic cations with FeCl 4 ...

J. A. Murillo-Hernández; S. López-Ramírez…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Glyphosate-Based Herbicidal Ionic Liquids with Increased Efficacy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse testing indicated that while at a higher application rate of 360 g/ha the efficacy of all the HILs was comparable to the commercial herbicide control, at a lower application rate of 180 g/ha, the efficacy of all HILs was as much as two and a half to three times higher when compared to the commercial formulation, and the dianionic glyphosates were the most effective. ... In field trials, all but one of the tested HILs demonstrated excellent efficacy. ... Laboratory regrowth tests established that the ionic liquids of glyphosate are efficiently translocated to rhizomes preventing the regrowth of plants. ...

Juliusz Pernak; Micha? Niemczak; Rafa? Giszter; Julia L. Shamshina; Gabriela Gurau; O. Andreea Cojocaru; Tadeusz Praczyk; Katarzyna Marcinkowska; Robin D. Rogers

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

7

Properties of some ionic liquids based on 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium cations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids as green solvents: progress and prospects.ionic liquids are “green” solvents, i.e. , environmentally

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Yakelis, Neal; Salminen, Justin; Bergman, Robert; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Sandia National Laboratories: ionic liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquid Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in Biofuels, Biomass, Energy,...

10

Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes: Achieving a 10,000 GPU Permeance for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture with Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Alongside Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute, CU-Boulder is developing a membrane made of a gelled ionic liquid to capture CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants. The membranes are created by spraying the gelled ionic liquids in thin layers onto porous support structures using a specialized coating technique. The new membrane is highly efficient at pulling CO2 out of coal-derived flue gas exhaust while restricting the flow of other materials through it. The design involves few chemicals or moving parts and is more mechanically stable than current technologies. The team is now working to further optimize the gelled materials for CO2 separation and create a membrane layer that is less than 1 micrometer thick.

None

2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

11

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

12

Determination of triclosan and triclocarban in environmental water samples with ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A hydrophobic ionic liquid was finely dispersed in aqueous solution along with a hydrophilic ionic liquid. Following centrifugation, the two phases aggregate to form relatively large droplets. Based on this pheno...

Ru-Song Zhao; Xia Wang; Jing Sun; Cong Hu; Xi-Kui Wang

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

14

Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Vitamin B{sub 4}-Based Ionic Liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern particle accelerators require minimal interior surface roughness for Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Polishing of the Nb is currently achieved via electrochemical polishing with concentrated mixtures of sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids. This acid-based approach is effective at reducing the surface roughness to acceptable levels for SRF use, but due to acid-related hazards and extra costs (including safe disposal of used polishing solutions), an acid-free method would be preferable. This study focuses on an alternative electrochemical polishing method for Nb, using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride, also known as Vitamin B{sub 4} (VB{sub 4}). Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed on the VB4-based system. Nb polished using the VB4-based method was found to have a final surface roughness comparable to that achieved via the acid-based method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These findings indicate that acid-free VB{sub 4}-based electrochemical polishing of Nb represents a promising replacement for acid-based methods of SRF cavity preparation.

Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research and practical applications. They present a wide range of complex physical and chemical behaviors, including ambient vapor pressures ranging from UHV to weakly volatile, a substantial variety of distinct condensed phases, including multiple crystal isomorphs, glasses, amorphous plastic and liquid crystal phases, deep supercooling, and interesting dynamical and transport phenomena. Experiments and simulations have shown that their intrinsic self-organization at the nanoscale is responsible for several of these properties. The symposium will assemble an international array of speakers to discuss ionic liquids in the context of their heterogeneous environments, solvation, dynamics and transport, interfacial properties,

16

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations Hui Jin, Bernie O'Hare, Jing Dong, Sergei Arzhantsev, Gary A. Baker, James F. Wishart, Alan J. Benesi, and Mark Maroncelli J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 81-92 (2008). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of

17

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids Symposium Schedule  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) (Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) Sunday Morning Structure and Heterogeneity of Ionic Liquids I. James Wishart and Edward Castner Introductory Remarks Andre Pinkert Hydroxyamine ionic liquids and their properties Thomas Strassner TAAILs - Tunable Aryl-Alkyl Ionic Liquids: A new generation of ionic liquids Laura Sprunger Grubbs Thermodynamic Properties of New Generation Ionic Liquids Christopher Hardacre Prediction methods for physical properties of ionic liquids BREAK Patricia Hunt What happens when you functionalise an ionic liquid with a "silicone" side chain? Edward L Quitevis Effect of cation symmetry and nanoscale segregation on the morphology, physical properties, and low-frequency vibrational dynamics of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cation ionic liquids

18

Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

19

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

20

Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermophysical Properties of 1,8-Diazobicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene Based Thiocyanate Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work was supported by PETRONAS Ionic Liquids Centre (PILC). ... We acknowledge all of the research officers in PILC for helping with the analysis of the ionic liquids. ...

Kallidanthiyil Chellappan Lethesh; Syed Nasir Shah; M. I. Abdul Mutalib

2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

22

Solubility of Carbohydrates in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

‡ Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P., Unit of Bioenergy, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038, Lisboa, Portugal ... The aim of this Review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding the solubility of carbohydrates in ionic liquids but not on modifications of carbohydrates in ionic liquids. ... We herein collect all of the available literature data about the solubility of various carbohydrates in ionic liquids and highlight their interactions with carbohydrates. ...

Ma?gorzata Ewa Zakrzewska; Ewa Bogel-?ukasik; Rafa? Bogel-?ukasik

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

23

N-Methyl-N-Allylpyrrolidinium Based Ionic Liquids for Solvent-Free Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We prepared four new ionic liquids consisting of N-methyl-N-allylpyrrolidinium cation in conjunction with anions including iodide, nitrate, thiocyanate, and dicyanamide, respectively, and measured their physical properties of density, viscosity, and ...

Ning Cai; Jing Zhang; Difei Zhou; Zhihui Yi; Jin Guo; Peng Wang

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

24

Project Profile: Thermally-Stable Ionic Liquid Carriers for Nanoparticle-Based Heat Transfer in CSP Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Savannah River National Laboratory, under an ARRA CSP Award, is performing research to better understand the thermal stability of low-temperature organic molten salts, which are commonly referred to as ionic liquids (ILs).

25

Dynamic Solvation in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids on Short Time Scales Lindsay Sanders Headley, Prasun Mukherjee, Jared L. Anderson, Rongfang Ding,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"green" solvents by reducing environmental levels of volatile organic carbons. Their viscosities can coumarin 153 in two imidazoles, six imidazolium- based ionic liquids, and several other solvents and an inorganic anion. They have been used as novel solvent systems for organic synthesis,1-14 liquid

Song, Xueyu

26

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and...

27

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale...

28

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium-based ionic liquids Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 65 Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices Summary: Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in...

29

Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E. Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospectsthem attention as “green” solvents for synthesis and

Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids M. F. Thomas, L. Li, J. Handley-Pendleton, D. van der Lelie, J. J. Dunn and J. F. Wishart Bioresource Technology 102, in press. [Find paper at Science Direct] Abstract: The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic

31

TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

32

Charge trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids I. A. Shkrob and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 5582-5592 (2009). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a promising class of solvents for applications ranging from photovoltaics to solvent extractions. Some of these applications involve the exposure of the ILs to ionizing radiation, which stimulates interest in their radiation and photo- chemistry. In the case of ILs consisting of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions, ionization, charge transfer and redox reactions yield charge-trapped species thought to be radicals resulting from neutralization of the constituent ions. Using computational chemistry methods and the recent results on electron spin resonance (ESR) and transient absorption

33

Polarization versus Temperature in Pyridinium Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic polarization and charge transfer effects play a crucial role in thermodynamic, structural and transport properties of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These non-additive interactions constitute a useful tool for tuning physical chemical behavior of RTILs. Polarization and charge transfer generally decay as temperature increases, although their presence should be expected over an entire condensed state temperature range. For the first time, we use three popular pyridinium-based RTILs to investigate temperature dependence of electronic polarization in RTILs. Atom-centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics, supplemented by a weak coupling to an external bath, is used to simulate the temperature impact on system properties. We show that, quite surprisingly, non-additivity in the cation-anion interactions changes negligibly between 300 and 900 K, while the average dipole moment increases due to thermal fluctuations of geometries. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding...

Chaban, Vitaly V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents for Alkylation and Acylation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many clean solvents like water, ionic liquids, supercritical fluid, polyglycol, fluorine-containing solvents, and so on are employed to replace the conventional organic solvents. Among these, ionic liquids have a...

Zhongkui Zhao; Yitao Dai

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Organic Ionic Liquids: Ultimate Green Solvents in Organic Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are ground-breaking green alternatives to the highly toxic solvents that are hazardous to the environment and ... liquids offer certain advantages as alternatives to conventional solvents. Ionic liq...

Mohammed Abid Shaikh; Xudong Huang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to describe the tribological and rheological properties of mixtures of nanoparticles (NPs) and ionic liquids (ILs), specifically the mixture of bare SiO_(2) (silica) nanoparticles and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (trifluoromethysulfony...

Lu, Wei

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

37

Metal-air low temperature ionic liquid cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.

Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel A

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

38

1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

39

Ionic Liquids and Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Species James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3225-3231 (2010). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request View the video on this Perspective article at The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (5:03) Selected for the ACS Special Virtual Issue on Ionic Liquids (March 2011). Abstract: Due to their unique properties, ionic liquids present many opportunities for basic research on the interactions of radiation with materials under conditions not previously available. At the same time, there are practical applied reasons for characterizing, understanding, and being able to predict how ionic-liquid-based devices and industrial-scale systems will perform under conditions of extreme reactivity, including radiation. This

40

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

Lu, Wen (Littleton, CO)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7¯ ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Ionic Liquids: Structure and Photochemical Reactions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure and Photochemical Reactions Structure and Photochemical Reactions E. W. Castner, Jr., C. J. Margulis, M. Maroncelli, and J. F. Wishart in "Annual Reviews of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 62"; Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA, (2011) pp. 85-105. [Find paper at Annual Reviews] Abstract: Ionic liquids are subjects of intense current interest within the physical chemistry community. A great deal of progress has been made in just the past five years toward identifying the factors that cause these salts to have low melting points and other useful properties. Supramolecular structure and organization have emerged as important and complicated topics that may be key to understanding how chemical reactions and other processes are affected by ionic liquids. New questions are posed, and an active

44

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography and Electrodriven Separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......processing (5), solvent extraction (6, 7), electrolytes in batteries (8), metal deposition (9, 10) and gas treatment (11...Polymerized ionic liquid sorbents for CO2 separation. Energy and Fuels (2010) 24:5797-5804. 13 Ho T.D. , Canestraro A......

Yi Huang; Shun Yao; Hang Song

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Low-frequency Raman spectra and fragility of imidazolium ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman spectra within the 5-200 cm{sup -1} range have been recorded as a function of temperature for different ionic liquids based on imidazolium cations. A correlation has been found between fragility and the temperature dependence of the strength of fast relaxational motions. Understanding quasielastic scattering as the relaxational contribution to ionic mean-squared displacement elucidates some effects on ionic liquids' fragility resulting from modifications in the chemical structure.

Ribeiro, Mauro C. C. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Molecular, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

Low-frequency Raman spectra and fragility of imidazolium ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman spectra within the 5 – 200 ? cm ? 1 range have been recorded as a function of temperature for different ionic liquids based on imidazolium cations. A correlation has been found between fragility and the temperature dependence of the strength of fast relaxational motions. Understanding quasielastic scattering as the relaxational contribution to ionic mean-squared displacement elucidates some effects on ionic liquids’ fragility resulting from modifications in the chemical structure.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Toward a Materials Genome Approach for Ionic Liquids: Synthesis...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Materials Genome Approach for Ionic Liquids: Synthesis Guided by Ab Initio Property Maps Previous Next List Fangyong Yan, Michael Lartey, Kuldeep Jariwala, Sage Bowser,...

48

Kinetics and Solvent Effects in the Synthesis of Ionic Liquids.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Ionic liquids (ILs) are being recognized as environmentally friendly ("green") solvents. However, their synthesis is often conducted in the very solvents that they will reportedly… (more)

Schleicher, Jay C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Using Ionic Liquids to Make Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Using Ionic Liquids to Make...

50

Compositions and methods useful for ionic liquid treatment of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention provides for novel compositions and methods for recycling or recovering ionic liquid used in IL pretreated cellulose and/or lignocellulosic biomass (LBM).

Dibble, Dean C.; Cheng, Aurelia; George, Anthe

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

51

Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Additives Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, selected low-viscosity...

52

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF3SO3-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3SO2)2N-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3CF2SO2)2N-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF3SO2)3C-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Intermolecular Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Edward W. Castner, Jr., James F. Wishart, and Hideaki Shirota Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 1217-1227 (2007). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Ionic liquids can simultaneously assume multiple solvent roles, because they are strongly polar and polarizable solvents and binary solutions and frequently contain very hydrophobic components. When the cation and anion functional groups are tuned appropriately, ionic liquids can be used as designer solvents for a broad range of applications. In this Account, we discuss our spectroscopic studies on the intermolecular interactions, dynamics, solvation, transport, and friction in ionic liquids, as compared with information obtained from macroscopic experiments including viscometry

54

One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. • Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. • The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. • 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidation–reduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chloride–ethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup ?1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.

Gu, Changdong, E-mail: cdgu@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Intermolecular vibrations and fast relaxations in supercooled ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Short-time dynamics of ionic liquids has been investigated by low-frequency Raman spectroscopy (4 < ? < 100 cm?1) within the supercooled liquid range. Raman spectra are reported for ionic liquids with the same anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and different cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium trimethylbutylammonium and tributylmethylammonium. It is shown that low-frequency Raman spectroscopy provides similar results as optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy which has been used to study intermolecular vibrations in ionic liquids. The comparison of ionic liquids containing aromatic and non-aromatic cations identifies the characteristic feature in Raman spectra usually assigned to librational motion of the imidazolium ring. The strength of the fast relaxations (quasi-elastic scattering QES) and the intermolecular vibrational contribution (boson peak) of ionic liquids with non-aromatic cations are significantly lower than imidazolium ionic liquids. A correlation length assigned to the boson peak vibrations was estimated from the frequency of the maximum of the boson peak and experimental data of sound velocity. The correlation length related to the boson peak (?19 Å) does not change with the length of the alkyl chain in imidazolium cations in contrast to the position of the first-sharp diffraction peak observed in neutron and X-ray scattering measurements of ionic liquids. The rate of change of the QES intensity in the supercooled liquid range is compared with data of excess entropy free volume and mean-squared displacement recently reported for ionic liquids. The temperature dependence of the QES intensity in ionic liquids illustrates relationships between short-time dynamics and long-time structural relaxation that have been proposed for glass-forming liquids.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Theoretical Investigations on Nanoporpus Materials and Ionic Liquids for Energy Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by adsorption. In this regard carbon nanotube and Metal Organic Framework (MOFs) based materials are worth studying. Ionic liquids (IL) are potential electrolytes that can improve energy storage capacity and safety in Li ion batteries. Therefore it is important...

Mani Biswas, Mousumi

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

57

Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...existing internal combustion engines. Based in part on previous work (9), we constructed a...Microbial cellulose utilization: Fundamentals and biotechnology . Microbiol...precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from ionic liquid-treated...

Gregory Bokinsky; Pamela P. Peralta-Yahya; Anthe George; Bradley M. Holmes; Eric J. Steen; Jeffrey Dietrich; Taek Soon Lee; Danielle Tullman-Ercek; Christopher A. Voigt; Blake A. Simmons; Jay D. Keasling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

59

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species James F. Wishart In "Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospects" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R. , Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 856, Ch. 31, pp. 381-395, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003. (ISBN 0-84123-856-1) [Information about the book] Abstract: An understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is important for development of their applications in radioactive material processing and for the application of pulse radiolysis techniques to the general study of chemical reactivity in ionic liquids. The distribution of primary radiolytic species and their reactivities determine the yields of ultimate products and the radiation stability of a particular ionic liquid. This chapter introduces some principles of radiation chemistry and the

60

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial region between graphene and an imidazolium based ionic liquid is studied using spectroscopic analysis and computational modelling. This combined approach reveals that the molecular level structure of the interfacial region is significantly influenced by functional group defects on the graphene surface.The combined experimental and computational study reveals that the molecular structure at interfacial region between graphene and imidazolium based ionic liquid is defined by the hydroxyl functional groups on the graphene surface

Vijayakumar, M.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Shutthanandan, V.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Behavior of hydrophobic ionic liquids as liquid membranes on phenol removal: Experimental study and optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapor pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. Three ionic liquids with high hydrophobicity were used and their phenol removal efficiency, membrane stability and membrane loss were studied. Besides that, the effects of several parameters, namely feed phase pH, feed concentration, NaOH concentration and stirring speeds on the performance of best ionic liquid membrane were also evaluated. Lastly, an optimization study on bulk ionic liquid membrane was conducted and the maximum phenol removal efficiency was compared with the organic liquid membranes. The preliminary study shows that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 96.21% and 98.10%, respectively can be achieved by ionic liquid memb...

Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

63

Effects of Structural Modification on Ionic Liquid Physical Properties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of Structural Modification on the Physical Properties Effect of Structural Modification on the Physical Properties of Various Ionic Liquids S. I. Lall-Ramnarine, J. L. Hatcher, A. Castano, M. F. Thomas, and J. F. Wishart in "ECS Transactions - Las Vegas, NV, Vol. 33, Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 17" D. Fox et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2010) pp 659 - 665. [Find paper at ECS] Abstract: A few classes of ionic liquids were synthesized and investigated for their physical properties as a function of structural variation. Bis(oxalato)borate (BOB) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2) ionic liquids (ILs) containing pyridinium, 4-dimethylaminopyridinium (DMAP) and pyrrolidinium cations bearing alkyl, benzyl, hydroxyalkyl and alkoxy substituents, were prepared from the corresponding halide salts. The

64

Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel Absorbents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs as novel absorbents Background There is growing concern among climate scientists that the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere is affecting the global climate in ways that could have serious consequences. One approach to reducing GHG emissions is to scrub CO 2 from the flue gas of power plants and sequester it in geologic formations. Although it is technically feasible to remove CO 2 from flue gas, current processes are too expensive. New, less expensive processes are needed. This project is investigating the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids - for the capture of CO 2 from the flue gas from coal and natural gas-fired power plants. The success of ionic liquids technology

65

Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents for Glycosylation Reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are among the most promising alternatives to molecular organic solvents due to their unique properties and, in particular, are considered to be green solvents due to their nonvolatile and nonflammab...

Kaname Sasaki; Daisuke Takahashi; Kazunobu Toshima

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A group of oil-miscible ionic liquids has been developed by an ORNL-GM team as candidate lubricant additives with promising physical/chemical properties and potential multiple functionalities.

67

Kinetics and Solvent Effects in the Synthesis of Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids (ILs) are being recognized as environmentally friendly ("green") solvents. However, their synthesis is often conducted in the very solvents that they will reportedly replace. This research has investigated ...

Schleicher, Jay C.

2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

68

Real-time sweat pH monitoring based on a wearable chemical barcode micro-fluidic platform incorporating ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents the fabrication, characterisation and the performance of a wearable, robust, flexible and disposable chemical barcode device based on a micro-fluidic platform that incorporates ionic liquid polymer gels (ionogels). The device has been applied to the monitoring of the pH of sweat in real time during an exercise period. The device is an ideal wearable sensor for measuring the pH of sweat since it does not contain any electronic part for fluidic handle or pH detection and because it can be directly incorporated into clothing, head- or wristbands, which are in continuous contact with the skin. In addition, due to the micro-fluidic structure, fresh sweat is continuously passing through the sensing area providing the capability to perform continuous real time analysis. The approach presented here ensures immediate feedback regarding sweat composition. Sweat analysis is attractive for monitoring purposes as it can provide physiological information directly relevant to the health and performance of the wearer without the need for an invasive sampling approach.

Vincenzo F. Curto; Cormac Fay; Shirley Coyle; Robert Byrne; Corinne O’Toole; Caroline Barry; Sarah Hughes; Niall Moyna; Dermot Diamond; Fernando Benito-Lopez

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Strong Electronic Polarization of the C60 Fullerene by the Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: Accurate Insights from Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fullerenes are known to be polarizable due to the strained carbon-carbon bonds and high surface curvature. Electronic polarization of fullerenes is of steady practical importance, since it leads to non-additive interactions and, therefore, to unexpected phenomena. For the first time, hybrid density functional theory (HDFT) powered Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulations have been conducted to observe electronic polarization and charge transfer phenomena in the C60 fullerene at finite temperature (350 K). The non-additive phenomena are fostered by the three selected imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). We conclude that although charge transfer appears nearly negligible in these systems, an electronic polarization is indeed significant leading to a systematically positive effective electrostatic charge on the C60 fullerene: +0.14e in [EMIM][Cl], +0.21e in [EMIM][NO3], +0.17e in [EMIM][PF6]. These results are, to certain extent, unexpected providing an inspiration to consider ...

Chaban, Vitaly V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Reclamation of niobium compounds from ionic liquid electrochemical polishing of superconducting radio frequency cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent research has shown that choline chloride (vitamin B4)-based solutions can be used as a greener alternative to acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. This study demonstrated a successful method for electrochemical deposition of niobium compounds onto the surface of copper substrates using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. Niobium ions present in the ionic liquid solution were dissolved into the solution prior to deposition via electrochemical polishing of solid niobium. A black coating was clearly visible on the surface of the Cu following deposition. This coating was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). This ionic liquid-based electrochemical deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemical polishing of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities.

Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Charge Delocalization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Resistance Through Charge Delocalization in 1-Benzylpyridinium Ilya A. Shkrob, Timothy W. Marin, Jasmine L. Hatcher, Andrew R. Cook, Tomasz Szreder and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 117, Just Accepted (2013). [Find paper at ACS Publications]. Abstract: Hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) hold promise as replacements for molecular diluents for processing of used nuclear fuel as well as for the development of alternative separations processes, provided that the solvent can be made resistant to ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that 1-benzylpyridinium cations are uniquely suited as radiation resistant cations due to the occurrence of charge delocalization both in their reduced and oxidized form in the ILs. It is suggested that

72

Methods for separating medical isotopes using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for extracting a radioisotope from an aqueous solution, the method comprising: a) intimately mixing a non-chelating ionic liquid with the aqueous solution to transfer at least a portion of said radioisotope to said non-chelating ionic liquid; and b) separating the non-chelating ionic liquid from the aqueous solution. In preferred embodiments, the method achieves an extraction efficiency of at least 80%, or a separation factor of at least 1.times.10.sup.4 when more than one radioisotope is included in the aqueous solution. In particular embodiments, the method is applied to the separation of medical isotopes pairs, such as Th from Ac (Th-229/Ac-225, Ac-227/Th-227), or Ra from Ac (Ac-225 and Ra-225, Ac-227 and Ra-223), or Ra from Th (Th-227 and Ra-223, Th-229 and Ra-225).

Luo, Huimin; Boll, Rose Ann; Bell, Jason Richard; Dai, Sheng

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

73

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Ionic Liquids as Antiwear Additives in Base Oils: Influence of Structure on Miscibility and Antiwear Performance for Steel on Aluminum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The formation of adsorbed IL layers at metal surfaces has been established in fundamental studies using surface force apparatus (SFA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) but has yet to be confirmed under tribological conditions as this is difficult to do in situ as the very thin adsorbed layer is covered by the bulk IL.(12, 42, 43) Furthermore, in ex-situ measurements, most wear-surface analysis techniques, such as XPS, require thorough cleaning of the surface to remove the bulk IL, but this usually removes these adsorbed layers. ... with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. ... tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives. ...

Anthony E. Somers; Bhawna Khemchandani; Patrick C. Howlett; Jiazeng Sun; Douglas R. MacFarlane; Maria Forsyth

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

75

Solubilities of Solutes in Ionic Liquids from a Simple Perturbed-Hard-Sphere Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eds). Ionic liquids as Green solvents. Washington: Americanmay be useful as “green” solvents that do not pollute the

Qin, Yuan; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

77

High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

78

Temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography for the rapid determination of triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-triclosan in aqueous samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As extraction solvents, ionic liquids have green characteristics. In this study, an environmentally benign analytical method termed temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TIL...

JieHong Guo; XingHong Li; XueLi Cao; Lei Qu; DeKun Hou…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

Ionic liquids for separation of olefin-paraffin mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to an ionic liquid comprising (i) a cationic portion containing a complex of a silver (I) ion and one or more neutral ligands selected from organoamides, organoamines, olefins, and organonitriles, and (ii) an anionic portion having the chemical formula ##STR00001## wherein m and n are independently 0 or an integer of 1 or above, and p is 0 or 1, provided that when p is 0, the group --N--SO.sub.2--(CF.sub.2).sub.nCF.sub.3 subtended by p is replaced with an oxide atom connected to the shown sulfur atom. The invention is also directed to a method for separating an olefin from an olefin-paraffin mixture by passing the mixture through a layer of the ionic liquid described above.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Huang, Jing-Fang

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

High-frequency acoustic modes in an ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-frequency collective dynamics of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C6C1im]Br has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Time correlation functions of mass current fluctuations were calculated for several wavevectors and the dispersion curves of excitations ?(k) for longitudinal and transverse acoustic sound modes were obtained at different temperatures and pressures. Two different thermodynamic states have the same high-frequency sound velocity irrespective of the temperature provided that both have the same density. Partial time correlation functions of mass currents were calculated for the atoms belonging to the polar or the non-polar domains resulting from the heterogeneous structure of [C6C1im]Br. The partial correlation functions indicate that the polar domains are stiffer than the non-polar domains of the simulated ionic liquid.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Ionic liquids for separation of olefin-paraffin mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to an ionic liquid comprising (i) a cationic portion containing a complex of a silver (I) ion and one or more neutral ligands selected from organoamides, organoamines, olefins, and organonitriles, and (ii) an anionic portion having the chemical formula ##STR00001## wherein m and n are independently 0 or an integer of 1 or above, and p is 0 or 1, provided that when p is 0, the group --N--SO.sub.2--(CF.sub.2).sub.nCF.sub.3 subtended by p is replaced with an oxide atom connected to the shown sulfur atom. The invention is also directed to a method for separating an olefin from an olefin-paraffin mixture by passing the mixture through a layer of the ionic liquid described above.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Huang, Jing-Fang

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Reactions of Lignin Model Compounds in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin, a readily available form of biomass, awaits novel chemistry for converting it to valuable aromatic chemicals. Recent work has demonstrated that ionic liquids are excellent solvents for processing woody biomass and lignin. Seeking to exploit ionic liquids as media for depolymerization of lignin, we investigated reactions of lignin model compounds in these solvents. Using Brønsted acid catalysts in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate at moderate temperatures, we obtained up to 11.6% yield of the dealkylation product guaiacol from the model compound eugenol and cleaved phenethyl phenyl ether, a model for lignin ethers. Despite these successes, acid catalysis failed in dealkylation of the unsaturated model compound 4-ethylguaiacol and did not produce monomeric products from organosolv lignin, demonstrating that further work is required to understand the complex chemistry of lignin depolymerization.

Holladay, John E.; Binder, Joseph B.; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Ionic liquid effects on mass transfer efficiency in extractive distillation of water–ethanol mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The relatively high viscosities of ionic liquids could reduce the mass transfer efficiency of the extractive distillation process. The rate-based model was adopted to analyze this phenomenon since it predicted the performance of an extractive distillation pilot plant using ionic liquids as solvent. For the water–ethanol separation, three ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide and the organic solvent ethylene glycol were used for the analysis. Simulations were conducted for sieve trays and Mellapak® 250Y. The results indicate that relatively high viscosities affect the mass transfer efficiency. However, the improvements in relative volatilities obtained from the ionic liquids help to overcome this effect. However, with high solvent viscosities (>65 mPa s at T = 353.15 K) it was not possible to overcome the reductions. Additionally, at higher distillate rates high relative volatilities yielded negative effects on mass transfer efficiency because of a decrease in vapor velocity.

E. Quijada-Maldonado; G. Wytze Meindersma; André B. de Haan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Interfacial Ionic Liquids: Connecting Static and Dynamic Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is well-known that room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) often adopt a charge-separated layered structure, i.e., with alternating cation- and anion-rich layers, at electrified interfaces. However, the dynamic response of the layered structure to temporal variations in applied potential is not well understood. We used in situ, real-time X-ray reflectivity (XR) to study the potential-dependent electric double layer (EDL) structure of an imidazolium-based RTIL on charged epitaxial graphene during potential cycling as a function of temperature. The results suggest that the graphene-RTIL interfacial structure is bistable in which the EDL structure at any intermediate potential can be described by the combination of two extreme-potential structures whose proportions vary depending on the polarity and magnitude of the applied potential. This picture is supported by the EDL structures obtained by fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at various static potentials. The potential-driven transition between the two structures is characterized by an increasing width but with an approximately fixed hysteresis magnitude as a function of temperature. The results are consistent with the coexistence of distinct anion and cation adsorbed structures separated by an energy barrier (~0.15 eV).

Ahmet Uysal; Hua Zhou; Guang Feng; Sang Soo Lee; Song Li; Peter T. Cummings; Pasquale F. Fulvio; Sheng Dai; John K. McDonough; Yury Gogotsi; Paul Fenter

2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

86

Understanding the effect of side groups in ionic liquids on carbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the effect of side groups in ionic liquids on carbon-capture properties: a combined experimental and theoretical effort Previous Next List Fangyong Yan, Michael Lartey, Krishnan...

87

Methods of using ionic liquids having a fluoride anion as solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method in one embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having a fluoride anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of about 90.degree. C. or less during the contacting. A method in another embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having an acetate or formate anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of less than about 90.degree. C. during the contacting.

Pagoria, Philip (Livermore, CA); Maiti, Amitesh (San Ramon, CA); Gash, Alexander (Brentwood, CA); Han, Thomas Yong (Pleasanton, CA); Orme, Christine (Oakland, CA); Fried, Laurence (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

88

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium ionic liquids Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic Data Center (CFADC) Collection: Plasma Physics and Fusion 2 "Control of protein folding and misfolding in ionic liquid media, and a conjecture on early earth biology"....

89

Project Profile: Thermally-Stable Ionic Liquid Carriers forNanopartic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

as ionic liquids (ILs). Approach Illusrtation of various colored circles connected by lines. They will select an appropriate IL using a constant method of determining thermal...

90

Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

Chaban, Vitaly

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Solubility of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols in Ionic Liquids: Measurement and PC-SAFT Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solubility of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols in Ionic Liquids: Measurement and PC-SAFT Modeling ... The measured data as well as previously published solubility data of glucose and fructose in these ILs were modeled by means of PC-SAFT using a molecular-based associative approach for ILs. ... PC-SAFT was used in this work as it has shown to be applicable to model the solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in ILs (Paduszy?ski; et al. ...

Aristides P. Carneiro; Christoph Held; Oscar Rodríguez; Gabriele Sadowski; Eugénia A. Macedo

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

92

Extraction of Uranium from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Conjunction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranyl ions (UO2)2+ in aqueous nitric acid solutions can be extracted into supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) via an imidazolium-based ionic liquid using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent. The transfer of uranium from the ionic liquid to the supercritical fluid phase was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy using a high-pressure fiberoptic cell. The form of the uranyl complex extracted into the supercritical CO2 phase was found to be UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2. The extraction results were confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and by neutron activation analysis. This technique could potentially be used to extract other actinides for applications in the field of nuclear waste management.

Wang, Joanna S.; Sheaff, Chrystal N.; Yoon, Byunghoon; Addleman, Raymond S.; Wai, Chien M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Ionic Liquids Used as Wear Reduction, Wins R&D 100 Award | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

100 Award October 16, 2014 - 11:19am Addthis Partnered with Shell Global Solutions, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed ionic liquids (salts in a liquid state...

94

Ionic liquid binary mixtures: Promising reaction media for carbohydrate conversion into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) has been studied in binary mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs), using strongly acidic resin Amberlyst 15 as the catalyst. In particular, both mono- and disaccharides, such as fructose, glucose and sucrose have been investigated. Considering the favorable effect exerted by chloride-based ionic liquids in the dissolution of carbohydrates, we used binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]) with [bmim+] based ionic liquids differing in size, shape and coordination ability of the anion ([bmim][BF4], [bmim][N(CF3SO2)2], [bmim][N(CN)2], [bmim][SbF6] and [bmim][CF3SO3]). Carbohydrate conversion in [bmim][BF4]/[bmim][Cl] binary mixtures, has been studied under both magnetic stirring and ultrasound (US) activation. The catalytic system used led to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in good yield under mild conditions. A significant influence of IL binary mixture composition on the outcome of the target processes was evidenced. Improvements in both reaction time and temperature have been observed, under US activation.

Francesca D’Anna; Salvatore Marullo; Paola Vitale; Carla Rizzo; Paolo Lo Meo; Renato Noto

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Pysico-chemical properties of hydrophobic ionic liquids containing 1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium cations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids as green solvents: progress and prospects,in ionic liquid solvents. Green Chem. 2004, 6, 245-249. Xu,solvent structural variations on the mechanism of facilitated ion transfer into room-temperature ionic liquids. Green

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Lee, Jong-Min; Prausnitz, John M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture ... Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) are potential green substitutes of aqueous amine solutions for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. ... However, the viscous nature of AAILs greatly hinders their further development in CO2 capture applications. ...

Xianfeng Wang; Novruz G. Akhmedov; Yuhua Duan; David Luebke; David Hopkinson; Bingyun Li

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

97

WHEN IT COMES TO SOLVENTS, IONIC LIQUIDS are in a class by themselves. Compared to other  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are a groundbreaking green alternative to highly toxic solvents capable of causing signifi- cant environmental harm WITTKOP IONIC LIQUIDS: THE GREEN SUPER-SOLVENTS AUTHOR: DEAN L. MASKEVICH is editor of NJIT Magazine. #12WHEN IT COMES TO SOLVENTS, IONIC LIQUIDS are in a class by themselves. Compared to other solvents

Bieber, Michael

98

Short Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with uranium from mining and milling operations, radioactive wastes, and from nuclear accidents is a majorShort Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous solution t s Uranium forms various complexes with ionic liquids. Uranium bioreduction was affected by the type

Ohta, Shigemi

99

Method of purifying a gas stream using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a target gas from a gaseous mixture using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids is presented. Industrial effluent streams may be cleaned by removing carbon dioxide from the stream by contacting the effluent stream with a 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquid compound.

Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunald; Tang, Chau

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

100

Efficient Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia in Ionic Liquids ... An efficient process was developed for the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]) by using sulfated zirconia as catalyst. ... Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars ...

Xinhua Qi; Haixin Guo; Luyang Li

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids Ionic Liquids Project No.: FC26-07NT43091 Model of CO2 absorption by an ionic liquid. Model of CO2 absorption by an IL. The model shows that the anions are controlling absorption in ILs. The green units represent anions and the grey units represent cations. The University of Notre Dame is conducting the Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture project (FC26-07NT43091), that builds on the work of its earlier project (FG26-04NT42122), to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids (ILs) - for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Initial efforts focused on "proof-of-concept" exploration, followed by a laboratory-/bench-scale effort. ILs include a broad category

103

The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use in nuclear fuel processing J. F. Wishart and I. A. Shkrob in "Ionic Liquids: From Knowledge to Application" Rogers, R. D., Plechkova, N. V., and Seddon, K. R., Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 1030, Ch. 8, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2009, pp 119-134. (ISBN 978-0-8412-6997-2) [Find chapter at ACS Publications] Abstract: Using ionic liquids as a medium for the processing of spent nuclear fuel, where their safety and process improvement advantages could be significant, promises to substantially contribute to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles to improve the world's energy posture. It is therefore important to study the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids, to determine

104

Physically and chemically stable ionic liquid-infused textured surfaces showing excellent dynamic omniphobicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fluorinated and hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, effectively served as an advantageous lubricating liquid for the preparation of physically and chemically stable omniphobic surfaces based on slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces. Here, we used particulate microstructures as supports, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent surface modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. Confirmed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the resulting IL-infused microtextured surfaces are smooth and not only water but also various low surface tension liquids can easily slide off at low substrate tilt angles of <5°, even after exposure to high temperature, vacuum, and UV irradiation.

Miranda, Daniel F.; Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Dunderdale, Gary J.; Hozumi, Atsushi, E-mail: a.hozumi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98, Anagahora, Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 463-8560 (Japan); Yagihashi, Makoto [Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute, Rokuban, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-0058 (Japan)

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs generally have low volatilities and are combustion-resistant, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of primary radiation chemistry, charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of reactions and product distributions. We study these issues by characterization of primary radiolysis products and measurements of their yields and reactivity, quantification of electron solvation dynamics and scavenging of electrons in different states of solvation. From this knowledge we wish to learn how to predict radiolytic mechanisms and control them or mitigate their effects on the properties of materials used in nuclear fuel processing, for example, and to apply IL radiation chemistry to answer questions about general chemical reactivity in ionic liquids that will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that the slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increase the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alter product distributions and subsequent chemistry. This difference from conventional solvents has profound effects on predicting and controlling radiolytic yields, which need to be quantified for the successful use under radiolytic conditions. Electron solvation dynamics in ILs are measured directly when possible and estimated using proxies (e.g. coumarin-153 dynamic emission Stokes shifts or benzophenone anion solvation) in other cases. Electron reactivity is measured using ultrafast kinetics techniques for comparison with the solvation process.

Wishart, J.F.

2011-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

106

Efficient Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Chromium(III) Chloride in Inexpensive Ionic Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Chromium(III) Chloride in Inexpensive Ionic Liquid ... An efficient process was developed for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the relatively low-toxicity and inexpensive catalytic system of chromium(III) chloride (CrCl3·6H2O) catalyst and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) ionic liquid. ... Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Biofuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran ...

Lei Hu; Yong Sun; Lu Lin

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

107

Determination of Single-Ion Activities of H+ and Cl– in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Solutions by Use of an Ionic Liquid Salt Bridge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many of the problems inherent to KCl-type salt bridges can be circumvented by use of a salt bridge made of a moderately hydrophobic ionic liquid, that is, an ionic liquid salt bridge (ILSB). ... A newly emerged salt bridge based on moderately hydrophobic ionic liqs. is promising to solve many of the problems that KCl-type salt bridges are unable to, possibly making the future of electroanal. ... The new salt bridge is free from most of the problems inherent to KCl-based salt bridges. ...

Hideaki Sakaida; Takashi Kakiuchi

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

108

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids Luke D. Simoni-Butanol, Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium, Excess Gibbs Energy Models, Biofuels #12;1 1. Introduction other organic compounds can be produced biologically, and thus can be considered as biofuel candidates

Stadtherr, Mark A.

109

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral Solvents Heather Y. Lee, Joseph B. Issa, Stephan S. Isied, Edward W. Castner, Jr., Yunfeng Pan, Charles L. Hussey, Kwang Soon Lee, and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 5197-5208 (2012). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request. Abstract: The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethyl¬sulfonyl)¬amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a

110

A Microfabricated Planar Electrospray Array Ionic Liquid Ion Source With Integrated Extractor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a fully microfabricated planar array of externally fed electrospray emitters that produces heavy molecular ions from the ionic liquids ...

Gassend, Blaise

111

Environmentally Benign Production of Ionic Liquids in CO2-Expanded Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The need to reduce air pollution in chemical manufacturing processes continues to drive the search for alternative solvents. Ionic Liquids (ILs) have emerged in recent years as a promising solution. In contrast to traditional ...

Nwosu, Sylvia Ogechi

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

113

Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvents Convert Sugars to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sugars were converted to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yield in ionic liquids without the addition of Bronsted acids. Very small amount of certain metal halides significantly reduced the fructose dehydration barrier in ionic liquids producing HMF at high yields. Most remarkably, glucose, a common sugar molecule, was selectively converted to HMF in good yield in ionic liquids containing a small amount of CrCl2. Thus CrCl2 is unique among metal chlorides tested for its effectiveness in both isomerizing glucose as well as dehydrating fructose. Only negligble amount of levulinic acid was formed in the reactions. The catalytic activity of metal chlorides for sugar conversion in ionic liquids is perhaps related to hydroxyl group of the sugar forming metal complexes with the unsaturated metal center.

Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Brown, Heather M.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Etherification of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to a Biodiesel Component Over Ionic Liquid Modified Zeolites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, ionic liquid (IL) modified H-Beta zeolites were prepared and the physicochemical properties of the catalysts were investigated. IL modified zeolites were applied in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) eth...

Eero Salminen; Narendra Kumar; Pasi Virtanen; Mikko Tenho…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Background Development of innovative environmental control technologies is key to maintaining coal as an affordable and environmentally sound energy source. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control technologies, specifically post-combustion CO 2 capture, for coal- fired power plants is a major focus area in addressing climate change concerns. Post-

116

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO 2 Capture Background Post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture presents technical challenges because the flue gas is at atmospheric pressure and the CO 2 concentration is 10 to 15 volume percent, resulting in a low CO 2 partial pressure and a large volume of gas that needs to be treated. In spite of this difficulty, post-combustion CO 2 capture offers the

117

An artificial neural network to calculate pure ionic liquid densities without the need for any experimental data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a feed-forward artificial neural network, with three layers and seventeen neurons, was constructed to estimate the densities of a wide range of ionic liquid families including those based on the imidazolium, ammonium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and isoquinolinium cations, together with various anions, as well as varying lengths of alkyl side chain lengths. The model is a function of the molecular weight and structure of the ionic liquid, and the system condition of temperature and pressure, which covers a temperature range of (273.15 to 393.17) K and a pressure range of (0.1 to 100) MPa. Therefore, no additional experimental data on the ionic liquid is required as input parameter(s), which makes this technique quite versatile. It was observed that the estimated values of densities of pure ionic liquids have very good agreement with the experimental data. The training correlating coefficient (R), the training performance (MSE), and the average absolute error on the training dataset were 0.99997, 6.04 × 10?6, and 0.019%, respectively. The average absolute error value on the test dataset is 0.014%.

Mohammad-Reza Fatehi; Sona Raeissi; Dariush Mowla

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Highly Selective and Near-Quantitative Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Mildly Acidic Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly Selective and Near-Quantitative Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Mildly Acidic Ionic Liquids ... The ionic liquid, [C4C1im][HSO4], provides an acidic solvent in which to convert fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural rapidly and in high yield. ... The room-temperature ionic liquid, [C4C1im][HSO4], provides a multi-faceted medium in which to convert fructose to the versatile chemical building block, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). ...

Sanan Eminov; James D. E. T. Wilton-Ely; Jason P. Hallett

2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

120

Gas-liquid critical point in ionic fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on the method of collective variables we develop the statistical field theory for the study of a simple charge-asymmetric $1:z$ primitive model (SPM). It is shown that the well-known approximations for the free energy, in particular DHLL and ORPA, can be obtained within the framework of this theory. In order to study the gas-liquid critical point of SPM we propose the method for the calculation of chemical potential conjugate to the total number density which allows us to take into account the higher order fluctuation effects. As a result, the gas-liquid phase diagrams are calculated for $z=2-4$. The results demonstrate the qualitative agreement with MC simulation data: critical temperature decreases when $z$ increases and critical density increases rapidly with $z$.

O. Patsahan; I. Mryglod; T. Patsahan

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow sphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? The ?-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ? Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ? Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ? A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup ?} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the ?-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

Tang, Zhe, E-mail: tangzhe1983@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyq@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Li, Guangci, E-mail: liguangci1984@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Hu, Xiaofu, E-mail: hjj19850922@126.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Chenguang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Structure and phase transitions into ionic adsorption layers on liquid interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The structure of ionic adsorption layers is studied via a proper thermodynamic treatment of the electrostatic and non-electrostatic interactions between the surfactant ions as well as of the effect of thermodynamic non-locality. The analysis is also applied to phase transitions into the ionic adsorption layer, which interfere further with the oscillatory-diffusive structure of the electric double layer and hydrodynamic stability of squeezing waves in thin liquid films.

R. Tsekov

2014-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

123

Solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (eFAP) ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The density and viscosity of the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P66614][eFAP] were measured as a function of temperature and pressure and as a function of temperature, respectively. These two ionic liquids are more viscous than those based in the same anion associated to imidazolium cations. The effect of the addition of water on the density and viscosity of [P66614][eFAP] was studied at pressures close to atmospheric and as a function of the temperature. This ionic liquid is only partially miscible with water, its solubility being of around X H 2 O = 0.2 in the range of (303 to 315) K. Experimental values of the solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen were obtained as a function of temperature and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the more soluble gases with mole fraction solubilities up to 7 · 10?2. Ethane is four times and 1.3 times less soluble than carbon dioxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and [P66614][eFAP], respectively. Nitrogen is one order of magnitude less soluble than the others gases in the two ionic liquids studied. In order to understand behavior of the different gases with these ionic liquids, the thermodynamic functions of solvation such as enthalpy and entropy were calculated from the variation of the Henry’s law constant with temperature. It is shown that the more favorable interactions of the gases with the ionic liquid explain the larger solubility of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP]. In the case of [P66614][eFAP], it is the less favorable entropic contribution that explains the lower solubility of ethane in this ionic liquid.

S. Stevanovic; M.F. Costa Gomes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony; ,

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

125

High-Pressure Phase Equilibria of Ionic Liquids and Compressed Gases for Applications in Reactions and Absorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of high-melting solids not liquids at processing conditions. Coupling ionic liquids with compressed gases systems may overcome most of these difficulties for their applications in separations, reactions, materials processing and engineering applications...

Ren, Wei

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

126

Efficient conversion of cellulose into biofuel precursor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethyl sulfoxide–ionic liquid mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In recent years, cellulose has received increasing attention as a potential material for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. In this study, a new process for the efficient conversion of cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was developed by the use of AlCl3 as the catalyst in DMSO–ionic liquid ([BMIM]Cl) mixtures. Various reaction parameters such as reaction time, reaction temperature, solvent and catalyst dosage were investigated in detail. A high HMF yield of 54.9% was obtained from cellulose at 150 °C after 9 h in a mixed solvent of DMSO–[BMIM]Cl (10 wt.%). More importantly, the catalytic system could be reused for several times despite of the slight loss of its catalytic activity.

Shaohua Xiao; Bing Liu; Yimei Wang; Zhongfeng Fang; Zehui Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Trace determination of triclosan and triclocarban in environmental water samples with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction prior to HPLC–ESI-MS–MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel and environmentally friendly microextraction method, termed ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction (IL-DLPME), has been developed for rapid enrichment of triclosan and triclocarban before an...

Ru-Song Zhao; Xia Wang; Jing Sun; Shan-Shan Wang…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Lithium Ion Transport Mechanism in Ternary Polymer Electrolyte-Ionic Liquid Mixtures - A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The lithium transport mechanism in ternary polymer electrolytes, consisting of PEO/LiTFSI and various fractions of the ionic liquid N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, are investigated by means of MD simulations. This is motivated by recent experimental findings [Passerini et al., Electrochim. Acta 2012, 86, 330-338], which demonstrated that these materials display an enhanced lithium mobility relative to their binary counterpart PEO/LiTFSI. In order to grasp the underlying microscopic scenario giving rise to these observations, we employ an analytical, Rouse-based cation transport model [Maitra at al., PRL 2007, 98, 227802], which has originally been devised for conventional polymer electrolytes. This model describes the cation transport via three different mechanisms, each characterized by an individual time scale. It turns out that also in the ternary electrolytes essentially all lithium ions are coordinated by PEO chains, thus ruling out a transport mechanism enhanced by the presence of ionic-liquid molecules. Rather, the plasticizing effect of the ionic liquid contributes to the increased lithium mobility by enhancing the dynamics of the PEO chains and consequently also the motion of the attached ions. Additional focus is laid on the prediction of lithium diffusion coefficients from the simulation data for various chain lengths and the comparison with experimental data, thus demonstrating the broad applicability of our approach.

Diddo Diddens; Andreas Heuer

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

129

Aqueous Biphasic Systems Based on Salting-Out Polyethylene Glycol or Ionic Solutions: Strategies for Actinide or Fission Product Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous biphasic systems can be formed by salting-out (with kosmotropic, waterstructuring salts) water soluble polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) or aqueous solutions of a wide range of hydrophilic ionic liquids based on imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium and ammonium cations. The use of these novel liquid/liquid biphases for separation of actinides or other fission products associated with nuclear wastes (e.g., pertechnetate salts) has been demonstrated and will be described in this presentation.

Rogers, Robin D.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Griffin, Scott T.; Holbrey, John D.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

130

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics inIonic Liquids and Neutral Solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a 1-N,1-N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine donor, a proline bridge, and a coumarin 343 acceptor. The photoinduced electron-transfer processes are in the inverted regime (-{Delta}G > {lambda}) in all four solvents, with driving forces of -1.6 to -1.9 eV and estimated reorganization energies of about 1.0 eV. The observed electron-transfer kinetics have broadly distributed rates that are generally slower in the ionic liquids compared to the neutral solvents, which also have narrower rate distributions. To describe the broad distributions of electron-transfer kinetics, we use two different models: a distribution of exponential lifetimes and a discrete sum of exponential lifetimes. Analysis of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling shows that for ionic liquids this intramolecular electron-transfer reaction should be treated using a solvent-controlled electron-transfer model.

Wishart J. F.; Lee, H.Y.; Issa, J.B.; Isied, S.S.; Castner, Jr., E.W.; Pan, Y.; Hussey, C.L.; Lee, K.S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...depolymerization and conversion: A review of thermochemical methods . Chem Eng...in ionic liquids . Biomass Bioenergy 33 : 1122 – 1130 . 40 Abdel-Magid AF Carson...profiling was supported by the BioEnergy Science Center administered...information, and related literature citations. Table S2. Raw...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices H. Bircana polymer configuration is commonly used when constructing electrochromic devices (ECDs) due to the expected)thienyl)-N-methylcarbazole] (PBEDOT-NMCz) as the two complementary electrochromic polymers for the device. A variety of gel

Otero, Toribio Fernández

133

Protic Ionic Liquids: Preparation, Characterization, and Proton Free Energy Level Representation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interesting properties, including the ability to serve as electrolytes in solvent-free fuel cell systems. We in a fuel cell.2,7,8 This is an application which requires the presence of a special type of ionic liquids continue to be found. They are the low-melting relatives of molten salts whose place in the history

Angell, C. Austen

134

Novel multiple-acidic ionic liquids: Green and efficient catalysts for the synthesis of bis-indolylmethanes under solvent-free conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Four novel multiple-acidic ionic liquids based on triethanolamine (TEA) were prepared and used as efficient catalysts to synthesize bis-indolylmethanes at room temperature without any organic solvent. [TEOA][HSO4] showed the best catalytic performance. The optimal amount of catalyst was 10 mol%. Various aldehydes/ketones reacted with indole/substituted indole smoothly and afforded to corresponding products in 70–99% yields within minutes. Additionally, the ionic liquid could be reused up to five times with only a slight decrease in catalytic activity. Finally, a possible reaction mechanism was given. Techniques of acidity test and NMR were introduced to verify the proposed mechanism.

Anguo Ying; Zhifeng Li; Yuxiang Ni; Songlin Xu; Hailiang Hou; Huanan Hu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Tribological characteristics of aluminum alloys against steel lubricated by ammonium and imidazolium ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sliding friction and wear characteristics of aluminum alloys against AISI 52100 steel lubricated by ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at both room and elevated temperatures. The tested aluminum alloys include a commercially pure aluminum Al 1100, a wrought alloy Al 6061-T6511, and a cast alloy Al 319-T6. The lubricating performance of two ILs with the same anion, one ammonium-based [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium-based C10mim.Tf2N, were compared each other and benchmarked against that of a conventional fully-formulated engine oil. Significant friction (up to 35%) and wear (up to 55%) reductions were achieved by the ammonium IL when lubricating the three aluminum alloys compared to the engine oil. The imidazolium IL performed better than the oil but not as well as the ammonium IL for Al 1100 and 319 alloys. However, accelerated wear was unexpectedly observed for Al 6061 alloy when lubricated by C10mim.Tf2N. Surface chemical analyses implied complex tribochemical reactions between the aluminum surfaces and ILs during the wear testing, which has been demonstrated either beneficial by forming a protective boundary film or detrimental by causing severe tribo-corrosion. The effects of the IL cation structure, aluminum alloy composition, and tribo-testing condition on the friction and wear results have been discussed.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Truhan, John J. [Caterpillar Inc.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Capacitive Energy Storage from - 50o to 100o Using an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relying on redox reactions, most batteries are limited in their ability to operate at very low or very high temperatures. While performance of electrochemical capacitors is less dependent on the temperature, present-day devices still cannot cover the entire range needed for automotive and electronics applications under a variety of environmental conditions. We show that the right combination of the exohedral nanostructured carbon (nanotubes and onions) electrode and a eutectic mixture of ionic liquids can dramatically extend the temperature range of electrical energy storage, thus defying the conventional wisdom that ionic liquids can only be used as electrolytes above room temperature. We demonstrate electrical double layer capacitors able to operate from 50 to 100 C over a wide voltage window (up to 3.7 V) and at very high charge/discharge rates of up to 20 V/s.

Lin, Rongying [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.; Taberna, Pierre-Louis [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.; Santini, Sebastien [SOLVIONIC Company, Toulouse, France; Presser, Volker [ORNL; Perez, Carlos R. [Drexel University; Malbosc, Francois [SOLVIONIC Company, Toulouse, France; Rupesinghe, Nalin L. [AIXTRON, Cambridge, UK; Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON, Cambridge, UK; Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel University; Simon, Patrice [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Borkowski, Marian [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Los Alamos Natl Lab, Earth and Environm Sci Div, Carlsbad, NM, (United States); Laszak, Ivan [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Commisariat Energie Atom, DEN DPC SERC LANIE, Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Dietz, Mark L. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wisconsin-Milwaukee Univ, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Milwaukee, WI, (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Ionic Liquid?Water Mixtures: Enhanced Kw for Efficient Cellulosic Biomass Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Departments of Chemistry and ... Under relatively mild conditions (?140 °C, 1 atm) and in the absence of added acid catalysts typically employed in biomass conversion, cellulose dissolved in certain ionic liquids (ILs) has been converted into water-soluble reducing sugars in high total reducing sugar yield (up to 97%), or directly into the biomass platform chemical 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) in high conversion (up to 89%) when CrCl2 is added. ...

Yuetao Zhang; Hongbo Du; Xianghong Qian; Eugene Y.-X. Chen

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

139

Ionic-Liquid Induced Changes in Cellulose Structure Associated with Enhanced Biomass Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of varying ionic liquid pretreatment parameters on various sources of lignocellulosic biomass have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fiber diffraction, and compositional analysis. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar analysis were used to relate the observed changes in cellulose structure to biomass digestibility. In this study, the factor most clearly associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis is the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase.

Samayam, Indira P.; Hanson, B. Leif; Langan, Paul; Schall, Constance A. (Toledo)

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

140

3D Printing Phosphonium Ionic Liquid Networks with Mask Projection Microstereolithography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

3D Printing Phosphonium Ionic Liquid Networks with Mask Projection Microstereolithography ... Additive manufacturing, often referred to as 3D printing, where objects are constructed in a layer-by-layer fashion, enables the design and creation of geometrically complex objects with tailored topology, and thus, functionality. ... Herein, we report photopolymerization strategies coupled with additive manufacturing to achieve 3D printed phosphonium PILs in order to demonstrate the first example of 3D printing of an ion-conducting polymer. ...

Alison R. Schultz; Philip M. Lambert; Nicholas A. Chartrain; David M. Ruohoniemi; Zhiyang Zhang; Chainika Jangu; Musan Zhang; Christopher B. Williams; Timothy E. Long

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over cellulose-derived carbonaceous catalyst in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Three environmental-benign and low-cost carbon-based solid acid catalysts containing –SO3H, –COOH and phenolic –OH groups were prepared and used for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl). The results demonstrated that cellulose-derived carbonaceous catalyst (CCC) possessed the highest catalytic activity, which resulted in 46.4% HMF yield at 160 °C for only 15 min. In addition, the reaction kinetics for the conversion of glucose into HMF over CCC was fitted with the first-order rate equation. The slightly-deactivated CCC after four successive reaction runs could be easily regenerated by a simple carbonization and sulfonation process. More gratifyingly, the combination of CCC and [BMIM]Cl were confirmed to be suitable for converting other carbohydrates such as fructose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, starch and cellulose into HMF. Particularly, a plausible mechanism involving hydrolysis, isomerization and dehydration for the conversion of carbohydrates into HMF was also proposed.

Lei Hu; Geng Zhao; Xing Tang; Zhen Wu; Jiaxing Xu; Lu Lin; Shijie Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

Fox, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Squeezout phenomena and boundary layer formation of a model ionic liquid under confinement and charging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic appraoch under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering, and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.

R. Capozza; A. Vanossi; A. Benassi; E. Tosatti

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

144

Conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural catalyzed by acidic ionic liquids in dimethyl sulfoxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An efficient process was developed for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) using DMSO as the solvent and an acidic ionic liquid 1-carboxypropyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([CMIm]Cl) as the catalyst. The effects of various reaction parameters on HMF yields were investigated. HMF yields of 95.7% and 88.4% were obtained from fructose and inulin when reactions were carried out 120 °C after 120 min and 180 min, respectively. The combination of ZrOCl2 and [CMIm]Cl resulted in a 50.6% yield of HMF from glucose. HMF could also be synthesized using other carbohydrates with moderate to high yields.

Zhao Hu; Bing Liu; Zehui Zhang; Lianqing Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals: Thermodynamic Studies on the Extraction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals: Thermodynamic Studies on the Extraction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Ionic Liquids ... Furthermore, the solubility of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in these solutes and the solubility of the solutes in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate ([C4mim][CH3SO3]) was assessed. ... In the past 20 years, a large body of work has been conducted on the condensation of fructose and other carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which, due to its multifunctionality, has been claimed a prime platform chemical derived from biomass (Scheme 1). ...

Annegret Stark; Bernd Ondruschka; Dzmitry H. Zaitsau; Sergey P. Verevkin

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

A Preliminary Study of Oxidation of Lignin from Rubber Wood to Vanillin in Ionic Liquid Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, lignin was oxidised to vanillin by means of oxygen in ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate) medium. The parameters of the oxidation reaction that have been investigated were the following: concentration of oxygen (5, 10, 15 and 20 ft3 h-1), reaction time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) and reaction temperature (25, 40, 60, 80 and 100{\\deg}C). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses were used to characterise the product. The results revealed vanillin as the product obtained via the oxidation reaction. The optimum parameters of vanillin production were 20 ft3 h-1 of oxygen for 10 h at 100{\\deg}C. In conclusion, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate could be used as an oxidation reaction medium for the production of vanillin from rubber wood lignin.

Shamsuri, A A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

An unusual non-Tafel dependence for electron transfer reactions in ionic liquids at large electrode polarisations: Fiction or reality?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We speculate about the existence of a “square-root Tafel dependence” for simple one stage anodic/cathodic electron transfer reactions in ionic liquids. In this dependence, the logarithm of the current depends linearly on the square-root of electrode potential. The modified law is a consequence of ion crowding in the electrical double layer at high charges of the electrode. It may be expected that this effect may be observed for slow reactions at large electrode polarisations, yet not triggering electrochemical decomposition of ionic liquids, and only if diffusion limitations on the transport of reactants are absent.

Alexei A. Kornyshev; Lu-Peng Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Uranyl coordination environment in hydrophobic ionic liquids : an in situ investigation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different inner-sphere coordination environments are observed for the uranyl nitrate complexes formed with octyl-phenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and tributyl phosphate in dodecane and in the hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] and [C{sub 8}mim][N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}]. Qualitative differences in the coordination environment of the extracted uranyl species are implied by changes in peak intensity patterns and locations for uranyl UV-visible spectral bands when the solvent is changed. EXAFS data for uranyl complexes in dodecane solutions is consistent with hexagonal bipyramidal coordination and the existence of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(CMPO){sub 2}. In contrast, the complexes formed when uranyl is transferred from aqueous nitric acid solutions into the ILs exhibit an average equatorial coordination number of approximately 4.5. Liquid/liquid extraction results for uranyl in both ILs indicate a net stoichiometry of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3})(CMPO){sup +}. The concentration of the IL cation in the aqueous phase increases in proportion to the amount of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3})(CMPO){sup +} in the IL phase, supporting a predominantly cation exchange mechanism for partitioning in the IL systems.

Visser, A. E.; Jensen, M. P.; Laszak, I.; Nash, K. L.; Choppin, G. R.; Roers, R. D.; Chemistry; Univ. of Alabama; Flordia State Univ.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Superoxide Electrochemistry in an Ionic Liquid Inas M. AlNashef, Matthew L. Leonard, Michael A. Matthews,* and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with organic solvents as the reaction medium. Green chemistry and engineering calls for better, sustainable-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as substitute solvents in Green chemistry, with the emphasis on organic synthesis dissolved in two different solvent systems: (1) acetonitrile with tetraethylammonium perchlorate (TEAP

Weidner, John W.

150

Supplement to Chimica Oggi/CHEMISTRY TODAY Vol 25 nr 6 Green Chemistry/Ionic liquids Aquatic toxicity and biodegradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplement to Chimica Oggi/CHEMISTRY TODAY · Vol 25 nr 6 · Green Chemistry/Ionic liquids 32 Aquatic these are two important aspects of green chemistry, yet data are limited compared to the vast literature on IL currently used volatile solvents (Table 3). However, standard bioassays typically do not mimic

Bernot, Randall

151

Click grafting of seaweed bioactive polysaccharides onto PVC surfaces using ionic liquid as green solvent and catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6 . Their recyclable characteristics and their catalytic activities make them a green alternative to organic solventsClick grafting of seaweed bioactive polysaccharides onto PVC surfaces using ionic liquid as green solvent and catalyst Sandra Bigota , Guy Louarnb , Nasreddine Kébir*a and Fabrice Burela a Normandie

Boyer, Edmond

152

Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

153

Inelastic and Reactive Scattering Dynamics of Hyperthermal Oxygen Atoms on Ionic Liquid Surfaces: [emim][NTf{sub 2}] and [C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Collisions of hyperthermal oxygen atoms, with an average translational energy of 520 kJ mol{sup -1}, on continuously refreshed ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([emim][NTf{sub 2}]) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}]), were studied with the use of a beam-surface scattering technique. Time-of-flight and angular distributions of inelastically scattered O and reactively scattered OH and H{sub 2}O were collected for various angles of incidence with the use of a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. For both O and OH, two distinct scattering processes were identified, which can be empirically categorized as thermal and non-thermal. Non-thermal scattering is more probable for both O and OH products. The observation of OH confirms that at least some reactive sites, presumably alkyl groups, must be exposed at the surface. The ionic liquid with the longer alkyl chain, [C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}], is substantially more reactive than the liquid with the shorter alkyl chain, [emim][NTf{sub 2}], and proportionately much more so than would be predicted simply from stoichiometry based on the number of abstractable hydrogen atoms. Molecular dynamics models of these surfaces shed light on this change in reactivity. The scattering behavior of O is distinctly different from that of OH. However, no such differences between inelastic and reactive scattering dynamics have been seen in previous work on pure hydrocarbon liquids, in particular the benchmark, partially branched hydrocarbon, squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}). The comparison between inelastic and reactive scattering dynamics indicates that inelastic scattering from the ionic liquid surfaces takes place predominantly at non-reactive sites that are effectively stiffer than the reactive alkyl chains, with a higher proportion of collisions sampling such sites for [emim][NTf{sub 2}] than for [C{sub 12}mim][NTf{sub 2}].

Wu Bohan; Zhang Jianming; Minton, Timothy K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); McKendrick, Kenneth G. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Slattery, John M. [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Yockel, Scott; Schatz, George C. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

154

Alkaline Ionic Liquids as Catalysts: A Novel and Green Process for the Dehydration of Carbohydrates To Give 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alkaline Ionic Liquids as Catalysts: A Novel and Green Process for the Dehydration of Carbohydrates To Give 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural ... An efficient process for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) catalyzed by the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide ([BMIM]OH), using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent, has been developed. ... (6, 7) The efficient transformation of hexoses such as fructose, glucose, galactose, and mannose or disaccharides such as sucrose and cellobiose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)—which is regarded as a versatile platform molecule and is used in the production of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers—is a key step in the use of carbohydrates to produce liquid fuels and value-added chemicals. ...

Yong-Shui Qu; Yan-Lei Song; Chong-Pin Huang; Jie Zhang; Biao-Hua Chen

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

IUPAC Partnership Develops Standards and a Data Retrieval System for Ionic Liquids J.W. Magee, J.A. Widegren, D.G. Archer, S.L. Outcalt, M.Frenkel, R.D. Chirico, Q. Dong, A. Laesecke,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature, have been proposed as solvents for Green Processing. In spite of the many advantages with a knowledge base to exploit these solvents. To achieve these goals in the shortest time possible and reach chemical structure, solvent properties, ionic liquids use in synthesis, reviews, reactions and catalysis

Magee, Joseph W.

156

Radiation induced redox reactions and fragmentation of constituent ions in ionic liquids II. Imidazolium cations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In part 1 of this study, radiolytic degradation of constituent anions in ionic liquids (ILs) was examined. The present study continues the themes addressed in part 1 and examines the radiation chemistry of 1,3-dialkyl substituted imidazolium cations, which currently comprise the most practically important and versatile class of ionic liquid cations. For comparison, we also examined 1,3-dimethoxy- and 2-methyl-substituted imidazolium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations. In addition to identification of radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and selective deuterium substitution, we analyzed stable radiolytic products using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS). Our EPR studies reveal rich chemistry initiated through 'ionization of the ions': oxidation and the formation of radical dications in the aliphatic arms of the parent cations (leading to deprotonation and the formation of alkyl radicals in these arms) and reduction of the parent cation, yielding 2-imidazolyl radicals. The subsequent reactions of these radicals depend on the nature of the IL. If the cation is 2-substituted, the resulting 2-imidazolyl radical is relatively stable. If there is no substitution at C(2), the radical then either is protonated or reacts with the parent cation forming a C(2)-C(2) {sigma}{sigma}*-bound dimer radical cation. In addition to these reactions, when methoxy or C{sub {alpha}}-substituted alkyl groups occupy the N(1,3) positions, their elimination is observed. The elimination of methyl groups from N(1,3) was not observed. Product analyses of imidazolium liquids irradiated in the very-high-dose regime (6.7 MGy) reveal several detrimental processes, including volatilization, acidification, and oligomerization. The latter yields a polymer with m/z of 650 {+-} 300 whose radiolytic yield increases with dose (0.23 monomer units per 100 eV for 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium trifluorosulfonate). Gradual generation of this polymer accounts for the steady increase in the viscosity of the ILs upon irradiation. Previous studies at lower dose have missed this species due to its wide mass distribution (stretching out to m/z 1600) and broad NMR lines, which make it harder to detect at lower concentrations. Among other observed changes is the formation of water immiscible fractions in hydrophilic ILs and water miscible fractions in hydrophobic ILs. The latter is due to anion fragmentation. The import of these observations for use of ILs as extraction solvents in nuclear cycle separations is discussed.

Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. W.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Hatcher, J.; Wishart, J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (BNL)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

157

Towards In situ extraction of fine chemicals and biorenewable fuels from fermentation broths using Ionic liquids and the Intensification of contacting by the application of Electric Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

product separations. For developing environmentally sustainable processes, ionic liquids are touted as greener alternative to organic solvents not only because of their relatively low volatility but also due to the ability to tune their properties...

Gangu, Satya Aravind

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Hazardous Materials j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / j h a z m a t Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption C. Zhang a,b,∗ , S.V. Malhotra b,1 , A.J. Francis c,d a College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China 300071 b Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07104 USA c Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 USA d Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 South Korea h i g h l i g h t s * Three ILs showed varying degrees of toxicity to Clostridium sp.

159

Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Varanasi, Patanjali [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Singh, Seema [Joint Bioenergy Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Physical insight into switchgrass dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize solutions of switchgrass and the constituent biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a physical mixture of them mimicking the composition of switchgrass, dissolved in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. The results demonstrate that the IL dissolves the cellulose fibrils of switchgrass, although a supramolecular biopolymer network remains that is not present in solutions of the individual biopolymers and that does not self-assemble in a solution containing the physical mixture of the individual biopolymers. The persistence of a network-like structure indicates that dissolving switchgrass in the IL does not disrupt all of the physical entanglements and covalent linkages between the biopolymers created during plant growth. Reconstitution of the IL-dissolved switchgrass yields carbohydrate-rich material containing cellulose with a low degree of crystallinity, as determined by powder X-ray diffraction, which impacts potential down-stream uses of the biopolymers produced by the process. The data suggests that the use of chemical additives which would break bonds that exist between the lignin and hemicellulose might improve the purity of the resulting product, but may not be able to disrupt the highly physically-entangled biopolymer network sufficiently to facilitate their separation.

Wang, Hui [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Gurau, Gabriela [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Neil, Hugh [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, Barbara R [ORNL] [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL] [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL] [ORNL; Rogers, Robin D [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

162

Higher ionic conductive ceria-based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Codoping is used to enhance the ionic conductivity of ceria-based electrolytes. Sm 3 + and Nd 3 + were selected as codopants to promote low migration energy paths for oxygen vacancydiffusion thereby increasing the ionic conductivity. Moreover the use of codopants also increases the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius relationship thus further improving the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity of Sm x Nd x Ce 1 ? 2 x O 2 ? ? solid solutions is measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was observed that for Sm 0.075 Nd 0.075 Ce 0.85 O 2 ? ? the grain ionic conductivity was 14.0 × 10 ? 3 S cm ? 1 at 550 ° C which makes it one of the most promising ceria-based electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

Shobit Omar; Eric D. Wachsman; Juan C. Nino

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Artificial neural network as an applicable tool to predict the binary heat capacity of mixtures containing ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ionic liquids (ILs) are amazing solvents gain an increasingly attention in the different areas of chemistry and chemical engineering industries during the past decade. Similar to every promising solvent, knowing the physiochemical properties of the \\{ILs\\} seems to be crucial to develop new designed \\{ILs\\} based industries. In this direction, the present study extends an artificial neural network (ANN) to correlate the binary heat capacity of ILs. To verify the proposed network, 1571 binary heat capacity data points were collected from the previously published literatures and divided in to two subsets namely training and testing subsets. The optimum parameters of the network including the number of hidden layer, numbers of neurons and transfer functions in hidden and output layers were obtained using these subsets data points. In addition, the predictive capability of the optimized network was validated using the testing data points (not considered in the training stage). The optimized network configuration consisted of one hidden layer with sixteen neurons and tansig and purelin transfer functions for the hidden and output layers. The obtained results from the training and test stages show that the proposed network was able to accurately predict the binary heat capacity of \\{ILs\\} binary mixtures with total absolute average relative deviation (AARD%) of 1.60% and relation coefficient (R2) value of 0.9975.

Mostafa Lashkarbolooki; Ali Zeinolabedini Hezave; Shahab Ayatollahi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Zeolite-promoted transformation of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A variety of zeolite catalysts were investigated for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), and the results revealed that H?-zeolite with a unique BEA structure and a moderate Si/Al ratio of 25 possessed the highest catalytic activity, which resulted in 50.3% HMF yield with 80.6% glucose conversion at a reaction temperature of 150 °C for only 50 min. In the presence of H?-zeolite (Si/Al = 25) and [BMIM]Cl, the reaction kinetics for the conversion of glucose into HMF was studied and determined to be in accordance with a first-order reaction rate equation, and the activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 97.4 kJ mol?1 and 2.2 × 1010 min?1, respectively. Moreover, a plausible mechanism involving the isomerization of glucose into fructose followed by the dehydration of fructose into HMF was proposed on the basis of the synergistic catalytic effect between Lewis acid sites and Brønsted acid sites of H?-zeolite. H?-zeolite (Si/Al = 25) could be easily regenerated via a simple calcination, and a similar HMF yield with the first reaction run was observed in the seventh reaction run. More importantly, H?-zeolite (Si/Al = 25) and [BMIM]Cl were also confirmed to be an excellent combination for the conversion of other carbohydrates such as fructose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, starch and cellulose into HMF.

Lei Hu; Zhen Wu; Jiaxing Xu; Yong Sun; Lu Lin; Shijie Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Catalytic conversion of cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over chromium trichloride in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An efficient method for converting cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) using an inexpensive ionic...3·6H2O) was developed. The effects of hydrochloric acid loading, catalyst dosage, reaction temperatur...

Shui Wang; Yizhen Du; Wenqian Zhang…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylammonium ionic liquids Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 99 Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices Summary: Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in...

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylimidazolium ionic liquids Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 73 Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices Summary: Use of polymerionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in...

168

Local Depolarization in Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids/Water Mixtures: Car–Parrinello and Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Local Depolarization in Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids/Water Mixtures: Car–Parrinello and Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulation ... Their analysis of the molecular electrostatic properties compared with the previous work on smaller number of ion pairs per unit cell shows that the immediate liquid environment predominantly affects the molecular electric dipole moments, whereas the bulk contributions appear to be minor. ... The ion-pair/water interaction energy (Einter), which is defined as the difference between the energy of the ion pair and water system (EIL-W) and the sum of the energies of the single ion pair (EIL) and water (EW), can be calculated by:(1)Each complex and corresponding water and anion were optimized for structure and energy at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory by the above computational procedure. ...

Mohammad Hadi Ghatee; Amin Reza Zolghadr

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

169

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...experimental details.) Effect of Biomass-Derived...performed in triplicate, and average yields are reported...biomass into furans for fuels and chemicals . J Am Chem...Brandt A ( 2010 ) The effect of the ionic...estimates were made using prices in bulk chemical supplier...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

may help to design green solvents for specific applications.liquids as new, green, and non-toxic solvents. However,

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Catalysis of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Supported PdxCoy Nanoparticles Prepared by a Pyrolysis Method Using Ionic Liquids as the Solvent toward Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Method Using Ionic Liquids as the Solvent toward Ethanol Oxidation Reaction Hongwei Yang,a Yahui WangCoy/MWCNTs catalysts toward ethanol oxida- tion reaction (EOR) was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was revealed that the onset potential was ~90 mV lower and the peak current was about four times higher for ethanol oxidation

Guo, John Zhanhu

172

Colorimetric Au Nanoparticle Probe for Speciation Test of Arsenite and Arsenate Inspired by Selective Interaction between Phosphonium Ionic Liquid and Arsenite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Colorimetric Au Nanoparticle Probe for Speciation Test of Arsenite and Arsenate Inspired by Selective Interaction between Phosphonium Ionic Liquid and Arsenite ... With the colorimetric probe, we developed a protocol for naked eye speciation test of AsIII and AsV at levels below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline of 10 µg L?1. ...

Zhiqiang Tan; Jingfu Liu; Yongguang Yin; Qiantao Shi; Chuanyong Jing; Guibin Jiang

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

173

Chlorocuprate Ionic Liquid Functionalized Biochar Sulfonic Acid as an Efficiently Biomimetic Catalyst for Direct Hydrolysis of Bamboo under Microwave Irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

National & Local United Engineering Laboratory for New Petrochemical Materials & Fine Utilization of Resources, Key Laboratory of Resource Fine-Processing and Advanced Materials of Hunan Province and Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, People’s Republic of China ... Recently, cellulose hydrolysis to reducing sugars with Br?nsted acid catalysis(7, 8) and the conversion of cellulose or sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) catalyzed by metal chlorides(9-11) in some ionic liquids (ILs) have gained increasing research attention, because these ILs possess a good solubility for cellulose, which can lead to significantly improved hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose. ... Verevkin, S. P.; Emel’yanenko, V. N.; Stepurko, E. N.; Ralys, R. V.; Zaitsau, D. H.; Stark, A.Biomass-derived platform chemicals: thermodynamic studies on the conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into bulk intermediates Ind. Eng. ...

Chao Zhang; Zaihui Fu; Baohua Dai; Shunqin Zen; Yachun Liu; Qiong Xu; Steven Robert Kirk; Dulin Yin

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

174

Kinetic studies on chromium-catalyzed conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in alkylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a promising green platform chemical derived from biomass. Kinetic studies were performed on chromium chloride-catalyzed conversion of glucose into HMF in alkylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids. The main by-products are disaccharides, fructose, glyceraldehyde, formic acid, and humins. The formation of HMF is strongly affected by reaction temperature and initial glucose concentration. The reaction is second order in glucose, with an activation energy of 134.9 kJ mol?1. The order in chromium is first, indicating that the rate-determining isomerization reaction is catalyzed by a mononuclear chromium species. The observed glucose conversion rate constant decreases as initial glucose concentration increases, suggesting that the catalytic activity of the chloride anion is significantly restrained by the hydrogen bonding with hydroxyl groups. A simplified kinetic model is developed to describe the behaviors of glucose conversion and HMF formation. This model is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Jian Zhang; Yan Cao; Huiquan Li; Xinbin Ma

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

The dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural efficiently catalyzed by acidic ion-exchange resin in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficient dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was developed in ionic liquids (ILs) with acidic ion-exchange resins as catalyst. By screening different resins and \\{ILs\\} respectively, it was found that the structure of resins and \\{ILs\\} had a prominent effect on the dehydration of fructose. In 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl), D001-cc resin showed a high activity. And then the effects of reaction temperatures, dosages of D001-cc, and different initial fructose loadings on the dehydration of fructose were studied in detail. The system of D001-cc resin and [Bmim]Cl exhibited a constant activity at 75 °C for 20 min and a 86.2% yield of HMF was obtained after seven recycles. At 75 °C for 20 min, a 93.0% yield of HMF from the dehydration of fructose was obtained.

Yuan Li; Hui Liu; Changhua Song; Xiaomin Gu; Huaming Li; Wenshuai Zhu; Sheng Yin; Changri Han

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ionic-Liquid Component Dependence of Carrier Injection and Mobility for Electric-Double-Layer Organic Thin-Film Transistors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ionic-Liquid Component Dependence of Carrier Injection and Mobility for Electric-Double-Layer Organic Thin-Film Transistors ... The values of tan ? can be expressed by the following equation(1)where IC and IR are the currents of CIL and the parasitic resistance (RP), respectively, and ? is the angular frequency. ... We estimated the thickness (dOX) of the oxidized layer from the CV curves, using(2)where Q is the amount of charge calculated from the CV curve; VU is the unit cell volume; n is the number of molecules in the unit cell; n? is the number of the reaction electrons per one molecule; e is the elementary charge; and A is the area of the thin film. ...

Takuya Fujimoto; Michio M. Matsushita; Kunio Awaga

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

177

Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid chromatography mobile phases as interference ions in liquid Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based...

178

Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and yard waste, respectively...for yard waste control strain...pCellulose on plant biomass treated...liquid pre-treatment . Biofuel...Insights into plant cell wall degradation...bioenergy systems . Biofuels Bioprod...2010 ) An integrated catalytic approach...

Gregory Bokinsky; Pamela P. Peralta-Yahya; Anthe George; Bradley M. Holmes; Eric J. Steen; Jeffrey Dietrich; Taek Soon Lee; Danielle Tullman-Ercek; Christopher A. Voigt; Blake A. Simmons; Jay D. Keasling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microbial cellulose utilization: Fundamentals and biotechnology . Microbiol...precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from...ZZQQhy40 minutes in a liquid cycle. After cooling, MOPS-M9 salts...

Gregory Bokinsky; Pamela P. Peralta-Yahya; Anthe George; Bradley M. Holmes; Eric J. Steen; Jeffrey Dietrich; Taek Soon Lee; Danielle Tullman-Ercek; Christopher A. Voigt; Blake A. Simmons; Jay D. Keasling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

FRAGMENTATION OF COAL AND IMPROVED DISPERSION OF LIQUEFACTION CATALYSTS USING IONIC LIQUIDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal has been utilized for coal-to-liquid fuels and coal-to-chemical industries both historically in South Africa and recently in China. Abundant bituminous and low-rank coal reserves… (more)

Cetiner, Ruveyda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

An innovative experimental approach aiming to understand and quantify the actual fire hazards of ionic liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

access to fundamental flammability properties of these chemicals through the use of Pyrolysis Combustion to flash point values, various threshold values being considered in different regulatory frameworks to rate, in the Classification Labelling and Packaging regulation,14 flammable liquids are those having a flash point below

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural through the dehydration of sugars with caprolactam hydrogen sulfate ([CPL]HSO4) ionic liquid catalyst in a water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether mixed solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) through the dehydration of sugars...4) ionic liquid or using metal halide as the co-catalyst in a new water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether solvent system....

Pingzhen Huang; Aijuan Gu; Jinxing Wang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Technical Highlights for July 2012 New Collaboration Underway to Investigate Ionic Liquids for Enhancing Engine Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Isobutanol- and Ethanol-Gasoline Fuel Blends A preliminary analysis was performed by Mike Kass, Steve Pawel Exposed to Ethanol-blended Gasoline The ORNL/TM-2012/88 report entitled Compatibility Study for Plastic and Chris Janke which compared the compatibility of selected elastomers and metals to gasoline-based test

184

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for other IL-based process technology currently...transformation and separation processes (1, 2). ILs are often...capture (10), and biodiesel production (11). Among the...biofuels. Chemical processes to produce ILs directly...knowledge) synthesis and evaluation of ILs from these...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Viscoelastic Properties, Ionic Conductivity, and Materials Design Considerations for Poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene)-Based Ion Gel Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The viscoelastic properties and ionic conductivity of ion gels based on the self-assembly of a poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene) (SOS) triblock copolymer (M{sub n,S} = 3 kDa, M{sub n,O} = 35 kDa) in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([EMI][TFSA]) were investigated over the composition range of 10-50 wt % SOS and the temperature range of 25-160 C. The poly(styrene) (PS) end-blocks associate into micelles, whereas the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) midblocks are well-solvated by this ionic liquid. The ion gel with 10 wt % SOS melts at 54 C, with the longest relaxation time exhibiting a similar temperature dependence to that of the viscosity of bulk PS. However, the actual values of the gel relaxation time are more than 4 orders of magnitude larger than the relaxation time of bulk PS. This is attributed to the thermodynamic penalty of pulling PS end-blocks through the PEO/[EMI][TFSA] matrix. Ion gels with 20-50 wt % SOS do not melt and show two plateaus in the storage modulus over the temperature and frequency ranges measured. The one at higher frequencies is that of an entangled network of PEO strands with PS cross-links; the modulus displays a quadratic dependence on polymer weight fraction and agrees with the prediction of linear viscoelastic theory assuming half of the PEO chains are elastically effective. The frequency that separates the two plateaus, {omega}{sub c}, reflects the time scale of PS end-block pull-out. The other plateau at lower frequencies is that of a congested micelle solution with PS cores and PEO coronas, which has a power law dependence on domain spacing similar to diblock melts. The ionic conductivity of the ion gels is compared to PEO homopolymer solutions at similar polymer concentrations; the conductivity is reduced by a factor of 2.1 or less, decreases with increasing PS volume fraction, and follows predictions based on a simple obstruction model. Our collective results allow the formulation of basic design considerations for optimizing the mechanical properties, thermal stability, and ionic conductivity of these gels.

Zhang, Sipei; Lee, Keun Hyung; Sun, Jingru; Frisbie, C. Daniel; Lodge, Timothy P. (UMM)

2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

186

Polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-supported recyclable catalysts for biomass conversion into HMF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This contribution reports the first study of recyclable PIL-supported metal (Cr, Al) catalysts for effective biomass (glucose and cellulose) conversion into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a key biorefining building block and biomass platform chemical. Of the five different \\{PILs\\} investigated, poly(3-butyl-1-vinylimidazolium chloride), P[BVIM]Cl, has been found to be most effective; when combined with CrCl2 in situ or used as the preformed PIL-metalate P[BVIM]+[CrCl3]? in DMF, this PIL-supported catalyst converts glucose to HMF in 65.8% yield at 120 °C for 3 h. This yield is higher than those achieved by the catalysts based on the PIL monomer, [BVIM]Cl–CrCl2, as well as by the most commonly used molecular IL based catalyst, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl)–CrCl2, under otherwise identical conditions. The P[BVIM]Cl–CrCl2 catalyst system also works well for the cellulose-to-HMF conversion via a two-step process. The analogous PIL–Al catalyst, P[BVIM]Cl–Et2AlCl, is less effective than the PIL–CrCl2 system, but recyclability tests indicate the PIL–Al system is more recyclable thus achieving a nearly constant HMF yield upon 6 cycles.

Dajiang (D.J.) Liu; Eugene Y.-X. Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

188

Assessing the N2O/CO2 high pressure separation using ionic liquids with the soft-SAFT EoS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The capabilities of the soft-SAFT EoS to accurately describe the thermophysical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) and the phase equilibria of their mixtures with greenhouse gases is extended in this work to address the CO2 and the N2O solubilities in [C4mim]+ \\{ILs\\} from different anion families. In addition to the commonly studied [BF4]? and [NTf2]? anions, the solubility of these gases in \\{ILs\\} with the anions [N(CN)2]?, [SCN]? and [Ac]? is also studied and compared among them, searching for the best system for separation purposes. A coarse-grained molecular model is proposed within the soft-SAFT framework for each newly studied IL based on structural information, guidance obtained from quantum calculations and previous work. The most adequate set of molecular parameters are selected from the \\{ILs\\} density description and from the ability to reproduce the N2O/CO2 solubilities in these \\{ILs\\} at the lowest and highest temperatures for which experimental data are available. A discussion about the association molecular parameters values and their relation with the anion nature is also presented. With these molecular models, the description of the high pressure phase equilibria of the binary systems composed of the two gases and the \\{ILs\\} referred above are described with soft-SAFT for the remaining isotherms. For most systems, the equilibria behavior of the mixtures is predicted without using any binary parameter. When good agreement with the experimental data is not achieved, a single temperature independent binary parameter is enough to allow a good description. Finally, Henry's law constants are calculated from soft-SAFT to evaluate the selectivity of those \\{ILs\\} for the CO2/N2O separation.

Luís M.C. Pereira; Mariana B. Oliveira; Felix Llovell; Lourdes F. Vega; João A.P. Coutinho

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Amine-functionalized task-specific ionic liquids: a mechanistic explanation for the dramatic increase in viscosity upon complexation with CO{sub 2} from molecular simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capture of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion, particularly in coal-fired power plants, represents a critical component of efforts aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere. Recently, a series of second-generation task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) containing amine functional groups have been synthesized and demonstrated to have much higher capacities for CO{sub 2} due to their reactivity with CO{sub 2}, as well unusually high viscosities in both the neat and complexed states. The current work extends the seminal studies of CO{sub 2} capture with ionic liquids (ILs) by providing insight from simulations into the mechanism responsible for the dramatic increase in viscosity upon complexation. Simulations conclusively demonstrate that the slow translational and rotational dynamics, which are manifest in the high viscosity, may be attributable to the formation of a strong, pervasive hydrogen-bonded network. Semiquantitative estimates of the cation and anion self-diffusion coefficients and rotational time constants, as well as detailed hydrogen bond analysis, are consistent with the experimentally observed formation of glassy or gel-like materials upon contact with CO{sub 2}. This has significant implications for the design of new approaches or materials involving ILs that take advantage of these preconceived limitations, in the synthesis or manipulation of new TSIL frameworks for CO{sub 2} capture, and in novel experimental studies of chemistries and dynamics in persistent heterogeneous environments.

Gutowski, K.E.; Maginn, E.J. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Optofluidic-Tunable Color Filters And Spectroscopy Based On Liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Based On Liquid-Crystal Microflows. Abstract: The integration of color filters with microfluidics has attracted substantial attention in recent years, for on-chip absorption,...

191

Development of a Conceptual Process for Selective CO{sub 2} Capture from Fuel Gas Streams Using [hmim][Tf2N] Ionic Liquid as a Physical Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ionic Liquid (IL) [hmim][Tf2N] was used as a physical solvent in an Aspen Plus simulation, employing the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (P-R EOS) with Boston-Mathias (BM) alpha function and standard mixing rules, to develop a conceptual process for CO{sub 2} capture from a shifted warm fuel gas stream produced from Pittsburgh # 8 coal for a 400 MWe power plant. The physical properties of the IL, including density, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure and heat capacity were obtained from literature and modeled as a function of temperature. Also, available experimental solubility values for CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CO, and CH{sub 4} in this IL were compiled and their binary interaction parameters ({delta}{sub ij} and l{sub ij}) were optimized and correlated as functions of temperature. The Span-Wager Equation-of-State EOS was also employed to generate CO{sub 2} solubilities in [hmim][Tf2N] at high pressures (up to 10 MPa) and temperatures (up to 510 K). The conceptual process developed consisted of 4 adiabatic absorbers (2.4 m ID, 30 m high) arranged in parallel and packed with Plastic Pall Rings of 0.025 m for CO{sub 2} capture; 3 flash drums arranged in series for solvent (IL) regeneration with the pressure-swing option; and a pressure-intercooling system for separating and pumping CO{sub 2} up to 153 bar to the sequestration sites. The compositions of all process streams, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency, and net power were calculated using Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that, based on the composition of the inlet gas stream to the absorbers, 95.67 mol% of CO{sub 2} was captured and sent to sequestration sites; 99.5 mol% of H{sub 2} was separated and sent to turbines; the solvent exhibited a minimum loss of 0.31 mol%; and the net power balance of the entire system was 30.81 MW. These results indicated that [hmim][Tf2N] IL could be used as a physical solvent for CO{sub 2} capture from warm shifted fuel gas streams with high efficiency.

Basha, Omar M.; Keller, Murphy J.; Luebke, David R.; Resnik, Kevin; P Morsi, Badie I.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

193

Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

194

Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

195

Investigations of amino acid-based surfactants at liquid interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Herein are presented collective studies of amino acid-based surfactants, also known as lipoamino acids, at liquid interfaces. Chapter III describes an investigation of domain morphology of N-Stearoylglutamic acid (N-SGA) Langmuir monolayers...

Yang, Dengliang

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Recombination of Photogenerated Lophyl Radicals in Imidazolium-Based ILs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Recombination of Photogenerated Lophyl Radicals in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Recombination of Photogenerated Lophyl Radicals in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids V. Strehmel, J. F. Wishart, D. E. Polyansky and B. Strehmel ChemPhysChem 10, 3112-3118 (2009). [Find paper at Wiley] Abstract: Laser flash photolysis is applied to study the recombination reaction of lophyl radicals in ionic liquids in comparison with dimethylsulfoxide as an example of a traditional organic solvent. The latter exhibits a similar micropolarity as the ionic liquids. The ionic liquids investigated are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (1), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (2), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetafluoroborate (3). The recombination of the photolytic generated lophyl radicals occur significantly faster in the ionic liquids than expected from their

197

Theinfluence of a hierarchical porous carbon network on the coherent dynamics of a nanoconfined room temperature ionic liquid: A neutron spin echo and atomistic simulation investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular-scale dynamic properties of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, or [C4mim+ ][Tf2N ], confined in hierarchical microporous mesoporous carbon, were investigated using neutron spin echo (NSE) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Both NSE and MD reveal pronounced slowing of the overall collective dynamics, including the presence of an immobilized fraction of RTIL at the pore wall, on the time scales of these approaches. A fraction of the dynamics, corresponding to RTIL inside 0.75 nm micropores located along the mesopore surfaces, are faster than those of RTIL in direct contact with the walls of 5.8 nm and 7.8 nm cylindrical mesopores. This behavior is ascribed to the near-surface confined-ion density fluctuations resulting from the ion ion and ion wall interactions between the micropores and mesopores as well as their confinement geometries. Strong micropore RTIL interactions result in less-coordinated RTIL within the micropores than in the bulk fluid. Increasing temperature from 296 K to 353 K reduces the immobilized RTIL fraction and results in nearly an order of magnitude increase in the RTIL dynamics. The observed interfacial phenomena underscore the importance of tailoring the surface properties of porous carbons to achieve desirable electrolyte dynamic behavior, since this impacts the performance in applications such as electrical energy storage devices.

Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Feng, Guang [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Li, Song [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Arend, Nikolas [ORNL; Faraone, Antonio [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Using Caenorhabditis elegans to probe toxicity of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride based ionic liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are gaining attention as new solvents within the green chemistry community; however this attention has quickly attention as new solvents within the green chemistry community.1 This attention is due in part 35487, USA. E-mail: RDRogers@bama.ua.edu; Fax: 205-348-0823; Tel: 205-348-4323 b Center for Green

Caldwell, Guy

199

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

200

Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase entrapped in nano gold particles-ionic liquid-N,N-dimethylformamide composite film on glassy carbon electrode and glucose sensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) entrapped in nano gold particles (NAs)-N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluophosphate (BMIMPF6) composite film on a glassy carbon electrode (NAs-DMF-GOD (BMIMPF6)/GC) has been investigated for first time. The immobilized GOD exhibits a pair of well-defined reversible peaks in 0.050 M pH 5 phosphate solutions (PS), resulting from the redox of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in GOD. The peak currents are three times as large as those of GOD-NAs-DMF film coated GC electrode (i.e. NAs-DMF-GOD (water)/GC). In addition, the NAs-DMF-GOD (BMIMPF6) composite material has higher thermal stability than NAs-DMF-GOD (water). Results show that ionic liquid BMIMPF6, DMF and \\{NAs\\} are requisite for GOD to exhibit a pair of stable and reversible peaks. Without any of them, the peaks of GOD become small and unstable. Upon the addition of glucose, the peak currents of GOD decrease and a new cathodic peak occurs at ?0.8 V (versus SCE), which corresponds to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by the catalytic oxidation of glucose. The peak current of the new cathodic peak and the glucose concentration show a linear relationship in the ranges of 1.0 × 10?7 to 1.0 × 10?6 M and 2.0 × 10?6 to 2.0 × 10?5 M. The kinetic parameter Imax of H2O2 is estimated to be 1.19 × 10?6 A and the apparent Km (Michaelis–Menten constant) for the enzymatic reaction is 3.49 ?M. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human plasma and beer samples, and the average recoveries are 97.2% and 99%, respectively.

Jiangwen Li; Jingjing Yu; Faqiong Zhao; Baizhao Zeng

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Synthesis and characterization of hybrid materials based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid and Dawson-type tungstophosphate K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O and K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we synthesized hybrid materials using well-Dawson polyoxometalates (POMs), K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O or K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O and a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]). K, W, P and CHN elemental analysis showed that one mole of [H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 7-} reacts with 6 moles of BMIM{sup +} and one mole of [P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} reacts with 4 moles of BMIM{sup +} to form, respectively, K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. X-ray diffraction illustrated amorphous structure of the hybrid materials. FT-IR spectra showed the presence of both 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and the Dawson anion. TG analysis displayed a relative thermal stability of the hybrid materials compared to the parents Dawson POMs. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the reduction peak potentials of the Dawson anion in the hybrid materials shift towards negative values and the shift is more pronounced for K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} compared to K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. This was attributed to a decrease in the acidity of the Dawson POM anion in the hybrid material. -- Graphical abstract: Powder XRD patterns of (a) PW{sub 18}, (b) K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}, (c) P{sub 2}W{sub 18}, and (d) K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]) reacts with K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O to form K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} [BMIM][BF{sub 4}] reacts with K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O to form K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} displayed amorphous structures. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} illustrated low water content. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} showed improved thermal stability.

Ammam, Malika, E-mail: m78ammam@yahoo.f [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), K.U Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Fransaer, Jan [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), K.U Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Elastic parameters of a water-based magnetic liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors repeat studies on the acoustic parameters of water-based magnetic liquids to find a better method of measuring the speed and to cover a wider concentration range. The pulse method is used, as it works well in measuring the speed of sound in ordinary liquids. A figure shows the block diagram. Figures show the dependence of magnetization on field strength and temperature dependence of ultrasound. The speeds measured for the specimens show that the parameter obtained remains constant within the errors of measurement in longitudinal and transverse fields.

Berkovskii, B.M.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Reduced graphene oxide based silver sulfide hybrid films formed at a liquid/liquid interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Free-standing, ultra-thin films of silver sulfide and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based silver sulfide hybrids are prepared at a liquid/liquid interface employing in situ chemical reaction strategy. Ag{sub 2}S and RGO?Ag{sub 2}S hybrid films are characterized by various techniques such as UV-visible and photo luminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of hybrid films consists of Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals on RGO surface while Ag{sub 2}S films contains branched network of dendritic structures. RGO?Ag{sub 2}S exhibit interesting optical and electrical properties. The hybrid films absorb in the region 500–650 nm and show emission in the red region. A higher conductance is observed for the hybrid films arising from the RGO component. This simple low cost method can be extended to prepare other RGO based metal sulfides.

Bramhaiah, K., E-mail: jsneena@csmr.res.in; John, Neena S., E-mail: jsneena@csmr.res.in [Centre for Soft Matter Research, P.B. No.1329, Jalahalli, Bangalore-560013 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

204

Charge Compensation in RE3+ (RE = Eu, Gd) and M+ (M = Li, Na, K) Co-Doped Alkaline Earth Nanofluorides Obtained by Microwave Reaction with Reactive Ionic Liquids Leading to Improved Optical Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline earth fluorides are extraordinarily promising host matrices for phosphor materials with regard to rare earth doping. In particular, quantum cutting materials, which might considerably enhance the efficiency of mercury-free fluorescent lamps or SC solar cells, are often based on rare earth containing crystalline fluorides such as NaGdF4, GdF3 or LaF3. Substituting most of the precious rare earth ions and simultaneously retaining the efficiency of the phosphor is a major goal. Alkaline earth fluoride nanoparticles doped with trivalent lanthanide ions (which are required for the quantum cutting phenomenon) were prepared via a microwave assisted method in ionic liquids. As doping trivalent ions into a host with divalent cations requires charge compensation, this effect was thoroughly studied by powder X-ray and electron diffraction, luminescence spectroscopy and 23Na, 139La and 19F solid state NMR spectroscopy. Monovalent alkali ions were codoped with the trivalent lanthanide ions to relieve stress and achieve a better crystallinity and higher quantum cutting abilities of the prepared material. 19F-magic angle spinning (MAS)-NMR-spectra, assisted by 19F{23Na} rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) studies, reveal distinct local fluoride environments, the populations of which are discussed in relation to spatial distribution and clustering models. In the co-doped samples, fluoride species having both Na+ and La3+ ions within their coordination sphere can be identified and quantified. This interplay of mono- and trivalent ions in the CaF2 lattice appears to be an efficient charge compensation mechanism that allows for improved performance characteristics of such co-doped phosphor materials.

Lorbeer, C [Ruhr-Universitat Bochum; Behrends, F [Westfalische Wilhelsm-Universitat Munster; Cybinska, J [Ruhr Universitat Bochum; Eckert, H [Westfalische Wilhelsm-Universitat Munster; Mudring, Anja -V [Ames Laboratory

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Thermodynamic properties and atomic structure of Ca-based liquid alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To identify the most promising positive electrodes for Ca-based liquid metal batteries, the thermodynamic properties of diverse Ca-based liquid alloys were investigated. The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Sb alloys were ...

Poizeau, Sophie (Sophie Marie Claire)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Ionic Power Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ionic Power Systems Ltd Ionic Power Systems Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Ionic Power Systems Ltd. Place San Diego, California Zip 92126 Product Ionix Power Systems, Ltd. is a developer of new and innovative products and tools designed to aid in the development of next-generation energy technologies such as batteries, fuel cells, and advanced capacitors. References Ionic Power Systems Ltd.[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ionic Power Systems Ltd. is a company located in San Diego, California . References ↑ "Ionic Power Systems Ltd." Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Ionic_Power_Systems_Ltd&oldid=347099" Categories:

207

Lower 48 States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 147 1980's 159 161 157 157 179 168 169 162 162 165 1990's 158 153 147 153 157 145 162 174 178 199 2000's 208 215 207 191 182 174 182 181 173 178 2010's 224 211 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Estimated Production Lower 48 States Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production Lease Condensate

208

Ionic dynamics in the glass-forming liquid Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4: A molecular dynamics study with a polarizable model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The microscopic dynamics of the fragile glass-forming liquid Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4 is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation with a polarizable model. Polarization effects are included within a fluctuating partial charges approach for the nitrate ion. Single-particle time-correlation functions are compared with the ones obtained by the nonpolarizable model counterpart. It is argued that the increased ionic mobility due to polarization effects corrects the stiff dynamics of the nonpolarizable model. Among the collective functions that have been calculated with the polarizable model, special attention is paid to the density fluctuations in wave vectors around the first sharp diffraction peak of the static structure factor. In line with recent neutron-scattering experiments, an intermediate-range-order dynamics has been observed in the simulated system.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2001-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

209

Ionic Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Processes based on the properties of ions, encountered in brackish and seawater, are described and discussed in this chapter. Whereas in distillation the amount and kind of salts contained in the raw feed wate...

Anthony A. Delyannis; Eurydike A. Delyannis

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

211

Extraction of Tetra-Oxo Anions into a Hydrophobic, Ionic Liquid-Based Solvent without Concomitant Ion Exchange  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I.A.S. thanks M. Jensen, R. Chiarizia, L. Soderholm, M. Goldberg, T. Marin, J. Muntean, W. Ebert, J. Fortner, J. Cunnane, and A. Guelis for technical expertise and review. ... Poineau, F.; Du Mazaubrun, J.; Ford, D.; Fortner, J.; Kropf, J.; Silva, G. W. C.; Smith, N.; Long, K.; Jarvinen, G.; Czerwinski, K. Uranium/Technetium Separation for the UREX Process - Synthesis and Characterization of Solid Reprocessing Forms Radiochim. ...

Dominique C. Stepinski; George F. Vandegrift; Ilya A. Shkrob; James F. Wishart; Kijana Kerr; Mark L. Dietz; Diab T. D. Qadah; Sarah L. Garvey

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

212

PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS - PART III  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid waste chemistry control program is designed to reduce the pitting corrosion occurrence on tank walls. The chemistry control program has been implemented, in part, by applying engineering judgment safety factors to experimental data. However, the simple application of a general safety factor can result in use of excessive corrosion inhibiting agents. The required use of excess corrosion inhibitors can be costly for tank maintenance, waste processing, and in future tank closure. It is proposed that a probability-based approach can be used to quantify the risk associated with the chemistry control program. This approach can lead to the application of tank-specific chemistry control programs reducing overall costs associated with overly conservative use of inhibitor. Furthermore, when using nitrite as an inhibitor, the current chemistry control program is based on a linear model of increased aggressive species requiring increased protective species. This linear model was primarily supported by experimental data obtained from dilute solutions with nitrate concentrations less than 0.6 M, but is used to produce the current chemistry control program up to 1.0 M nitrate. Therefore, in the nitrate space between 0.6 and 1.0 M, the current control limit is based on assumptions that the linear model developed from data in the <0.6 M region is applicable in the 0.6-1.0 M region. Due to this assumption, further investigation of the nitrate region of 0.6 M to 1.0 M has potential for significant inhibitor reduction, while maintaining the same level of corrosion risk associated with the current chemistry control program. Ongoing studies have been conducted in FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to evaluate the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm and to assess the minimum nitrite concentrations to inhibit pitting in ASTM A537 carbon steel below 1.0 molar nitrate. The experimentation from FY08 suggested a non-linear model known as the mixture/amount model could be used to predict the probability of corrosion in ASTM A537 in varying solutions as shown in Figure 1. The mixture/amount model takes into account not only the ratio (or mixture) of inhibitors and aggressive species, but also the total concentration (or amount) of species in a solution. Historically, the ratio was the only factor taken into consideration in the development of the current chemistry control program. During FY09, an experimental program was undertaken to refine the mixture/amount model by further investigating the risk associated with reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting in dilute solutions. The results of FY09, as shown in Figure 2, quantified the probability for a corrosion free outcome for combinations of nitrate and nitrite. The FY09 data predict probabilities up to 70%. Additional experimental data are needed to increase the probability to an acceptable percentage.

Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

213

Anthraquinone-Imide-Based Dimers: Synthesis, Piezochromism, Liquid Crystalline,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Infrared Electrochromic Properties Fengkun Chen, Jie Zhang, Xinhua Wan* Introduction Organic materials that respond, but relatively low applied pressure is preferred for many applications in our daily life. Electrochromic (EC lengths. Their liquid crystalline behaviors, and piezochromic and near-infrared electrochromic properties

Wan, Xin-hua

214

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.

Han, legal representative, Amy Qi (Hockessin, DE); Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

215

Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a small scale prototype system. This includes investigations of plugging issues, heat transfer, pressure drop, and the corrosion and erosion of materials in the flowing system.

Mark Anderson; Kumar Sridhara; Todd Allen; Per Peterson

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

216

Ultrafast, Unimpeded Liquid Water Transport Through Graphene-Based Nanochannels Measured by Isotope Labelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene-based laminates, with ultralong and tortuous nanocapillaries formed by simply stacking graphene flakes together, have great promises in filtration and separation. However, the information on liquid water trans-membrane permeation is lacking, which is the most fundamental problem and of crucial importance in solution-based mass transport. Here, based on isotope labelling, we investigate the liquid water transportation through graphene-based nanocapillaries under no external hydrostatic pressures. Liquid water can afford an unimpeded permeation through graphene-based nanochannels with a diffusion coefficient 4~5 orders of magnitude larger than through sub-micrometer-sized polymeric channels. When dissolving ions in sources, the diffusion coefficient of ions through graphene channels lies in the same order of magnitude as water, while the ion diffusion is faster than water, indicating that the ions are mainly transported by fast water flows and the delicate interactions between ions and nanocapillary wa...

Sun, Pengzhan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhong, Minlin; Wu, Dehai; Zhu, Hongwei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Solvation of fluoro and mixed fluoro/chloro complexes of EuIII the [BMI][PF6] room temperature ionic liquid. A theoretical studyw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and non-flammability, they appear as ``green solvents'' (see, however, ref. 4) for many applications, strontium and trivalent lanthanides Ln31 in RTILs, comparing the [EMI][TCA] and [BMI][PF6] solvents, both based on imidazolium cations.16­18 The former solvent is water miscible and can be used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Next-Generation Liquid-Scintillator-Based Detectors: Quantums Dots and Picosecond Timing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid-scintillator-based detectors are a robust technology that scales well to large volumes. For this reason, they are attractive for experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay. A combination of improved photo-detection technology and novel liquid scintillators may allow for the extraction of particle direction in addition to the total energy of the particle. Such an advance would find applications beyond searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay.

Lindley Winslow

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

219

Method of drying passivated micromachines by dewetting from a liquid-based process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of fabricating a micromachine includes the step of constructing a low surface energy film on the micromachine. The micromachine is then rinsed with a rinse liquid that has a high surface energy, relative to the low surface energy film, to produce a contact angle of greater than 90.degree. between the low surface energy film and the rinse liquid. This relatively large contact angle causes any rinse liquid on the micromachine to be displaced from the micromachine when the micromachine is removed from the rinse liquid. In other words, the micromachine is dried by dewetting from a liquid-based process. Thus, a separate evaporative drying step is not required, as the micromachine is removed from the liquid-based process in a dry state. The relatively large contact angle also operates to prevent attractive capillary forces between micromachine components, thereby preventing contact and adhesion between adjacent microstructure surfaces. The low surface energy film may be constructed with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer film. The processing of the invention avoids the use of environmentally harmful, health-hazardous chemicals.

Houston, Michael R. (Berkeley, CA); Howe, Roger T. (Lafayette, CA); Maboudian, Roya (Orinda, CA); Srinivasan, Uthara (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Enhanced Gas Absorption in the Ionic Liquid 1-n-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) Confined in Silica Slit Pores: A Molecular Simulation Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-dimensional NP{sub xy}T and isostress-osmotic (N{sub 2}P{sub xy}Tf{sub 1}) Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute the density and gas absorption properties of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-n-hexyl-3- methylimidazolium bis(Trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) confined in silica slit pores (25-45 Å). Self-diffusivity values for both gas and IL were calculated from NVE molecular dynamics simulations using both smooth and atomistic potential models for the silica. Simulations show that the molar volume for [hmim][Tf{sub 2}N] confined in 25-45 Å silica slit pores are 12-31% larger than for the bulk IL at 313-573 K and 1 bar. The amounts of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} absorbed in the confined IL are typically 1.1-3 times larger than in the bulk IL due to larger molar volumes for the confined IL compared to the bulk IL. The CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} molecules are generally absorbed close to the silica wall where the IL density is very low. This arrangement causes the self-diffusivities for these gases in the confined IL to be 2 to 8 times larger than in the bulk IL at 298-573 K. The solubility for water in the confined and bulk ILs are similar, which is likely due to strong water interactions with [hmim][Tf{sub 2}N] through hydrogen-bonding resulting in the confined IL molar volume playing a less important role in determining H{sub 2}O solubility. Water molecules were largely absorbed in the IL-rich region rather than close to the silica wall. The self-diffusivities for water correlate with the confined IL. The confined IL exhibits self-diffusivities larger than the bulk IL at lower temperatures, but smaller than the bulk IL at higher temperatures. The findings from simulations are consistent with available experimental data for similar confined IL systems.

Shi, Wei; Luebke, David R.

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Versatile Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The commonly used solvents like benzene, toluene, methylene chloride etc. for organic synthesis, particularly in industrial production, are known to cause health and environmental problems. In view of this, th...

V. K. Ahluwalia; M. Kidwai

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Catalytic Transformation of Biomass in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) can be produced from poly- and monohexoses and is a valuable platform chemical that can be used to make polymers, fuels, and commodity chemicals (Fig. 8.7). HMF is the product of the...

Blair J. Cox; John G. Ekerdt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

224

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conducting polymer electrochromic devices using ionicelectrochemical cells and electrochromic devices, including

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Interfacial ionic liquids: connecting static and dynamic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

L, Lee S S and Fenter P 2012 Real-time observations of interfacial lithiation in a metal silicide thin film J. Phys. Chem. C 116 22341-5 43 Lindahl E, Hess B and van der...

226

Indeterminacy with Constant Money Growth Rules and Income-Based Liquidity Constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Indeterminacy with Constant Money Growth Rules and Income-Based Liquidity Constraints Stefano Bosi Abstract We study the implications of constant money growth rules on the sta- bility properties. In this context, the steady state value of the velocity of money becomes a cru- cial parameter for gauging whether

Boyer, Edmond

227

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production of this highest-rank coal. The pro- duction of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

228

Passive liquid dispensing in capillary-based bio-adhesion Research teams Microfluidics Lab, GRASP (ULg)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Passive liquid dispensing in capillary-based bio-adhesion Research teams Microfluidics Lab, GRASP-81 (2010) #12;Coalescence strategies in droplet microfluidic systems Research team Microfluidics Lab, GRASP, mechanics) Droplet microfluidics is a new technology that aims at miniaturizing assays in life science (Lab

Wolper, Pierre

229

Oxygen quenching in LAB based liquid scintillator and nitrogen bubbling model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxygen quenching effect in Linear Alkl Benzne (LAB) based liquid scintillator (LAB as the solvent, 3 g/L 2, 5 diphe-nyloxazole (PPO) as the fluor and 15 mg/L $p$-bis-($o$-methylstyryl)-benzene (bis-MSB) as the $\\lambda$-shifter) is studied by measuring the light yield as the function of the nitrogen bubbling time. It is shown that the light yield of the fully purged liquid scintillator is increased by 11% at the room temperature and the room atmosphere pressure. A simple nitrogen bubbling model is proposed to describe the relationship between the relative light yield (oxygen quenching factor) and the bubbling time.

Xiao Hua-Lin

2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

230

Modification of Deeply Buried Hydrophobic Interfaces by Ionic Surfactants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrophobicity, the spontaneous segregation of oil and water, can be modified by surfactants. The way this modification occurs is studied at the oil-water interface for a range of alkanes and two ionic surfactants. A liquid interfacial monolayer, consisting of a mixture of alkane molecules and surfactant tails, is found. Upon cooling, it freezes at T{sub s}, well above the alkane's bulk freezing temperature, T{sub b}. The monolayer's phase diagram, derived by surface tensiometry, is accounted for by a mixtures-based theory. The monolayer's structure is measured by high-energy X-ray reflectivity above and below T{sub s}. A solid-solid transition in the frozen monolayer, occurring approximately 3 C below T{sub s}, is discovered and tentatively suggested to be a rotator-to-crystal transition.

Ocko, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Pontoni, D.; Sapir, Z.; Yefet, S.; Sloutskin, E.; Reichert, H.; Deutsch, M.

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

Modification of Deeply Buried Hydrophobic Interfaces by Ionic Surfactants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrophobicity, the spontaneous segregation of oil and water, can be modified by surfactants. The way this modification occurs is studied at the oil-water interface for a range of alkanes and two ionic surfactants. A liquid interfacial monolayer, consisting of a mixture of alkane molecules and surfactant tails, is found. Upon cooling, it freezes at T{sub s}, well above the alkane's bulk freezing temperature, T{sub b}. The monolayer's phase diagram, derived by surface tensiometry, is accounted for by a mixtures-based theory. The monolayer's structure is measured by high-energy X-ray reflectivity above and below T{sub s}. A solid-solid transition in the frozen monolayer, occurring approximately 3 C below T{sub s}, is discovered and tentatively suggested to be a rotator-to-crystal transition.

L Tamam; D Pontoni Z Sapir; S Yefet; S Sloutskin; B Ocko; H Reichert; M Deutsch

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Interatomic potentials for ionic systems with density functional accuracy based on charge densities obtained by a neural network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on an analysis of the short range chemical environment of each atom in a system, standard machine learning based approaches to the construction of interatomic potentials aim at determining directly the central quantity which is the total energy. This prevents for instance an accurate description of the energetics of systems where long range charge transfer is important as well as of ionized systems. We propose therefore not to target directly with machine learning methods the total energy but an intermediate physical quantity namely the charge density, which then in turn allows to determine the total energy. By allowing the electronic charge to distribute itself in an optimal way over the system, we can describe not only neutral but also ionized systems with unprecedented accuracy. We demonstrate the power of our approach for both neutral and ionized NaCl clusters where charge redistribution plays a decisive role for the energetics. We are able to obtain chemical accuracy, i.e. errors of less than a mil...

Ghasemi, S Alireza; Saha, Santanu; Goedecker, Stefan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

SISGR: Improved Electrical Energy Storage with Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitance Based on Novel Carbon Electrodes, New Electrolytes, and Thorough Development of a Strong Science Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The broad objective of the SISGR program is to advance the fundamental scientific understanding of electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) and thus of ultracapacitor systems composed of a new type of electrode based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) and (primarily) with ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte. Our team has studied the interplay between graphene-based and graphene-derived carbons as the electrode materials in electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) systems on the one hand, and electrolytes including novel ionic liquids (ILs), on the other, based on prior work on the subject.

Ruoff, Rodney S. [PI; Alam, Todd M. [co-PI; Bielawski, Christopher W. [co-PI; Chabal, Yves [co-PI; Hwang, Gyeong [co-PI; Ishii, Yoshitaka [co-PI; Rogers, Robin [co-PI

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

234

Efficient energy based modeling and experimental validation of liquid filling in planar micro-fluidic components and networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient energy based modeling and experimental validation of liquid filling in planar micro-fluidic components and networks I. Treise, N. Fortner, B. Shapiro* and A. Hightower Received 25th June 2004, Accepted409680k This paper presents a model that describes how liquid flow fills micro-fluidic components

Shapiro, Benjamin

235

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography and Electrodriven Separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......miscibility with water and organic solvents...responsible for condensation and pollution of...electron spray or atmospheric pressure ionization...changes in analyte recovery or column backpressure...precision, accuracy and recovery. Figure 4. Synthesis...both methanol-water and acetonitrile-water......

Yi Huang; Shun Yao; Hang Song

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Ionic (Proton) Transport Hydrogen Separation Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Proton) (Proton) Transport Hydrogen Separation Systems Summary Session Participants -- Ionic Transport Balachandran, Balu Cornelius, Chris Fleming, Greg Glass, Robert Hartvigsen, Joseph Higgins, Richard King, David Paster, Mark Paul, Dilo Robbins, John Samells, Anthony Schwartz, Michael Schinski, Bill Smith, Ronald Van Bibber, Lawrence Zalesky, Rick Argonne National Laboratory Sandia National Laboratory Air Liquide Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Cerametec, Inc. CeraMem Corporation Battelle, PNNL DOE Science Applications International Corporation ExxonMobil Eltron Research, Inc. ITN Energy Systems ChevronTexaco SRI Consulting SAIC ChevronTexaco Technology Ventures Performance Goals 4-5 years (5 years upper limit) (100,000 hrs is 12 years) High durability 250-350

237

Super ionic conductive glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Development of a silicon-based passive gas-liquid separation system for microscale direct methanol fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design, fabrication and performance characterisation of a passive gas-liquid separation system is presented in this paper. The gas-liquid separation system is silicon-based and its fabrication is compatible with the existing CMU design of the microscale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Both gas and liquid separators consist of staggered arrays of etched-through holes fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The gas separator is coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic polymer to substantiate the gas-liquid separation. To visually characterise the system performance, the gas-liquid separation system is made on a single wafer with a glass plate bonded on the top to form a separation chamber with a narrow gap in between. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) is applied for the low-temperature bonding. The maximum pressure for the liquid leakage of the gas separators is experimentally determined and compared with the values predicted theoretically. Several successful gas-liquid separations are observed at liquid pressures between 14.2 cmH2O and 22.7 cmH2O, liquid flow rates between 0.705 cc/min and 1.786 cc/min, and CO2 flow rates between 0.15160 cc/min to 0.20435 cc/min.

C.C. Hsieh; S.C. Yao; Yousef Alyousef

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Final Report for DE-FG02-93ER14376,Ionic Transport in Electrochemical Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was a molecular dynamics study of the relevant issues associated with the structure and transport of lithium in polymer electrolytes such as polyethylene oxide(PEO). In close collaboration with quantum chemist Larry Curtiss and neutron scatterers David Lee Price and Marie-Louise Saboungi at Argonne, we used molecular dynamics to study the local structure and dynamics and ion transport in the polymer. The studies elucidated the mechanism of Li transport in PEO, revealing that the rate limiting step is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the torsion forces in the backbone of the polymer. Because the torsion forces are difficult to manipulate chemically, this makes it easier to understand why improving the conductivity of PEO based electrolytes has proven to be very difficult. We studied the transport properties of cations in ionic liquids as possible additives to polymer membranes for batteries and fuel cells and found preliminary indications that the transport is enhanced near phase separation in acid-ionic liquid mixtures.

J. W. Halley

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

240

E-Print Network 3.0 - active matrix liquid Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Collection: Engineering 11 "Control of protein folding and misfolding in ionic liquid media, and a conjecture on early earth biology"....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS IN A NOVEL HYDROGEN-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE-BASED FUEL PROCESSOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to develop an inorganic metal-metal composite membrane to study reforming of liquid hydrocarbons and methanol by equilibrium shift in membrane-reactor configuration, viewed as fuel processor. Based on our current understanding and experience in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane, we propose to further develop this membrane to a Pd and Pd-Ag alloy membrane on microporous stainless steel support to provide structural reliability from distortion due to thermal cycling. Because of the metal-metal composite structure, we believe that the associated end-seal problem in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane in tubular configuration would not be an issue at all. We plan to test this membrane as membrane-reactor-separator for reforming liquid hydrocarbons and methanol for simultaneous production and separation of high-purity hydrogen for PEM fuel cell applications. To improve the robustness of the membrane film and deep penetration into the pores, we have used osmotic pressure field in the electroless plating process. Using this novel method, we deposited thin Pd-film on the inside of microporous stainless steel tube and the deposited film appears to robust and defect free. Work is in progress to evaluate the hydrogen perm-selectivity of the Pd-stainless steel membrane.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

journal Solid State Ionics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic acid solutions journal Solid State Ionics year month abstract p Proton exchange membranes are key solid state ion carriers in many relevant energy technologies including flow batteries fuel cells and solar fuel generators In many of these systems the membranes are in contact with electrolyte solutions In this paper we focus on the impact of different HBr a flow battery and exemplary acid electrolyte external concentrations on the conductivity of Nafion a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is commonly used in many energy related applications The peak and then decrease in conductivity is correlated with measured changes in the water and HBr content within the membrane In addition small angle x ray scattering is used to probe the nanostructure to

243

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. Abstract: The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst...

244

Thorium ions transport across Tri-n-butyl phosphate-benzene based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transport of Th(IV) ions across tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) benzene based liquid membranes supported in microporous hydrophobic polypropylene film (MHPF) has been studied. Various parameters such as variation of nitric acid concentration in the feed, TBP concentration in the membrane, and temperature on the given metal ions transport have been investigated. The effects of nitric acid and TBP concentrations on the distribution coefficient were also studied, and the data obtained were used to determine the Th ions-TBP complex diffusion coefficient in the membrane. Permeability coefficients of Th(IV) ions were also determined as a function of the TBP and nitric acid concentrations. The optimal conditions for the transport of Th(IV) ions across the membrane are 6 mol{sm_bullet}dm{sup -3} HNO{sub 3} concentration, 2.188 mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} TBP concentration, and 25{degrees}C. The stoichiometry of the chemical species involved in chemical reaction during the transport of Th(IV) ions has also been studied.

Rasul, G.; Chaudry, M.A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Islamabad (Pakistan); Afzal, M. [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refractive index and absorption detector are disclosed for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded. 10 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Woodruff, S.D.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

246

Computer Simulation of a "Green Chemistry" Room-Temperature Ionic Solvent C. J. Margulis, H. A. Stern, and B. J. Berne*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer Simulation of a "Green Chemistry" Room-Temperature Ionic Solvent C. J. Margulis, H. A, room-temperature ionic liquids are currently being investigated as alternative solvents in industry that is clean, recyclable, and a good solvent for both organic and inorganic compounds is appealing

Berne, Bruce J.

247

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

248

Laboratory Studies of Lead Removal from Liquid Scintillator in Preparation for KamLAND's Low Background Phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The removal of Radon induced Lead from liquid scintillator was extensively studied in preparation for KamLAND's low background phase. This work presents the results from laboratory experiments performed at the University of Alabama and their implications for KamLAND and future low background experiments using carbon based liquid scintillator. It was observed that distillation was the most effective purification procedure and that one must consider a non-polar and non-ionic component of Lead in order to reach the levels of radio-purity required for these new class of ultra-low background experiments.

Keefer, Gregory [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

249

Silver nanowire transparent electrodes for liquid crystal-based smart windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

privacy glass or as energy saving windows through the modulation of solar heat gain [1,3,4]. The operating sheet resistance, and low-cost. While the benefits of increased transparency and low-cost are obvious Polymer dispersed liquid crystal Smart window a b s t r a c t A significant manufacturing cost of polymer

Goldthorpe, Irene

250

Band-tunable color cone lasing emission based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with various pitches and a pitch gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study elucidates, for the first time, a novel band-tunable color cone lasing emission (CCLE) based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) films with various pitches....

Lee, C -R; Lin, S -H; Yeh, H -C; Ji, T -D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Quantized ionic conductance in nanopores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic transport in nanopores is a fundamentally and technologically important problem in view of its ubiquitous occurrence in biological processes and its impact on DNA sequencing applications. Using microscopic calculations, we show that ion transport may exhibit strong non-liDearities as a function of the pore radius reminiscent of the conductance quantization steps as a function of the transverse cross section of quantum point contacts. In the present case, however, conductance steps originate from the break up of the hydration layers that form around ions in aqueous solution. Once in the pore, the water molecules form wavelike structures due to multiple scattering at the surface of the pore walls and interference with the radial waves around the ion. We discuss these effects as well as the conditions under which the step-like features in the ionic conductance should be experimentally observable.

Zwolak, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lagerqvist, Johan [UCSD; Di Ventra, Massimilliano [UCSD

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Studies of a three-stage dark matter and neutrino observatory based on multi-ton combinations of liquid xenon and liquid argon detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a three stage dark matter and neutrino observatory based on multi-ton two-phase liquid Xe and Ar detectors with sufficiently low backgrounds to be sensitive to WIMP dark matter interaction cross sections down to 10E-47 cm^2, and to provide both identification and two independent measurements of the WIMP mass through the use of the two target elements in a 5:1 mass ratio, giving an expected similarity of event numbers. The same detection systems will also allow measurement of the pp solar neutrino spectrum, the neutrino flux and temperature from a Galactic supernova, and neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe to the lifetime level of 10E27 - 10E28 y corresponding to the Majorana mass predicted from current neutrino oscillation data. The proposed scheme would be operated in three stages G2, G3, G4, beginning with fiducial masses 1-ton Xe + 5-ton Ar (G2), progressing to 10-ton Xe + 50-ton Ar (G3) then, dependent on results and performance of the latter, expandable to 100-ton Xe + 500-ton Ar (G4). This ...

Arisaka, K; Smith, P F; Beltrame, P; Ghag, C; Lung, K; Teymourian, A; Wang, H; Cline, D B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Performance of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) with different surface roughening methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on permeation and double chemical reduction technology, this paper researches the manufacture of Pt-ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) and the effect of three types of surface roughening methods on the ...

Ning Jin; Bangfeng Wang; Kan Bian; Qi Chen…

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Principles of passive and active cooling of mirror-based hybrid systems employing liquid metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents principles of passive and active cooling that are suitable to mirrorbased hybrid, nuclear fission/fusion systems. It is shown that liquid metal lead-bismuth cooling of the mirror machine with 25 m height and 1.5 GW thermal power is feasible both in the active mode during the normal operation and in the passive mode after the reactor shutdown. In the active mode the achievable required pumping power can well be below 50 MW, whereas the passive mode provides enough coolant flow to keep the clad temperature below the damage limits.

Anglart, Henryk [Div. of Nuclear Technology, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106-91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

255

Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Volatile organic solvents (VOS) creating increasing air pollution are ... researches are directed on developing alternative environmental friendly solvent systems to replace traditional volatile organics. Within ...

Shadpour Mallakpour; Mohammad Dinari

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents for the Oxidation of Alcohols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbonyl compounds are of central importance to organic chemistry, biochemistry, and biology. Aldehydes and ketones are used as starting materials or reagents for the synthesis of other organic compounds, drugs, ...

Farhad Shirini; Masoumeh Abedini; Seyyed Vahid Atghia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

attractive platforms for synthesis of chemicals, fuels, andchemical transformation of biorenewable feedstocks to platform

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Tunable wavelength soft photoionization of ionic liquid vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LiTFSI and acetamide for lithium batteries. Electrochemistrysuch as fuel cells, 3-5 batteries 6,7 and solar cells. 8,9

Strasser, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thin-film rechargeable batteries. Materials Science andMicroscopic Nickel-Zinc Batteries for Use in AutonomousM, and RJ Brodd. “What Are Batteries, Fuel Cells, and

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Since cellulose is theto the interaction of lignin with the biopolymers in rawthat the presence of lignin did not have a detrimental

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the development of biomass conversion technologies, it isefficient and selective biomass conversion technologies is athe conversion of both carbohydrate components of biomass.

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daniel A Steingart, James W Evans, and Paul K Wright. "AC Shafer, Paul K Wright, James W Evans, and R Ramesh. "Christine C Ho, and James W Evans. "Dispenser Printing for

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using dispenser printing including (a) 3D polymer molds, (b)using dispenser printing including (a) 3D polymer molds, (b)

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

17 1.13. A monolithic solid-state battery formed by (a) coldcells of “monolithic” solid-state battery materials tailored1.13. A monolithic solid-state battery formed by (a) cold

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yoshida, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research [21] G.Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 1945, 37, 43-52; B.Yoshida, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2007,

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Examination of Coal Solubility and Fragmentation with Various Ionic Liquids.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The organic component of coal is heterogeneous and often has a complicated networkstructure. When exposed to certain solvents, swelling and partial dissolution often occurs.However, due… (more)

Pulati, Nuerxida

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cellobiose, arabinose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5- HMF, 99%from Iolitec, Germany. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 99%from Iolitec, Germany. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 99%

Dee, Sean Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Microscopic Transport in Mixtures of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

andor storage of carbon dioxide. For these applications in addition to CO 2 sorption properties, also transport properties of the mixtures of CO 2 and ILs are of high...

269

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

current density, and A is the Tafel slope given by the gason current density, as stated by Tafel’s equation for high

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Tunable wavelength soft photoionization of ionic liquid vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 6: Near-threshold PIE spectra, showing binding energyand photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves, obtained at the28 The combined set of PIE curves and PE spectra data allows

Strasser, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

A microfocus x-ray source based on a nonmetal liquid-jet anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate stable operation of a nonmetallic anode in an electron-impact x-ray source. A high-brightness electron beam is focused on a {approx}70 m/s speed, {approx}10 {mu}m diameter methanol jet producing stable x-ray emission with peak spectral brightness at {approx}5.4x10{sup 5} photons/(sx{mu}m{sup 2}xsrx0.1%BW). The jet is fully evaporated in the interaction point. The shape of a simulated spectrum using Monte Carlo methods shows good agreement with experimental data, and the theoretical brightness values give an upper limit for the achievable x-ray emission from jets with very high velocities. Using this anode concept, all compounds and elements found in liquid form are potentially usable for x-ray generation.

Tuohimaa, T.; Ewald, J.; Schlie, M.; Hertz, H. M.; Vogt, U. [Biomedical and X-ray Physics, Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Fernandez-Varea, J. M. [Facultat de Fisica (ECM), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

272

Advanced Scintillator Detector Concept (ASDC): A Concept Paper on the Physics Potential of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent development of Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS), and the concurrent development of high-efficiency and high-precision-timing light sensors, has opened up the possibility for a new kind of large-scale detector capable of a very broad program of physics. The program would include determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and observation of CP violation with long-baseline neutrinos, searches for proton decay, ultra-precise solar neutrino measurements, geo- and supernova neutrinos including diff?use supernova antineutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay. We outline here the basic requirements of the Advanced Scintillation Detector Concept (ASDC), which combines the use of WbLS, doping with a number of potential isotopes for a range of physics goals, high efficiency and ultra-fast timing photosensors, and a deep underground location. We are considering such a detector at the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) far site, where the ASDC could operate in conjunction with the liquid argon t...

Alonso, J R; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bignell, L; Blucher, E; Calaprice, F; Conrad, J M; Descamps, F B; Diwan, M V; Dwyer, D A; Dye, S T; Elagin, A; Feng, P; Grant, C; Grullon, S; Hans, S; Jaffe, D E; Kettell, S H; Klein, J R; Lande, K; Learned, J G; Luk, K B; Maricic, J; Marleau, P; Mastbaum, A; McDonough, W F; Oberauer, L; Gann, G D Orebi; Rosero, R; Rountree, S D; Sanchez, M C; Shaevitz, M H; Shokair, T M; Smy, M B; Strait, M; Svoboda, R; Tolich, N; Vagins, M R; van Bibber, K A; Viren, B; Vogelaar, R B; Wetstein, M J; Winslow, L; Wonsak, B; Worcester, E T; Wurm, M; Yeh, M; Zhang, C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Advanced Scintillator Detector Concept (ASDC): A Concept Paper on the Physics Potential of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent development of Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS), and the concurrent development of high-efficiency and high-precision-timing light sensors, has opened up the possibility for a new kind of large-scale detector capable of a very broad program of physics. The program would include determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and observation of CP violation with long-baseline neutrinos, searches for proton decay, ultra-precise solar neutrino measurements, geo- and supernova neutrinos including diffuse supernova antineutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay. We outline here the basic requirements of the Advanced Scintillation Detector Concept (ASDC), which combines the use of WbLS, doping with a number of potential isotopes for a range of physics goals, high efficiency and ultra-fast timing photosensors, and a deep underground location. We are considering such a detector at the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) far site, where the ASDC could operate in conjunction with the liquid argon tracking detector proposed by the LBNE collaboration. The goal is the deployment of a 30-100 kiloton-scale detector, the basic elements of which are being developed now in experiments such as WATCHMAN, ANNIE, SNO+, and EGADS.

J. R. Alonso; N. Barros; M. Bergevin; A. Bernstein; L. Bignell; E. Blucher; F. Calaprice; J. M. Conrad; F. B. Descamps; M. V. Diwan; D. A. Dwyer; S. T. Dye; A. Elagin; P. Feng; C. Grant; S. Grullon; S. Hans; D. E. Jaffe; S. H. Kettell; J. R. Klein; K. Lande; J. G. Learned; K. B. Luk; J. Maricic; P. Marleau; A. Mastbaum; W. F. McDonough; L. Oberauer; G. D. Orebi Gann; R. Rosero; S. D. Rountree; M. C. Sanchez; M. H. Shaevitz; T. M. Shokair; M. B. Smy; A. Stahl; M. Strait; R. Svoboda; N. Tolich; M. R. Vagins; K. A. van Bibber; B. Viren; R. B. Vogelaar; M. J. Wetstein; L. Winslow; B. Wonsak; E. T. Worcester; M. Wurm; M. Yeh; C. Zhang

2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

274

Multilayered YSZ/GZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

YSZGZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Multilayered YSZGZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for...

275

ADSORPTIVE DESULFURIZATION OF LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS VIA NICKEL-BASED ADSORBENTS FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATONS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objectives of this work are to compare the adsorptive desulfurization capacity of several different types of nickel-based adsorbents and to identify ways for further… (more)

Clemons, Jennifer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration.

Croft, Gregory D. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Patzek, Tad W. [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)], E-mail: patzek@mail.utexas.edu

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Evaluation of DMDOHEMA based supported liquid membrane system for high level waste remediation under simulated conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract N,N?-dimethyl-N,N?-dioctyl-2,(2?-hexyloxyethyl) malonamide (DMDOHEMA) has been proposed as solvent for the partitioning of radiotoxic minor actinides from high-level waste (HLW) solutions. The facilitated transport of 241Am(III), 239Pu(IV), 233U(VI), 237Np(V) across supported liquid membrane (SLM) impregnated with DMDOHEMA solution in n-dodecane was investigated under varying conditions of feed acidity, receiver phase composition, carrier concentration, and membrane thickness. Micro porous PTFE membrane was used as the polymeric support. There was a decrease in the transport of metal ions under the pressurized heavy water reactor simulated HLW (PHWR-SHLW) conditions. The physical stability of the SLM impregnated with the carrier was investigated for ~60 days by performing Am(III) permeation studies. Marginal variation in the transport behavior suggested reasonably good stability of the impregnated carrier in the membrane pores. A simple mathematical model has been developed to simulate experimental data and to explain quantitatively the role of different parameters.

Ajay B. Patil; Pankaj Kandwal; V.S. Shinde; P.N. Pathak; P.K. Mohapatra

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Price, J.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fluidic patch antenna based on liquid metal alloy/single-wall carbon-nanotubes operating at the S-band frequency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluidic patch antenna based on liquid metal alloy/single-wall carbon-nanotubes operating at the S) This letter describes the fabrication and characterization of a fluidic patch antenna operating at the S in antenna technologies,1­3 including mobile communications,4 compact high gain patch antenna,5

280

CdO as the Archetypical Transparent Conducting Oxide. Systematics of Dopant Ionic Radius and Electronic Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the last two decades as critical components of flat panel displays, solar cells, and low-emissivity windowsO-based TCO crystal and band structure: (1) lattice parameters contract as a function of dopant ionic radii

Medvedeva, Julia E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system and then solved by finite difference method with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. An iterative scheme was used to obtain a converged solution. Membrane reactor performance was compared to that in a traditional non-membrane packed-bed reactor (PBR). Their performances were also compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values achievable in a conventional non-membrane reactor. Numerical results of the models show that the methane conversions in the PBIMTR are always higher than that in the PBR, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium conversions. For instance, at a reaction pressure of 6 atm, a temperature of 650 C, a space velocity of 900/16.0 SCCM/gm{sub cat}, a steam to methane molar feed ratio of 3.0, a sweep ratio of 0.15, the conversion in the membrane reactor is about 86.5%, while the conversion in the non-membrane reactor is about 50.8%. The corresponding equilibrium conversion is about 56.4%. The effects on the degree of conversion and hydrogen yield were analyzed for different parameters such as temperature, reactor pressure, feed and sweep flow rate, feed molar ratio, and space time. From the analysis of the model results, it is obvious that the membrane reactor operation can be optimized for conversion or yield through the choice of proper operating and design parameters. Comparisons with available literature data for both membrane and non-membrane reactors showed a good agreement.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

Accurate viscosity modeling of liquid metals based on friction theory and PC-SAFT equation of state  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Values of the viscosities of liquid metals are important in the prediction of fluid flow in many metallurgical manufacturing processes. In this work the friction theory (f-theory...) for viscosity modeling is use...

M. H. Mousazadeh

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Gain switching and oscillations in an ionic pulsed xenon laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The output of a visible ionic pulsed xenon laser excited with a FWHM nearly flat current pulse was analysed through time-resolved spectroscopy. It was observed that near threshold, the output consisted of a multipulse pattern within the duration of the current pulse. Beside this, a study of the spontaneous emission of the laser lines was carried out as a function of discharge current. This work reports the main characteristics of this kind of output and proposes a simplified model based on excitation - de-excitation processes by electron impact and gain modulation that reproduces the main experimental results.

H Sobral; D Schinca; R Duchowicz; M Gallardo

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Analysis of liquified coal for nitrogenous bases; separation by high performance liquid chromatography and identification by probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYSIS OF LIQUIFIED COAL FOR NITROGENOUS BASES; SEPARATION BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AND IDENTIFICATION BY PROBE MICRODISTILLATION/MASS SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by LEONARD ROYCE SCHRONK Submitted to the Graduate College... AND IDENTIFICATION BY PROBE MICRODISTILLATION/MASS SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by LEONARD ROYCE SCHRONK Approved as to style and content by: Co-Charrman o Commlxtte ) (Co-Chazrman o Committee Me er Hea of Department December 1978 ABSTRACT Analysis of Liquified...

Schronk, Leonard Royce

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Model for Configurational Thermodynamics in Ionic Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a formalism to model configurational thermodynamics in ionic systems with multiple anion and cation species. Because cations and anions can be partitioned into two interacting sublattices that do not exchange species, the dimensionality of configuration space is significantly reduced. The result is a model applicable to many important problems in ionic systems. Here we show that the effect of an order-disorder transition in one sublattice on the other depends on how the symmetry is changed through the transition, as well as on the strength of the interactions.

P. D. Tepesch; G. D. Garbulsky; G. Ceder

1995-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

286

Hyperfine Effects in Ionic Orbital Electron Capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The K-orbital electron capture in ions with one or two electrons is analized for a general allowed nuclear transition. For ionic hyperfine states the angular neutrino distribution and the electron capture rate are given in terms of nuclear matrix elements. A possible application towards the determination of neutrino parameters is outlined.

M. A. Goñi

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

287

IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operating experience. #12;ELTRON RESEARCH INC. Syngas Production Rate ­ 60 mL/min cm2 @ 900°C Equivalent O2IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND SEPARATION Presented by Tony Sammells for Hydrogen Production ­ Compositions ­ Feedstocks ­ Performance ­ Key Technical Hurdles · Membranes

288

Hybrid DFT Functional-Based Static and Molecular Dynamics Studies of Excess Electron in Liquid Ethylene Carbonate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We applied static and dynamic hybrid functional density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the interactions of one and two excess electrons with ethylene carbonate (EC) liquid and clusters. Optimal structures of (EC){sub n} and (EC){sup ?}{sub n} clusters devoid of Li{sub +} ions, n?=?1–6, were obtained. The excess electron was found to be localized on a single EC in all cases, and the EC dimeric radical anion exhibits a reduced barrier associated with the breaking of the ethylene carbon–oxygen covalent bond compared to EC{sub ?}. In ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of EC{sub ?} solvated in liquid EC, large fluctuations in the carbonyl carbon–oxygen bond lengths were observed. AIMD simulations of a two-electron attack on EC in EC liquid and on Li metal surfaces yielded products similar to those predicted using nonhybrid DFT functionals, except that CO release did not occur for all attempted initial configurations in the liquid state.

Yu, J M; Balbuena, P B; Budzien, J L; Leung, Kevin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Efficiency and Emissions Study of a Residential Micro-cogeneration System based on a Modified Stirling Engine and Fuelled by a Wood Derived Fas Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blend.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A residential micro-cogeneration system based on a Stirling engine unit was modified to operate with wood derived fast pyrolysis liquid (bio-oil)-ethanol blend. A pilot stabilized… (more)

Khan, Umer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

New Experimental Density Data and Soft-SAFT Models of Alkylimidazolium ([CnC1im]+) Chloride (Cl–), Methylsulfate ([MeSO4]?), and Dimethylphosphate ([Me2PO4]?) Based Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

§ Joint BioEnergy Institute, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, California 94608, United States ... Further details on the DGT implementation on SAFT-type equations can be found in the literature. ... (64, 65) These various approaches have been extensively discussed in a recent review paper. ...

N. Mac Dowell; F. Llovell; N. Sun; J. P. Hallett; A. George; P. A. Hunt; T. Welton; B. A. Simmons; L. F. Vega

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

292

EMSL - liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquids en Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsiodine-solubility-low-activity-waste-borosilicate...

293

Neptunium(V) adsorption to bacteria at low and high ionic strength  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Np(V) is expected to be the predominant oxidation state of neptunium in aerobic natural waters. Np(V), as the NpO{sub 2}{sup +} aquo and associated complexed species, is readily soluble, weakly interacting with geologic media, and has a high redox stability under a relatively wide range of subsurface conditions. These chemical properties, along with a long half-life make it a primary element of concern regarding long-term nuclear waste storage and subsurface contaminant. The fate and transport of neptunium in the environment may be influenced by adsorption onto bacterial surfaces. The adsorption of neptunium to bacterial surfaces ties the mobility of the contaminant to the mobility of the bacterium. In this study, the adsorption of the neptunyl (NpO{sub 2}{sup +}) ion was evaluated at low ionic strength on a common soil bacterium and at high ionic strength on a halophilic bacterium isolated from a briny groundwater near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico. Adsorption experiments were performed in batch reactors as a function of pH, ionic strength, and bacterialNp mass ratio. Np(V) adsorption was modeled using a surface complexation approach with the mathematical program FITEQL to determine functional group specific binding constants. The data from acid and base titrations of the bacteria were also modeled to estimate the concentrations and deprotonation constants of discrete bacterial surface functional groups. Bacterial functional group characteristics and Np(V) adsorption behavior between the soil bacterium and the halophilic bacterium were compared. These results highlight the key similarities and differences in actinide adsorption behavior in environments of significantly different ionic strength. Similarities in adsorption behavior may be linked to similarities in the characteristics of the moieties between all bacterial cell walls. Differences in adsorption behavior may reflect differences in ionic strength effects, rather than differences in bacteria type, as the electronic double layer is compressed with increasing ionic strength. These results further highlight the importance of electrostatic interactions in the adsorption process between dissolved metals and bacterial surfaces. This work expands the understanding of actinide-bacteria adsorption phenomena to high ionic strength environmental conditions that are relevant as an aid to predicting Np(V) fate and transport behavior in areas such as the vicinity of salt-based nuclear waste repositories and high ionic-strength deep ground waters at DOE sites.

Ams, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Juliet S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fein, Jeremy B [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

294

Polymer anion-selective membranes for electrolytic splitting of water. Part II: Enhancement of ionic conductivity and performance under conditions of alkaline water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An attempt was made to increase the ionic conductivity of novel, heterogeneous, anion-selective membranes by increasing the porosity of their surface skin. This was based on the addition of a water-soluble compon...

Jaromír Hnát; Martin Paidar; Jan Schauer; Jan Žitka…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Method for Determining the Ionization Spectra of Monodispersed Clusters of Noble Metals Adsorbed on the Surfaces of Ionic–Covalent Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The method described is based on the vacuum deposition of separate monodispersed molecular metal ions from a mass-separated beam on the surfaces of ionic–covalent crystals and the detection of ultralow concent...

A. N. Latyshev; O. V. Ovchinnikov…

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Neutral-ionic transitions in organic mixed-stack compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Torrance et al. have made the interesting observation that several mixed-stack organic compounds undergo transitions from neutral states to ionic states as the temperature or pressure is varied. We examine a simple model of such transitions including Coulomb interaction and hybridization of neutral and ionic states. In the limit of weak hybridization and long-range repulsive interaction between ionic planes, it is proven that there is a complete devil's staircase where the degree of ionicity assumes an infinity of rational values. For attractive interactions between ionic planes, the neutral-ionic transition is shown to be first order for weak hybridization. Comparison with experiment indicates that this situation applies to tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) chloranil. For strong hybridization the transition is continuous but goes through a metallic phase. It is shown, for the first time, that the spectrum of the charge-transfer Hamiltonian contains both a bound spectrum, the observed charge-transfer excitations, and a continuum.

Bruinsma, R.; Bak, P.; Torrance, J.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

A MODIFICATION OF MAUCHA'S IONIC DIAGRAM TO INCLUDE ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ences in concentrations of ions and dif- ferences in relative proportions of ions. Though Maucha's (1932) ionic field dia- grams illustrate relative proportions of ...

2000-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

298

Potential-of-mean-force description of ionic interactions and structural hydration in biomolecular systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To understand the functioning of living organisms on a molecular level, it is crucial to dissect the intricate interplay of the immense number of biological molecules. Most of the biochemical processes in cells occur in a liquid environment formed mainly by water and ions. This solvent environment plays an important role in biological systems. The potential-of-mean-force (PMF) formalism attempts to describe quantitatively the interactions of the solvent with biological macromolecules on the basis of an approximate statistical-mechanical representation. At its current status of development, it deals with ionic effects on the biomolecular structure and with the structural hydration of biomolecules. The underlying idea of the PMF formalism is to identify the dominant sources of interactions and incorporate these interactions into the theoretical formalism using PMF`s (or particle correlation functions) extracted from bulk-liquid systems. In the following, the authors shall briefly outline the statistical-mechanical foundation of the PMF formalism and introduce the PMF expansion formalism, which is intimately linked to superposition approximations for higher-order particle correlation functions. The authors shall then sketch applications, which describe the effects of the ionic environment on nucleic-acid structure. Finally, the authors shall present the more recent extension of the PMF idea to describe quantitatively the structural hydration of biomolecules. Results for the interface of ice and water and for the hydration of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) will be discussed.

Hummer, G.; Garcia, A.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group; Soumpasis, D.M. [Max-Planck-Inst for Biophysical Chemistry, Goettingen (Germany). Biocomputation Group

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Transport study of hafnium(IV) and zirconium(IV) ions mutual separation by using Tri-n-butyl phosphate-xylene-based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Hf transport study through supported liquid membranes has been carried out to determine flux and permeability data for this metal ion. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-xylene-based liquid membranes supported in polypropylene hydrophobic microporous film have been used. These data for hafnium and the previous data for zirconium have furnished the Zr to Hf flux ratio (S) as a function of nitric acid and TBP concentrations of the order of 12 in a single stage at room temperature. Optimum conditions for the separation of these two metal ions appear to 5-6 TBP mol/dm{sup 3} HNO{sub 3}, concentrations {le} 2.93 mol/dm{sup 3}, and 10C. The value of S from an aqueous solution containing 2.4% Hf with respect to Zr has been found to be >125 at 10C and 1.78 mol/dm{sup 3} TBP concentration in the membrane. The technique appears to be feasible for purification of Zr respect to Hf or vice versa.

Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmed, B. (Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

LNG liquid-liquid immiscibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although natural gas species rarely exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility in binary systems, the presence of additional components can extend the domain of immiscibility in those few binary systems where it already exists or produce immiscibility in binary systems where it had not existed. If the solute has the proper molecular relation to the solvent mixture background, liquid-liquid-vapor (LLV) behavior will occur; such phenomena greatly complicate the design of LNG processing equipment. To aid LNG engineers, researchers mapped the thermodynamic behavior of four ternary LLV systems and examined the effects of the second solvents - ethane, propane, n-butane, and CO/sub 2/ - on the binary methane + n-octane system.

Luks, K.D.; Kohn, J.P.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

General formula for the thermoelectric transport phenomena based on Fermi liquid theory: Thermoelectric power, Nernst coefficient, and thermal conductivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the basis of linear response transport theory, the general expressions for the thermoelectric transport coefficients, such as thermoelectric power (S), Nernst coefficient (?), and thermal conductivity (?), are derived by using Fermi liquid theory. The obtained expression is exact for the most singular term in terms of 1/?k* (?k* being the quasiparticle damping rate). We utilize Ward identities for the heat velocity which is derived by the local energy conservation law. The derived expressions enable us to calculate various thermoelectric transport coefficients in a systematic way, within the framework of the conserving approximation of Baym and Kadanoff. Thus the present expressions are very useful for studying strongly correlated electrons such as high-Tc superconductors, organic metals, and heavy fermion systems, where the current vertex correction (VC) is expected to play important roles. By using the derived expression, we calculate the thermal conductivity ? in a free-dispersion model up to second order with respect to the on-site Coulomb potential U. We find that it is slightly enhanced due to the VC for the heat current, although the VC for electron current makes the conductivity (?) of this system diverge, reflecting the absence of the umklapp process.

Hiroshi Kontani

2003-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

303

THE IONIC CENTRIFUGE CAN GIVE FUSION NUCLEAR POWER  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...so long as the electric field and magnetic...3. The First Discharge of the Ionic Centrifuge...low-voltage arc source of ionization...The anode of the arc is taken as zero...first type of discharge, the end plates...found when the arc current was varied...4. The Second Discharge of the Ionic Centrifuge...

Joseph Slepian

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Craig Jensen 1 (Primary Contact), Daniel Brayton 1 , and Scott Jorgensen 2 1 Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC 531 Cooke Street Honolulu, HI 96813 Phone: (808) 339-1333 Email: hhcllc@hotmail.com 2 General Motors Technical Center DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0005020 Project Start Date: July 1, 2011 Project End Date: June 30, 2013 *Congressionally directed project Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The objective of this project is to optimize a hydrogen storage media based on a liquid organic carrier (LOC) for hydrogen and design a commercially viable hydrogen

305

Synthesis and characterization of transparent silica-based aerogels using methyltrimethoxysilane precursor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silica-based aerogels with high transparency and high bending strength were prepared using methyltrimethoxysilane and non-ionic surfactant under supercritical drying condition of CO2. Non-ionic surfactant, ethyle...

Masayuki Nogami; Shohei Hotta…

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Heterophase liquid states: Thermodynamics, structure, dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An overview of theoretical results and experimental data on the thermodynamics, structure and dynamics of the heterophase glass-forming liquids is presented. The theoretical approach is based on the mesoscopic heterophase fluctuations model (HPFM) developed within the framework of the bounded partition function approach. The Fischer cluster phenomenon, glass transition, liquid-liquid transformations, parametric phase diagram, cooperative dynamics and fragility of the glass-forming liquids is considered.

A. S. Bakai

2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

307

Fast Model Based Approximation of the Closed-loop Performance Limits of Gas/Liquid Inline Separators for Accelerated Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

trend in the oil and gas (exploration & production) industry is to use compact ­centrifugal forces based the centrifugal forces necessary for separating the light from the heavy component. The resulting separation force) to keep the downstream pumps and compressors within a proper operating range (preventing e.g. cavitation

Van den Hof, Paul

308

Ionic density distributions near the charged colloids: Spherical electric double layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the structure of the spherical electric double layers on charged colloids by a density functional perturbation theory, which is based both on the modified fundamental-measure theory for the hard spheres and on the one-particle direct correlation functional (DCF) for the electronic residual contribution. The contribution of one-particle DCF has been approximated as the functional integration of the second-order correlation function of the ionic fluids in a bulk phase. The calculated result is in very good agreement with the computer simulations for the ionic density distributions and the zeta potentials over a wide range of macroion sizes and electrolyte concentrations, and compares with the results of Yu et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7223 (2004)] and modified Poisson-Boltzmann approximation [L. B. Bhuiyan and C. W. Outhwaite, Condens. Matter Phys. 8, 287 (2005)]. The present theory is able to provide interesting insights about the charge inversion phenomena occurring at the interface.

Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Soon-Chul, E-mail: sckim@andong.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

309

Role of Amorphous Boundary Layer in Enhancing Ionic Conductivity of Lithium–lanthanum–titanate Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The low ionic conductivity is a bottleneck of the inorganic solid state electrolyte used for lithium ion battery. In ceramic electrolytes, grain boundary usually dominates the total conductivity. In order to improve the grain boundary effect, an amorphous silica layer is introduced into grain boundary of ceramic electrolytes based on lithium-lanthanum-titanate, as evidenced by electron microscopy. The results showed that the total ionic conductivity could be to be enhanced over 1 x 10{sup -4} S/cm at room temperature. The reasons can be attributed to removing the anisotropy of outer-shell of grains, supplement of lithium ions in various sites in grain boundary and close bindings among grains by the amorphous boundary layer among grains.

Mei, A.; Wang, X.; Lana, J.-L.; Fenga, Y.-C.; Genga, H.-X.; Lina, Y.-H.; Nana, C.-W.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Portlandite content and ionic transport properties of hydrated C{sub 3}S pastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a C{sub 3}S paste characterization study. The objective was to determine the parameters needed to model the process of degradation. The experimental study focused on determining the portlandite content and the ionic diffusion coefficients of C{sub 3}S paste. The molar C/S ratio of C-S-H in hydrated C{sub 3}S pastes was also investigated. The portlandite content was determined with an experimental method based on an electron microprobe analysis. This method leads to a portlandite mass content of 24.4 {+-} 2.3%. The diffusion coefficient of each ionic species was determined by inverse analysis of diffusion test data performed on hydrated C{sub 3}S samples using a multiionic transport model.

Henocq, P., E-mail: phenocq@simcotechnologies.com [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Quebec, G1P 4R7 (Canada); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Quebec, G1P 4R7 (Canada); Marchand, J. [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Quebec, G1P 4R7 (Canada); Department of Civil Engineering, Laval University, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Screening model for nanowire surface-charge sensors in liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conductance change of nanowire field-effect transistors is considered a highly sensitive probe for surface charge. However, Debye screening of relevant physiological liquid environments challenge device performance due to competing screening from the ionic liquid and nanowire charge carriers. We discuss this effect within Thomas-Fermi and Debye-Huckel theory and derive analytical results for cylindrical wires which can be used to estimate the sensitivity of nanowire surface-charge sensors. We study the interplay between the nanowire radius, the Thomas-Fermi and Debye screening lengths, and the length of the functionalization molecules. The analytical results are compared to finite-element calculations on a realistic geometry.

Martin H. Sorensen; Niels Asger Mortensen; Mads Brandbyge

2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

313

EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATION ON PROBABLITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS- PART IV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion susceptibility. Testing solutions were chosen to build off previous experimental results from FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate. The FY11 results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits as well.

Hoffman, E.

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

314

Membrane Ion Channels and Ionic Hydration Energies [Abstract Only  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

25 November 1980 research-article Membrane Ion Channels and Ionic Hydration Energies [Abstract Only] D. T. Edmonds The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings...

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described.

Pramod Kumar Singh; R K Nagarale; S P Pandey; H W Rhee; Bhaskar Bhattacharya

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Study on separation of platinum group metals from high level liquid waste using macroporous (MOTDGA-TOA)/SiO{sub 2}-P silica-based absorbent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs) from high level liquid waste (HLLW) by macroporous silica-based adsorbent, (MOTDGA-TOA)/SiO{sub 2}-P has been developed by impregnating two extractants of N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-di-n-octyl-thio-diglycolamide (MOTDGA) and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) into a silica/polymer composite support (SiO{sub 2}-P). The adsorption of Ru(III), Rh(III) and Pd(II) have been investigated in simulated HLLW by batch method. The adsorbent has shown good uptake property for Pd(II). In addition, the combined use of MOTDGA and TOA improved the adsorption of Ru(III) and Rh(III) better than the individual use of them. The usability of adsorbent in radiation fields was further confirmed by irradiation experiments. The adsorbent remained to have the uptake capability for PGMs over the absorbed dose of 100 kGy, corresponding with one really adsorbed by the adsorbent, and showed good retention capability for Pd(II) even at the absorbed dose of 800 kGy. The chromatographic separation of metal ions was demonstrated with the adsorbent packed column, there is no influence of Re(VII) (instead of Tc) on the excellent separation behavior of Pd(II). (authors)

Ito, Tatsuya [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibarak319-1195 (Japan); Kim, Seong-Yun; Xu, Yuanlai; Hitomi, Keitaro [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-3, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Ishii, Keizo [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kimura, Takaumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibarak319-1195 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

318

Air-Assisted Liquid Liquid–Microextraction for the Analysis of Fungicides from Environmental Water and Juice Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......2014 research-article Article Air-Assisted Liquid Liquid-Microextraction...work, a rapid method based on air-assisted liquid liquid microextraction...the continuous injection of air by a 20-mL glass syringe...resulting in the possible pollution of water, fruits and vegetables......

Shiju Wu; Tingting Jin; Jing Cheng; Hongbin Zhou; Min Cheng

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Recent Progress in the NSTX/NSTX-U Lithium Program and Prospects for Reactor-Relevant Liquid-Lithium Based Divertor Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developing a reactor compatible divertor has been identified as a particularly challenging technology problem for magnetic confinement fusion. While tungsten has been identified as the most attractive solid divertor material, the NSTX/NSTX-U lithium (Li) program is investigating the viability of liquid lithium (LL) as a potential reactor compatible divertor plasma facing component (PFC) . In the near term, operation in NSTX-U is projected to provide reactor-like divertor heat loads < 40 MW/m^2 for 5 s. During the most recent NSTX campaign, ~ 0.85 kg of Li was evaporated onto the NSTX PFCs where a ~50% reduction in heat load on the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was observed, attributable to enhanced divertor bolometric radiation. This reduced divertor heat flux through radiation observed in the NSTX LLD experiment is consistent with the results from other lithium experiments and calculations. These results motivate an LL-based closed radiative divertor concept proposed here for NSTX-U and fusion reactors. With an LL coating, the Li is evaporated from the divertor strike point surface due to the intense heat. The evaporated Li is readily ionized by the plasma due to its low ionization energies, and the ionized Li ions can radiate strongly, resulting in a significant reduction in the divertor heat flux. Due to the rapid plasma transport in divertor plasma, the radiation values can be significantly enhanced up to ~ 11 MJ/cc of LL. This radiative process has the desired function of spreading the focused divertor heat load to the entire divertor chamber facilitating the divertor heat removal. The LL divertor surface can also provide a "sacrificial" surface to protect the substrate solid material from transient high heat flux such as the ones caused by the ELMs. The closed radiative LLD concept has the advantages of providing some degree of partition in terms of plasma disruption forces on the LL, Li particle divertor retention, and strong divertor pumping action from the Li-coated divertor chamber wall. By operating at a lower temperature than the first wall, the LLD can serve to purify the entire reactor chamber, as impurities generally migrate toward lower temperature Li-condensed surfaces. To maintain the LL purity, a closed LL loop system with a modest capacity (e.g., ~ 1 Liter/sec for ~ 1% level "impurities") is envisioned for a steady-state 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant.

M. Ono, et al.

2012-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

320

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Analysis of energies of stationary bubbles at liquid pool surfaces and the subsequent droplet release due to bubble burst based on RESUS code calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In case of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident involving a failure of the primary system, a liquid coolant pool may frequently be formed, which may be contaminated by suspended or solved fuel particles and fission products. For many accident sequences, in which gas is injected into the liquid domain or bubbles are generated by means of heating, pressure transients or chemical reactions, the release of low volatile species from liquid surfaces into a gas atmosphere due to bubble burst is identified as a decisive release mechanism. Generally, resuspension of radioactive species is caused by droplets ejected from the pool surface into the atmosphere, either dominated by direct momentum exchange mechanisms between gas flow and liquid for high gas fluxes or by bursting of single bubbles in case of low gas fluxes. In the latter case, the release of droplets containing radionuclides is governed by two mechanisms, namely micro-droplet generation due to bubble film cap collapse and formation and subsequent disintegration of liquid jets producing so-called jet droplets. Jet and jet droplet formation is modeled in the code system RESUS.MOD2 which contains models for the growth of the bubble in the pool, its shape while resting at the liquid surface, and jet and jet-droplet generation after bubble cap rupture. Using the module BUBSHAPE (BUBbleSHAPE) of the RESUS code, the characteristic profile of a bubble resting at the liquid surface as well as the mechanical energies available for droplet formation and consequently droplet- and particle release can be determined. The governing resuspension energies are identified to be the surface energy, the energy stored in the gas within the bubble due to its excess pressure, and the potential energy due to the displacement of liquid.

Starflinger, J.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H. [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany). Dept. for Nuclear and New Energy Systems; Schuetz, W. [Inst. for Reactor Safety, Karlsruhe (Germany)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

A liquid film motor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that electro-hydrodynamical effects in freely suspended liquid films can force liquids to flow. Here, we report a purely electrically driven rotation in water and some other liquid suspended film...

A. Amjadi; R. Shirsavar; N. Hamedani Radja…

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

324

Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

325

Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

326

Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

327

Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

328

Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

329

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

330

Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

331

Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

332

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

333

Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids,...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

334

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

335

Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

336

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

337

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 139, 214701 (2013) The liquid surface of chiral ionic liquids as seen from molecular dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these applications include drug delivery as active phar- maceutical ingredients, solvents for green processing, pu

Lisal, Martin

338

High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of 7Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5 kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4 kW/cm2 and volumetric power density around 2 MW/cm3 at a lithium flow of ~4 m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (?=~2 mm) 1.91 MeV, 3 mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91–2.5 MeV, 2 mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91 MeV) 7Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors.

S. Halfon; M. Paul; A. Arenshtam; D. Berkovits; D. Cohen; I. Eliyahu; D. Kijel; I. Mardor; I. Silverman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Transition from a nonionic to an ionic micelle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper was motivated by an attempt to understand the transition from a nonionic to an ionic micelle from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments were performed on mixed micelles of nonionic-ionic surfactants as the charge was increased in steps. Evidence for the charge condensation on the surface of the micelles is obtained. An extension of the sticky-hard-sphere model to include the Coulomb potentials is presented and used to analyze experimental results on two systems. It is concluded that this model is more appropriate than the currently used models.

V. K. Kelkar; B. K. Mishra; K. Srinivasa Rao; P. S. Goyal; C. Manohar

1991-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Measurement of vibrational spectrum of liquid using monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy–electron energy loss spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......application to lithium-ion battery and hence has been well studied...Atom-by-atom spectroscopy at graphene edge. Nature (2010) 468...temperature molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte. Electrochim...additive systems as lithium-ion battery ionic liquid electrolytes......

Tomohiro Miyata; Mao Fukuyama; Akihide Hibara; Eiji Okunishi; Masaki Mukai; Teruyasu Mizoguchi

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Conductive Filler Morphology Effect on Performance of Ionic Polymer Conductive Network Composite Actuators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several generations of ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators have been developed since 1992. It has been discovered that the composite electrodes which are composed of electronic and ionic conductors, have great ...

Liu, Sheng

343

Weakly-Basic Anion Exchange Resin Scavenges Impurities in Ionic Liquid Synthesized from Trialkyloxonium Salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Lewis acidic parts of these impurities, that is, H+ and BF3, were demonstrated to be able to transfer to dimethylamino groups of the weakly basic anion exchange resin (DOWEX MARATHON WBA) in aqueous solutions, releasing 1-methylimidazole (mim). ... Although intense reddish brown color was given to the residual oil of [emim]BF4, further purification and decolorization have been achieved by using silica-gel column chromatography (eluent: acetone) and treatment with activated carbon in water. ... The detection and determination of [emim]+, mim, [Hmim]+, [BF3(mim)], and BF4– in the recovered oils and collected volatiles from each batch were performed by using chemical shifts and peak integrals in the 1H and 19F NMR spectra. ...

Koichiro Takao; Taro Tsubomura

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

344

Imaging an ionic liquid adlayer by scanning tunneling microscopy at the solid|vacuum interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm, Germany 2 Institute of Particle Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal- Zellerfeld, Gemany Abstract The first imaging(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([Py1,4]FAP) was evaporated onto a clean Au(111) surface by a Knudsen-type evaporator and the surface

Pfeifer, Holger

345

Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liq- uids have been considered and used as a new generation of green solvents for a number of or solvents, a much smaller amount of the catalyst was used. After a relatively easy removal of the polymer Chemistry, Vol. 41, 143­151 (2003) © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 143 #12;tion solvents will make

Wan, Xin-hua

346

Determination of Binding Constants of Cyclodextrins in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and virtually no vapor pressure. Because of these properties, they can serve as a "green" recyclable alternative to the volatile organic compounds that are traditionally used as industrial solvents.1-4 In fact, RTIL have been successfully used in many applications, including replacing traditional organic solvents in (1) organic

Reid, Scott A.

347

Adsorption of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids onto montmorillonite : characterization and thermodynamic calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and are thus widely used as green solvents for various applications [1,3,4]. RTILs are formed to their extremely low vapour pressures [2], they constitute an attractive alternative to traditional solvents

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

Green Chemistry Protocols: Specific Ionic Liquids as Recyclable Reagents, Catalysts, Solvents and Extractors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the current age of high dependency of chemical industries on the resources coming from oil and gas which are getting increasingly scarce, the focus is shifting towards renewable feedstock. In this prospective,...

Fliur Z. Macaev

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Application of deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids to hydrolase-catalyzed reactions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hydrolases are important enzymes for stereoselective and environmentally benign synthesis. In nature, hydrolases cleave bonds with water. When used in organic solvents, these enzymes can… (more)

Gorke, Johnathan Thomas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Instructions for use Dielectric spectroscopy study on ionic liquid microemulsion composed of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the versatility of mi- croemulsion. In addition to the "green solvents" nature, ILs are also known as "designer to traditional organic solvents but also a group of advanced materials for diverse purposes like energy storage.3 solvents" because their properties can be easily customized by chemical modification or sim- ply pairing

Tsunogai, Urumu

351

Production of Versatile Platform Chemical 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Biomass in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Growing concerns on global warming and the depletion of traditional resources have driven us to look for green and sustainable energy sources. As a biomass-derived platform chemical, the production of 5-HMF has b...

Xinhua Qi; Richard L. Smith Jr.; Zhen Fang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Ionic Liquids as Multi-Functional Lubricant Additives to Enhance Engine Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

353

Correlation between Quasielastic Raman Scattering and Configurational Entropy in an Ionic Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro * ... Urahata, Sergio M.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C. ... Urahata, Sergio M.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C. ...

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

High Viscosity of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids with the Hydrogen Sulfate Anion: A Raman Spectroscopy Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro * ... Monteiro, Marcelo J.; Bazito, Fernanda F. C.; Siqueira, Leonardo J. A.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.; Torresi, Roberto M. ...

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous ionic liquids Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The methane partial... of commercial processes are available to deal with the acid gas removal. Chemical absorption ... Source: Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit - Centre for...

356

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioenerg. Res. (2010) 3:123–133 DOI 10.1007/s12155-010-9091-has been shown to be an Bioenerg. Res. (2010) 3:123–133 12.Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA, USA e-

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Investigations into the Synthesis, Identification and Developability of Active Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be advantageous in traditional oral and alternative non-oral routes of administration. The library of successful AILs was increased with a series of generic and propriatary compounds. They were characterized via infrared spectrometry, glass transition temperature...

Miller, Elise

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B. M. Holmes Biomass Science and Conversion Technologyof the conversion of biomass into monosaccharides. However,enhance the conversion of IL-treated biomass polysaccharides

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

DOE-funded researchers have shown that a new, highly effective pretreatment process used in the production of biofuel can be executed at a larger scale than ever achieved before.

360

Process for CO2 Capture Using Ionic Liquid That Exhibits Phase Change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An expander turbine powered by the CO2-lean flue gas leaving the absorber recovers 43% of the power expended by the flue gas compressor. ... The authors appreciate the close collaboration with faculty at the University of Notre Dame, including Professors Joan Brennecke, Mark McCready, Mark Stadtherr, Bill Schneider, and Ed Maginn. ... The heat transfer within the adsorbent beds can be managed in situ, using thermal energy storage material: a phase change materials (PCM) for example. ...

Ronald S. Eisinger; George E. Keller; II

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

identification of structure and domain size in block copolymer thin films using RSoXS enables a quantitative comparison of the bulk

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Molecular Friction Mechanisms Across Nanofilms of a Bilayer-Forming Ionic Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The prevailing paradigm in boundary lubrication asserts, in essence, that surfaces coated in amphiphiles slide past each other by way of the “slippery” exposed alkyl chains while the polar head group remains anchored at the surface. Here we show, for ...

Alexander M. Smith; Michael A. Parkes; Susan Perkin

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Ionic Liquid–Mediated Selective Conversion of CO2 to CO at Low Overpotentials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...observe here. Further development of the reactor configuration...rotating-disk electrode at a cathode potential equivalent...At present, our cathode has an electrochemical...Dubois D. L. , Development of molecular electrocatalysts...A new homogeneous electrocatalyst for the reduction...

Brian A. Rosen; Amin Salehi-Khojin; Michael R. Thorson; Wei Zhu; Devin T. Whipple; Paul J. A. Kenis; Richard I. Masel

2011-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

364

Ionic Liquid-Assisted Synthesis of Pt Nanoparticles onto Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The success of PEMFC depends considerably on cost, durability, and performance of the electrocatalyst in fuel cell stacks. ... The development of highly active electrocatalysts dispersed on corrosion-resistant and inexpensive carbons is necessary for achieving the reliability of the PEMFC necessary for their widespread usage and reducing its total cost. ... Time-effective and reliable methods for studying catalyst durability are indispensable for developing PEMFC catalysts. ...

Inhwan Do; Lawrence T. Drzal

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Gas Hydrate Equilibrium Measurements for Multi-Component Gas Mixtures and Effect of Ionic Liquid Inhibitors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrate inhibition data from a newly commissioned micro bench top reactor, a high-pressure autoclave and a rocking cell. The conditions for hydrate formation for pure methane and carbon dioxide were also measured, for validation purposes. The measured data...

Othman, Enas Azhar

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

366

Solubilization of Biomass Components with Ionic Liquids Toward Biomass Energy Conversions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cellulosic biomass essentially consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. To obtain energy from cellulosic biomass with minimum given energy, following three steps are required, namely...3, 4...]. Since or...

Mitsuru Abe; Hiroyuki Ohno

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pretreatment efficiency . Biofuels 4 ( 1 ): 63 – 72 . 16 Simmons BA Loque D Blanch HW ( 2008 ) Next-generation biomass feedstocks for biofuel production . Genome Biol 9 ( 12 ): 242 . 17 Kilpelainen A ( 2003 ) Wood properties of Scots pines (Pinus...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

369

Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

370

Production of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Mono- and Disaccharides in the Presence of Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The one-pot dehydration/hydrolysis of mono- and disaccharides to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the presence of several...4], a HMF yield of 87 % was achieved from sucrose. In addition, [AMIM]Cl revealed a rema...

Jincai Shi; Wentao Liu; Ningning Wang; Yan Yang; Haijun Wang

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

One-step degradation of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in ionic liquid under mild conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract One-step conversion of cellulose to HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural) has been achieved by using metal chlorides (CrCl3, CuCl2, SnCl4, WCl6) in [BMIM]Cl. The effects of temperature, reaction time, amount of catalysts, and the purity of [BMIM]Cl on the performance have been studied and discussed in detail. More than 63% yield of HMF and 80% yield of TRS (total reducing sugar) were obtained in [BMIM]Cl with CrCl3 at 120 °C under atmospheric pressure. Filter paper and cotton were also used as a source for cellulose degradation to HMF, but only a moderate yield of HMF was obtained (40% for filter paper and 12% for cotton). The reutilization of this system was examined and the reaction mechanism was also discussed.

Lilong Zhou; Yiming He; Zhanwei Ma; Runjuan Liang; Tinghua Wu; Ying Wu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Temperature dependence of some liquid lithium properties from the ionic pseudopotential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, UCRL-'L44O 444, Laurence Livermore Lab, Caleg (19~ (3) S. G. J. Fischer, et aleg Intl Conf. En n of Past Reactors i' or Safe and Relia e s. , ese sc a ur em orsc ung, a sr e, (4) P. A. Nelson, et al. , A~A- 6, Argo e National Date, Ill. , (1976) (5..., UCRL-'L44O 444, Laurence Livermore Lab, Caleg (19~ (3) S. G. J. Fischer, et aleg Intl Conf. En n of Past Reactors i' or Safe and Relia e s. , ese sc a ur em orsc ung, a sr e, (4) P. A. Nelson, et al. , A~A- 6, Argo e National Date, Ill. , (1976) (5...

Engel, Anthony Wells

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

Radiation-Induced Fragmentation of Diamide Extraction Agents in Ionic Liquid Diluents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Hoel, P.; Nigond, L.; Vitart, X. Sep. ... Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Hoel, P.; Nigond, L.; Vitart, X. ...

Ilya A. Shkrob; Timothy W. Marin; Jason R. Bell; Huimin Luo; Sheng Dai; Jasmine L. Hatcher; R. Dale Rimmer; James F. Wishart

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Borrowing Hydrogen in Water and Ionic Liquids: Iridium-Catalyzed Alkylation of Amines with Alcohols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ourida Saidi †, A. John Blacker ‡, Gareth W. Lamb †, Stephen P. Marsden ‡, James E. Taylor † and Jonathan M. J. Williams *† ... Blacker, A. J.; Farah, M. M.; Hall, M. I.; Marsden, S. P.; Saidi, O.; Williams, J. M. J. Org. ... Blacker, A. John; Farah, Mohamed M.; Hall, Michael I.; Marsden, Stephen P.; Saidi, Ourida; Williams, Jonathan M. J. ...

Ourida Saidi; A. John Blacker; Gareth W. Lamb; Stephen P. Marsden; James E. Taylor; Jonathan M. J. Williams

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

375

Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photoionization efficiency (PIE) data were acquired as thebeam. In this first study, PIE data are taken over a limitedthe source is reached before PIE curves are measured. The

Chambreau, Steven D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Ionic Liquids as an Attractive Alternative Solvent for Thermal Lens Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in volatile organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexane. However, the ILs are more,2 Nonpolar, volative organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and hexane should provide good

Reid, Scott A.

377

Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

378

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

379

Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

383

Viscosity, specific (for liquids)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n. The ratio between the viscosity of a liquid and the viscosity of water at the same temperature. Specific viscosity is sometimes used interchangeably with relative viscosity for liquids.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Liquid Piston Stirling Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Fluidyne liquid piston engine is a simple free-piston Stirling engine that can be made from nothing more...

Graham Walker Ph. D.; J. R. Senft Ph.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Ionically Conducting Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Separation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND SEPARATION Presented by Tony Sammells Eltron Research Inc. Boulder, Colorado www.eltronresearch.com Presented at DOE Hydrogen Separations Workshop Arlington, Virginia September 8, 2004 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. TO BE DISCUSSED * Membranes for Hydrogen Production - Compositions - Feedstocks - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles * Membranes for Hydrogen Separation - Compositions - Ex Situ vs. In Situ WGS - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles ELTRON RESEARCH INC. OVERALL SCHEME FOR CONVERTING FEEDSTOCK TO HYDROGEN WITH SIMULTANEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION Oxygen Transport Membrane Hydrogen Transport Membrane Natural Gas Coal Biomass Syngas CO/H 2 WGS H 2 O CO 2 /H 2 1618afs.dsf H 2 CO 2 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. INCENTIVES FOR OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR

386

ESM of Ionic and Electrochemical Phenomena on the Nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation of energy storage and conversion devices is ultimately controlled by series of intertwined ionic and electronic transport processes and electrochemical reactions at surfaces and interfaces, strongly mediated by strain and mechanical processes [1-4]. In a typical fuel cell, these include chemical species transport in porous cathode and anode materials, gas-solid electrochemical reactions at grains and triple-phase boundaries (TPBs), ionic and electronic flows in multicomponent electrodes, and chemical and electronic potential drops at internal interfaces in electrodes and electrolytes. All these phenomena are sensitively affected by the microstructure of materials from device level to the atomic scales as illustrated in Fig. 1. Similar spectrum of length scales and phenomena underpin operation of other energy systems including primary and secondary batteries, as well as hybrid systems such flow and metal-air/water batteries.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [Pennsylvania State University; Balke, Nina [ORNL; McCorkle, Morgan L [ORNL; Guo, Senli [ORNL; Arruda, Thomas M [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Preparation and Properties of Novel Slow-Release NPK Agrochemical Formulations Based on Poly(acrylic acid) Hydrogels and Liquid Fertilizers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main biomedical applications of hydrogels are in the area of biosensors, controlled drug delivery, and tissue regeneration and repair, while the agricultural ones can be divided into two main categories: (i) soil conditioners for improving water retention in soils and the water supply of plants and (ii) controlled release of agrochemicals (AGC), both pesticides and fertilizers. ... Two typical NPK liquid fertilizer compositions containing urea and potassium and ammonium phosphates were employed as polymerization media, and the influence of the synthesis conditions (concentration of reactants, reaction time, LF composition) onto hydrogel water absorption and fertilizer release rate was investigated. ...

Mircea Teodorescu; Anamaria Lungu; Paul O. Stanescu; Constantin Neam?u

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

388

Ionic Ckonductivity and Glass Transition of Phosphoric Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we report the low-temperature dielectric and viscoelastic properties of phosphoric acids in the range of H2O:P2O5 1.5 5. Both dielectric and viscosity measurements allow us to determine the glass-transition temperatures of phosphoric acids. The obtained glass-transition temperatures are in good agreement with previous differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Moreover, our analysis reveals moderate decoupling of ionic conductivity from structural relaxation in the vicinity of the glass transition.

Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Lane, Nathan A [ORNL; Sun, Che-Nan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fan, Fei [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Ionic conductivity and glass transition of phosphoric acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we report the low-temperature dielectric and viscoelastic properties of phosphoric acids in the range of H2O:P2O5 1.5 5. Both dielectric and viscosity measurements allow us to determine the glass-transition temperatures of phosphoric acids. The obtained glass-transition temperatures are in good agreement with previous differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Moreover, our analysis reveals moderate decoupling of ionic conductivity from structural relaxation in the vicinity of the glass transition.

Wang, Yangyang [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lane, Nathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Sun, Che-Nan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fan, Fei [ORNL] [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Air and Liquid Advisors ALA | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Texas-based brokerage firm that specializes in brokerage services for the global green markets and the clean energy sector. References: Air and Liquid Advisors (ALA)1 This...

391

Magnetoelastic Interactions in Ionic ?-Electron Systems: Magnetogyration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The alkali hyperoxides A O2 exhibit elastic and magnetic interactions due to the nature of the diatomic molecule ion O2-. These anion sublattices represent simple magnetic spin-½ systems. In contrast to 3d- or 4f-electron systems, where magnetoelastic interactions induce magnetostriction, the (2p)?-electron system KO2 exhibits magnetogyration. A crystallographic phase transition involving a considerable change in the molecular orientation can be induced by an applied magnetic field. A theoretical model based on the exchange modulation produced by this reorientation describes the salient features.

M. A. Bösch; M. E. Lines; M. Labhart

1980-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

392

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

393

Sliding Luttinger liquid phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study systems of coupled spin-gapped and gapless Luttinger liquids. First, we establish the existence of a sliding Luttinger liquid phase for a system of weakly coupled parallel quantum wires, with and without disorder. It is shown that the coupling can stabilize a Luttinger liquid phase in the presence of disorder. We then extend our analysis to a system of crossed Luttinger liquids and establish the stability of a non-Fermi-liquid state: the crossed sliding Luttinger liquid phase. In this phase the system exhibits a finite-temperature, long-wavelength, isotropic electric conductivity that diverges as a power law in temperature T as T?0. This two-dimensional system has many properties of a true isotropic Luttinger liquid, though at zero temperature it becomes anisotropic. An extension of this model to a three-dimensional stack exhibits a much higher in-plane conductivity than the conductivity in a perpendicular direction.

Ranjan Mukhopadhyay; C. L. Kane; T. C. Lubensky

2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

394

Conduction of Electricity by Dielectric Liquids at High Field Strengths  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conductivity of highly purified heptane has been measured between optical flats at field strengths up to 600,000 volts per cm at temperatures ranging from - 190°C to 20°C. Electrode separations down to 0.005 cm were used in order to minimize the effect of space charge and ionic recombination. It is concluded that electronic or collision processes are unlikely as the source of high field conductivity in heptane and probably most other liquid dielectrics as well. It is suggested that the highly nonconducting dielectric liquids should be included as extreme cases in the general class of weak electrolytes. The presence of appreciable conductivity under high electric fields is ascribed to the lowering of the energy of the hydrogen bond by the applied field.

H. J. Plumley

1941-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic supported ionic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hin Hark Gan Summary: are summarized in Mate- rials and Methods and in the Supporting Material. In this work, we compute ionic... present the mesoscale chromatin model and...

396

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony oxide ionic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: antimony oxide ionic Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 IOP PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 20 (2009) 264003 (7pp) doi:10.10880957-44842026264003 Summary:...

397

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial muscles ionic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

their tails. They may cost more than conventional... . Artificial muscles represent the holy grail for robotics researchers. Today's robots look blocky... . The ionic group is...

398

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

399

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

400

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

Roberts, J.G.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

404

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

406

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

407

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach Tomer, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (Dated: November 19, 2014) We study the surface tension of ionic solutions expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical

Andelman, David

408

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self-assembled multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self The electrochromic switching times of solid state conducting polymer devices fabricated by the ionic self shown to decrease with the active area of the electrochromic device suggesting that even faster

Heflin, Randy

409

Ionic Asymmetry and Solvent Excluded Volume Effects on Spherical Electric Double Layers: A Density Functional Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we present a classical density functional theory for electrical double layers of spherical macroions that extends the capabilities of conventional approaches by accounting for electrostatic ion correlations, size asymmetry and excluded volume effects. The approach is based on a recent approximation introduced by Hansen-Goos and Roth for the hard sphere excess free energy of inhomogeneous fluids (J. Chem. Phys. 124, 154506). It accounts for the proper and efficient description of the effects of ionic asymmetry and solvent excluded volume, especially at high ion concentrations and size asymmetry ratios including those observed in experimental studies. Additionally, we utilize a leading functional Taylor expansion approximation of the ion density profiles. In addition, we use the Mean Spherical Approximation for multi-component charged hard sphere fluids to account for the electrostatic ion correlation effects. These approximations are implemented in our theoretical formulation into a suitable decomposition of the excess free energy which plays a key role in capturing the complex interplay between charge correlations and excluded volume effects. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in various scenarios to validate the proposed approach, obtaining a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost. We use the proposed computational approach to study the effects of ion size, ion size asymmetry and solvent excluded volume on the ion profiles, integrated charge, mean electrostatic potential, and ionic coordination number around spherical macroions in various electrolyte mixtures. Our results show that both solvent hard sphere diameter and density play a dominant role in the distribution of ions around spherical macroions, mainly for experimental water molarity and size values where the counterion distribution is characterized by a tight binding to the macroion, similar to that predicted by the Stern model.

Medasani, Bharat; Ovanesyan, Zaven; Thomas, Dennis G.; Sushko, Maria L.; Marucho, Marcelo

2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

410

CO2-Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Full Technology Feasibility Study B1 - Solvent-based Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little/no impact to absorption column • >90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600 cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $35/kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg/L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Facile separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was demonstrated on the bench cart • No measurable solvent degradation was observed over 4 months of testing – even with 5 wt% water present

Heldebrant, David J

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

412

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

413

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Liquid-level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

Not Available

1981-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

415

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

416

Mechanistic Studies of Charge Injection from Metallic Electrodes into Organic Semiconductors Mediated by Ionic Functionalities: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-organic semiconductor interfaces are important because of their ubiquitous role in determining the performance of modern electronics such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), fuel cells, batteries, field effect transistors (FETs), and organic solar cells. Interfaces between metal electrodes required for external wiring to the device and underlying organic structures directly affect the charge carrier injection/collection efficiency in organic-based electronic devices primarily due to the mismatch between energy levels in the metal and organic semiconductor. Environmentally stable and cost-effective electrode materials, such as aluminum and gold typically exhibit high potential barriers for charge carriers injection into organic devices leading to increased operational voltages in OLEDs and FETs and reduced charge extraction in photovoltaic devices. This leads to increased power consumption by the device, reduced overall efficiency, and decreased operational lifetime. These factors represent a significant obstacle for development of next generation of cheap and energy-efficient components based on organic semiconductors. It has been noticed that introduction of organic materials with conjugated backbone and ionic pendant groups known as conjugated poly- and oligoelectrolytes (CPEs and COEs), enables one to reduce the potential barriers at the metal-organic interface and achieve more efficient operation of a device, however exact mechanisms of the phenomenon have not been understood. The goal of this project was to delineate the function of organic semiconductors with ionic groups as electron injection layers. The research incorporated a multidisciplinary approach that encompassed the creation of new materials, novel processing techniques, examination of fundamental electronic properties and the incorporation of the resulting knowledgebase into development of novel organic electronic devices with increased efficiency, environmental stability, and reduced cost. During the execution of the project, main efforts were focused on the synthesis of new charge-bearing organic materials, such as CPEs and COEs, and block copolymers with neutral and ionic segments, studies of mechanisms responsible for the charge injection modulation in devices with ionic interlayers, and use of naturally occurring charged molecules for creation of enhanced devices. The studies allowed PIs to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach for the improvement of operational parameters in model OLED and FET systems resulting in increased efficiency, decreased contact resistance, and possibility to use stable metals for fabrication of device electrodes. The successful proof-of-the-principle results potentially promise development of light-weight, low fabrication cost devices which can be used in consumer applications such as displays, solar cells, and printed electronic devices. Fundamental mechanisms responsible for the phenomena observed have been identified thus advancing the fundamental knowledgebase.

Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen [UCSB; Bazan, Guillermo [UCSB; Mikhailovsky, Alexander [UCSB

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Nuclear fusion reaction rates for strongly coupled ionic mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the effect of plasma screening on nuclear reaction rates in dense matter composed of atomic nuclei of one or two types. We perform semiclassical calculations of the Coulomb barrier penetrability taking into account a radial mean-field potential of plasma ions. The mean-field potential is extracted from the results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of radial pair distribution functions of ions in binary ionic mixtures. We calculate the reaction rates in a wide range of plasma parameters and approximate these rates by an analytical expression that is expected to be applicable to multicomponent ion mixtures. Also, we analyze Gamow-peak energies of reacting ions in various nuclear burning regimes. For illustration, we study nuclear burning in {sup 12}C-{sup 16}O mixtures.

Chugunov, A. I.; DeWitt, H. E. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Low velocity ion stopping in binary ionic mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attention is focused on the low ion velocity stopping mechanisms in multicomponent and dense target plasmas built of quasiclassical electron fluids neutralizing binary ionic mixtures, such as, deuterium-tritium of current fusion interest, proton-heliumlike iron in the solar interior or proton-helium ions considered in planetology, as well as other mixtures of fiducial concern in the heavy ion beam production of warm dense matter at Bragg peak conditions. The target plasma is taken in a multicomponent dielectric formulation a la Fried-Conte. The occurrence of projectile ion velocities (so-called critical) for which target electron slowing down equals that of given target ion components is also considered. The corresponding multiquadrature computations, albeit rather heavy, can be monitored analytical through a very compact code operating a PC cluster. Slowing down results are systematically scanned with respect to target temperature and electron density, as well as ion composition.

Tashev, Bekbolat; Baimbetov, Fazylkhan [Department of Physics, Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96, Almaty 480012 (Kazakhstan); Deutsch, Claude [LPGP (UMR-CNRS 8578), Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay (France); Fromy, Patrice [Direction de l'Informatique, Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay (France)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Dielectric function of a collisional plasma for arbitrary ionic charge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple model for the dielectric function of a completely ionized plasma with an arbitrary ionic charge that is valid for long-wavelength high-frequency perturbations is derived using an approximate solution of a linearized Fokker-Planck kinetic equation for electrons with a Landau collision integral. The model accounts for both the electron-ion collisions and the collisions of the subthermal (cold) electrons with thermal ones. The relative contribution of the latter collisions to the dielectric function is treated phenomenologically, introducing some parameter ? that is chosen in such a way as to get a well-known expression for stationary electric conductivity in the low-frequency region and fulfill the requirement of a vanishing contribution of electron-electron collisions in the high-frequency region. This procedure ensures the applicability of our model in a wide range of plasma parameters as well as the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation. Unlike the interpolation formula proposed earlier by Brantov et al. [Brantov et al., JETP 106, 983 (2008)], our model fulfills the Kramers-Kronig relations and permits a generalization for the cases of degenerate and strongly coupled plasmas. With this in mind, a generalization of the well-known Lee-More model [Y. T. Lee and R. M. More, Phys. Fluids 27, 1273 (1984)] for stationary conductivity and its extension to dynamical conductivity [O. F. Kostenko and N. E. Andreev, GSI Annual Report No. GSI-2008-2, 2008 (unpublished), p. 44] is proposed for the case of plasmas with arbitrary ionic charge.

H. B. Nersisyan, M. E. Veysman, N. E. Andreev, and H. H. Matevosyan

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

420

Reducible Supports for Ni-based Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear spin relaxation, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques are used to determine supramolecular arrangement of 3-methyl-1-octyl-4-phenyl-1H-triazol-1,2,3-ium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [OMPhTz][Tf{sub 2}N], an example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid. The results obtained showed first-order thermodynamic dependence for nuclear spin relaxation of the anion. First-order relaxation dependence is interpreted as through-bond dipolar relaxation. Greater than first-order dependence was found in the aliphatic protons, aromatic carbons (including nearest neighbors), and carbons at the end of the aliphatic tail. Greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of spin relaxation rates is interpreted as relaxation resulting from at least one mechanism additional to through-bond dipolar relaxation. In rigid portions of the cation, an additional spin relaxation mechanism is attributed to anisotropic effects, while greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of the octyl side chain’s spin relaxation rates is attributed to cation–cation interactions. Little interaction between the anion and the cation was observed by spin relaxation studies or by ESI-MS. No extended supramolecular structure was observed in this study, which was further supported by MS and SAXS. nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) factors are used in conjunction with spin–lattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}) measurements to calculate rotational correlation times for C–H bonds (the time it takes for the vector represented by the bond between the two atoms to rotate by one radian). The rotational correlation times are used to represent segmental reorientation dynamics of the cation. A combination of techniques is used to determine the segmental interactions and dynamics of this example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid.

Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used in the mid- and long-term time frames.

422

Computer Simulation of Diffusion of Pb-Bi Eutectic in Liquid Sodium by Molecular Dynamics Method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lead-bismuth eutectic is a potential candidate for coolant of secondary loops of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors (FBR). The studies on the diffusion of liquid Pb-Bi in liquid Na are carried out corresponding to the case that liquid Pb-Bi leaks to liquid Na by accident. As the diffusion processes are the results of atomic motions, molecular dynamics method has been used to study the diffusion process. The self-diffusion coefficients of pure liquid Pb and Na, and liquid Pb-Bi are calculated and compared with ones by the empirical equations. The discrepancy between them could be eliminated by changing the densities of the liquids. The diffusion of lead-bismuth in sodium is simulated based on the changed densities under which the self-diffusion coefficients of individual liquid metals are close to those by the empirical equations. The simulation results show that the diffusion process of liquid Pb-Bi in liquid Na is a heat releasing process and the density of ternary liquid Na-Pb-Bi is higher than the average value of the densities of liquid Na and liquid Pb-Bi. It is also found that the diffusion coefficients of liquid Pb-Bi in liquid Na are much higher than their self-diffusion coefficients, indicating that liquid Pb-Bi are easy and quickly to diffuse in liquid Na. However, the diffusion coefficient of liquid Na is decreased due to the existence of liquid Pb-Bi, implying that liquid Na-Pb-Bi have a higher viscosity than that of pure liquid Na. (authors)

Yingxia Qi; Minoru Takahashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

424

Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Concerted Interconversion between Ionic Lock Substates of the b2 Adrenergic Receptor Revealed by Microsecond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concerted Interconversion between Ionic Lock Substates of the b2 Adrenergic Receptor Revealed substates (2,5). Recently solved crystallographic structures of b2-adren- ergic receptor (B2AR) have shown

426

High-Performance Ionic Diode Membrane for Salinity Gradient Power Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Performance Ionic Diode Membrane for Salinity Gradient Power Generation ... These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solns., such as thermolytic salts. ... saline brines because of the higher power d. ...

Jun Gao; Wei Guo; Dan Feng; Huanting Wang; Dongyuan Zhao; Lei Jiang

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

427

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

428

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

429

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

430

High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

431

Liquid Scintillator Purification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The KamLAND collaboration has studied background requirements and purification methods needed to observe the 7Be neutrino from the sun. First we will discuss the present background situation in KamLAND where it is found that the main background components are 210Pb and 85Kr. It is then described how to purify the liquid scintillator. The present status and results on how to remove 210Pb from the liquid scintillator are discussed. Specifically, the detailed analysis of the effects of distillation and adsorption techniques are presented.

Kishimoto, Y. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

432

Network Topology and the Fragility of Tetrahedral Glass-Forming Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Network-forming liquids comprising tetrahedral motifs are investigated by large-scale molecular dynamics computer simulations within the framework of an ionic interaction model. The network topology is controlled by varying the anion polarizability, which governs the intertetrahedral bond angle, for different system densities. A coupling is found between the growth in magnitude and range of extended range oscillations and the appearance of ordering on an intermediate length scale. The interrelation between the system fragility and the structural arrangements on these two different length scales shows the trends that are observed for glass-forming systems. In particular, the fragility increases with number of edge-sharing motifs.

Mark Wilson and Philip S. Salmon

2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

433

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

434

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry and a new liquid autoporosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines the volumes of different size pores by measuring the amount of liquid in these pores, thus, providing pore volume distribution (PVD) data for porous structures. Any liquid that wets the sample may be used. This opens unique opportunities for porous structure evaluation. It provides realistic PVD analysis when the liquid of interest changes the porous structure. It determines uptake/drainage hysteresis of real liquids. It allows direct measurements of uptake and retention capillary pressures with different amounts of liquid in a sample. Lyophilic liquid porosimetry determines liquid/solid contact angles of different size pores within the sample. It can also be used for PVD analysis of both soft, brittle materials and porous metal materials.

Tyomkin, I. [TRI/Princeton, NJ (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Hybrid Lattice-Boltzmann/Level-set Method for Liquid Simulation and Visualization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybrid Lattice-Boltzmann/Level-set Method for Liquid Simulation and Visualization Youngmin Kwak1 level set method (PLSM) and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) have been two major physics-based liquid lattice Boltzmann method (HLBM), which integrates PLSM and LBM, to visualize realistic liquid motion

Southern California, University of

436

Lattice Boltzmann simulations of liquid film drainage between smooth surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Issue: Modelling the mesoscale Lattice Boltzmann simulations of liquid film drainage...computer simulations based on the lattice Boltzmann method of a sphere submerged...error to be kept below 1%. lattice Boltzmann|microfluidics|lubrication......

Christian Kunert; Jens Harting

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The resulting diffusion constants as measured were all less than 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/sec, and therefore these compounds are not superionic. However, there remain a large number of potentially superionic pseudobinary lanthanide compounds and a number of alternate ionic carbides which might act as dopants to produce vacancies on the carbon-ion sublattice and thereby increase carbon-ion diffusion rates. The discovery of a superionic carbon conductor would usher in a truly revolutionary new coal technology, and could dramatically improve the way in which we generate electricity from coal. The work completed to date is a promising first step towards this end.

Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Calculation of multicomponent ionic diffusion from zero to high concentration: II. Inclusion of associated ion species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a theoretical model of multicomponent ionic diffusion which is valid to high concentration for systems which show ion association. The results of the authors' formulations are contrasted with those of more simplified models for systems containing Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and MgSO{sub 4}, as well as for multicomponent natural seawater. The differences between their model and simplified models are significant, especially at high concentration. Inconsistencies which may develop with the use of the simplified approaches are demonstrated. The authors' approach requires considerable data which are not available at temperatures other than 25{degree}C. Therefore, other approaches which are based only on data at infinite dilution are of great interest. They show here that, if chemical potential derivatives are included in the infinite dilution model of Nernst and Hartley which uses only infinite dilution mobilities, the model can be extended to slightly concentrated solutions. This extended Nernst-Hartley model gives good agreement with all of the existing experimental mutual diffusion coefficient data at concentrations below about 0.2 M in the six component system Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. This may be the most reliable way to extend infinite dilution data into more concentrated regions. In the systems they have studied, the inclusion of ion-association species for weakly interacting species does not appear to provide significant improvement over the generalized Nernst-Hartley model.

Felmy, A.R.; Weare, J.H. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

First sharp diffraction peak in the fragile liquid Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular-dynamics simulations of the glass former Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4 (CKN) have been performed with a polarizable model for the nitrate ion. Polarization effects in the anion were included with a fluctuating charge model. Comparison of the Ca-Ca partial radial distribution functions calculated with the polarizable model and the rigid ion model counterpart indicates that closer approach of calcium ions is allowed with the polarizable model. Typical clusters which are stabilized by ionic polarization are identified in snapshots of the simulated system. The prepeak or first sharp diffraction peak observed in the experimental static structure factor, and the associated intermediate-range order, is reproduced in the calculated structure factor provided that polarization is included in the simulation. The polarization effects on the equilibrium structure of this archetypic fragile liquid are compared to previous results on strong ionic liquids.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Polymeric Columns for Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with the polymer in the lithium ionic form. Elution...with the polymer in the lithium form. As will be seen...improvements in polymer synthesis techniques coupled with...Determination of glycerol, acetate, and ethanol in the...that this will require synthesis of entirely new polymers......

James R. Benson; Dexter J. Woo

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Viscosity of Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

6 November 1952 research-article Viscosity of Liquids E. N. da C. Andrade The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. www.jstor.org

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

The Viscosity of Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of momentum between them. In the case of a gas, Maxwell showed how the viscosity can be derived by considering this momentum as being communicated by molecules transferring themselves bodily ... fulfilment of the conditions postulated in Maxwell's treatment, and the fact that while gas viscosity goes up with temperature liquid ...

E. N. DA C. ANDRADE

1930-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

443

Detonation in Liquid Explosives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Laboratory, on the initiative of Dr. A. H. Davis, into the process of detonation in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the ... in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the detonation Waves in transparent liquid explosives—the sensitivity of some of which can be varied by ...

D. CRONEY

1948-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

444

Liquid Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid Natural Gas ... IN A new technique for storing natural gas at the East Ohio Gas Co. plant, Cleveland, Ohio, the gas is liquefied before passing to the gas holders. ... Natural gas contains moisture and carbon dioxide, both of which liquefy before the natural gas and are somewhat of a nuisance because upon solidification they clog the pipes. ...

W. F. SCHAPHORST

1941-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

445

Fermi liquid theory: A brief survey in memory of Gerald E. Brown  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present a brief review of Fermi liquid theory, and discuss recent work on Fermi liquid theory in dilute neutron matter and cold atomic gases. I argue that renewed interest in transport properties of quantum fluids provides fresh support for Landau's approach to Fermi liquid theory, which is based on kinetic theory rather than effective field theory and the renormalization group. I also discuss work on non-Fermi liquids, in particular dense quark matter.

Thomas Schaefer

2014-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

446

Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

447

Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids by the Transient Grating Technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties, which make them suitable not only as green solvents but also as high-performance fluids for use as a "green" recyclable alternative to the volatile organic compounds that are traditionally used as industrial solvents. In the laboratory, RTILs have successfully been used in a broad spectrum of applications

Reid, Scott A.

448

Advances in QSPR/QSTR models of ionic liquids for the design of greener solvents of the future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

‘Green chemistry’ is an idealism appended with a...2) for the reduction or elimination of the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products [9]. Hence,

Rudra Narayan Das; Kunal Roy

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Room Temperature Ionic Liquids as Replacements for Traditional Organic Solvents and Their Applications Towards “Green Chemistry” in Separation Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The full effect of Green Chemistry will be realized when the words ... industry, one of the major goals of “green” chemistry is to prevent pollution and waste ... In light of the vast usage of organic solvents in...

Ann E. Visser; Richard P. Swatloski…

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 27 (2004) 243248 Biocatalysis in ionic liquids: the stereoconvergent hydrolysis of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the most commonly proposed green alternatives to organic solvents, the use of enzymes in non-aqueous media it was established that enzymes could work in organic solvents, with little or no-water, research in this area surged, and the use of organic solvents has raised questions of en- vironmental concern, in particular when

Hammock, Bruce D.

451

HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS AND MASS TRANSFER IN BIPHASIC IONIC LIQUID SYSTEMS WITH COMPRESSED CO2 AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is separating and reusing precious metal catalyst; therefore, it needs to be performed in a convenient platform. To figure out this problem, a biphasic system can be suggested in which one phase sequesters the solid catalyst and the other phase delivers...

Ahosseini, Azita

452

Chemical Communications c2cc30957b Q1Hypergolic ionic liquids to mill, suspend, and ignite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nanoscale additives to improve EIL properties, such as energetic density and heat of combustion, while to their practical use such as low density5 and relatively low heats of combustion6 when compared to the current

Anderson, Scott L.

453

Poly(ionic liquid) Complex with Spontaneous Micro-/Mesoporosity: Template-Free Synthesis and Application as Catalyst Support  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The PILC can be highly loaded with copper salts and can be used as a catalytic support for effective aerobic oxidation of activated hydrocarbons under mild conditions. ... Materials, preparation and characterization of PILCs and Cu@PILC catalyst, and aerobic catalysis reaction. ...

Qiang Zhao; Pengfei Zhang; Markus Antonietti; Jiayin Yuan

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

454

Auto Template Assembly of CaCO3-Chitosan Hybrid Nanoboxes and Nanoframes in Ionic Liquid Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the concentration gradient and the solubility difference between the mixture components were responsible for this transformation....

Chen, Hsingming Anna

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

455

One-pot synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural directly from cottonseed hull biomass using chromium (III) chloride in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We studied the direct synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) from cottonseed hull biomass...3·6H2O amount, and cottonseed hull loading on the yield of 5-HMF was investigated. As a result, a 5-HMF yield up t...

Shui Wang; Yizhen Du; Ping Zhang; Xiaowei Cheng…

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Efficient dehydration of carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in ionic liquids catalyzed by tin(IV) phosphonate and zirconium phosphonate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, we synthesized tin(IV) phosphonate (SnBPMA) and zirconium phosphonate (ZrBPMA) by the reaction of SnCl4·5H2O or ZrOCl2·8H2O with N,N...-bis(phosphonomethyl)aminoacetic acid, which was synthesized fr...

Hui Ning; JinLiang Song; MinQiang Hou; DeZhong Yang; HongLei Fan…

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Technical report describing the US Department of Energy's (DOE) assessment of the performance and cost of organic liquid based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications.

460

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago; Northern Illinois University; the University of California, Santa Cruz; and ChemMatCARS (sector 15 at the APS) used x-ray reflectivity from ion distributions at the liquid-liquid interface to provide strong evidence that the interfacial structure of a liquid alters the ion distributions near a charged interface, contrary to earlier theories about ions at charged surfaces. Coulomb's Law describes the interaction between two, otherwise isolated, point charges. If many charges are present in the region between these two charges, the net interaction between them is modified. This is commonly found in real systems, such as a plasma gas of electrons and ionized

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

462

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

463

TTA solvation kinetics in the ionic liquid BumimTf2N Cintique de solvatation de la TTA dans le liquide ionique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"green" solvents in all fields of chemistry, in replacement of those traditional organic phases for which different from those of usual organic solvents. In particular, ILs possess the almost unique advantage the development of ILs as solvents. In the present work, we take advantage of the keto-hydrate/enol equilibrium

Boyer, Edmond

464

Viscosity of Liquid He II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The viscosity of liquid He4 has been measured between 1.10°K and the lambda point. A new type of viscometer was used, based on the damping of the transverse vibrations of a fine wire stretched between two rigid supports. The simplicity of the hydrodynamic problem and the low nuisance damping of the wire make this technique particularly appropriate for the measurement of small viscosities. The smoothed data are presented and found to be in good agreement with the latest rotating cylinder viscometer results. In different experimental runs the vibration frequency was varied by a factor of seven and the wire diameter by a factor of three. There was no evidence of systematic trend due to mean free-path effects or geometrical corrections.

J. T. Tough; W. D. McCormick; J. G. Dash

1963-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Transport properties of glass-forming liquids suggest that dynamic crossover temperature is as important as the glass transition temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is becoming common practice to partition glass-forming liquids into two classes based on the dependence of the shear viscosity ? on temperature T. In an Arrhenius plot, ln eta vs 1/T, a strong liquid shows linear behavior ...

Mallamace, Francesco

466

Determinants of Hospital's Financial Liquidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of the articles is to identify key factors that may affect the level of hospital's liquidity ratio. We’ve posed four research hypotheses, assuming that, the level of financial liquidity in hospitals depends on several factors (number of beds, annual income per bed, profitability ratios, debt ratio). We’ve found that: 1) there is a positive relationship between debt ratio and liquidity and profitability ratio and liquidity 2) the relationship between the size of the hospital and the financial liquidity is not statistically significant. In the study we’ve use statistical tools: Pearson's correlation coefficient, T-Student's test with Cohran-Cox's correction.

Agnieszka Bem; Katarzyna Pr?dkiewicz; Pawe? Pr?dkiewicz; Paulina Ucieklak-Je?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Computer Simulations Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help scientists predict how carbon is stored underground August 22, 2013 | Tags: Earth Sciences, Geosciences Dan Krotz 510-486-4019 dakrotz@lbl.gov red2.jpg Artistic rendition of liquid-liquid separation in a supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. New research suggests that a dense liquid phase (shown in red in the background and in full atomistic detail based on computer simulations in the foreground) forms at the onset of calcium carbonate crystallization. (Credit: Berkeley Lab) Computer simulations conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could help scientists

468

Quantal Ising Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An example is presented of a model of an amorphous quantum mechanical system, a liquid of quantal Ising spins, which can be solved exactly within certain many-body theories. Analytical solutions of the model in mean-field theory are shown to reveal a decrease in the extent of the ferromagnetic region (compared to an equivalent classical system) and the occurrence of some degree of quantum localization. Both phenomena are analyzed as a competition between quantum mechanics and the condensed phase.

Richard M. Stratt

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

RHIC The Perfect Liquid  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

BNL

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Theory of fermion liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a general theory of fermion liquids in spatial dimensions greater than 1. The principal method, bosonization, is applied to the cases of short- and long-range longitudinal interactions and to transverse gauge interactions. All the correlation funtions of the system may be obtained with the use of a generating functional. Short-range and Coulomb interactions do not destroy the Landau-Fermi fixed point. Non-Fermi liquid fixed points are found, however, in the cases of a super-long-range longitudinal interaction in two dimensions and transverse gauge interactions in two and three spatial dimensions. We consider in some detail the (2+1)-dimensional problem of a Chern-Simons gauge action combined with a longitudinal two-body interaction V(q)??q?y-1, which controls the density, and hence gauge, fluctuations. For y0 the interaction is relevant and the fixed point cannot be accessed by bosonization. Of special importance is the case y=0 (Coulomb interaction), which describes the Halperin-Lee-Read theory of the half-filled Landau level. We obtain the full quasiparticle propagator, which is of a marginal Fermi-liquid form. Using Ward identities, we show that neither the inclusion of nonlinear terms in the fermion dispersion nor vertex corrections alters our results: the fixed point is accessible by bosonization. As the two-point fermion Green’s function is not gauge invariant, we also invetigate the gauge-invariant density response function. Near momentum Q=2kF, in addition to the Kohn anomaly we find other nonanalytic behavior. In the appendies we present a numerical calculation of the spectral function for a Fermi liquid with Landau parameter f0?0. We also show how Kohn’s theorem is satisfied within the bosonization framework.

H.-J. Kwon; A. Houghton; J. B. Marston

1995-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

Mapping Ionic Currents and Reactivity on the Nanoscale: Electrochemical Strain Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state electrochemical processes in oxides underpin a broad spectrum of energy and information storage devices, ranging from Li-ion and Li-air batteries, to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to electroresistive and memristive systems. These functionalities are controlled by the bias-driven diffusive and electromigration transport of mobile ionic species, as well as intricate a set of electrochemical and defect-controlled reactions at interfaces and in bulk. Despite the wealth of device-level and atomistic studies, little is known on the mesoscopic mechanisms of ion diffusion and electronic transport on the level of grain clusters, individual grains, and extended defects. The development of the capability for probing ion transport on the nanometer scale is a key to deciphering complex interplay between structure, functionality, and performance in these systems. Here we introduce Electrochemical Strain Microscopy, a scanning probe microscopy technique based on strong strain-bias coupling in the systems in which local ion concentrations are changed by electrical fields. The imaging capability, as well as time- and voltage spectroscopies analogous to traditional current based electrochemical characterization methods are developed. The reversible intercalation of Li and mapping electrochemical activity in LiCoO2 is demonstrated, illustrating higher Li diffusivity at non-basal planes and grain boundaries. In Si-anode device structure, the direct mapping of Li diffusion at extended defects and evolution of Li-activity with charge state is explored. The electrical field-dependence of Li mobility is studied to determine the critical bias required for the onset of electrochemical transformation, allowing reaction and diffusion processes in the battery system to be separated at each location. Finally, the applicability of ESM for probing oxygen vacancy diffusion and oxygen reduction/evolution reactions is illustrated, and the high resolution ESM maps are correlated with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. The future potential for deciphering mechanisms of electrochemical transformations on an atomically-defined single-defect level is discussed.

Kalinin, S.V. (Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, ORNL) [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, ORNL

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

472

What constitutes a simple liquid?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlation between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a property of the intermolecular potential only because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, according to the new definition not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of structure and dynamics of 15 atomic and molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. No proof is given that the chemical characterization follows from the strong correlation property, but it is shown to be consistent with the existence of isomorphs in strongly correlating liquids' phase diagram. Finally, we note that the FCS characterization of simple liquids calls into question the basis for standard perturbation theory, according to which the repulsive and attractive forces play fundamentally different roles for the physics of liquids.

Trond S. Ingebrigtsen; Thomas B. Schrøder; Jeppe C. Dyre

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the surface tension of ionic solutions at air/water and oil/water interfaces. By using field-theoretical methods and including a finite proximal surface-region with ionic-specific interactions. The free energy is expanded to first-order in a loop expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical predictions that reunite the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We derive analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of salt concentrations for different monovalent ions using one fit parameter, and reproduces the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

Markovich, Tomer; Podgornik, Rudolf

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the surface tension of ionic solutions at air/water and oil/water interfaces. By using field-theoretical methods and including a finite proximal surface-region with ionic-specific interactions. The free energy is expanded to first-order in a loop expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical predictions that reunite the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We derive analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of salt concentrations for different monovalent ions using one fit parameter per electrolyte, and reproduces the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

Tomer Markovich; David Andelman; Rudolf Podgornik

2015-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

475

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

CO2-Binding Organic Liquids, an Integrated Acid Gas Capture System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amine systems are effective for CO2 capture, but they are still inefficient because the solvent regeneration energy is largely defined by the amount of water in the process. Most amines form heat-stable salts with SO2 and COS resulting in parasitic solvent loss and degradation. Stripping the CO2-rich solvent is energy intensive it requires temperatures above 100 ?C due to the high specific heat and heat of vaporization of water. CO2-capture processes could be much more energy efficient in a water free amine process. In addition, if the capture-material is chemically compatible with other acid gases, less solvent would be lost to heat-stable salts and the process economics would be further improved. One such system that can address these concerns is Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs), a class of switchable ionic liquids.

Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Composition of liquids from coals of different rank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eight coal liquids prepared from six coals of widely differing rank were compared with respect to their suitability as potential feedstocks for production of refined fuels. The compositions of the liquids were determined by methods adapted from those developed for characterization of petroleum crudes. The coal liquids were prepared and upgraded by hydrogenation in a batch autoclave. The reaction conditions employed were selected to minimize hydrocarbon ring-opening reactions and, at the same time, to produce most of the hydrocarbon liquids potentially available from the coals. The degree of hydrogenation of the raw coal liquids was varied as required to decrease the nitrogen content to about the same level and to provide a predominantly hydrocarbon liquid for analysis. Distilled fractions of the upgraded coal liquids boiling up to 540/sup 0/C were characterized by a combination of separation and analytical techniques including adsorption chromatography; gel permeation chromatography; separations of acids, bases, and asphaltenes; and high- and low-resolution mass spectrometry. In general, the results show that liquids of comparable suitability as feedstocks for production of refined fuels can be produced from coals of different rank.

Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Woodward, P.W.; Vogh, J.W.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_GATech_Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for SOFC Cathodes Matthew E. Lynch, Lei Yang, Meilin Liu Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 771 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Telephone: 404-894-6114 Email: meilin.liu@mse.gatech.edu Porous cathodes are of primary importance to the electrochemical operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The compound La 1-x Sr x Co 1-y Fe y O 3-δ (LSCF) is a candidate material for the cathode, and shows good mixed ionic-electronic conductivity as well as good activity toward the oxygen reduction

479

Techniques for geothermal liquid sampling and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology has been developed that is particularly suited to liquid-dominated resources and adaptable to a variety of situations. It is intended to be a base methodology upon which variations can be made to meet specific needs or situations. The approach consists of recording flow conditions at the time of sampling, a specific insertable probe sampling system, a sample stabilization procedure, commercially available laboratory instruments, and data quality check procedures.

Kindle, C.H.; Woodruff, E.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute pharyngitis due Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride based ionic liquids Summary: attention as new solvents within the green chemistry community.1 This attention is due in part... - mental...

482

C2TA00634K 59..62  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Magadiite templated high surface area graphene-type carbons from metal-halide based ionic liquids Pasquale Fernando Fulvio, * a Patrick Christopher Hillesheim, a John...

483

A Multidomain Model for Ionic Electrodiffusion and Osmosis with an Application to Cortical Spreading Depression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic electrodiffusion and osmotic water flow are central processes in many physiological systems. We formulate a system of partial differential equations that governs ion movement and water flow in biological tissue. A salient feature of this model is that it satisfies a free energy identity, ensuring the thermodynamic consistency of the model. A numerical scheme is developed for the model in one spatial dimension and is applied to a model of cortical spreading depression, a propagating breakdown of ionic and cell volume homeostasis in the brain.

Yoichiro Mori

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

484

Ionic-passivated FeS2 photocapacitors for energy conversion and storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Ionic-passivated FeS2 photocapicitors for energy conversion and storage by Maogang Gong et al. KU ScholarWorks is a service provided by the KU Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Communication & Copyright.... This is the published version of the article, made available with the permission of the publisher. The original published version can be found at the link below. Maogang Gong et al. (2013). Ionic-Passivated FeS2 Photocapacitors for Energy Conversion and Storage...

Gong, Maogang; Kirkeminde, Alec; Kumar, Nardeep; Zhao, Hui; Ren, Shenqiang

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

485

Water dynamics at neutral and ionic interfaces Emily E. Fenn, Daryl B. Wong, and M. D. Fayer1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water dynamics at neutral and ionic interfaces Emily E. Fenn, Daryl B. Wong, and M. D. Fayer1 (sent for review June 12, 2009) The orientational dynamics of water at a neutral surfactant reverse, and the results are compared to orienta- tional relaxation of water interacting with an ionic interface

Fayer, Michael D.

486

Intensification of Liquid-Liquid Contacting Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of canola oil with sodium methoxide was investigated in the plane interface contactor. A fourfold enhancement was observed at an applied voltage of 10kV DC. A compact electrostatic spraying reactor based on simple tubular geometry with horizontal injection...

Qiu, Zheyan

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Process for preparing liquid wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

FLARE, Fermilab Liquid Argon Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mature technology of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers in conjunction with intense neutrino beams constructed at Fermilab offer a broad program of neutrino physics for the next decade.

L. Bartoszek

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

489

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Antifreeze! Antifreeze! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! A burning candle is placed in a container of liquid nitrogen! Filmed in front of a live studio audience. Well, they were live when we started... [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Steve: Now, then. I'm a little bit afraid to ask this next question because I think I already know the answer, but is anyone in here feeling a little... dangerous? You're willing to take a chance? Because I am willing to do an experiment they haven't let me do since 'The Incident.' Now, because of the danger, I cannot have a volunteer. I must do this on my

490

A new Diffractometer for Studies of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have designed a novel, dedicated diffractometer for surface x-ray scattering studies of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces for the PETRA III High Resolution Diffraction Beamline. Using a double crystal beam-tilter in Bragg geometry this new instrument enables reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction investigations without moving the sample, which is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the diffractometer. This design minimizes external excitation of surface vibrations, a key prerequisite for studies of liquid interfaces. The instrument operates over the energy range 6.4 keV to 30 keV, the higher energy range being optimal for penetration through liquid sample environments. Vertical momentum transfer up to q{sub z} 2.5 A{sup -1} and lateral q{sub ||} up to 4 A{sup -1}will be available.

Murphy, B. M.; Greve, M.; Runge, B.; Koops, C. T.; Elsen, A.; Stettner, J.; Magnussen, O. M. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Seeck, O. H. [PETRA III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

491

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Cells vs. Liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Superconductors! Superconductors! Previous Video (Superconductors!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Oxygen and Fire!) Liquid Oxygen and Fire! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Let's say you've carelessly dunked your hand into a vat of liquid nitrogen and let it freeze solid. Every movie you've seen where this happens tells you that your hand will shatter like fine china should you bump it into something. If you're extremely careful, will your hand be okay once it thaws out? We'll explore this issue, using flower and onion cells rather than our hands! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: By now, we all know what happens when you place a flower in liquid

492

Study of Ionic Conductivity Profiles of the Air Cathode of a PEMFC by AC Impedance Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study of Ionic Conductivity Profiles of the Air Cathode of a PEMFC by AC Impedance Spectroscopy membrane fuel cell PEMFC cathode by ac impedance measurement at open-circuit potential conditions by impregnating a proton-conducting ionomer in the catalyst active layer of the cathode of a polymer electrolyte

493

Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Ionic Current Modulation by DNA Translocation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Ionic Current Modulation by DNA Translocation ... We use a coarse-grained model to solve the electrokinetic equations at the Poisson?Boltzmann level for the microions, coupled to a lattice-Boltzmann equation for the solvent hydrodynamics. ... Most notable among these are Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD), Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRD), and Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) methods. ...

Sylvain Reboux; Fabrizio Capuani; Nélido González-Segredo; Daan Frenkel

2006-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

494

Polarization model for water and its ionic dissociation Frank H. Stillinger and Carl W. Davida)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engage in hydrogen bonding to one another. Minimum-energy structures have been detennined for the waterCient to treat the individual water molecules as rigid bodies. An early example of a rigid molecule pairPolarization model for water and its ionic dissociation products Frank H. Stillinger and Carl W

Stillinger, Frank

495

Ionic transport in nanocapillary membrane systems Vikhram V. Swaminathan Larry R. Gibson II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords Membranes Á Nanostructures Á Nanofluidics Á Microfluidics Á Ion transport Á Electrokinetics Á lREVIEW Ionic transport in nanocapillary membrane systems Vikhram V. Swaminathan · Larry R. Gibson / Accepted: 23 May 2012 � Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract Species transport

496

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 Ceramic solid electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 SOLID STATE IoMcs Ceramic solid electrolytes John B electrolytes are best suited for solid reactants, as are found in most battery systems. Ceramic solid 78712-106.3. USA Abstract Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems

Gleixner, Stacy

497

Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers (ISAM) of a Polyviologena-Galva´n, Harry W. Gibson, James R. Heflin* Introduction Electrochromic (EC) devices undergo reversible absorbance/ transmittance change on application of external voltage.[1] Since the first major report on electrochromism

Heflin, Randy

498

The Theoretical Description of Ionic States Observed by High Energy Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ionic States Observed by High Energy Photoelectron Spectroscopy...orbital basis of double zeta quality or better, very good agreement with experimental core binding energies is obtained. The origin of...satellite peaks observed in high-energy photoelectron spectra is discussed...

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Solution Ionic Strength Engineering as a Generic Strategy to Coat Graphene Oxide (GO)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solution Ionic Strength Engineering as a Generic Strategy to Coat Graphene Oxide (GO) on Various Functional Particles and Its Application in High-Performance Lithium- Sulfur (Li-S) Batteries Jiepeng Rong Angeles, California 90089, United States Graphene oxide (GO) synthesis GO used in this study was prepared

Zhou, Chongwu

500

Thermodynamics of electromechanically coupled mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Deformation potential, Vegard strains, and flexoelectric effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Strong coupling among external voltage, electrochemical potentials, concentrations of electronic and ionic species, and strains is a ubiquitous feature of solid state mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs), the materials of choice in devices ranging from electroresistive and memristive elements to ion batteries and fuel cells. Here, we analyze in detail the electromechanical coupling mechanisms and derive generalized bias-concentration-strain equations for MIECs including contributions of concentration-driven chemical expansion, deformation potential, and flexoelectric effect. This analysis is extended toward the bias-induced strains in the uniform and scanning-probe-microscopy-like geometries. Notably, the contribution of the electron-phonon and flexoelectric coupling to the local surface displacement of the mixed ionic-electronic conductor caused by the electric field scanning probe microscope tip has not been considered previously. The developed thermodynamic approach allows evolving the theoretical description of mechanical phenomena induced by the electric fields (electromechanical response) in solid state ionics toward analytical theory and phase-field modeling of the MIECs in different geometries and under varying electrical, chemical, and mechanical boundary conditions.

A. N. Morozovska; E. A. Eliseev; A. K. Tagantsev; S. L. Bravina; Long-Qing Chen; S. V. Kalinin

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z