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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Ionic Liquids Based on Polynitrile Anions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

W. Marin, and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 7084-7094 (2013). Find paper at ACS Publications or use ACS Articles on Request. Abstract: Ionic liquids (IL) are being...

2

Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Investigating the Effects of Radiation on Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents work on the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs). The capability of ILs to dissolve a… (more)

Howett, Susan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Synthesis and Characterization of Thiazolium-Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Gas Separations  

SciTech Connect

A series of novel thiazolium-bis(triflamide) based ionic liquids has been synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids such as thermal stability, phase transitions, and infrared spectra were analysed and compared to the imidazolium-based congeners. Several unique classes of ancillary substitutions are examined with respect to impacts on overall structure, in addition to their carbon dioxide absorption properties in supported ionic-liquid membranes for gas separation.

Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Novel hydrophobic ionic liquids electrolyte based on cyclic sulfonium used in dye-sensitized solar cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel series of hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquids based on six cyclic sulfonium cations were first time synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells as pure solvents for electrolyte system. The chronoamperograms result showed that the length of substituent on sulfonium cations could inhibit the I{sub 3}{sup -} diffusion and the five-ring structure of sulfonium was benefit for fast triiodide ion diffusion. The electrochemical impendence spectra measurement of dye-sensitized solar cells with these ionic liquid electrolytes was carried out and the result indicated that the cations' structure had indeed influence on the cells' performance especially for the fill factor, which was further proved by the measurement result of I-V curves of these dye-sensitized solar cells. The conclusion was obtained that the electron exchange reaction on Pt counter electrode/electrolyte interface dominated the cells' performance for these ionic liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. (author)

Guo, Lei; Pan, Xu; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Changneng; Fang, Xiaqin; Chen, Shuanghong; Dai, Songyuan [Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

High-Performance Supercapacitors Based on Poly(ionic liquid)-Modified  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Performance Supercapacitors Based on Poly(ionic liquid)-Modified Graphene Electrodes Tae Young for supercapacitor electrodes owing to its low mass density, excellent electronic conduc- tivity, and high surface- sition closely related to graphene, is a prom- ising material for supercapacitor applica- tions

8

Influence of Water on Diffusion in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids by NMR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of Water on Diffusion in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids by NMR Sergey Vasenkov AMRIS - Chemical Engineering, University of Florida In this work we applied a novel pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR) NMR and high magnetic field gradients (up to 30 T/m). Application of high field allows for an easy

Weston, Ken

9

Preparation and purification of ionic liquids and precursors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Substantially pure ionic liquids and ionic liquid precursors were prepared. The substantially pure ionic liquid precursors were used to prepare substantially pure ionic liquids.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

10

Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes: Achieving a 10,000 GPU Permeance for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture with Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Alongside Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute, CU-Boulder is developing a membrane made of a gelled ionic liquid to capture CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants. The membranes are created by spraying the gelled ionic liquids in thin layers onto porous support structures using a specialized coating technique. The new membrane is highly efficient at pulling CO2 out of coal-derived flue gas exhaust while restricting the flow of other materials through it. The design involves few chemicals or moving parts and is more mechanically stable than current technologies. The team is now working to further optimize the gelled materials for CO2 separation and create a membrane layer that is less than 1 micrometer thick.

None

2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

11

Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel Absorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- ionic liquids - for the capture of CO 2 from the flue gas from coal and natural gas-fired power plants. The success of ionic liquids technology will be based on...

12

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

13

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are molten salts with high ionic conductivity,ionic liquids are aprotic molten salts at room temperatures

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

15

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

16

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

17

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

Koch, Victor R. (Lincoln, MA); Nanjundiah, Chenniah (Lynn, MA); Carlin, Richard T. (Nashua, NH)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research and practical applications. They present a wide range of complex physical and chemical behaviors, including ambient vapor pressures ranging from UHV to weakly volatile, a substantial variety of distinct condensed phases, including multiple crystal isomorphs, glasses, amorphous plastic and liquid crystal phases, deep supercooling, and interesting dynamical and transport phenomena. Experiments and simulations have shown that their intrinsic self-organization at the nanoscale is responsible for several of these properties. The symposium will assemble an international array of speakers to discuss ionic liquids in the context of their heterogeneous environments, solvation, dynamics and transport, interfacial properties,

19

Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations Hui Jin, Bernie O'Hare, Jing Dong, Sergei Arzhantsev, Gary A. Baker, James F. Wishart, Alan J. Benesi, and Mark Maroncelli J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 81-92 (2008). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids Symposium Schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) (Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) Sunday Morning Structure and Heterogeneity of Ionic Liquids I. James Wishart and Edward Castner Introductory Remarks Andre Pinkert Hydroxyamine ionic liquids and their properties Thomas Strassner TAAILs - Tunable Aryl-Alkyl Ionic Liquids: A new generation of ionic liquids Laura Sprunger Grubbs Thermodynamic Properties of New Generation Ionic Liquids Christopher Hardacre Prediction methods for physical properties of ionic liquids BREAK Patricia Hunt What happens when you functionalise an ionic liquid with a "silicone" side chain? Edward L Quitevis Effect of cation symmetry and nanoscale segregation on the morphology, physical properties, and low-frequency vibrational dynamics of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cation ionic liquids

22

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. Armand, “Room temperature molten salts as lithium batteryZ. Suarez, “Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallic

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Fractionation and Removal of Solutes from Ionic Liquids ...  

Recovers biomass solids from ionic liquids without formation of gel phase intermediates; Tested on several ionic liquids; Applications and Industries.

24

VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and ?-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20°C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and ?-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. It’s likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

25

Ultrafast Dynamics of Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultrafast Dynamics of Pyrrolidinium Cation Ionic Liquids Hideaki Shirota, Alison M. Funston, James F. Wishart, Edward W. Castner, Jr. J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184512 (2005). Find paper...

26

ADSORPTION SEPARATION PROCESSES FOR IONIC LIQUID CATALYTIC ...  

Presently disclosed are methods and apparatus for separation of reaction products from reaction mixtures in an ionic liquid catalysis process, particularly in ...

27

Ultrastable Superbase-derived Protic Ionic Liquids  

pot reactor) CHEMICALS Ultrastable Superbase-derived Protic Ionic Liquids ORNL-2213 Contact: Greg Flickinger Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box ...

28

Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, an understanding of the interactions of ionizing radiation and photons with ionic liquids is strongly needed. However, the radiation chemistry...

29

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

30

Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes for Gas Separation  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids have been rapidly gaining attention for various applications including solvent separation and gas capture. These substances are noted for extremely low vapor pressure and high CO2 solubility making them ideal as transport or capture media for CO2 abatement in power generation applications. Ionic liquids, combined with various supports to form membranes, have been proven selective in CO2 separation. Several ionic liquids and a variety of polymer supports have been studied over a temperature range from 37°C to 300°C and have been optimized for stability. The membranes have demonstrated high permeability and high selectivity since the supported ionic liquid membranes incorporate functionality capable of chemically complexing CO2. A study aimed at improving supported ionic liquid membranes will examine their durability with greater transmembrane pressures and the effects on CO2 permeance, CO2/H2 selectivity and thermal stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Ionic liquid ion sources as a unique and versatile option in FIB applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work discusses the potential applicability of point sources to focused ion beam (FIB) technology based on molten salts at room temperature, known as ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). The beam shape and divergence angles for ILIS using the ionic liquid ... Keywords: Focused ion beam, High brightness, Ion etching, Ion source, Ionic liquid, Reactive ion

Carla Perez-Martinez; Stéphane Guilet; Jacques Gierak; Paulo Lozano

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Dynamics of Fast Reactions in Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in "Ionic Liquids IIIA: Properties and Structure" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R., Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 901, Ch. 8, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2005, pp. x-x., in...

33

Synthesis of ionic liquids - Energy Innovation Portal  

New Ionic Liquids with ... was made with United States Government support under Contract No. DE-AC05-960R 22725 between the United States Department of Energy and ...

34

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids M. F. Thomas, L. Li, J. Handley-Pendleton, D. van der Lelie, J. J. Dunn and J. F. Wishart Bioresource Technology 102, in press. [Find paper at Science Direct] Abstract: The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic

35

New Ionic Liquids with Diverse Properties - Energy Innovation ...  

Hundreds of new ionic liquids can be synthesized using a method invented by ORNL researchers. This innovation makes it possible to produce ionic liqui ...

36

High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Charge trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids I. A. Shkrob and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 5582-5592 (2009). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a promising class of solvents for applications ranging from photovoltaics to solvent extractions. Some of these applications involve the exposure of the ILs to ionizing radiation, which stimulates interest in their radiation and photo- chemistry. In the case of ILs consisting of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions, ionization, charge transfer and redox reactions yield charge-trapped species thought to be radicals resulting from neutralization of the constituent ions. Using computational chemistry methods and the recent results on electron spin resonance (ESR) and transient absorption

38

AGING EFFECTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF IMIDAZOLIUM, QUATERNARY AMMONIUM, PYRIDINIUM AND PYRROLIDINIUM-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USED IN FUEL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long term aging effect of temperature on these materials. Imizadolium, quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidnium-based ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 hours (15 weeks) at 200?C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. It was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

Fox, E.

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

39

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors - Energy ...  

Energy Storage Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing ...

40

Ionic Liquids and Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Species James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3225-3231 (2010). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request View the video on this Perspective article at The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (5:03) Selected for the ACS Special Virtual Issue on Ionic Liquids (March 2011). Abstract: Due to their unique properties, ionic liquids present many opportunities for basic research on the interactions of radiation with materials under conditions not previously available. At the same time, there are practical applied reasons for characterizing, understanding, and being able to predict how ionic-liquid-based devices and industrial-scale systems will perform under conditions of extreme reactivity, including radiation. This

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

Lu, Wen (Littleton, CO)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ionic Liquids: Structure and Photochemical Reactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Structure and Photochemical Reactions Structure and Photochemical Reactions E. W. Castner, Jr., C. J. Margulis, M. Maroncelli, and J. F. Wishart in "Annual Reviews of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 62"; Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA, (2011) pp. 85-105. [Find paper at Annual Reviews] Abstract: Ionic liquids are subjects of intense current interest within the physical chemistry community. A great deal of progress has been made in just the past five years toward identifying the factors that cause these salts to have low melting points and other useful properties. Supramolecular structure and organization have emerged as important and complicated topics that may be key to understanding how chemical reactions and other processes are affected by ionic liquids. New questions are posed, and an active

43

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7¯ ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

New Web Database Improves Access to Ionic Liquid Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Web Database Improves Access to Ionic Liquid Data. ... The ILThermo portal on the web is at http://ilthermo.boulder.nist.gov.

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

45

Ionic Liquids as New Solvents for Improved Separation of ...  

A series of ionic liquids (ILs) have recently been applied as new solvents for potentially effective separation of different medical isotopes at ORNL. ...

46

Spheroid-Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Gas Separation Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spheroid-Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Gas Separation Opportunity An innovative approach has been developed allowing the use of high viscosity for gas separations. The method...

47

Available Technologies: Ionic Liquids from Lignin-derived ...  

Researchers at the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have developed a technology to convert chemicals derived from lignin into ionic liquids for use in ...

48

Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

49

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Carbon Precursors ...  

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ...

50

Ionic Liquids as Lubricants or Additives - Energy Innovation ...  

New ionic liquids invented at ORNL show great promise as lubricants for aluminum and steel in combustion engines, bearings, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

51

Ultrastable Superbase-Derived Protic Ionic Liquids - Energy ...  

Description Protic ionic liquids have had a propensity to degrade over time and in high temperature ... capacitors, metal finishing) Dye ... Development Stage

52

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+ ][Dca ? ]. Figure 2. Aerosol particle size distribution ofhypergolic ionic liquid aerosols Christine J. Koh † , Chen-ionization of evaporated IL aerosols Isolated ion pairs of a

Koh, Christine J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Extraordinarily Efficient Conduction in a Redox-Active Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iodine added to iodide-based ionic liquids leads to extraordinarily efficient charge transport, vastly exceeding that expected for such viscous systems. Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, in conjunction with dc conductivity, diffusivity and viscosity measurements we unravel the conductivity pathways in 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide melts. This study presents evidence of the Grotthuss mechanism as a significant contributor to the conductivity, and provides new insights into ion pairing processes as well as the formation of polyiodides. The terahertz and transport results are reunited in a model providing a quantitative description of the conduction by physical diffusion and the Grotthuss bond-exchange process. These novel results are important for the fundamental understanding of conduction in molten salts and for applications where ionic liquids are used as charge-transporting media such as in batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells.

Verner K. Thorsmølle; Guido Rothenberger; Daniel Topgaard; Jan C. Brauer; Dai-Bin Kuang; Shaik M. Zakeeruddin; Björn Lindman; Michael Grätzel; Jacques-E. Moser

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

54

MINOR ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS USING ION EXCHANGERS OR IONIC LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to determine if (1) inorganic-based ion exchange materials or (2) electrochemical methods in ionic liquids can be exploited to provide effective Am and Cm separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of inorganic-based ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. Furthermore, we seek to determine whether ionic liquids can serve as the electrolyte that would enable formation of higher oxidation states of Am and other actinides. Experiments indicated that pH, presence of complexants and Am oxidation state exhibit significant influence on the uptake of actinides and lanthanides by layered sodium titanate and hybrid zirconium and tin phosphonate ion exchangers. The affinity of the ion exchangers increased with increasing pH. Greater selectivity among Ln(III) ions with sodium titanate materials occurs at a pH close to the isoelectric potential of the ion exchanger. The addition of DTPA decreased uptake of Am and Ln, whereas the addition of TPEN generally increases uptake of Am and Ln ions by sodium titanate. Testing confirmed two different methods for producing Am(IV) by oxidation of Am(III) in ionic liquids (ILs). Experimental results suggest that the unique coordination environment of ionic liquids inhibits the direct electrochemical oxidation of Am(III). The non-coordinating environment increases the oxidation potential to a higher value, while making it difficult to remove the inner coordination of water. Both confirmed cases of Am(IV) were from the in-situ formation of strong chemical oxidizers.

Hobbs, D.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

55

Brownian dynamics determine universality of charge transport in ionic liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is employed to investigate charge transport in a variety of glass-forming ionic liquids over wide frequency, temperature and pressure ranges. Using a combination of Einstein, Einstein-Smoluchowski, and Langevin relations, the observed universal scaling of charge transport in ionic liquids is traced back to the dominant role of Brownian dynamics.

Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Iacob, Ciprian [University of Leipzig; Mierzwa, Michal [University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka, Katowice, Poland; Paluch, Marian [University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka, Katowice, Poland; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Ionic liquid ion source emitter arrays fabricated on bulk porous substrates for spacecraft propulsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ionic Liquid Ion Sources (ILIS) are a subset of electrospray capable of producing bipolar beams of pure ions from ionic liquids. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts, characterized by negligible vapor pressures, ...

Courtney, Daniel George

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Intermolecular Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Edward W. Castner, Jr., James F. Wishart, and Hideaki Shirota Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 1217-1227 (2007). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Ionic liquids can simultaneously assume multiple solvent roles, because they are strongly polar and polarizable solvents and binary solutions and frequently contain very hydrophobic components. When the cation and anion functional groups are tuned appropriately, ionic liquids can be used as designer solvents for a broad range of applications. In this Account, we discuss our spectroscopic studies on the intermolecular interactions, dynamics, solvation, transport, and friction in ionic liquids, as compared with information obtained from macroscopic experiments including viscometry

58

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent ExtractionAbstract The dissolution of biomass into ionic liquids (ILs)be a promising alternative biomass pretreatment technology,

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species James F. Wishart In "Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospects" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R. , Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 856, Ch. 31, pp. 381-395, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003. (ISBN 0-84123-856-1) [Information about the book] Abstract: An understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is important for development of their applications in radioactive material processing and for the application of pulse radiolysis techniques to the general study of chemical reactivity in ionic liquids. The distribution of primary radiolytic species and their reactivities determine the yields of ultimate products and the radiation stability of a particular ionic liquid. This chapter introduces some principles of radiation chemistry and the

60

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to recover to a bleached state upon exposure to heat and solar radiation while being cycled over time from the bleached to the dark state. Most likely the polymers are undergoing degradation reactions which are accelerated by heat and solar exposure while in either the reduced or oxidized states and the performance of the polymers is greatly reduced over time. For this technology to succeed in an exterior window application, there needs to be more work done to understand the degradation of the polymers under real-life application conditions such as elevated temperatures and solar exposure so that recommendations for improvements in to the overall system can be made. This will be the key to utilizing this type of technology in any future real-life applications.

Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

62

Phase-Changing Ionic Liquids: CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids Involving Phase Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Notre Dame is developing a new CO2 capture process that uses special ionic liquids (ILs) to remove CO2 from the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. ILs are salts that are normally liquid at room temperature, but Notre Dame has discovered a new class of ILs that are solid at room temperature and change to liquid when they bind to CO2. Upon heating, the CO2 is released for storage, and the ILs re-solidify and donate some of the heat generated in the process to facilitate further CO2 release. These new ILs can reduce the energy required to capture CO2 from the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant when compared to state-ofthe- art technology.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a facilitated transport mechanism established. The presentation will detail membrane development, the effect of increasing transmembrane pressure, and preliminary results dealing with other gas pairs and contaminants.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Effects of Structural Modification on Ionic Liquid Physical Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Structural Modification on the Physical Properties Effect of Structural Modification on the Physical Properties of Various Ionic Liquids S. I. Lall-Ramnarine, J. L. Hatcher, A. Castano, M. F. Thomas, and J. F. Wishart in "ECS Transactions - Las Vegas, NV, Vol. 33, Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 17" D. Fox et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2010) pp 659 - 665. [Find paper at ECS] Abstract: A few classes of ionic liquids were synthesized and investigated for their physical properties as a function of structural variation. Bis(oxalato)borate (BOB) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2) ionic liquids (ILs) containing pyridinium, 4-dimethylaminopyridinium (DMAP) and pyrrolidinium cations bearing alkyl, benzyl, hydroxyalkyl and alkoxy substituents, were prepared from the corresponding halide salts. The

65

Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel Absorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs as novel absorbents Background There is growing concern among climate scientists that the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere is affecting the global climate in ways that could have serious consequences. One approach to reducing GHG emissions is to scrub CO 2 from the flue gas of power plants and sequester it in geologic formations. Although it is technically feasible to remove CO 2 from flue gas, current processes are too expensive. New, less expensive processes are needed. This project is investigating the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids - for the capture of CO 2 from the flue gas from coal and natural gas-fired power plants. The success of ionic liquids technology

66

Heavy Atom Substitution Effects in Non-Aromatic Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atom Substitution Effects in Non-Aromatic Ionic Liquids: Ultrafast Dynamics and Physical Properties H. Shirota, H. Fukazawa, T. Fujisawa, and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 114,...

67

Trialkylammonio-Dodecaborates: Anions for Ionic Liquids with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trialkylammonio-Dodecaborates: Anions for Ionic Liquids with Potassium, Lithium and Proton as Cations E. Justus, K. Rischka, J. F. Wishart, K. Werner and D. Gabel Chem. Eur. J. 14,...

68

Spheroid-Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Gas Separation  

  An innovative approach has been developed allowing the use of high viscosity for gas separations. The method involves the encapsulation of ionic liquids (ILs) into polymer spheroids, taking advantage of the gas-absorbing properties and ...

69

Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, we characterize the shear and extensional rheology of dilute to semidilute solutions of cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc). In steady shear flow, the semidilute solutions ...

Haward, Simon J.

70

Toward Radiation-Resistant Ionic Liquids. Radiation Stability...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Resistant Ionic Liquids. Radiation Stability of Sulfonyl Imide Anions I. A. Shkrob, T. W. Marin, Sergey D. Chemerisov, J. L. Hatcher, and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B...

71

Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, South Korea h i g h l i g h t s &21; Uranium forms various complexes with ionic liquids. &21; Uranium...

72

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Available Technologies: Sugar Extraction and Ionic Liquid ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Biomass pretreatment for biofuel production; Recovery of products using biphasic liquid-liquid extraction; Recovery and ...

74

Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

75

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

A practical form of CO2 capture at water-gas shift conditions in the IGCC process could serve the dual function of producing a pure CO2 stream for sequestration and forcing the equilibrium-limited shift reaction to completion enriching the stream in H2. The shift temperatures, ranging from the low temperature shift condition of 260°C to the gasification condition of 900°C, limit capture options by diminishing associative interactions which favor removal of CO2 from the gas stream. Certain sorption interactions, such as carbonate formation, remain available but generally involve exceptionally high sorbent regeneration energies that contribute heavily to parasitic power losses. Carbon dioxide selective membranes need only establish an equilibrium between the gas phase and sorption states in order to transport CO2, giving them a potential energetic advantage over other technologies. Supported liquid membranes take advantage of high, liquid phase diffusivities and a solution diffusion mechanism similar to that observed in polymeric membranes to achieve superior permeabilities and selectivites. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of ionic liquids including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Improvements to the ionic liquid and support have allowed testing of these supported ionic liquid membranes at temperatures up to 300°C without loss of support mechanical stability or degradation of the ionic liquid. Substantial improvements in selectivity have also been observed at elevated temperature with the best membrane currently achieving optimum performance at 75°C.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Charge Delocalization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Resistance Through Charge Delocalization in 1-Benzylpyridinium Ilya A. Shkrob, Timothy W. Marin, Jasmine L. Hatcher, Andrew R. Cook, Tomasz Szreder and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 117, Just Accepted (2013). [Find paper at ACS Publications]. Abstract: Hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) hold promise as replacements for molecular diluents for processing of used nuclear fuel as well as for the development of alternative separations processes, provided that the solvent can be made resistant to ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that 1-benzylpyridinium cations are uniquely suited as radiation resistant cations due to the occurrence of charge delocalization both in their reduced and oxidized form in the ILs. It is suggested that

77

Benzyl-Functionalized Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for CO2/N2 Separation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, three classes of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), including imidazolium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids with a benzyl group appended to the cation, were synthesized and tested for their performance in separating CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. All RTILs contained the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, permitting us to distinguish the impact of the benzyl moiety attached to the cation on gas separation performance. In general, the attachment of the benzyl group increased the viscosity of the ionic liquid compared with the unfunctionalized analogs and decreased the CO{sub 2} permeability. However, all of the benzyl-modified ionic liquids exhibited enhanced CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities compared with alkyl-based ionic liquids, with values ranging from 22.0 to 33.1. In addition, CO{sub 2} solubilities in the form of Henry's constants were also measured and compared with unfunctionalized analogs. Results of the membrane performance tests and CO{sub 2} solubility measurements demonstrate that the benzyl-functionalized RTILs have significant potential for use in the separation of carbon dioxide from combustion products.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Dai, Thomas N [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

79

Simulations of ionic liquids near charged walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and anions (cf molten NaCl). • Electrostatic interactions are very important. • The liquid is easily polarised • But solvent cations and anions are larger than Na+ or Cl?, so dispersion interactions are also important They are interesting solvents as well... as being important. examples - dimethylimidazolium salts [dmim][Cl] and [dmim][PF6] butylmethylimidazolium salts [bmim][Cl], [bmim][N(SO2CF3)2], [bmim][PF6], tetraalkyl ammonium salts, tetraalkylphosphonium salts. [dmim]+ 22. Computer simulation of liquids...

Lynden-Bell, Ruth

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

Template-free synthesis of CdS hollow nanospheres based on an ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal process and their application in photocatalysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polycrystalline CdS hollow nanospheres with diameter of about 130 nm have been successfully synthesized in high yield by an ionic liquid (IL) assisted template-free hydrothermal method for the first time. Both the molar ratios of Cd/S precursor in the solution and the reaction temperature play important roles in the formation of the CdS hollow nanospheres. The concentrations of capping agent hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) are also crucial for the morphology and size of the final product. IL was found to be a key component in the formation of CdS hollow structures, because solid spheres were obtained in the absence of IL. A subsequent growth mechanism of hollow interior by localized Ostwald ripening process has been further discussed. Such hollow structures show high photocatalytic ability in the photodegradation of methylene blue. - Graphical abstract: TEM images of typical as-prepared CdS hollow nanospheres.

Li Xinping; Gao Yanan; Yu Li [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Zheng Liqiang, E-mail: lqzheng@sdu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Carbon Dioxide Selective Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: The Effect of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is widely viewed as a promising technology for the large scale production of energy in a carbon constrained world. These cycles, which include gasification, contaminant removal, water-gas shift, CO2 capture and compression, and combustion of the reduced-carbon fuel gas in a turbine, often have significant efficiency advantages over conventional combustion technologies. A CO2 selective membrane capable of maintaining performance at conditions approaching those of low temperature water-gas shift (260oC) could facilitate the production of carbon-neutral energy by simultaneously driving the shift reaction to completion and concentrating CO2 for sequestration. Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) have been previously evaluated for this application and determined to be physically and chemically stable to temperatures in excess of 300oC. These membranes were based on ionic liquids which interacted physically with CO2 and diminished considerably in selectivity at higher temperatures. To alleviate this problem, the original ionic liquids were replaced with ionic liquids able to form chemical complexes with CO2. These complexing ionic liquid membranes have a local maximum in selectivity which is observed at increasing temperatures for more stable complexes. Efforts are currently underway to develop ionic liquids with selectivity maxima at temperatures greater than 75oC, the best result to date, but other practical concerns must also be addressed if the membrane is to be realistically expected to function under water-gas shift conditions. A CO2 selective membrane must function not only at high temperature, but also in the presence of all the reactants and contaminants likely to be present in coal-derived fuel gas, including water, CO, and H2S. A study has been undertaken which examines the effects of each of these gases on both complexing and physically interacting supported liquid membranes. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

83

Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

Dr. Ramana Reddy

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

84

Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

85

Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Broadview Heights, OH); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Chandler, AZ); Yoshizawa, Masahiro (Tokyo, JP)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

86

The use of ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS) in FIB applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new monoenergetic, high-brightness ion source can be constructed using an arrangement similar to liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) by substituting the liquid metal with an ionic liquid, or room temperature molten salt. Ion ...

Zorzos, Anthony Nicholas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Electrochemical comparison and deposition of lithium and potassium from phosphonium- and ammonium-tfsi ionic liquids .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated for use as battery electrolytes. The ILs were synthesized from quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts and TFSI-.… (more)

Vega, Jose A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Ionic Liquid Materials as Gas Chromatography Stationary Phases and Sorbent Coatings in Solid-Phase Microextraction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ionic liquids (ILs) are a class of molten salts with melting points below 100 °C. Their unique properties including high thermal stability, wide viscosity range,… (more)

Zhao, Qichao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Methods of using ionic liquids having a fluoride anion as solvents  

SciTech Connect

A method in one embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having a fluoride anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of about 90.degree. C. or less during the contacting. A method in another embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having an acetate or formate anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of less than about 90.degree. C. during the contacting.

Pagoria, Philip (Livermore, CA); Maiti, Amitesh (San Ramon, CA); Gash, Alexander (Brentwood, CA); Han, Thomas Yong (Pleasanton, CA); Orme, Christine (Oakland, CA); Fried, Laurence (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

90

High CO2 Solubility, Permeability and Selectivity in Ionic Liquids with the Tetracyanoborate Anion  

SciTech Connect

Five different ionic liquids containing the tetracyanoborate anion were synthesized and evaluated for CO2 separation performance. Measured CO2 solubility values were exceptionally high compared to analogous ionic liquids with different anions and ranged from 0.128 mol L-1 atm-1 to 0.148 mol L-1 atm-1. In addition, CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity values were measured using a supported ionic liquid membrane architecture and the separations performance of the ionic liquid membranes exceeded the Robeson upper bound. These results establish the distinct potential of the tetracyanoborate, [B(CN)4], anion for the separation of CO2.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Solubilities of Solutes in Ionic Liquids from a SimplePerturbed-Hard-Sphere Theory  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, several publications have provided solubilities of ordinary gases and liquids in ionic liquids. This work reports an initial attempt to correlate the experimental data using a perturbed-hard-sphere theory; the perturbation is based on well-known molecular physics when the solution is considered as a dielectric continuum. For this correlation, the most important input parameters are hard-sphere diameters of the solute and of the cation and anion that constitute the ionic liquid. In addition, the correlation uses the solvent density and the solute's polarizability and dipole and quadrupole moments, if any. Dispersion-energy parameters are obtained from global correlation of solubility data. Results are given for twenty solutes in several ionic liquids at normal temperatures; in addition, some results are given for gases in two molten salts at very high temperatures. Because the theory used here is much simplified, and because experimental uncertainties (especially for gaseous solutes) are often large, the accuracy of the correlation presented here is not high; in general, predicted solubilities (Henry's constants) agree with experiment to within roughly {+-} 70%. As more reliable experimental data become available, modifications in the characterizing parameters are likely to improve accuracy. Nevertheless, even in its present form, the correlation may be useful for solvent screening in engineering design.

Qin, Yuan; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

92

Interactions of Ionic Liquids with Uranium and its Bioreduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigated the influence of ionic liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM]{sup +}[PF{sub 6}]{sup -}, N-ethylpyridinium trifluoroacetate [EtPy]{sup +}[CF{sub 3}COO]{sup -} and N-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [Et-Py]{sup +}[BF{sub 4}]{sup -} on uranium reduction by Clostridium sp. under anaerobic conditions. Potentiometric titration, UV-vis spectrophotometry, LC-MS and EXAFS analyses showed monodentate complexation between uranyl and BF{sub 4}{sup -} PF{sub 6}{sup -}; and bidentate complexation with CF{sub 3}COO{sup -}. Ionic liquids affected the growth of Clostridium sp. as evidenced by decrease in optical density, changes in pH, gas production, and the extent of U(VI) reduction and precipitation of U(IV) from solution. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was observed in the presence of [EtPy][BF{sub 4}] and [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] but not with [EtPy][CF{sub 3}COO].

Zhang, C.; Francis, A.

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

93

Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

94

Fabrication of a Miniaturized Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Gas Sensor for Human Health and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication of a Miniaturized Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Gas Sensor for Human Health and Safety temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) gas sensors utilizing electrochemical instrumentation demonstrate promising that enables miniaturized, rapid response, gas sensors to be realized using RTIL interfaces on a permeable

Mason, Andrew

95

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLE-ENHANCED IONIC LIQUIDS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was completed on nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids as an alternative to conventional organic based heat transfer fluids (HTFs). These nanoparticle-based HTFs have the potential to deliver higher thermal conductivity than the base fluid without a significant increase in viscosity at elevated temperatures. The effect of nanoparticle morphology and chemistry on thermophysical properties was examined. Whisker shaped nanomaterials were found to have the largest thermal conductivity temperature dependence and were also less likely to agglomerate in the base fluid than spherical shaped nanomaterials.

Fox, E.

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids Ionic Liquids Project No.: FC26-07NT43091 Model of CO2 absorption by an ionic liquid. Model of CO2 absorption by an IL. The model shows that the anions are controlling absorption in ILs. The green units represent anions and the grey units represent cations. The University of Notre Dame is conducting the Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture project (FC26-07NT43091), that builds on the work of its earlier project (FG26-04NT42122), to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids (ILs) - for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Initial efforts focused on "proof-of-concept" exploration, followed by a laboratory-/bench-scale effort. ILs include a broad category

97

The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use in nuclear fuel processing J. F. Wishart and I. A. Shkrob in "Ionic Liquids: From Knowledge to Application" Rogers, R. D., Plechkova, N. V., and Seddon, K. R., Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 1030, Ch. 8, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2009, pp 119-134. (ISBN 978-0-8412-6997-2) [Find chapter at ACS Publications] Abstract: Using ionic liquids as a medium for the processing of spent nuclear fuel, where their safety and process improvement advantages could be significant, promises to substantially contribute to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles to improve the world's energy posture. It is therefore important to study the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids, to determine

98

Theoretical Investigations on Nanoporpus Materials and Ionic Liquids for Energy Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the current context of rapidly depleting petroleum resources and growing environmental concerns, it is important to develop materials to harvest and store energy from renewable and sustainable sources. Hydrogen has the potential to be an alternative energy source, since it has higher energy content than petroleum. However, since hydrogen has very low volumetric energy density, hence it is important to design nano porous materials which can efficiently store large volumes of hydrogen gas by adsorption. In this regard carbon nanotube and Metal Organic Framework (MOFs) based materials are worth studying. Ionic liquids (IL) are potential electrolytes that can improve energy storage capacity and safety in Li ion batteries. Therefore it is important to understand IL's thermodynamic and transport properties, especially when it is in contact with electrode surface and mixed with Li salt, as happens in the battery application. This dissertation presents computation and simulation based studies on: 1. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotube scaffold. 2. Mechanical property and stability of various nanoporous Metal Organic Frameworks. 3. Thermodynamic and transport properties of [BMIM][BF4] ionic liquid in bulk, in Li Salt mixture, on graphite surface and under nanoconfinement. In the first study, we report the effects of carbon nanotube diameter, tube chirality, tube spacer distance, tube functionalization and presence of Li on hydrogen sorption capacity and thermodynamics at different temperature and pressure. In the second one, we observe high pressure induced structural transformation of 6 isoreticular MOFs: IRMOF-1. IRMOF-3, IRMOF-6, IRMOF-8, IRMOF-10 and IRMOF-14, explore the deformation mechanism and effect of Hydrogen inside crystal lattice. In the third study, we observe the equilibrium thermodynamic and transport properties of [BMIM][BF4] ionic liquid. The temperature dependence of ion diffusion, conductivity, dielectric constant, dipole relaxation time and viscosity have been observed and found similar behavior to those of supercooled liquid. The ion diffusion on graphite surfaces and under nanoconfinement was found to be higher compared to those in bulk.

Mani Biswas, Mousumi

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

From molten salts to room temperature ionic liquids: Simulation studies on chloroaluminate systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An interaction potential including chloride anion polarization effects, constructed from first-principles calculations, is used to examine the structure and transport properties of a series of chloroaluminate melts. A particular emphasis was given to the study of the equimolar mixture of aluminium chloride with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, which forms a room temperature ionic liquid EMI-AlCl 4. The structure yielded by the classical simulations performed within the framework of the polarizable ion model is compared to the results obtained from entirely electronic structure-based simulations: An excellent agreement between the two flavors of molecular dynamics is observed. When changing the organic cation EMI+ by an inorganic cation with a smaller ionic radius (Li+, Na+, K+), the chloroaluminate speciation becomes more complex, with the formation of Al2Cl 7- in small amounts. The calculated transport properties (diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivity and viscosity) of EMI-AlCl4 are in good ag...

Salanne, Mathieu; Seitsonen, Ari P; Madden, Paul A; Kirchner, Barbara; 10.1039/C1FD00053E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids Luke D. Simoni-Butanol, Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium, Excess Gibbs Energy Models, Biofuels #12;1 1. Introduction other organic compounds can be produced biologically, and thus can be considered as biofuel candidates

Stadtherr, Mark A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Shao, Nan [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral Solvents Heather Y. Lee, Joseph B. Issa, Stephan S. Isied, Edward W. Castner, Jr., Yunfeng Pan, Charles L. Hussey, Kwang Soon Lee, and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 5197-5208 (2012). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request. Abstract: The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethyl¬sulfonyl)¬amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a

103

Electrochemical Windows of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids from Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory Calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated the cathodic and anodic limits of six room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) formed from a combination of two common cations, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) and N,N-propylmethylpyrrolidinium (P13), and ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

104

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical catalysis have been employed to enhance the conversion of IL-treated biomasschemical catalysis routes for the breakdown of biomass in ionic liquids would help increase the efficiency of the conversion of biomass

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

A Microfabricated Planar Electrospray Array Ionic Liquid Ion Source With Integrated Extractor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a fully microfabricated planar array of externally fed electrospray emitters that produces heavy molecular ions from the ionic liquids ...

Gassend, Blaise

106

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Background Development of innovative environmental control technologies is key to maintaining coal as an affordable and environmentally sound energy source. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control technologies, specifically post-combustion CO 2 capture, for coal- fired power plants is a major focus area in addressing climate change concerns. Post-

107

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO 2 Capture Background Post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture presents technical challenges because the flue gas is at atmospheric pressure and the CO 2 concentration is 10 to 15 volume percent, resulting in a low CO 2 partial pressure and a large volume of gas that needs to be treated. In spite of this difficulty, post-combustion CO 2 capture offers the

108

Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

Yu, Bo [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Sun, Xiaoqi [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL] [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company] [General Motors Company

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

Ring Opened Heterocycles: Promising Ionic Liquids for Gas Separation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

We report on a new class of highly fluid ionic liquids integrating a cation that resembles an opened imidazolium structure with two distinct anions, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [Tf{sub 2}N], and a nitrile-containing anion, [C(CN)3]. These new ionic liquids show exceptional CO{sub 2} permeability values in liquid membrane gas separations with results that equal or exceed the Robeson upper bound. Moreover, these ionic liquids offer ideal CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities competitive with the best results reported to date, exhibiting values that range from 28 to 45. The nitrile containing ionic liquid displayed the highest ideal CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity with a value of 45 which primarily results from a reduction in the nitrogen permeability. In addition to permeability results, CO{sub 2} solubilities were also measured for the this new class of ionic liquids with values similar to the popular 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The CO{sub 2} solubility results were compared to predicted values obtained using both a modified regular solution theory and the quantum chemical Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) method. Agreement between predicted and measured solubility values is also discussed.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Baker, Sheila N [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Gas-liquid critical point in ionic fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the method of collective variables we develop the statistical field theory for the study of a simple charge-asymmetric $1:z$ primitive model (SPM). It is shown that the well-known approximations for the free energy, in particular DHLL and ORPA, can be obtained within the framework of this theory. In order to study the gas-liquid critical point of SPM we propose the method for the calculation of chemical potential conjugate to the total number density which allows us to take into account the higher order fluctuation effects. As a result, the gas-liquid phase diagrams are calculated for $z=2-4$. The results demonstrate the qualitative agreement with MC simulation data: critical temperature decreases when $z$ increases and critical density increases rapidly with $z$.

O. Patsahan; I. Mryglod; T. Patsahan

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

112

Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Ionic Liquids and Applications in Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ionic liquids (ILs) are a class of molten salts with melting points considerably lower than conventional inorganic salts. Their unique properties make them an ideal… (more)

Meng, Yunjing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

115

Tuning the Physicochemical Properties of Diverse Phenolic Ionic Liquids for Equimolar CO2 Capture by the Substituent on the Anion  

SciTech Connect

Phenolic ionic liquids for the efficient and reversible capture of CO{sub 2} were designed and prepared from phosphonium hydroxide and substituted phenols. The electron-withdrawing or electron-donating ability, position, and number of the substituents on the anion of these ionic liquids were correlated with the physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids. The results show that the stability, viscosity, and CO{sub 2}-capturing ability of these ionic liquids were significantly affected by the substituents. Furthermore, the relationship between the decomposition temperature, the CO{sub 2}-absorption capacity, and the basicity of these ionic liquids was quantitatively correlated and further rationalized by theoretical calculation. Indeed, these ionic liquids showed good stability, high absorption capacity, and low absorption enthalpy for CO{sub 2} capture. This method, which tunes the physicochemical properties by making use of substituent effects in the anion of the ionic liquid, is important for the design of highly efficient and reversible methods for CO{sub 2}-capture. This CO{sub 2} capture process using diverse phenolic ionic liquids is a promising potential method for CO{sub 2} absorption with both high absorption capacity and good reversibility.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Li, Haoran [Zhejiang University; Wang, Congmin [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Ab Initio Quantum Liquid Water and Aqueous Ionic Solutions |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

250 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Physics A highly accurate and detailed understanding of the microscopic structure of liquid water is of great importance to a number of...

117

Investigation of transport and mechnical properties for hollow fibers containing ionic liquids for pre-combustion CO2 capture  

SciTech Connect

Currently available techniques for CO{sub 2} separation from flue or fuel gas cannot economically capture CO{sub 2} for sequestration. Membranes offer several advantages in CO{sub 2} separation such as simple operation, low water consumption, and in some cases higher energy efficiency. However, traditional polymer membranes are limited by the separation characteristics of the polymer and often suffer from low permeability and selectivity. Several research groups have attempted to overcome these limitations by using supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) in which an ionic liquid (IL) is suspended within the pores of a membrane support and serves as the active gas separation component of the membrane. For industrial applications, hollow fibers are preferred over flat membranes due to their smaller footprint, ease of high efficiency module design and low fabrication cost. In an attempt to investigate and address these issues, polymeric hollow fiber-based ionic liquid membranes were fabricated. Matrimid® and [hmim][Tf{sub 2}N] (1-hexyl-3-methylimidalzolium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl) imide) were selected as the polymeric and ionic liquid materials, and the fibers were fabricated via nonsolvent-induced phase separation/extraction, employing a single layer spinneret extrusion system. The system takes advantage of the fiber morphology to enable more efficient mass transfer than traditional membranes geometries. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} transport properties will be reported for the Matrimid hollow fibers from 37 to 150 {degrees}C. Also, several mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus, and glass transition temperature have been measured for the fiber using dynamic mechanical analysis.

Hopkinson, D., Wickramanayake, S., Myers, C., Sui, L., Nicola, M., Luebke, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Lithium Ion Transport Mechanism in Ternary Polymer Electrolyte-Ionic Liquid Mixtures - A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lithium transport mechanism in ternary polymer electrolytes, consisting of PEO/LiTFSI and various fractions of the ionic liquid N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, are investigated by means of MD simulations. This is motivated by recent experimental findings [Passerini et al., Electrochim. Acta 2012, 86, 330-338], which demonstrated that these materials display an enhanced lithium mobility relative to their binary counterpart PEO/LiTFSI. In order to grasp the underlying microscopic scenario giving rise to these observations, we employ an analytical, Rouse-based cation transport model [Maitra at al., PRL 2007, 98, 227802], which has originally been devised for conventional polymer electrolytes. This model describes the cation transport via three different mechanisms, each characterized by an individual time scale. It turns out that also in the ternary electrolytes essentially all lithium ions are coordinated by PEO chains, thus ruling out a transport mechanism enhanced by the presence of ionic-liquid molecules. Rather, the plasticizing effect of the ionic liquid contributes to the increased lithium mobility by enhancing the dynamics of the PEO chains and consequently also the motion of the attached ions. Additional focus is laid on the prediction of lithium diffusion coefficients from the simulation data for various chain lengths and the comparison with experimental data, thus demonstrating the broad applicability of our approach.

Diddo Diddens; Andreas Heuer

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

119

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics inIonic Liquids and Neutral Solvents  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a 1-N,1-N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine donor, a proline bridge, and a coumarin 343 acceptor. The photoinduced electron-transfer processes are in the inverted regime (-{Delta}G > {lambda}) in all four solvents, with driving forces of -1.6 to -1.9 eV and estimated reorganization energies of about 1.0 eV. The observed electron-transfer kinetics have broadly distributed rates that are generally slower in the ionic liquids compared to the neutral solvents, which also have narrower rate distributions. To describe the broad distributions of electron-transfer kinetics, we use two different models: a distribution of exponential lifetimes and a discrete sum of exponential lifetimes. Analysis of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling shows that for ionic liquids this intramolecular electron-transfer reaction should be treated using a solvent-controlled electron-transfer model.

Wishart J. F.; Lee, H.Y.; Issa, J.B.; Isied, S.S.; Castner, Jr., E.W.; Pan, Y.; Hussey, C.L.; Lee, K.S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Separable fluorous ionic liquids for the dissolution and saccharification of cellulose  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

otherwise. The term "high vacuum" refers to vacuum (oil pump containing ionic liquid were concentrated under reduced pressure to yield an orange oil contaminated with white solids. The oil and solids were dissolved in boiling methanol, and the solution was concentrated

Raines, Ronald T.

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121

USE OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN PRODUCED WATER CLEAN UP J. McFarlane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

USE OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN PRODUCED WATER CLEAN UP J. McFarlane Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box amounts of contaminated water along with the hydrocarbon phase, termed "produced water" by the industry 1 Agency (EPA) limit on oil and grease content in produced water discharged in the ocean is a daily maximum

122

J-aggregation of ionic liquid solutions of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin  

SciTech Connect

The title porphyrin was dissolved in the hydrophilic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4], and triggered to assemble into J-aggregates by the addition of incremental volumes of water containing various amounts of acid (0.1, 0.2, or 1.0 M HCl). In contrast to recent studies, the current investigation is unique in that it centers on media that contain a predominant ionic liquid component (2.9 5.4 M [bmim][BF4]), as opposed to an aqueous electrolyte containing a small fraction of ionic liquid as dissociated solute. Complex aggregation and underlying photophysical behavior are revealed from absorption spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence, and resonance light scattering studies. Upon addition of aqueous HCl, the efficient formation of H4TPPS2 J-aggregates from the diprotonated form of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (H2TPPS4) occurs in [bmim][BF4]-rich media in a manner highly dependent upon the acidity, TPPS concentration, and solvent composition. The unique features of TPPS aggregation in this ionic liquid were elucidated, including the surprising disassembly of J-aggregates at higher aqueous contents, and our results are described qualitatively in terms of the molecular exciton theory. Finally, the potential of this system for the optical sensing of water at a sensitivity below 0.5 wt% is demonstrated. Overall, our findings accentuate how little is known about functional self-assembly within ionic liquids and suggest a number of avenues for exploring this completely untouched research landscape.

Ali, Maroof [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; Kumar, Vinod [ORNL; Baker, Sheila N [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Pandey, Siddharth [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Fluid Hyphenated Techniques for Dissolution and Separation of Lanthanides, Actinides, and Fission Products  

SciTech Connect

This project is investigating techniques involving ionic liquids (IL) and supercritical (SC) fluids for dissolution and separation of lanthanides, actinides, and fission products. The research project consists of the following tasks: Study direct dissolution of lanthanide oxides, uranium dioxide and other actinide oxides in [bmin][Tf{sub 2}N] with TBP(HNO{sub 3}){sub 1.8}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.6} and similar types of Lewis acid-Lewis base complexing agents; Measure distributions of dissolved metal species between the IL and the sc-CO{sub 2} phases under various temperature and pressure conditions; Investigate the chemistry of the dissolved metal species in both IL and sc-CO{sub 2} phases using spectroscopic and chemical methods; Evaluate potential applications of the new extraction techniques for nuclear waste management and for other projects. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) and ionic liquids are considered green solvents for chemical reactions and separations. Above the critical point, CO{sub 2} has both gas- and liquid-like properties, making it capable of penetrating small pores of solids and dissolving organic compounds in the solid matrix. One application of sc-CO{sub 2} extraction technology is nuclear waste management. Ionic liquids are low-melting salts composed of an organic cation and an anion of various forms, with unique properties making them attractive replacements for the volatile organic solvents traditionally used in liquid-liquid extraction processes. One type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation [bmin] with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion [Tf{sub 2}N] is of particular interest for extraction of metal ions due to its water stability, relative low viscosity, high conductivity, and good electrochemical and thermal stability. Recent studies indicate that a coupled IL sc-CO{sub 2} extraction system can effectively transfer trivalent lanthanide and uranyl ions from nitric acid solutions. Advantages of this technique include operation at ambient temperature and pressure, selective extraction due to tunable sc-CO{sub 2} solvation strength, no IL loss during back-extraction, and no organic solvent introduced into the IL phase.

Wai, Chien M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Bruce Mincher

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

2009-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

125

Supported Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} Separation  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts which are liquid at or around room temperature. These compounds exhibit many outstanding physical properties such as great thermal stability and no measurable vapor pressure. In this work supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were prepared by impregnating pores of ?-alumina inorganic supports with various ionic liquids. In addition to membranes prepared with pure RTILs we were able to synthesize membranes with RTIL mixtures using 1-aminopyridinium iodide dissolved in 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate or methyltrioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. This combination of an RTIL with an organic salt containing an amine group dramatically improved the membrane separation properties. The SILMs displayed CO{sub 2} permeance on the order of 5 × 10{sup ?10} to 5 × 10{sup ?9} mol m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} Pa{sup ?1} combined with CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity of 5–30. Although these values are comparable with the current systems for CO{sub 2} purification, CO{sub 2} permeance is still rather low for these compounds.

Iarikov, D. D.; Hacarlioglu, P.; Oyama, S. T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Reversible uptake of COS, CS2 and SO2; Ionic liquids with O-alkylxanthate, O-alkylthiocarbonate, and O-alkylsulfite anions  

SciTech Connect

Further development of CO2 binding organic liquids to capture and release carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide and sulfur dioxide. This paper investigates a brand new class of ionic liquids which have potential as chemical sensors for acid gas capture. Applications to flue gas scrubbing are discussed with an emphasis on capture and release of COS, CS2 and SO2 with amidine and guanidine bases with alcohols. Formal spectroscopic characterization is presented.

Heldebrant, David J.; Yonker, Clement R.; Jessop, Philip G.; Phan, Lam

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

127

Molecular mechanism of gas adsorption into ionic liquids: A molecular dynamics study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been shown to be versatile and tunable solvents that can be used in many chemical applications. In this study, we developed a dynamical, molecular-scale picture of the gas dissolution and interfacial processes in RTILs using molecular simulations. These simulations can provide the free energies associated with transporting a gas solute across various RTIL interfaces and physical insights into the interfacial properties and transport molecular mechanism of gas sorption processes. For CO2 sorption, the features in the potential of mean force (PMF) of CO2 using both polarizable and non-polarizable force fields are similar qualitatively. However, we observed some quantitative differences, and we describe the causes of these differences in this paper. We also show the significant impact of ionic-liquid chemical structures on the gas sorption process, and we discuss their influence on the H2O transport mechanism.

Dang, Liem X.; Chang, Tsun-Mei

2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ionic-Liquid Induced Changes in Cellulose Structure Associated with Enhanced Biomass Hydrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of varying ionic liquid pretreatment parameters on various sources of lignocellulosic biomass have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fiber diffraction, and compositional analysis. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar analysis were used to relate the observed changes in cellulose structure to biomass digestibility. In this study, the factor most clearly associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis is the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase.

Samayam, Indira P.; Hanson, B. Leif; Langan, Paul; Schall, Constance A. (Toledo)

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

129

Alkyl-methylimidazolium ionic liquids affect the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effect of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate [EMIM][DEP], and 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate [MMIM][DMP] on the growth and glucose fermentation of Clostridium sp. was investigated. Among the three ionic liquids tested, [MMIM][DMP] was found to be least toxic. Growth of Clostridium sp. was not inhibited up to 2.5, 4 and 4 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac], [EMIM][DEP] and [MMIM][DMP], respectively. [EMIM][Ac] at <2.5 g L{sup -1}, showed hormetic effect and stimulated the growth and fermentation by modulating medium pH. Total organic acid production increased in the presence of 2.5 and 2 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac] and [MMIM][DMP]. Ionic liquids had no significant influence on alcohol production at <2.5 g L{sup -1}. Total gas production was affected by ILs at {ge}2.5 g L{sup -1} and varied with type of methylimidazolium IL. Overall, the results show that the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. is not impacted by ILs at concentrations below 2.5 g L{sup -1}.

Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Francis, A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Membranes Containing Cellulose or Chitin Barrier Layers Fabricated by Ionic Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The barrier layer of high-flux ultrafiltration (UF) thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membranes for purification of wastewater (e.g., bilge water) have been prepared by using cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend, regenerated from an ionic liquid. The structures and properties of regenerated cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend were analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface morphology, pore size and pore size distribution of TFNC membranes were determined by SEM images and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) methods. An oil/water emulsion, a model of bilge water, was used as the feed solution, and the permeation flux and rejection ratio of the membranes were investigated. TFNC membranes based on the cellulose-chitin blend exhibited 10 times higher permeation flux when compared with a commercial UF membrane (PAN10, Sepro) with a similar rejection ratio after filtration over a time period of up to 100 h, implying the practical feasibility of such membranes for UF applications.

H Ma; B Hsiao; B Chu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

131

Checkerboard Self-Patterning of an Ionic Liquid Film on Mercury  

SciTech Connect

{angstrom}-resolution studies of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) interfaces are scarce, in spite of their long-recognized importance for the science and many applications of RTILs. We present an {angstrom}-resolution x-ray study of a Langmuir film of an RTIL on mercury. At low (high) coverage [90 (50) {angstrom}{sup 2}/molecule] a mono-(bi)layer of surface-parallel molecules is found. The molecules self-assemble in a lateral ionic checkerboard pattern, unlike the uniform-charge, alternate-ion layers of this RTIL at its bulk-solid interface. A 2D-smectic order is found, with molecules packed in parallel stripes, forming long-range order normal to, but none along, the stripes.

L Tamam; B Ocko; H Reichert; M Deutsch

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Checkerboard Self-Patterning of an Ionic Liquid Film on Mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

{angstrom}-resolution studies of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) interfaces are scarce, in spite of their long-recognized importance for the science and many applications of RTILs. We present an {angstrom}-resolution x-ray study of a Langmuir film of an RTIL on mercury. At low (high) coverage [90 (50) {angstrom}{sup 2}/molecule] a mono-(bi)layer of surface-parallel molecules is found. The molecules self-assemble in a lateral ionic checkerboard pattern, unlike the uniform-charge, alternate-ion layers of this RTIL at its bulk-solid interface. A 2D-smectic order is found, with molecules packed in parallel stripes, forming long-range order normal to, but none along, the stripes.

Ocko, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Reichert, H.; Deutsch, M.

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

Eckert, Charles; Liotta, Charles

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

Charles Eckert; Charles Liotta

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

135

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for DE-FC26-07NT43091 â??Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Captureâ?. A detailed summary is provided of the ionic liquid (IL) discovery process, synthesis and testing results, process / systems modeling, lab-scale operational testing, corrosion testing and commercialization possibilities. The work resulted in the discovery of a new class of ionic liquids (ILs) that efficiently react with CO{sub 2} in a 1:1 stoichiometry with no water present and no increase in viscosity. The enthalpy of reaction was tuned to optimize process economics. The IL was found to have excellent corrosion behavior with and without CO{sub 2} present. In lab-scale tests, the IL was able to effectively remove CO{sub 2} from a simulated flue gas stream, although mass transfer was slower than with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) due to higher viscosities. The non-volatile nature of the solvent and its high thermal stability, however, make it an intriguing option. An independent systems analysis indicates that the economics of using the best IL discovered to date (NDIL0157), are at least comparable to â?? and potentially slightly better than -â?? the Fluor Econamine FG PlusTM process (DOE Case 12). Further work should be directed at improving mass transfer / lowering viscosity and developing commercial synthesis routes to make these ILs at scale in an inexpensive manner. Demonstration of the process at larger scales is also warranted, as is the exploration of other process configurations that leverage the anhydrous nature of the solvent and its extremely low volatility.

Maginn, Edward

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

136

Pysico-chemical properties of hydrophobic ionic liquids containing 1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium cations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. A. Z. Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallicambient-temperature molten salts. Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35,are room-temperature molten salts with melting points near

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Lee, Jong-Min; Prausnitz, John M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Ionic liquid pretreatment of poplar wood at room temperature: swelling and incorporation of nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass represents a potentially sustainable source of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals. It could satisfy the energy needs for transportation and electricity generation, while contributing substantially to carbon sequestration and limiting the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Potential feedstocks are abundant and include crops, agricultural wastes, forest products, grasses, and algae. Among those feedstocks, wood is mainly constituted of three components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass typically consists of three steps: (1) pretreatment; (2) hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars; and (3) fermentation of the sugars into liquid fuels (ethanol) and other commodity chemicals. The pretreatment step is necessary due to the complex structure of the plant cell wall and the chemical resistance of lignin. Most current pretreatments are energy-intensive and/or polluting. So it is imperative to develop new pretreatments that are economically viable and environmentally friendly. Recently, ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest, due to their ability to dissolve biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, native switchgrass, and others. Ionic liquids are also considered green solvents, since they have been successfully recycled at high yields for further use with limited efficiency loss. Also, a few microbial cellulases remain active at high ionic liquid concentration. However, all studies on the dissolution of wood in ionic liquids have been conducted so far at high temperatures, typically above 90 C. Development of alternative pretreatments at room temperature is desirable to eliminate the additional energy cost. In this study, thin sections of poplar wood were swollen at room temperature by a 3 h ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate or EMIMAc) pretreatment. The pretreated sample was then exposed to an aqueous suspension of nanoparticles that resulted in the sample contraction and the deposition of nanoparticles onto the surface and embedded into the cell wall. To date, both silver and gold particles ranging in size from 40-100 nm have been incorporated into wood. Penetration of gold nanoparticles of 100 nm diameter in the cell walls was best confirmed by near-infrared confocal Raman microscopy, since the deposition of gold nanoparticles induces a significant enhancement of the Raman signal from the wood in their close proximity, an enhancement attributed to the surface-enhanced Raman effect (SERS). After rinsing with water, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman images of the same areas show that most nanoparticles remained on the pretreated sample. Raman images at different depths reveal that a significant number of nanoparticles were incorporated into the wood sample, at depths up to 4 {micro}m, or 40 times the diameter of the nanoparticles. Control experiments on an untreated wood sample resulted in the deposition of nanoparticles only at the surface and most nanoparticles were removed upon rinsing. This particle incorporation process enables the development of new pretreatments, since the nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio and could be chemically functionalized. Other potential applications for the incorporated nanoparticles include isotope tracing, catalysis, imaging agents, drug-delivery systems, energy-storage devices, and chemical sensors.

Lucas, Marcel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Gregory L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Steven A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rector, Kirk D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Identification of a haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to be very effective solvents for biomass pretreatment. It is known that some ILs can have a strong inhibitory effect on fungal cellulases, making the digestion of cellulose inefficient in the presence of ILs. The identification of IL-tolerant enzymes that could be produced as a cellulase cocktail would reduce the costs and water use requirements of the IL pretreatment process. Due to their adaptation to high salinity environments, halophilic enzymes are hypothesized to be good candidates for screening and identifying IL-resistant cellulases. Using a genome-based approach, we have identified and characterized a halophilic cellulase (Hu-CBH1) from the halophilic archaeon, Halorhabdus utahensis. Hu-CBH1 is present in a gene cluster containing multiple putative cellulolytic enzymes. Sequence and theoretical structure analysis indicate that Hu-CBH1 is highly enriched with negatively charged acidic amino acids on the surface, which may form a solvation shell that may stabilize the enzyme, through interaction with salt ions and/or water molecules. Hu-CBH1 is a heat tolerant haloalkaliphilic cellulase and is active in salt concentrations up to 5 M NaCl. In high salt buffer, Hu-CBH1 can tolerate alkali (pH 11.5) conditions and, more importantly, is tolerant to high levels (20percent w/w) of ILs, including 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl). Interestingly, the tolerances to heat, alkali and ILs are found to be salt-dependent, suggesting that the enzyme is stabilized by the presence of salt. Our results indicate that halophilic enzymes are good candidates for the screening of IL-tolerant cellulolytic enzymes.

Zhang, Tao; Datta, Supratim; Eichler, Jerry; Ivanova, Natalia; Axen, Seth D.; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Chen, Feng; Kyrpides, Nikos; Hugenholtz, Philip; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Sale, Kenneth L.; Simmons, Blake; Rubin, Eddy

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

139

THE POTENTIAL OF NANOPARTICLE ENHANCED IONIC LIQUIDS (NEILS) AS ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interest in capturing the energy of the sun is rising as demands for renewable energy sources increase. One area of developing research is the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), where the solar energy is concentrated by using mirrors to direct the sunlight towards a collector filled with a heat transfer fluid (HTF). The HTF transfers the collected energy into pressurized steam, which is used to generate energy. The greater the energy collected by the HTF, the more efficent the electrical energy production is, thus the overall efficiency is controlled by the thermal fluid. Commercial HTFs such as Therminol{reg_sign} (VP-1), which is a blend of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, have a significant vapor pressure, especially at elevated temperatures. In order for these volatile compounds to be used in CSP systems, the system either has to be engineered to prevent the phase change (i.e., volatilization and condensation) through pressurization of the system, or operate across the phase change. Over thirty years ago, a class of low-melting organic compounds were developed with negligible vapor pressure. These compounds are referred to as ionic liquids (ILs), which are organic-based compounds with discrete charges that cause a significant decrease in their vapor pressure. As a class, ILs are molten salts with a melting point below 100 C and can have a liquidus range approaching 400 C, and in several cases freezing points being below 0 C. Due to the lack of an appreciable vapor pressure, volatilization of an IL is not possible at atmospheric pressure, which would lead to a simplification of the design if used as a thermal fluid and for energy storage materials. Though the lack of a vapor pressure does not make the use of ILs a better HTF, the lack of a vapor pressure is a compliment to their higher heat capacity, higher volummetric density, and thus higher volumetric heat capacity. These favorable physical properties give ILs a pontential advantage over the current commerically used thermal fluids. Also within the past decade nanofluids have gained attention for thermal conductivity enhancment of fluids, but little analysis has been completed on the heat capacity effects of the nanoparticle addition. The idea of ILs or nanofluids as a HTF is not new, as there are several references that have proposed the idea. However, the use of ionic liquid nanofluids containing nanomaterials other than carbon nanotubes has never before been studied. Here, for the first time, nano-particle enhanced ILs (NEILs) have been shown to increase the heat capacity of the IL with no adverse side effects to the ILs thermal stability and, only at high nanoparticle loading, are the IL physical properties affected. An increase of volumetric heat capacity translates into a better heat transfer fluid as more energy is stored per volumetric unit in the solar concentrating section, thus more efficency in increased steam pressure. Results show that the properties of the NEIL are highly dependant on the suspended nanomaterial and careful materials selection is required to fully optimize the nanofluid properties.

Fox, E.; Bridges, N.; Visser, A.

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

140

Unusual mechanism for the short-range electron transfer within gold-alkanethiol-ionic-liquid films of subnanometer thickness  

SciTech Connect

Exploiting nanoscopically tunable composite gold-alkanethiol-ionic-liquid/ferrocene self-assembled systems with tunable electron transfer distance, we discovered in the case of thinner alkanethiol films a thermally activated electron transfer pattern totally controlled by the viscosity-related slow relaxation mode(s) of the ionic liquid acting as the reactant's fluctuating environment. This pattern manifested through the activation enthalpy and volume parameters that are identical to those for viscous flow was explained in terms of the extreme adiabatic mechanism with a vanishing Marcus barrier (via the exponential Franck-Condon-like term approaching unity).

Khoshtariya, Dimitri E. [Department of Physics and Institute for Biophysics and Bionanosciences, I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, I. Chavchavadze Avenue 3, 0128 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Egerlandstrasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics and Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Gotua 12, 0160 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Dolidze, Tina D. [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Egerlandstrasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics and Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Gotua 12, 0160 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Eldik, Rudi van [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Egerlandstrasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Impact of Mixed Feedstocks and Feedstock Densification on Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background: Lignocellulosic biorefineries must be able to efficiently process the regional feedstocks that are available at cost-competitive prices year round. These feedstocks typically have low energy densities and vary significantly in composition. One potential solution to these issues is blending and/or densifying the feedstocks in order to create a uniform feedstock. Results/discussion: We have mixed four feedstocks - switchgrass, lodgepole pine, corn stover, and eucalyptus - in flour and pellet form and processed them using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Sugar yields from both the mixed flour and pelletized feedstocks reach 90% within 24 hours of saccharification. Conclusions: Mixed feedstocks, in either flour or pellet form, are efficiently processed using this pretreatment process, and demonstrate that this approach has significant potential.

Jian Shi; Vicki S. Thompson; Neal A. Yancey; Vitalie Stavila; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Lubricants or lubricant additives composed of ionic liquids containing ammonium cations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lubricant or lubricant additive is an ionic liquid alkylammonium salt. The alkylammonium salt has the structure R.sub.xNH.sub.(4-x).sup.+,[F.sub.3C(CF.sub.2).sub.yS(O).sub.2].sub.2N.sup- .- where x is 1 to 3, R is independently C.sub.1 to C.sub.12 straight chain alkyl, branched chain alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkyl substituted cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl substituted alkyl, or, optionally, when x is greater than 1, two R groups comprise a cyclic structure including the nitrogen atom and 4 to 12 carbon atoms, and y is independently 0 to 11. The lubricant is effective for the lubrication of many surfaces including aluminum and ceramics surfaces.

Qu, Jun (Knoxville, TN); Truhan, Jr.,; John J. (Cookeville, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN); Blau, Peter J. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

143

Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

144

Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Hazardous Materials j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / j h a z m a t Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption C. Zhang a,b,∗ , S.V. Malhotra b,1 , A.J. Francis c,d a College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China 300071 b Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07104 USA c Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 USA d Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 South Korea h i g h l i g h t s * Three ILs showed varying degrees of toxicity to Clostridium sp.

145

Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions  

SciTech Connect

The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Varanasi, Patanjali [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Singh, Seema [Joint Bioenergy Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

147

Explaining the differential solubility of flue gas components in ionic liquids from first-principle calculations  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas is greatly responsible for acid rain formation and global warming. New generation ionic liquids (ILs) have potential in controlling the flue gas emissions, as they acquire high absorptivity for the component gases SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, etc. The association of the IL-gas interactions to the absorptivity of gas molecules in ILs is, however, poorly understood. In this paper, we present a molecular level description of the interactions of ILs with SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} and show its implications to the differential gas solubility. Our results indicate that the IL anion-gas interactions play a key role in deciding the gas solubility in ILs, particularly for polar gases such as SO{sub 2}. On the other hand, regular solution assumption applies to -2 solubility. In accordance with the previous theoretical and experimental findings, our results also imply that the IL anions dominate the interactions with gas molecules while the cations play a secondary role and the underlying fluid structures of the ILs remain unperturbed by the addition of gas molecules.

Prasad, B.R.; Senapati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Biotechnology

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Li, Huaqing [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Ionic Liquids for Use in Ultracapacitor and Graphene-Based ...  

Home » Application 20110080689. Site Map; Printable Version; Share this resource. About; Search; ... some of which may be suitable for use in an ultracapacitor, ...

150

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER OF IONIC LIQUID IN A RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE HEATED FROM BELOW  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an experimental study of natural convection heat transfer for an Ionic Liquid. The experiments were performed for 1-butyl-2, 3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}]) at a Raleigh number range of 1.26 x 10{sup 7} to 8.3 x 10{sup 7}. In addition to determining the convective heat transfer coefficients, this study also included experimental determination of thermophysical properties of [C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}] such as, density, viscosity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. The results show that the density of [C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}] varies from 1.437-1.396 g/cm{sup 3} within the temperature range of 10-50 C, the thermal conductivity varies from 0.105-0.116 W/m.K between a temperature of 10 to 60 C, the heat capacity varies from 1.015 J/g.K - 1.760 J/g.K within temperature range of 25-340 C and the viscosity varies from 18cp-243cp within temperature range 10-75 C. The results for density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and viscosity were in close agreement with the values in the literature. Measured dimensionless Nusselt number was observed to be higher for the ionic liquid than that of DI water. This is expected as Nusselt number is the ratio of heat transfer by convection to conduction and the ionic liquid has lower thermal conductivity (approximately 18%) than DI water.

Fox, E.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

151

Structure and Dynamics of N, N-diethyl-N-methylammonium Triflate Ionic Liquid, Neat and with Water, from Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations the properties (structure, thermodynamics, ion transport, and dynamics) of the protic ionic liquid N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-ammonium triflate (dema:Tfl) and of selected aqueous mixtures of dema:Tfl. This ionic liquid, a good candidate for a water-free proton exchange membrane, is shown to exhibit high ion mobility and conductivity. For bulk melts in the temperature range of 303-453K, both liquid densities and enthalpies of vaporization are found to decrease roughly linearly with increasing temperature. The radial distribution functions reveal a significant long-range structural correlation. The ammonium cations [dema]+ are found to diffuse slightly faster than the triflate anions [Tfl]-, and both types of ions exhibit enhanced mobility at higher temperatures, leading to higher ionic conductivity of these ionic liquids. Analysis of the dynamics of ion pairing clearly points to the existence of long-lived contact ion pairs in this ionic liquid. We also examined the effects of water on the ionic properties of dema:Tfl-water mixtures. From the structural analysis it was found that water molecules tend to replace counter ions in the coordination shell and hydrogen bond to both ions, thus weakening their mutual association. As water concentration increases, water molecules start to connect with each other and eventually form a large network that percolates through the system. It is also found that water has a strong influence on the ion dynamics in the mixtures. As the concentration of water increases, both translational and rotational motion of [dema]+ and [Tfl]- are significantly enhanced. As a result, higher ionic conductivity is observed with increased hydration level. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

152

Effect of H{sub 2}O on the desulfurization of simulated flue gas by an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect

Functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) have been demonstrated to absorb SO{sub 2} from mixed gases or simulated flue gases efficiently. However, after absorbing a large amount of SO{sub 2}, the viscosity of the ILs increases greatly, which might limit their eventual applications in large-scale desulfurization from mixed gases or flue gases. In this work, the effect of the presence of water in a simulated flue gas on the absorption of SO{sub 2} by a functionalized ionic liquid, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium lactate, has been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the presence of water in the simulated flue gas can decrease the viscosity of the IL greatly, and it has no effect on the absorptivity of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. The densities of the IL absorbing SO{sub 2} from the flue gas with or without water are also studied. They increase with the increase of the amount of SO{sub 2} absorbed from the flue gas in both cases.

Ren, S.H.; Hou, Y.C.; Wu, W.Z.; Chen, X.T.; Fan, J.L.; Zhang, J.W. [Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Preparation of silica aerogel using ionic liquids as solvents Sheng Dai,*a Y. H. Ju,ac H. J. Gao,b J. S. Lin,b S. J. Pennycookb and C. E. Barnesc  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preparation of silica aerogel using ionic liquids as solvents Sheng Dai,*a Y. H. Ju,ac H. J. Gaord December 1999 Ionic liquids have been used as effective solvents to synthesize aerogels; a long aging time can be used to produce stable aerogel structures without the need for supercritical drying

Gao, Hongjun

154

Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatments were studied to develop the first direct side-by-side comparative assessment on their respective impacts on biomass structure, composition, process mass balance, and enzymatic saccharification efficiency. AFEX pretreatment completely preserves plant carbohydrates, whereas IL pretreatment extracts 76% of hemicellulose. In contrast to AFEX, the native crystal structure of the recovered corn stover from IL pretreatment was significantly disrupted. For both techniques, more than 70% of the theoretical sugar yield was attained after 48 h of hydrolysis using commercial enzyme cocktails. IL pretreatment requires less enzyme loading and a shorter hydrolysis time to reach 90% yields. Hemicellulase addition led to significant improvements in the yields of glucose and xylose for AFEX pretreated corn stover, but not for IL pretreated stover. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of IL and AFEX pretreatment, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Li, Chenlin [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Ong, Markus [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Balan, Venkatesh [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Dale, Bruce E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

FRAGMENTATION OF COAL AND IMPROVED DISPERSION OF LIQUEFACTION CATALYSTS USING IONIC LIQUIDS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal has been utilized for coal-to-liquid fuels and coal-to-chemical industries both historically in South Africa and recently in China. Abundant bituminous and low-rank coal reserves… (more)

Cetiner, Ruveyda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Use of Ionic Liquids as Physical Solvents for Selective Capture of CO2 from Fuel Gas Streams  

SciTech Connect

This study is to investigate the potential use of ionic liquids (ILs) as physical solvents for selective CO2 capture from post water-gas-shift reactor streams at elevated pressures and temperatures. The equilibrium gas solubility (x*) and the volumetric mass transfer coefficients (kLa) for CO2 and H2 in two different ILs (TEGO IL K5 and TEGO IL P51P) were determined. The data were obtained in an agitated reactor, equipped with sight-windows, in wide ranges of pressures, temperatures, mixing speeds, and liquid heights. Under the operating conditions investigated, the CO2 solubilities in the two ILs increased with pressure at constant temperature and decreased with temperature at constant pressure. Also, the volumetric liquid-side mass transfer coefficients of CO2 increased with mixing speed, pressure, and temperature and decreased with liquid height. The CO2 solubilities in the TEGO IL K5 were greater than those in the other two ILs at 500 K. Under similar operating conditions, the CO2 solubilities in the two ILs were greater than those of H2, which reflects the selective nature of ILs for CO2 capture. In addition, the ILs appeared to have negligible vapor pressure up to 500 K, which presents an advantage over conventional physical solvents currently employed for CO2 capture from post water-gas-shift reactor streams. This study demonstrated the thermal stability of the ILs and highlighted their ability to selectively capture CO2 at temperatures up to 500 K and pressures as high as 30 bars.

Heintz, Y.J.; Sehabiague, L.; Morsi, B.I.; Jones, K.L.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Using Hydrophilic Ionic Liquid, [bmim]BF 4 – Ethylene Glycol System as a Novel Media for the Rapid Synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we present a novel method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. We utilize the charge compensatory effect of ionic liquid [bmim]BF4 in conjunction with ethylene glycol for providing electro-steric stabilization to copper nanoparticles prepared from copper sulphate using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formed copper nanoparticles showed extended stability over a period of one year. Copper nanoparticles thus prepared were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction measurements (pXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quasi elastic light scattering (QELS) techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD) analysis revealed relevant Bragg’s reflection for crystal structure of copper. Powder X-ray diffraction plots also revealed no oxidized material of copper nanoparticles. TEM showed nearly uniform distribution of the particles in methanol and confirmed by QELS. Typical applications of copper nanoparticles include uses in conductive films, lubrication and nanofluids. Currently efforts are under way in our laboratory for using these nanoparticles as catalysts for a variety of organic reactions.

Manika Dewan; Ajeet Kumar; Amit Saxena; Arnab De; Subho Mozumdar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Investigation of the Effect of Functional Group Substitutions on the Gas-Phase Electron Affinities and Ionization Energies of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids Ions using Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cathodic and anodic stabilities of room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are important factors in their applications in electrochemical devices. In this work, we investigated the electron affinities of cations and ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

159

Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of ionic liquids containing tetrakis(perfluorophenyl)borate, tetraphenylborate and trifluorophenylborate anions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of ionic liquidsa, b a b Department of Chemical Engineering, University ofTel: 00 1 510 642 4482. Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Yakelis, Neal; Prausnitz, John M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Developing Yttria-based Ceramics Having High Liquid Metal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing V. Presentation Title, Developing Yttria-based Ceramics Having High Liquid Metal ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Synthesis of Ionic Liquids  

Chemical separation, such as processes producing alkanes from olefins, often requires series of distillation steps that are highly energy intensive.

162

Ionic Liquids: Solvent for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TX 77478 281-494-2516 WEBSITE: www.netl.doe.gov CUSTOMER SERVICE: 1-800-553-7681 NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov...

163

Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

164

Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

165

Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

166

Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

167

Arkansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Arkansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

168

Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

169

Michigan Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Michigan Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

170

New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

171

Liquid Phase Sintering of Nickel Base Superalloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

does not seem to be a requisite, the liquid phase being responsible for particle ..... using standard silicate bonded casting molds rather than alum.ina. 413 ...

172

Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

173

New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

174

Louisiana--North Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--North Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

175

Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

176

Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

177

Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

178

Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

179

Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

180

Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

182

North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

183

Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

184

Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

185

Utah Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Utah Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

186

Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

187

Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

188

Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

189

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Florida Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Florida Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0...

191

Kentucky Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Kentucky Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0...

192

Montana Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Montana Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0...

193

Recombination of Photogenerated Lophyl Radicals in Imidazolium-Based ILs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recombination of Photogenerated Lophyl Radicals in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Recombination of Photogenerated Lophyl Radicals in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids V. Strehmel, J. F. Wishart, D. E. Polyansky and B. Strehmel ChemPhysChem 10, 3112-3118 (2009). [Find paper at Wiley] Abstract: Laser flash photolysis is applied to study the recombination reaction of lophyl radicals in ionic liquids in comparison with dimethylsulfoxide as an example of a traditional organic solvent. The latter exhibits a similar micropolarity as the ionic liquids. The ionic liquids investigated are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (1), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (2), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetafluoroborate (3). The recombination of the photolytic generated lophyl radicals occur significantly faster in the ionic liquids than expected from their

194

New Directions for the Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2: Supramolecular, scCO2 or Biphasic Ionic Liquid-scCO2 Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is an urgent need for the discovery of carbon-neutral sources of energy to avoid the consequences of global warming caused by ever-increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. An attractive possibility is to use CO{sub 2} captured from industrial emissions as a feedstock for the production of useful fuels and precursors such as carbon monoxide and methanol. An active field of research to achieve this goal is the development of catalysts capable of harnessing solar energy for use in artificial photosynthetic processes for CO{sub 2} reduction. Transition-metal complexes are excellent candidates, and it has already been shown that they can be used to reduce CO{sub 2} with high quantum efficiency. However, they generally suffer from poor visible light absorption, short catalyst lifetimes, and poor reaction rates. In this Perspective, the field of photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction is introduced, and recent developments that seek to improve the efficiency of such catalytic processes are highlighted, especially CO{sub 2} reduction with supramolecules and molecular systems in supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) or biphasic ionic liquid-scCO{sub 2} mixtures.

Grills, D.C.; Fujita, E.

2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

195

Microprocessor-based controller for a liquid hydrogen target refrigerator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A microprocessor-based cryogenic refrigerator controller developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory provides automatic cooldown and subsequent monitoring of liquid hydrogen targets. The controller performs the initial cooldown of the cryogenic system and provides continuous monitoring of the important system parameters. An alarm is sounded to summon an operator in the event of any parameter exceeding predetermined limits.

Gjovig, A.J.; Little, J.D.; Novak, J.K.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Gamma thermometer based reactor core liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is provided which employs a modified gamma thermometer for determining the liquid coolant level within a nuclear reactor core. The gamma thermometer which normally is employed to monitor local core heat generation rate (reactor power), is modified by thermocouple junctions and leads to obtain an unambiguous indication of the presence or absence of coolant liquid at the gamma thermometer location. A signal processor generates a signal based on the thermometer surface heat transfer coefficient by comparing the signals from the thermocouples at the thermometer location. The generated signal is a direct indication of loss of coolant due to the change in surface heat transfer when coolant liquid drops below the thermometer location. The loss of coolant indication is independent of reactor power at the thermometer location. Further, the same thermometer may still be used for the normal power monitoring function.

Burns, Thomas J. (Knoxville, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Thermodynamic properties and atomic structure of Ca-based liquid alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To identify the most promising positive electrodes for Ca-based liquid metal batteries, the thermodynamic properties of diverse Ca-based liquid alloys were investigated. The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Sb alloys were ...

Poizeau, Sophie (Sophie Marie Claire)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

[CuCln](2-n) Ion-Pair Species in 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid-Water Mixtures: Ultraviolet-Visible, X-ray Absorbtion Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report details of the coordination environment about Cu(II) in a pure ionic liquid, 1- ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl) and in mixtures containing varying amounts of water from 0-100% of the [EMIM]Cl. There are many stages in the ion pairing of the divalent cation, Cu(II) including the contact ion pairing of Cu2+ with multiple Cl- to form various CuCln (2-n) polyanions. Thereis also the subsequent solvation and ion pairing of the polychlorometallate anion with the EMIM+ cation. Using a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), UV-Vis spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations (TDDFT) we are able to follow the detailed structural changes about Cu(II). Ion pair formation is strongly promoted in [EMIM]Cl by the low dielectric constant and by the extensive breakdown of the water hydrogen bond network in [EMIM]Cl/water mixtures. In the [EMIM]Cl solvent the CuCl4 2- species dominates and it’s geometry is quite similar to gas-phase structure. These results are important in understanding catalysis and separation processes involving transition metals in ionic liquid systems.

Li, Guosheng; Camaioni, Donald M.; Amonette, James E.; Zhang, Z. Conrad; Johnson, Timothy J.; Fulton, John L.

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ionic Power Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ionic Power Systems Ltd Ionic Power Systems Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Ionic Power Systems Ltd. Place San Diego, California Zip 92126 Product Ionix Power Systems, Ltd. is a developer of new and innovative products and tools designed to aid in the development of next-generation energy technologies such as batteries, fuel cells, and advanced capacitors. References Ionic Power Systems Ltd.[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ionic Power Systems Ltd. is a company located in San Diego, California . References ↑ "Ionic Power Systems Ltd." Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Ionic_Power_Systems_Ltd&oldid=347099" Categories:

200

Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

Timothy Chainer

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Lower 48 States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 147 1980's 159 161 157 157 179 168 169 162 162 165 1990's 158 153 147 153 157 145 162 174 178 199 2000's 208 215 207 191 182 174 182 181 173 178 2010's 224 211 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Estimated Production Lower 48 States Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production Lease Condensate

202

Light Control of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals Using Azoxy-Based Host Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% ZhK-440 and 25% ZLI-2011. Light Control of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals 129 #12;cholesteric systemsLight Control of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals Using Azoxy-Based Host Materials G. Chilaya A, Swarthmore, PA, USA The characteristics of cholesteric liquid crystals can be controlled by light irradiation

Collings, Peter

203

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Based Production (Million Barrels) U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

204

New Mexico--East Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico--East Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

205

New Mexico--West Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico--West Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

206

Texas--RRC District 6 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 6 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

207

Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

208

Texas--RRC District 5 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 5 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

209

Texas--RRC District 7C Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 7C Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

210

Texas--RRC District 7B Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 7B Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

211

Texas--RRC District 8A Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 8A Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

212

Texas--RRC District 10 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 10 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

213

Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

214

Texas--RRC District 9 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 9 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

215

A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

216

LONG TERM THERMAL STABILITY IN AIR OF IONIC LIQUID BASED ALTERNATIVE HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS FOR CLEAN ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term aging on the thermal stability and chemical structure of seven different ILs so as to explore their suitability for use as a heat transfer fluid. This was accomplished by heating the ILs for 15 weeks at 200°C in an oxidizing environment and performing subsequent analyses on the aged chemicals.

Fox, E.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Long Term Thermal Stability In Air Of Ionic Liquid Based Alternative Heat Transfer Fluids For Clean Energy Production  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term aging on the thermal stability and chemical structure of seven different ILs so as to explore their suitability for use as a heat transfer fluid. This was accomplished by heating the ILs for 15 weeks at 200?C in an oxidizing environment and performing subsequent analyses on the aged chemicals.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.

Han, legal representative, Amy Qi (Hockessin, DE); Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

219

Copper-base alloy for liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper-base alloy composition consisting essentially of 85 - 89% copper, 2 - 4% manganese, and 8 - 11% silicon and use of same in liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders.

Wang, John L. (San Francisco, CA); Pickus, Milton R. (Oakland, CA); Chen, Meng-Hsiu (San Francisco, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Ground-Based FSSP and PVM Measurements of Liquid Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently published ground-based measurements of liquid water content (LWC) measured in fogs by two microphysical instruments, the FSSP-100 and PVM-100, are evaluated. These publications had suggested that the PVM-100 underestimated LWC ...

H. Gerber; Glendon Frick; Alfred R. Rodi

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in Fossil Fuel Based Power Plants. Author(s), Junhang Dong, Xiling Tang, Kurtis  ...

222

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic concepts and applications as well as present future directions for the liquid-liquid extraction process.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Next-Generation Liquid-Scintillator-Based Detectors: Quantums Dots and Picosecond Timing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-scintillator-based detectors are a robust technology that scales well to large volumes. For this reason, they are attractive for experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay. A combination of improved photo-detection technology and novel liquid scintillators may allow for the extraction of particle direction in addition to the total energy of the particle. Such an advance would find applications beyond searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay.

Lindley Winslow

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

224

Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage – Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the battery’s main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASU’s new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than today’s Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

225

A liquid crystal tunable filter based shortwave infrared spectral imaging system: Design and integration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the methodology to design and integrate a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) based shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral imaging system. The system consisted of an LCTF-based SWIR spectral imager, an illumination unit, a frame grabber, ... Keywords: Food quality and safety, Hyperspectral imaging, LCTF, Nondestructive inspection, SWIR, System design

Weilin Wang; Changying Li; Ernest W. Tollner; Glen C. Rains; Ronald D. Gitaitis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Ionic Liquids Used As Cleaning Solvents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental Assessment of Li-CNT Battery Production ... The Production of High-Quality Magnesite Ore Concentrate With Permroll Type Magnetic Separator.

227

Available Technologies: Enhanced Ionic Liquid Biomass ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Lignocellulosic biofuel production; Biomass pretreatment; Sugar production; Materials and processes using recovered lignin

228

Thermophilic Cellulases Compatible with Ionic Liquid ...  

Potential for consolidated pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass; Applications and Industries. Deconstruction of biomass for ...

229

Carbon Capture with Ionic Liquid Sorbents Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview Fossil fuels will be used to provide clean, affordable energy well into the 21 st century,...

230

Ionic Liquid Functionalized Mesoporous Sorbents In Hollow ...  

Patent applications directed towards this invention may not have been filed with any patent office. Disclosure Number 201202791 Technology Summary See ...

231

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors  

• The global market for Membrane Separation Technologies is forecast to reach US $16 billion by the year 2017, driven by the increasing

232

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a Li-Li cell. 0.1 mA, 50 min -0.1 mA, 50 min E (volts)E (volts)E (Volts) E (Volts) Time (Sec) Time (Sec) Figure 16. First

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Comparison of Cloud Liquid Content Measured by Two Independent Ground-Based Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on observations of liquid water in clouds made by two independent ground-based microwave instruments. One system is a dual-frequency (20.6, 31.65 GHz) microwave radiometer designed to measure emission from the precipitable water vapor ...

J. B. Snider; F. O. Guiraud; D. C. Hogg

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production of this highest-rank coal. The pro- duction of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

235

A liquid crystal tunable filter based shortwave infrared spectral imaging system: Calibration and characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calibration is a critical step for developing spectral imaging systems. This paper presents a systematic calibration and characterization approach for a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) based shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral imaging system. A series ... Keywords: Characterization, Inspection, LCTF, Shortwave infrared, Spectral imaging, System calibration

Weilin Wang; Changying Li; Ernest W. Tollner; Glen C. Rains; Ronald D. Gitaitis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Modeling CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers for effects of thorium-based fuels  

SciTech Connect

We use the DRAGON code to model the CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers and evaluate the effects of thorium-based fuels on their incremental cross sections and reactivity worth. We optimize both the numerical quadrature and spatial discretization for 2D cell models in order to provide accurate fuel properties for 3D liquid zone controller supercell models. We propose a low computer cost parameterized pseudo-exact 3D cluster geometries modeling approach that avoids tracking issues on small external surfaces. This methodology provides consistent incremental cross sections and reactivity worths when the thickness of the buffer region is reduced. When compared with an approximate annular geometry representation of the fuel and coolant region, we observe that the cluster description of fuel bundles in the supercell models does not increase considerably the precision of the results while increasing substantially the CPU time. In addition, this comparison shows that it is imperative to finely describe the liquid zone controller geometry since it has a strong impact of the incremental cross sections. This paper also shows that liquid zone controller reactivity worth is greatly decreased in presence of thorium-based fuels compared to the reference natural uranium fuel, since the fission and the fast to thermal scattering incremental cross sections are higher for the new fuels. (authors)

St-Aubin, E.; Marleau, G. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, stn. Centre Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Cloud Liquid Water Path from Satellite-Based Passive Microwave Observations: A New Climatology over the Global Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes a new climatology of cloud liquid water path (LWP), termed the University of Wisconsin (UWisc) climatology, derived from 18 yr of satellite-based passive microwave observations over the global oceans. The climatology is based ...

Christopher W. O’Dell; Frank J. Wentz; Ralf Bennartz

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Ionic (Proton) Transport Hydrogen Separation Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Proton) (Proton) Transport Hydrogen Separation Systems Summary Session Participants -- Ionic Transport Balachandran, Balu Cornelius, Chris Fleming, Greg Glass, Robert Hartvigsen, Joseph Higgins, Richard King, David Paster, Mark Paul, Dilo Robbins, John Samells, Anthony Schwartz, Michael Schinski, Bill Smith, Ronald Van Bibber, Lawrence Zalesky, Rick Argonne National Laboratory Sandia National Laboratory Air Liquide Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Cerametec, Inc. CeraMem Corporation Battelle, PNNL DOE Science Applications International Corporation ExxonMobil Eltron Research, Inc. ITN Energy Systems ChevronTexaco SRI Consulting SAIC ChevronTexaco Technology Ventures Performance Goals 4-5 years (5 years upper limit) (100,000 hrs is 12 years) High durability 250-350

239

Structure, ionic Conductivity and mobile Carrier Density in Fast Ionic Conducting Chalcogenide Glasses  

SciTech Connect

This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M{sub 2}S + (0.1 Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2}) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass forming range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2} was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M{sub 2}S + (0.1Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2}) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na{sub 2}S + B{sub 2}S{sub 3} (x {le} 0.2) glasses by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Similar results were obtained both in neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments. The results provide direct structural evidence that doping B{sub 2}S{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}S creates a large fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated boron in the glass. The final section is the general conclusion of this thesis and the suggested future work that could be conducted to expand upon this research.

Wenlong Yao

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

240

Microelectronic chip cooling: an experimental assessment of a liquid-passing heat sink, a microchannel heat rejection module, and a microchannel-based recirculating-liquid cooling system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of heat transfer testing of heat absorption modules (HAM), heat rejection modules (HRM), and a recirculating-liquid cooling system are reported. Low-profile, Cu-based, microchannel heat exchangers (MHEs) were fabricated and used as the HAM as ...

Bin Lu; W. J. Meng; Fanghua Mei

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Lipids in NanotechnologyChapter 8 Lipid Nano-vehicles Based on Lyotropic Liquid Crystals as Drug Delivery Vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipids in Nanotechnology Chapter 8 Lipid Nano-vehicles Based on Lyotropic Liquid Crystals as Drug Delivery Vehicles Food Science Nutrition Biochemistry Processing eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry P

242

Liquid Crystal Polymer-Based Planar Lumped Component Dual-Band Filters For Dual-Band WLAN Systems1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TH4A-2 Liquid Crystal Polymer-Based Planar Lumped Component Dual- Band Filters For Dual-Band WLAN River Street, Essex Junction, VT 05495 2 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia

Swaminathan, Madhavan

243

High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target  

SciTech Connect

A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

244

CO sub 2 sources for microalgae-based liquid fuel production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers in the Aquatic Species Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute are developing species of microalgae that have high percentages of lipids, or oils. These lipids can be extracted and converted to diesel fuel substitutes. Because microalgae need carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a nutrient, optimal microalgae growth occurs in CO{sub 2}-saturated solutions. For this reason, the authors of this study sought to identify possible large-scale sources of CO{sub 2} for microalgae-based liquid fuels production. The authors concluded that several such promising sources exist. 42 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

Feinberg, D.; Karpuk, M.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Energy Harvesting Applications of Ionic Polymers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Energy Harvesting Applications of Ionic Polymers Benjamin R. Martin Abstract The purpose of this thesis is the development and analysis of applications for ionic polymers… (more)

Martin, Benjamin Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Final Report for DE-FG02-93ER14376,Ionic Transport in Electrochemical Media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was a molecular dynamics study of the relevant issues associated with the structure and transport of lithium in polymer electrolytes such as polyethylene oxide(PEO). In close collaboration with quantum chemist Larry Curtiss and neutron scatterers David Lee Price and Marie-Louise Saboungi at Argonne, we used molecular dynamics to study the local structure and dynamics and ion transport in the polymer. The studies elucidated the mechanism of Li transport in PEO, revealing that the rate limiting step is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the torsion forces in the backbone of the polymer. Because the torsion forces are difficult to manipulate chemically, this makes it easier to understand why improving the conductivity of PEO based electrolytes has proven to be very difficult. We studied the transport properties of cations in ionic liquids as possible additives to polymer membranes for batteries and fuel cells and found preliminary indications that the transport is enhanced near phase separation in acid-ionic liquid mixtures.

J. W. Halley

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

247

journal Solid State Ionics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic acid solutions journal Solid State Ionics year month abstract p Proton exchange membranes are key solid state ion carriers in many relevant energy technologies including flow batteries fuel cells and solar fuel generators In many of these systems the membranes are in contact with electrolyte solutions In this paper we focus on the impact of different HBr a flow battery and exemplary acid electrolyte external concentrations on the conductivity of Nafion a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is commonly used in many energy related applications The peak and then decrease in conductivity is correlated with measured changes in the water and HBr content within the membrane In addition small angle x ray scattering is used to probe the nanostructure to

248

REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS IN A NOVEL HYDROGEN-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE-BASED FUEL PROCESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We propose to develop an inorganic metal-metal composite membrane to study reforming of liquid hydrocarbons and methanol by equilibrium shift in membrane-reactor configuration, viewed as fuel processor. Based on our current understanding and experience in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane, we propose to further develop this membrane to a Pd and Pd-Ag alloy membrane on microporous stainless steel support to provide structural reliability from distortion due to thermal cycling. Because of the metal-metal composite structure, we believe that the associated end-seal problem in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane in tubular configuration would not be an issue at all. We plan to test this membrane as membrane-reactor-separator for reforming liquid hydrocarbons and methanol for simultaneous production and separation of high-purity hydrogen for PEM fuel cell applications. To improve the robustness of the membrane film and deep penetration into the pores, we have used osmotic pressure field in the electroless plating process. Using this novel method, we deposited thin Pd-film on the inside of microporous stainless steel tube and the deposited film appears to robust and defect free. Work is in progress to evaluate the hydrogen perm-selectivity of the Pd-stainless steel membrane.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

249

An Axial Dispersion Model for Gas - Liquid Reactors Based on the Penetration Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An axial dispersion reactor model for gas -- liquid reaction systems is proposed in this paper based on the penetration theory. The mass transfer mechanism accompanied by a chemical irreversible first-order reaction is mathematically treated in a new way in order to use its results to develop the model conveniently. Analytical solutions can be obtained for the equation system involving linear differential equations by using of the eigenvalues of the equation system. In addition, an iteration procedure is given to solve the nonlinear differential equation system numerically. The influences of the important model parameters on the concentration profile, the mass transfer and the reactant conversion are also studied. 1997 Elsevier Science S.A.

Jinfu Wang; Shejiao Han; Fei Wei; Zhiqing Yu; Yong Jin

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Woodruff, Steven D. (Ames, IA)

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

251

Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refractive index and absorption detector are disclosed for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded. 10 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Woodruff, S.D.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

252

The Fluctuations of Blocked Ionic Current Reveal the Instantaneous Statuses of DNA in Graphene Nanopore  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extracting the sequence information of DNA from the blocked ionic current is the crucial step of the ionic current-based nanopore sequencing approaches. The thinnest graphene nanopore, which contained only one layer of carbon atoms, potentially has ultra-high DNA sequencing sensitivity. However, the dynamical translocation information of DNA contained in the blocked ionic current has not been well understood to date. In this letter, an assessment to the sensitivity of ionic current-based graphene nanopore DNA sensing approach was carried out using molecular dynamics simulations. By filtering the molecular thermal motion induced noise of ionic current, we found that the instantaneous conformational variations of DNA in graphene nanopore could be revealed from the fluctuations of the denoised ionic current. However, the blockage of ionic current which induced by the proximity of the DNA base-pairs to the nanopore (within 1.5 nm) was also observed. Although the expected single-base resolution of graphene nanopore should be enhanced by further studies, our findings indicated that the ionic current-based graphene nanopore sensing approach has high sensitivity to the instantaneous translocation status of DNA.

Wenping Lv; Ren'an Wu

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Data Base for Liquid Breeders and Coolants APEX Interim Report November, 1999  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equation: [1] R.W. Ohse (Ed.) Handbook of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Alkali Metals, Intern.E.J. Schins, Liquid Metals for Heat Pipes, Properties, Plots and Data Sheets, JRC- Ispra (1967) [3] R

California at Los Angeles, University of

254

Evaluation of a New Liquid Breaker for Polymer Based In-Situ Gelled Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A solid breaker is used to reduce the viscosity of the gel at pH range of 4-5 for in-situ gelled acids with Zr4 cross-linkers utilize. However, the literature survey confirmed that solid breakers caused a premature reduction in the fluid viscosity resulting in a less than desirable productivity. Therefore, an effective liquid breaker that is based on tetrafluoroboric acid was developed. This study was conducted to evaluate this new breaker system under the following conditions: breaker concentration (0-200 ppm), and acid injection rate (0.5-10 cm3/min). The major findings from the performed viscosity measurements and single coreflood experiments can be summarized as follows: the crosslinking of the polymer occurred at a pH value of 1.8. At a pH of less than 2, doubling the breaker concentration did not affect the viscosity of the acid. However, at a pH of greater than 2, the viscosity of acid was reduced by 30 percent. At a breaker concentration of 0 ppm, the appearance of Zr in the core effluent sample was delayed by 0.25 PV compared to the reaction product, while at 100 ppm, Zr was delayed by 0.75 PV. At 200 ppm breaker, no Zr ions were detected in the effluent samples. Additionally, it was observed that as the breaker concentration increased, more Zr remained inside the core, as ZrF4, which is water-insoluble. Increasing the breaker concentration from 100 to 200 ppm reduced the final normalized pressure drop by 50 percent at injection rate of 2.5 cm3/min. Permeability reduction due to gel was reduced by increasing the acid injection rate.

Aksoy, Gamze

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Recovery of Mercury From Contaminated Liquid Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Base Contract program emphasized the manufacture and testing of superior sorbents for mercury removal, testing of the sorption process at a DOE site, and determination of the regeneration conditions in the laboratory. During this project, ADA Technologies, Inc. demonstrated the following key elements of a successful regenerable mercury sorption process: (1) sorbents that have a high capacity for dissolved, ionic mercury; (2) removal of ionic mercury at greater than 99% efficiency; and (3) thermal regeneration of the spent sorbent. ADA's process is based on the highly efficient and selective sorption of mercury by noble metals. Contaminated liquid flows through two packed columns that contain microporous sorbent particles on which a noble metal has been finely dispersed. A third column is held in reserve. When the sorbent is loaded with mercury to the point of breakthrough at the outlet of the second column, the first column is taken off-line and the flow of contaminated liquid is switched to the second and third columns. The spent column is regenerated by heating. A small flow of purge gas carries the desorbed mercury to a capture unit where the liquid mercury is recovered. Laboratory-scale tests with mercuric chloride solutions demonstrated the sorbents' ability to remove mercury from contaminated wastewater. Isotherms on surrogate wastes from DOE's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee showed greater than 99.9% mercury removal. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests on actual Y-12 Plant wastes were also successful. Mercury concentrations were reduced to less than 1 ppt from a starting concentration of 1,000 ppt. The treatment objective was 50 ppt. The sorption unit showed 10 ppt discharge after six months. Laboratory-scale tests demonstrated the feasibility of sorbent regeneration. Results show that sorption behavior is not affected after four cycles.

1998-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

256

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

257

Capture and release of mixed acid gasses with binding organic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reversible acid-gas binding organic liquid systems that permit separation and capture of one or more of several acid gases from a mixed gas stream, transport of the liquid, release of the acid gases from the ionic liquid and reuse of the liquid to bind more acid gas with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems. These systems utilize acid gas capture compounds made up of strong bases and weak acids that form salts when reacted with a selected acid gas, and which release these gases when a preselected triggering event occurs. The various new materials that make up this system can also be included in various other applications such as chemical sensors, chemical reactants, scrubbers, and separators that allow for the specific and separate removal of desired materials from a gas stream such as flue gas.

Heldebrant, David J. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

258

Poster BOTTOM-UP NANOLITHOGRAPHY BASED ON THE FORMATION OF NANOMETER-SIZE ORGANIC LIQUID MENISCI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanometer-size menisci of organic liquids such as octane and 1-octene have been formed and used to confine chemical reactions. The application of a bias voltage between a conductive scanning probe tip separated a few nanometers from a silicon surface allows the field-induced formation of nanometer-size liquid menisci which can subsequently be used to fabricate nanometer-size structures. We report the fabrication of sub-10 nm nanostructures in 0.1 ms. Growth kinetics studies reveal that the nanostructure composition and its formation mechanism is liquid dependent. Both voltage polarities can be used to grow nanostructures although the growth rate is significantly higher for positively biased samples. These experiments allow to produce in the same sample a large variety of chemically different nanostructures that are easily addressed, positioned and have sub-10 nm features. (*) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed

Ramsés V. Martinez; Ricardo Garcia; B I Ii

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Laboratory Studies of Lead Removal from Liquid Scintillator in Preparation for KamLAND's Low Background Phase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The removal of Radon induced Lead from liquid scintillator was extensively studied in preparation for KamLAND's low background phase. This work presents the results from laboratory experiments performed at the University of Alabama and their implications for KamLAND and future low background experiments using carbon based liquid scintillator. It was observed that distillation was the most effective purification procedure and that one must consider a non-polar and non-ionic component of Lead in order to reach the levels of radio-purity required for these new class of ultra-low background experiments.

Keefer, Gregory [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

260

Neptunium (V) Adsorption to a Halophilic Bacterium Under High Ionic Strength Conditions: A Surface Complexation Modeling Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rationale for experimental design: Np(V) -- important as analog for Pu(V) and for HLW scenarios; High ionic strength -- relevant to salt-based repositories such as the WIPP; Halophilic microorganisms -- representative of high ionic strength environments. For the first time showed: Significant adsorbant to halophilic microorganisms over entire pH range under high ionic strength conditions; Strong influence of ionic strength with increasing adsorption with increasing ionic strength (in contrast to trends of previous low ionic strength studies); Effect of aqueous Np(V) and bacterial surface site speciation on adsorption; and Developed thermodynamic models that can be incorporated into geochemical speciation models to aid in the prediction of the fate and transport of Np(V) in more complex systems.

Ams, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A model of crack based on dislocations in smectic A liquid crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A plastic crack model for smectic A liquid crystals under longitudinal shear is suggested. The solution of screw dislocation in smectic A is the key in which the correct result is just obtained by overcoming a longstanding puzzle [19]. We further use the dislocation pile-up principle and the singular integral equation method, construct the solution of the crack in the phase. From the solution we can determine the size of the plastic zone at the crack tip and the crack tip opening (tearing) displacement, which are parameters being relevant to the local stability/instability of materials. The results may be useful in developing soft-matter mechanics.

Tian You Fan

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

262

Principles of passive and active cooling of mirror-based hybrid systems employing liquid metals  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents principles of passive and active cooling that are suitable to mirrorbased hybrid, nuclear fission/fusion systems. It is shown that liquid metal lead-bismuth cooling of the mirror machine with 25 m height and 1.5 GW thermal power is feasible both in the active mode during the normal operation and in the passive mode after the reactor shutdown. In the active mode the achievable required pumping power can well be below 50 MW, whereas the passive mode provides enough coolant flow to keep the clad temperature below the damage limits.

Anglart, Henryk [Div. of Nuclear Technology, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106-91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

263

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to match voltage and current requirements [West, et al. ,requirements [Humble, et al. , 2003]. The prototypes had operating voltages

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Application of Ionic Liquid Extractants on Rare Earths Green ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of Indonesia Rare Earth Minerals and their Potential Processing Techniques · Characterization of Rare Earth Minerals with Field Emission ...

265

Ionic Liquids as New Solvents for Improved Separation of ...  

•Graphite reactor, plutonium (Pu) pilot plant, proved the feasibility of Pu separation for the atomic bomb.

266

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes." Scienceal. , 2010]. Lithium and lithium-ion battery chemistries areof lithium-ion microarray battery." Electrochemistry

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Gas Solubilities in Ionic Liquids: Experimental Measurements and Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solvents play an extremely important role in many industrial processes, acting as a media for chemical reactions or for extraction of products. Typically, these solvents… (more)

Anthony, Jennifer Lynn

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ink-jet printed carbon supercapacitor electrodes on gold,Ink-jet printed carbon supercapacitor electrodes on gold,Microcapacitors Thin film supercapacitor (TFSC) research has

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Structure of Ionic Liquids with Linear, Branched and Cyclic Alkyl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Edward W. Castner J. Phys. Chem. B 117, Just Accepted (2013). Find paper at ACS Publications Abstract: X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations have been...

270

The Initial Stages of Radiation Damage in Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemerisov, and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 11786-11793 (2007). Find paper at ACS Publications or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Radical intermediates generated...

271

Using Ionic Liquids to Make Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes - Energy ...  

... used fabrication method is anodization of titanium metal in aqueous or organic polarized electrolytes baths containing fluoride species such as NH4F, HF, or NaF.

272

Using Ionic Liquids to Make Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes  

or organic polarized electrolytes baths containing fluoride species such as NH 4 F, HF, or NaF. However, anodization-produced TiO 2 NT arrays are usually covered by

273

Ionic Liquids as New Solvents for Improved Separation of ...  

Energy and Transportation Science Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Licensing Contact David L. Sims Technology Commercialization Manager,

274

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

devices categorized according to power consumption anddevices categorized according to power consumption anddevices are categorized according to their power consumption

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Lipid Extraction From Microalgae Using A Single Ionic Liquid ...  

... to a top phase where it is ... Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Lipid Extraction From Microalgae Using A Single ...

276

Examination of Coal Solubility and Fragmentation with Various Ionic Liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The organic component of coal is heterogeneous and often has a complicated networkstructure. When exposed to certain solvents, swelling and partial dissolution often occurs.However, due… (more)

Pulati, Nuerxida

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Global transcriptome response to ionic liquid by a tropical ...  

is a key strategy for reducing dependence on fossil fuels and carbon emissions (1). Although lignocellulose stored within the

278

Spheroid-Encapsulated Ionic Liquids for Gas Separation  

Combustion of fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide (CO 2), a greenhouse gas contributing to global climate change. As the demand for energy continues

279

Nanoparticle-Enhanced Ionic Liquids (NEILs) - Energy Innovation Portal  

Heat Transfer Fluids with high volumetric heat capacity as well as ... Building Energy ... NEILs were used in the solar concentrating section of the system ...

280

Tunable wavelength soft photoionization of ionic liquid vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

high order harmonic generation source producing ultrafasthigh order harmonic generation light source. The combined PEorder harmonic generation EUV source, photoelectrons are

Strasser, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Molecular dynamics modeling of ionic liquids in electrospray propulsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Micro-propulsion has been studied for many years due to its applications in small-to-medium sized spacecraft for precise satellite attitude control. Electrospray thrusters are promising thrusters built upon the state of ...

Takahashi, Nanako

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the electrodes determine a battery’s capacity and power. Inthe printed battery’s discharge capacity increased more thanrates, the battery will exhibit reduced capacities due to

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Frequency, Tunable MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester and aFrequency, Tunable MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester and a

Ho, Christine Chihfan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Tunable wavelength soft photoionization of ionic liquid vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and controversies. Angewandte Chemie; 47, 654 (2008). I.Zeitschrift Fur Physikalische Chemie- International JournalZeitschrift Fur Physikalische Chemie- International Journal

Strasser, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Physical and Electrochemical Properties of Ionic Liquids for Na ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of Hybrid Supercapacitors for Portable Power Applications ... Planar Sodium Metal Halide Battery for Renewable Integration and Grid Applications.

286

Free energy of ionic hydration  

SciTech Connect

The hydration free energies of ions exhibit an approximately quadratic dependence on the ionic charge, as predicted by the Born model. We analyze this behavior using second-order perturbation theory. The average and the fluctuation of the electrostatic potential at charge sites appear as the first coefficients in a Taylor expansion of the free energy of charging. Combining the data from different charge states (e.g., charged and uncharged) allows calculation of free-energy profiles as a function of the ionic charge. The first two Taylor coefficients of the free-energy profiles can be computed accurately from equilibrium simulations, but they are affected by a strong system-size dependence. We apply corrections for these finite-size effects by using Ewald lattice summation and adding the self-interactions consistently. An analogous procedure is used for the reaction-field electrostatics. Results are presented for a model ion with methane-like Lennard-Jones parameters in simple point charge water. We find two very closely quadratic regimes with different parameters for positive and negative ions. We also studied the hydration free energy of potassium, calcium, fluoride, chloride, and bromide ions. We find negative ions to be solvated more strongly (as measured by hydration free energies) compared to positive ions of equal size, in agreement with experimental data. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Hummer, G.; Pratt, L.R.; Garcia, A.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

287

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration.

Croft, Gregory D. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Patzek, Tad W. [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)], E-mail: patzek@mail.utexas.edu

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Ionic electrostatic excitations along biological membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical analysis of ionic electrostatic excitations of a charged biological membrane is presented within the framework of the fluid theory for surface ions inside and outside the cell, in conjunction with the Poisson's equation. General expressions of dispersion relations are obtained for electrostatic oscillations of intrinsic cellular with different shapes and symmetries.

Moradi, Afshin [Department of Nano Science, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah 67178-63766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Department of Nano Science, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran 19395-5531 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade...

303

Lithium Hectorite Clay as the Ionic Conductor in LiCoO2 Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Hectorite Clay as the Ionic Conductor in LiCoO2 Cathodes Michael W. Riley,* Peter S. Fedkiw Carolina 27695-7905, USA Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species lithium hectorite, lithium Laponite, and lithium- exchanged Nafion are studied in conjunction with lithium metal

Khan, Saad A.

304

Separation of gases with solid electrolyte ionic conductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors have developed a novel method of gas separation based on electrolyte ionic membrane technology. Separation of one gas from another occurs through an ion-conducting membrane by the passage of selected ions. Most systems studied have focused on oxygen ion conduction for the separation of oxygen from air, although protonic and halide-conducting solid materials also exist. As an example of this system, this paper concentrates on a study of a membrane reactor used in the production of syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) from methane. The membrane material is a modified perovskite-type oxide exhibiting mixed (electronic/ionic) conductivity. Mixed-conductivity oxides are promising materials for oxygen-permeating membranes that can operate without electrodes or external electrical circuitry. Extruded tubes of this material have been evaluated in a reactor operating at {approx} 850 C for partial oxidation of methane into syngas in the presence of a reforming catalyst. Separated oxygen on one side of the reactor wall was obtained from air on the other side. Methane conversion efficiencies of > 99% were observed, and some of the reactor tubes have been operated for > 1,000 h. Membrane tubes were fabricated from calcined powders by a plastic extrusion technique. Characterization of the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of this material confirmed the stability exhibited in the reactor.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Maiya, P.S.; Mieville, R.L.; Ma, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Exploration and Production, Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Efficiency and Emissions Study of a Residential Micro-cogeneration System based on a Modified Stirling Engine and Fuelled by a Wood Derived Fas Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blend.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A residential micro-cogeneration system based on a Stirling engine unit was modified to operate with wood derived fast pyrolysis liquid (bio-oil)-ethanol blend. A pilot stabilized… (more)

Khan, Umer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

A study of the solid-liquid interface in cobalt base alloy (Stellite) coatings deposited by fusion welding (TIG)  

SciTech Connect

Microstructural features present at the interface between a weld deposited Stellite 6 hard facing and an austenitic stainless steel substrate are described. Elemental X-ray maps indicate that diffusion of carbon from the liquid Stellite to the austenitic stainless steel takes place along grain boundaries resulting in the formation of chromium carbide 'arms' that penetrate along the austenite grain boundaries in the interfacial region.

Molleda, F. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales de Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: fmolleda@etsin.upm.es; Mora, J. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales de Madrid (Spain); Molleda, F.J. [ESAB Iberica (Spain); Mora, E. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales de Madrid (Spain); Carrillo, E. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Navales de Madrid (Spain); Mellor, B.G. [University of Southampton (United Kingdom)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Infrared Spectroscopy and Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics of Liquid Water from Centroid Molecular Dynamics with an Ab Initio-Based Force Field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A molecular-level description of the unique properties of hydrogen-bond networks is critical for understanding many fundamental physico-chemical processes in aqueous environments. In this article a novel simulation approach, combining an ab-initio based force field for water with a quantum treatment of the nuclear motion, is applied to investigate hydrogen-bond dynamics in liquid water with a specific focus on the relationship of these dynamics to vibrational spectroscopy. Linear and nonlinear infrared (IR) spectra are calculated for liquid water, HOD in D2O and HOD in H2O and discussed in the context of the results obtained using other approaches that have been employed in studies of water dynamics. A comparison between the calculated spectra and the available experimental data yields an overall good agreement, indicating the accuracy of the present simulation approach in describing the properties of liquid water at ambient conditions. Possible improvements on the representation of the underlying water interactions as well as the treatment of the molecular motion at the quantum-mechanical level are also discussed. This research was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, US Department of Energy. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

Paesani, Francesco; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Voth, Gregory A.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Liquid level controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

1975-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

The Current-voltage Characteristics of Grain Boundaries in Ionic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Current-voltage Characteristics of Grain Boundaries in Ionic ... A High-temperature Mössbauer Study of Iron-doped Ruddlesden-popper  ...

311

Utilizing Nanoscale Interfacial Films to Tailor Battery and Other Ionic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Such nanoscale intergranular and surficial films can be utilized to engineer lithium-ion battery cathode and anode materials, as well as solid-state ionic ...

312

Nanoscale Interfacial Films in Battery and Ionic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Nanoscale Interfacial Films in Battery and Ionic Materials. Author(s), Jian Luo, Jiajia Huang, Mojtaba Samiee. On-Site Speaker (Planned) ...

313

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different. In addition, when they vaporize the liquids expand to enormous volumes. For example, liquid nitrogen

314

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen Previous Video (Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Pennies) Shattering Pennies Liquid Nitrogen Cooled...

315

A Novel Charged Medium Consisting of Gas-Liquid Interfacial Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Due to the unique properties of ionic liquids such as their extremely low vapor pressure and high heat capacity, we succeed in creating the reactive gas (plasmas)--liquid (ionic liquids) interfacial field under a low gas pressure condition, where the plasma ion behavior can be controlled. The effects of the plasma ion irradiation on the liquid medium are quantitatively revealed for the first time. In connection with the plasma ion irradiation, the potential structure and optical emission properties of the gas-liquid interfacial plasma are investigated by changing a polarity of the electrode in the liquid to evaluate the plasma-liquid interactions. These results would contribute to synthesizing the metal nanoparticles with carbon nanotubes as a template in the ionic liquid. It is found that the high density, mono-dispersed, and isolated metal nanoparticles are synthesized between or inside the carbon nanotubes by controlling the gas-liquid interfacial plasmas. Furthermore, we can form novel nano-bio composite materials, such as DNA encapsulated carbon nanotubes using the plasma ion irradiation method in an electrolyte plasma with DNA, and demonstrate modifications of the electrical properties of the carbon nanotubes depending on the kinds of encapsulated DNA for the first time.

Kaneko, Toshiro; Hatakeyama, Rikizo [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

316

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Measurement of pH in high ionic strength solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A practical method is described for measuring pH in solutions of high ionic strength (e.g., brines, process solutions). The pH is determined by integratively measuring the potential due to H{sup +} and the potential due to another cation or anion and relating the combined electrical potential to a calculated pH for high ionic strength solutions.

Knauss, K.G.; Wolery, T.J.; Jackson, K.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Liquid ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For 350 million years, fish have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this condition, surface tension increases because the pulmonary surfactant system is damaged, causing alveolar collapse, atelectasis, increased right-to-left shunt and hypoxaemia. 69 The aims of treatment are: (i) to offset increased forces causing lung collapse by applying mechanical ventilation with PEEP; (ii) to decrease alveolar surface tension with exogenous surfactant; (iii) to eliminate the air-liquid interface by filling the lung with a fluid in

U. Kaisers; K. P. Kelly; T. Busch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Fast Model Based Approximation of the Closed-loop Performance Limits of Gas/Liquid Inline Separators for Accelerated Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trend in the oil and gas (exploration & production) industry is to use compact ­centrifugal forces based.fuenmayor@shell.com, ruud.henkes@shell.com) Abstract: A current trend in the oil and gas industry is to use compact so, oil and gas industry, slug control, model based control, feedforward control 1. INTRODUCTION A current

Van den Hof, Paul

320

Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Craig Jensen 1 (Primary Contact), Daniel Brayton 1 , and Scott Jorgensen 2 1 Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC 531 Cooke Street Honolulu, HI 96813 Phone: (808) 339-1333 Email: hhcllc@hotmail.com 2 General Motors Technical Center DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0005020 Project Start Date: July 1, 2011 Project End Date: June 30, 2013 *Congressionally directed project Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The objective of this project is to optimize a hydrogen storage media based on a liquid organic carrier (LOC) for hydrogen and design a commercially viable hydrogen

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Modeling and precision control of ionic polymer metal composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the open-loop behavior of an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) strip as a novel actuator, the empirical force and position models, the control system and the improved dynamic characteristics with the feedback control implemented. Ionic polymer metal composite is a novel polymer in the class of electroactive polymers. IPMC consists of a base polymer coated with electrodes made up of highly conducting pure metals such as gold. The actuation behavior of IPMC can be attributed to the bending of an IPMC strip upon application of voltage across its thickness. The main reasons for the bending are ion migration on the application of voltage and swelling and contraction caused by water content. An experimental setup to study the open-loop force and tip displacement of an IPMC strip in a cantilever configuration was developed, and real time controllers were implemented. In open loop, the force response of the IPMC strip of dimensions 25 mm x 3.9 mm x 0.16 mm to a 1.2-V step input is studied. The open-loop rise time was 0.08 s and the percent overshoot was 131.62 %, while the settling time was about 10 s. Based on this open-loop step response using a least-square curve-fitting methodology, a fourth-order empirical transfer function from the voltage input to the force output was derived. The tip displacement response of an IPMC strip of dimensions 23 mm x 3.96 mm x 0.16 mm to a 1.2-V step input was also studied. The step response exhibited a 205.34 % overshoot with a rise time of 0.08 s, and the settling time was 27 s. A fourth-order empirical transfer function from the step input to the tip displacement as output was also derived. Based on the derived transfer functions lead-lag feedback controllers were designed for precision control of both force and displacement. The control objectives were to decrease the settling time and the percent overshoot, and achieve reference input tracking. After implementing the controllers, the percent overshoot decreased to 30% while the settling time was reduced to 1.5 s in case of force control. With position control, the settling time was reduced to 1 s while the percent overshoot decreased to 20%. Precision micro-scale force and position-control capabilities of the IPMC were also demonstrated. A 4 ?N force resolution was achieved, with a force noise of 0.904-?N rms. The position resolution was 20 ?m with a position noise of 7.6-?m rms.

Bhat, Nikhil Dilip

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Structural simulations of nanomaterials self-assembled from ionic macrocycles.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent research at Sandia has discovered a new class of organic binary ionic solids with tunable optical, electronic, and photochemical properties. These nanomaterials, consisting of a novel class of organic binary ionic solids, are currently being developed at Sandia for applications in batteries, supercapacitors, and solar energy technologies. They are composed of self-assembled oligomeric arrays of very large anions and large cations, but their crucial internal arrangement is thus far unknown. This report describes (a) the development of a relevant model of nonconvex particles decorated with ions interacting through short-ranged Yukawa potentials, and (b) the results of initial Monte Carlo simulations of the self-assembly binary ionic solids.

van Swol, Frank B.; Medforth, Craig John (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Role of Amorphous Boundary Layer in Enhancing Ionic Conductivity of Lithium–lanthanum–titanate Electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The low ionic conductivity is a bottleneck of the inorganic solid state electrolyte used for lithium ion battery. In ceramic electrolytes, grain boundary usually dominates the total conductivity. In order to improve the grain boundary effect, an amorphous silica layer is introduced into grain boundary of ceramic electrolytes based on lithium-lanthanum-titanate, as evidenced by electron microscopy. The results showed that the total ionic conductivity could be to be enhanced over 1 x 10{sup -4} S/cm at room temperature. The reasons can be attributed to removing the anisotropy of outer-shell of grains, supplement of lithium ions in various sites in grain boundary and close bindings among grains by the amorphous boundary layer among grains.

Mei, A.; Wang, X.; Lana, J.-L.; Fenga, Y.-C.; Genga, H.-X.; Lina, Y.-H.; Nana, C.-W.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Enhanced ionic conductivity in oxide heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices used to generate energy out of hydrogen. In a fuel cell, two conducting electrodes are separated by an electrolyte that is permeable to ions (either hydrogen or oxygen, depending on the fuel-cell category) but not to electrons. An electrode catalytic process yields the ionic species, which are transported through the electrolyte, while electrons blocked by the electrolyte pass through the external circuit. Polymeric membrane (PEMFC) or phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) operating at low temperatures are the preferred option for transportation because of their quite large efficiencies (50%), compared with gasoline combustion engines (25%). Other uses are also being considered, such as battery replacements for personal electronics and stationary or portable emergency power. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), operating at high temperatures, are a better option for stationary power generation because of their scalability. Here O{sup 2-} ions are the mobile species that travel at elevated temperatures (800-1000 C) through a solid electrolyte material to react with H{sup +} ions in the anode to produce water (Fig. 1). The high operating temperatures of solid oxide fuel cells are a major impediment to their widespread use in power generation. Thus, reducing this operating temperature is currently a major materials research goal, involving the search for novel electrolytes as well as active catalysts for electrode kinetics (oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation). Among oxide-ion conductors, those of anion-deficient fluorite structures such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), xY{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(1-x) ZrO{sub 2}, are extensively used as electrolytes in SOFCs. Doping with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is known to stabilize the cubic fluorite structure of ZrO{sub 2} and to supply the oxygen vacancies responsible for the ionic conduction. These materials are characterized by a large number of mobile oxygen vacancies, which are randomly distributed in the structure, and thus give rise to a completely disordered anion (oxygen) sublattice. Traditionally, the main strategy to reduce the operating temperature has been to search for novel electrolyte materials with larger oxide-ion conductivity values. Only recently has the use of artificial nanostructures appeared as a promising new direction for dramatically improved properties.

Garcia-Barriocanal, Javier [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Rivera-Calzada, Alberto [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Sefrioui, Z. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Iborra, Enrique [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain; Leon, C. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Santamaria, J. [Universidad Complutense, Spain

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams  

SciTech Connect

We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATION ON PROBABLITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS- PART IV  

SciTech Connect

A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion susceptibility. Testing solutions were chosen to build off previous experimental results from FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate. The FY11 results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits as well.

Hoffman, E.

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

327

Chromatin ionic atmosphere analyzed by a mesoscale electrostatic approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Characterizing the ionic distribution around chromatin is important for understanding the electrostatic forces governing chromatin structure and function. Here we develop an electrostatic model to handle multivalent ions and compute the ionic distribution around a mesoscale chromatin model as a function of conformation, number of nucleosome cores, and ionic strength and species using Poisson-Boltzmann theory. This approach enables us to visualize and measure the complex patterns of counterion condensation around chromatin by examining ionic densities, free energies, shielding charges, and correlations of shielding charges around the nucleosome core and various oligonucleosome conformations. We show that: counterions, especially divalent cations, predominantly condense around the nucleosomal and linker DNA, unburied regions of histone tails, and exposed chromatin surfaces; ionic screening is sensitively influenced by local and global conformations, with a wide ranging net nucleosome core screening charge (56–100e); and screening charge correlations reveal conformational flexibility and interactions among chromatin subunits, especially between the histone tails and parental nucleosome cores. These results provide complementary and detailed views of ionic effects on chromatin structure for modest computational resources. The electrostatic model developed here is applicable to other coarse-grained macromolecular complexes.

Hin Hark Gan; Tamar Schlick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using liquid-liquid extraction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated liquid-liquid extraction as a treatment method for biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW). Distribution coefficients for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were determined for the following solvents: methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), n-butyl acetate, n-butanol, MIBK/n-butyl acetate (50:50 vol), MIBK/n-butanol (50:50 vol), tri-butyl phosphate, tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO)/MIBK (10:90 wt), TOPO/kerosene (10:90 wt), kerosene, and toluene. The best distribution coefficient of 1.3 was given by n-butanol. Chemical analysis of the wastewater by gas chromatography (GC) showed acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations of about 4000 mg/1. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were identified in trace amounts. These five compounds accounted for 45% of the measured COD of 29,000 mg/1. Because of the presence of carboxylic acids, pH was expected to affect extraction of the wastewater. At low pH the acids should be in the acidic form, which increased extraction by MIBK. Extraction by n-butanol was increased at high pH, where the acids should be in the ionic form.

Bell, N.E.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

137- Oxygen Generator Based on a Mixed Ionic Electronic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

125- Influence of Gas Flow Rate Ratio on the Structural Properties of a-SiC:H Prepared by ... 145- The Synergy of XRD and XRF in a Shale and Slate Analysis.

330

Ionic conductivities of lithium phosphorus oxynitride glasses, polycrystals, and thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various lithium phosphorus oxynitrides have been prepared in the form of glasses, polycrystals, and thin films. The structures of these compounds were investigated by X-ray and neutron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ac impedance measurements indicate a significant improvement of ionic conductivity as the result of incorporation of nitrogen into the structure. In the case of polycrystalline Li{sub 2.88}PO{sub 3.73}N{sub 0.14} with the {gamma}-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} structure, the conductivity increased by several orders of magnitude on small addition of nitrogen. The highest conductivities in the bulk glasses and thin films were found to be 3.0 {times} 10{sup -7} and 8.9 {times} 10{sup -7} S{center_dot}cm{sup -1} at 25{degrees}C, respectively.

Wang, B.; Bates, J.B.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Sales, B.C.; Kwak, B.S.; Zuhr, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Robertson, J.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Decoupling Electrochemical Reaction and Diffusion Processes in Ionically-Conductive Solids on the Nanometer Scale  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a scanning probe microscopy approach to explore voltage-controlled ion dynamics in ionically conductive solids and decouple transport and local electrochemical reactivity on the nanometer scale. Electrochemical strain microscopy allows detection of bias-induced ionic motion through the dynamic (0.1-1 MHz) local strain. Spectroscopic modes based on low-frequency ({approx}1 Hz) voltage sweeps allow local ion dynamics to be probed locally. The bias dependence of the hysteretic strain response accessed through first-order reversal curve (FORC) measurements demonstrates that the process is activated at a certain critical voltage and is linear above this voltage everywhere on the surface. This suggests that FORC spectroscopic ESM data separates local electrochemical reaction and transport processes. The relevant parameters such as critical voltage and effective mobility can be extracted for each location and correlated with the microstructure. The evolution of these behaviors with the charging of the amorphous Si anode in a thin-film Li-ion battery is explored. A broad applicability of this method to other ionically conductive systems is predicted.

Balke, Nina [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kim, Yoongu [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Model of ionic currents through microtubule nanopores and the lumen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been suggested that microtubules and other cytoskeletal filaments may act as electrical transmission lines. An electrical circuit model of the microtubule is constructed incorporating features of its cylindrical structure with nanopores in its walls. This model is used to study how ionic conductance along the lumen is affected by flux through the nanopores when an external potential is applied across its two ends. Based on the results of Brownian dynamics simulations, the nanopores were found to have asymmetric inner and outer conductances, manifested as nonlinear IV curves. Our simulations indicate that a combination of this asymmetry and an internal voltage source arising from the motion of the C-terminal tails causes a net current to be pumped across the microtubule wall and propagate down the microtubule through the lumen. This effect is demonstrated to enhance and add directly to the longitudinal current through the lumen resulting from an external voltage source, and could be significant in amplifying low-intensity endogenous currents within the cellular environment or as a nano-bioelectronic device.

Holly Freedman; Vahid Rezania; Avner Priel; Eric Carpenter; Sergei Y. Noskovd; Jack A. Tuszynski

2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

334

ThermoML Data for FPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Title: Liquid liquid equilibria at 298.15 K for ternary mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether + methanol (or ethanol) + imidazolium-based ionic liquids at ...

335

ThermoML Data for FPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... As"). Title: Ternary (liquid liquid) equilibria of nitrate based ionic liquid + alkane + benzene at 298.15 K: Experiments and correlation. Pages: 35-41. ...

336

Recent Progress in the NSTX/NSTX-U Lithium Program and Prospects for Reactor-Relevant Liquid-Lithium Based Divertor Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developing a reactor compatible divertor has been identified as a particularly challenging technology problem for magnetic confinement fusion. While tungsten has been identified as the most attractive solid divertor material, the NSTX/NSTX-U lithium (Li) program is investigating the viability of liquid lithium (LL) as a potential reactor compatible divertor plasma facing component (PFC) . In the near term, operation in NSTX-U is projected to provide reactor-like divertor heat loads heat load on the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was observed, attributable to enhanced divertor bolometric radiation. This reduced divertor heat flux through radiation observed in the NSTX LLD experiment is consistent with the results from other lithium experiments and calculations. These results motivate an LL-based closed radiative divertor concept proposed here for NSTX-U and fusion reactors. With an LL coating, the Li is evaporated from the divertor strike point surface due to the intense heat. The evaporated Li is readily ionized by the plasma due to its low ionization energies, and the ionized Li ions can radiate strongly, resulting in a significant reduction in the divertor heat flux. Due to the rapid plasma transport in divertor plasma, the radiation values can be significantly enhanced up to ~ 11 MJ/cc of LL. This radiative process has the desired function of spreading the focused divertor heat load to the entire divertor chamber facilitating the divertor heat removal. The LL divertor surface can also provide a "sacrificial" surface to protect the substrate solid material from transient high heat flux such as the ones caused by the ELMs. The closed radiative LLD concept has the advantages of providing some degree of partition in terms of plasma disruption forces on the LL, Li particle divertor retention, and strong divertor pumping action from the Li-coated divertor chamber wall. By operating at a lower temperature than the first wall, the LLD can serve to purify the entire reactor chamber, as impurities generally migrate toward lower temperature Li-condensed surfaces. To maintain the LL purity, a closed LL loop system with a modest capacity (e.g., ~ 1 Liter/sec for ~ 1% level "impurities") is envisioned for a steady-state 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant.

M. Ono, et al.

2012-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

337

Recent Progress in the NSTX/NSTX-U Lithium Program and Prospects for Reactor-Relevant Liquid-Lithium Based Divertor Development  

SciTech Connect

Developing a reactor compatible divertor has been identified as a particularly challenging technology problem for magnetic confinement fusion. While tungsten has been identified as the most attractive solid divertor material, the NSTX/NSTX-U lithium (Li) program is investigating the viability of liquid lithium (LL) as a potential reactor compatible divertor plasma facing component (PFC) . In the near term, operation in NSTX-U is projected to provide reactor-like divertor heat loads < 40 MW/m^2 for 5 s. During the most recent NSTX campaign, ~ 0.85 kg of Li was evaporated onto the NSTX PFCs where a ~50% reduction in heat load on the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) was observed, attributable to enhanced divertor bolometric radiation. This reduced divertor heat flux through radiation observed in the NSTX LLD experiment is consistent with the results from other lithium experiments and calculations. These results motivate an LL-based closed radiative divertor concept proposed here for NSTX-U and fusion reactors. With an LL coating, the Li is evaporated from the divertor strike point surface due to the intense heat. The evaporated Li is readily ionized by the plasma due to its low ionization energies, and the ionized Li ions can radiate strongly, resulting in a significant reduction in the divertor heat flux. Due to the rapid plasma transport in divertor plasma, the radiation values can be significantly enhanced up to ~ 11 MJ/cc of LL. This radiative process has the desired function of spreading the focused divertor heat load to the entire divertor chamber facilitating the divertor heat removal. The LL divertor surface can also provide a "sacrificial" surface to protect the substrate solid material from transient high heat flux such as the ones caused by the ELMs. The closed radiative LLD concept has the advantages of providing some degree of partition in terms of plasma disruption forces on the LL, Li particle divertor retention, and strong divertor pumping action from the Li-coated divertor chamber wall. By operating at a lower temperature than the first wall, the LLD can serve to purify the entire reactor chamber, as impurities generally migrate toward lower temperature Li-condensed surfaces. To maintain the LL purity, a closed LL loop system with a modest capacity (e.g., ~ 1 Liter/sec for ~ 1% level "impurities") is envisioned for a steady-state 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant.

M. Ono, et al.

2012-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

338

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

339

Controlled release liquid dosage formulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid dual coated dosage formulation sustained release pharmaceutic having substantial shelf life prior to ingestion is disclosed. A dual coating is applied over controlled release cores to form dosage forms and the coatings comprise fats melting at less than approximately 101.degree. F. overcoated with cellulose acetate phthalate or zein. The dual coated dosage forms are dispersed in a sugar based acidic liquid carrier such as high fructose corn syrup and display a shelf life of up to approximately at least 45 days while still retaining their release profiles following ingestion. Cellulose acetate phthalate coated dosage form cores can in addition be dispersed in aqueous liquids of pH <5.

Benton, Ben F. (Centerburg, OH); Gardner, David L. (Bellville, OH)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Information Content and Uncertainties in Thermodynamic Profiles and Liquid Cloud Properties Retrieved from the Ground-Based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) observes spectrally resolved downwelling radiance emitted by the atmosphere in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Profiles of temperature and water vapor, and cloud liquid ...

D.D. Turner; U. Löhnert

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

Gopalan, Srikanth (Westborough, MA); Pal, Uday B. (Dover, MA); Karthikeyan, Annamalai (Quincy, MA); Hengdong, Cui (Allston, MA)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Liquid foams of graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Glossary Term - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lepton Previous Term (Lepton) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Mercury) Mercury Liquid Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen boils in a frying pan on a desk. The liquid state of the element...

344

Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ions from water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K. ; Khan, R. H. Low dose mercury toxicity and human health.Gochfeld, M. Cases of mercury exposure, bioavailability, andto enhanced extraction for mercury. Acknowledgements For

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Von Stosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increase in the block copolymer glass transition temperaturedecrease in the block copolymer glass transition temperatureto the change in the block copolymer’s glass transition

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Phase Behavior of Polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) Copolymers in a Selective Ionic Liquid Solvent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the change i n the block copolymer's glass transitionthe glass transition temperature o f the neat block copoly-and block copolymers. The addition o f salt to P E O increases the glass

Virgili, Justin M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Reactions of Hydrogen Atoms in the Ionic Liquid R4NNTf2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neta and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 9794-9799 (2003). Find paper at ACS Publications or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Reactions of hydrogen atoms with...

348

Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ions from water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was activated by heating at 150 °C in a vacuum oven for 24by heating at 150 °C for 24 h in a vacuum oven. Then, 5 g of

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Von Stosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Evaluation of Ionic Liquids in Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

under vacuum with heating N N NH 2 BF 4 2 + CO 2 N N N H N N H 3 N O O 2 BF 4 Bates, E. D.; Mayton, R. D.; Ntai, I.; Davis, J. H., J. Am. Chem., 2002, 124, 926....

350

Redox-active Ionic Liquids in Energy Storage: Application to Li-ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric Cell-impedance Spectroscopy at the Biological-inorganic Interface, Shewanella Oneidensis - Gold, for Microbial Fuel Cell Applications · Encapsulating ...

351

Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions Simon J. Haward1*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-anhydroglucopyranose building blocks are substituted by ethers or esters. 1-4 The extensive inter-chain and intra-chain hydrogen and other desirable properties that drive its use in textile fibers, films, nanoparticles, aerogels

352

In-situ Analysis of Zinc Electrodeposition within an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chloride low temperature molten salt. Electrochimica Acta,room temperature molten salt. Journal of the Electrochemical

Keist, Jayme

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Solubilities of Solutes in Ionic Liquids from a Simple Perturbed-Hard-Sphere Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data series: gases in molten salts. Oxford: Pergamon Press.for gases in two molten salts at very high temperatures.For high-temperature molten salts, we use ion diameters that

Qin, Yuan; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One approach to reducing the costs of advanced biofuel production from cellulosic biomass is to engineer a single microorganism to both digest plant biomass and produce hydrocarbons that have the properties of petrochemical ...

Bokinsky, Gregory

355

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experimental assistance at the SSRL. 2.6. References Bates,assistance at the SSRL, and Dr. Yuri Melnichenko and Dr.Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). The beamline was configured

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basicthe SSRL. Both are national user facilities supported by theBoth are national user facilities supported by the

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Technical Highlights for July 2012 New Collaboration Underway to Investigate Ionic Liquids for Enhancing Engine Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ORNL and the Center for Applied Energy Research, which is associated with the University of Kentucky Universities (ORAU). The students came from universities across the nation and from hometowns as far away and researchers from the University of Michigan, Queen's University of Belfast, and Institute of Chemical

358

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12:338–345 6. Demirbas A (2008) Biofuels sources, biofuelpolicy, biofuel economyand global biofuel projections. Energy Convers Manage 7. Di

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circle of Figure 8. 0.1 mA, 50 min -0.1 mA, 50 min E (volts)E (volts)E (Volts) E (Volts) E (Volts) Time (Sec) Time (Sec) Figure

Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Breathing liquid oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

question is interesting though because it would be desirable to breath liquid instead of gas under certain conditions. Special liquids are being designed to carry dissolved...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream If you have access to liquid nitrogen and the proper safety equipment and training, try this in place of your normal cryogenics demonstration Download...

362

Polyhedral Ionic Molecules Alexander I. Boldyrev and Jack Simons*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Chemistry, The UniVersity of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 ReceiVed NoVember 25, 1996. ReVised Manuscript species composed of closed-shell atomic ions are known to prefer densely packed structures similar, for example, in alkali halide tetramers, no other ionic polyhedral structures containing only atomic ions

Simons, Jack

363

Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

364

Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

365

Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

366

Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

367

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

368

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

369

Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

370

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

371

New Mexico--East Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico--East Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

372

New Mexico--West Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico--West Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

373

Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

374

Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

375

Texas--RRC District 10 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 10 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

376

Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

377

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

378

Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction Centrifugal Contactor Separators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to determine the effective wetted area and local liquid holdup for an air-water contactor containing structured communication errors. 2.3. Air-Water Contactor. The air-water column used for the imaging studies, shown and the other for vapor flow into the contactor. The column base is simply clamped to the turntable. Four

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

379

Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Ionically Conducting Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Separation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND SEPARATION Presented by Tony Sammells Eltron Research Inc. Boulder, Colorado www.eltronresearch.com Presented at DOE Hydrogen Separations Workshop Arlington, Virginia September 8, 2004 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. TO BE DISCUSSED * Membranes for Hydrogen Production - Compositions - Feedstocks - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles * Membranes for Hydrogen Separation - Compositions - Ex Situ vs. In Situ WGS - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles ELTRON RESEARCH INC. OVERALL SCHEME FOR CONVERTING FEEDSTOCK TO HYDROGEN WITH SIMULTANEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION Oxygen Transport Membrane Hydrogen Transport Membrane Natural Gas Coal Biomass Syngas CO/H 2 WGS H 2 O CO 2 /H 2 1618afs.dsf H 2 CO 2 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. INCENTIVES FOR OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Anomalous high ionic conductivity of nanoporous -Li3PS4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes hold the promise for enabling high-energy battery chemistries and circumventing safety issues of conventional lithium batteries1-3. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity and broad electrochemical window in solid electrolytes is a grand challenge for the synthesis of battery materials. Herein we show an enhancement of room-temperature lithium-ion conductivity of 3 orders of magnitude by creating nanostructured Li3PS4. This material has a wide (5V) electrochemical window and superior chemical stability against lithium metal. The nanoporous structure of Li3PS4 reconciles two vital effects that enhance ionic conductivity: (1) The reduced dimension to nanometer-sized framework stabilizes the high conduction beta phase that occurs at elevated temperatures1,4; and (2) The high surface-to-bulk ratio of nanoporous -Li3PS4 promotes surface conduction5,6. Manipulating the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes has far-reaching implications for materials design and synthesis in a broad range of applications such as batteries, fuel-cells, sensors, photovoltaic systems, and so forth3,7.

Liu, Zengcai [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

385

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves U.S. natural gas liquids proved reserves decreased 7 percent to 7,459 million ...

386

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Multilayered YSZ/GZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strain confinement in heterostructured films significantly affects ionic conductivity of the electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells based on a multi-layered design strategy. Nearly ideal tensile strain can be achieved by a dedicated manipulation of the lattice mismatch between adjacent layers and fine control of the layer thicknesses to minimize the formation of dislocations and thus to achieve optimized ionic conduction. This strategy was demonstrated by a model system of multilayered 8 mol%Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) with Gd2Zr2O7 (GZO) films, which were epitaxially grown on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with the {111} planes of YSZ/GZO along the Al2O3 [0 1 ?1 0] direction. The tensile strain (3%) resulting from the lattice mismatch can be confined in individual YSZ layers with the formation of a coherent, dislocation-free interface upon the manipulation of the layer thickness below a critical value, e.g., down to 5 nm. The strained heterostructure displays a two order-of-magnitude increase in oxide-ion conductivity as compared with bulk YSZ, and a high ionic conductivity of 0.01 S cm?1 at 475 °C can be achieved, five times greater than that of Gd-doped ceria/zirconia. The approach of strain confinement by fine control of lattice mismatch and layer thickness represents a promising strategy in developing advanced electrolytes enabling the miniaturization of solid-state ionic devices that can be operated at low temperatures below 500 °C.

Li, Bin; Zhang, Jiaming; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Lian, Jie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Methods and systems for monitoring a solid-liquid interface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and systems are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface, including providing a vessel configured to contain an at least partially melted material; detecting radiation reflected from a surface of a liquid portion of the at least partially melted material that is parallel with the liquid surface; measuring a disturbance on the surface; calculating at least one frequency associated with the disturbance; and determining a thickness of the liquid portion based on the at least one frequency, wherein the thickness is calculated based on.times. ##EQU00001## where g is the gravitational constant, w is the horizontal width of the liquid, and f is the at least one frequency.

Stoddard, Nathan G. (Gettysburg, PA); Clark, Roger F. (Frederick, MD); Kary, Tim (Union Bridge, MD)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

389

Lithium Super-Ionic Sulfide Carbon (LiSISC) Composite for Li-S ...  

Lithium Super-Ionic Sulfide Carbon (LiSISC) Composite for Li-S Batteries Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing ...

390

Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two liquids separation of metal occurs in the melting of municipal solid waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of PGMs etc. between two liquid metal phases is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quite simple thermodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag originated from WEEE are found to be concentrated into Cu-rich phase. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected.

Lu, X. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, The University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Nakajima, K.; Sakanakura, H. [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Matsubae, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Bai, H. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, The University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Nagasaka, T., E-mail: t-nagasaka@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Ionic modeling of lithium manganese spinel materials for use in rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand and evaluate materials for use in Li ion rechargeable battery electrodes, we have modeled the crystal structures of various Mn oxide and Li Mn oxide compounds. We have modeled the MnO{sub 2} polymorphs and several spinels with intermediate compositions based on the amount of Li inserted into the tetrahedral site. 3-D representations of the structures provide a basis for identifying site occupancies, coordinations, Mn valence, order-disorder, and potentially new dopants for enhanced cathode behavior. XRD simulations of the crystal structures provide good agreement with observed patterns for synthesized samples. Ionic modeling of these materials consists of an energy minimization approach using Coulombic, repulsive, and van der Waals interactions. Modeling using electronic polarizabilities (shell model) allows a systematic analysis of changes in lattice energy, cell volume, and the relative stability of doped structures using ions such as Al, Ti, Ni, and Co.

Cygan, R.T.; Westrich, H.R.; Doughty, D.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

The Glass Transition and Liquid-Gas Spinodal Boundaries of Metastable Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A liquid can exist under conditions of thermodynamic stability or metastability within boundaries defined by the liquid-gas spinodal and the glass transition line. The relationship between these boundaries has been investigated previously using computer simulations, the energy landscape formalism, and simplified model calculations. We calculate these stability boundaries semi-analytically for a model glass forming liquid, employing accurate liquid state theory and a first-principles approach to the glass transition. These boundaries intersect at a finite temperature, consistent with previous simulation-based studies.

S. S. Ashwin; Gautam I. Menon; Srikanth Sastry

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

393

Selective Removal of Thiophene from Liquid Fuels over Nickel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Selective Removal of Thiophene from Liquid Fuels over Nickel -Based Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide. Author(s), Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Jewel ...

394

High Thermal Gradient Directional Solidification with Liquid Metal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, High Thermal Gradient Directional Solidification with Liquid Metal Cooling and Its Application in the Processing of Nickel-Based Superalloys.

395

Liquid Metal Engineering by Application of Intensive Melt Shearing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new liquid metal treatment technology has been developed which comprises of a ... P-18: Phosphorus Partitioning During EAF Refining of DRI Based Steel.

396

Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H2, and ammonia triborane NH3B3H7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H2, were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H2-release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H2-release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H2­-release, the tunability of both their H2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic­-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These studies also demonstrated that H2-­release from chemical hydrides can occur by a number of different mechanistic pathways and strongly suggest that optimal chemical ­hydride based H2­release systems may require the use of synergistic dehydrogenation methods to induce H2­-loss from chemically different intermediates formed during release reactions. The efficient regeneration of ammonia borane from BNHx spent fuel is one of the most challenging problems that will have to be overcome in order to utilize AB-based hydrogen storage. Three Center partners, LANL, PNNL and Penn, each took different complimentary approaches to AB regeneration. The Penn approach focused on a strategy involving spent-fuel digestion with superacidic acids to produce boron-halides (BX3) that could then be converted to AB by coordination/reduction/displacement processes. While the Penn boron-halide reduction studies successfully demonstrated that a dialkylsulfide-based coordination/reduction/displacement process gave quantitative conversions of BBr3 to ammonia borane with efficient and safe product separations, the fact that AB spent-fuels could not be digested in good yields to BX3 halides led to a No-Go decision on this overall AB-regeneration strategy.

Sneddon, Larry G.

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

397

Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

399

Liquid level detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses a method. It is for detecting presence of a liquid level at a first predetermined point along the depth of a borehole.

Fryer, C.D.; Stie, K.E.; Wedel, M.W.; Stamper, K.R.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

400

Gas scrubbing liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowrie, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sease, John D. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Liquid cooling for 3D-ICs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigated micro-channel based liquid cooling in 3D-ICs. Specifically, the structure of 3D-IC with micro-channels, and its thermal/hydrodynamic modeling are studied. Also, the design challenges of micro-channel heat sinks in 3D-IC are summarized. Keywords: microchannel heat sink, liquid cooling, 3D-IC, thermal modeling, hydrodynamic modeling

Bing Shi; Ankur Srivastava

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Aging of SRC liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viscosity of SRC?LL liquid increases when subjected to accelerated aging by bubbling oxygen in the presence of copper strip at 62°C. Precipitates are formed and can be separated from the aged liquid by Soxhlet extraction with pentane. A 30?70 blend of SRC?I with SRC?LL was subjected to oxygen aging in the absence of copper

T. Hara; L. Jones; K. C. Tewari; N. C. Li

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Radioactive Liquid Processing Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents guidance for utility liquid radwaste processing program managers. The document is a summation of utility and vendor processing experience, and is intended for use as a tool to enhance liquid radwaste processing programs. Utilization of this information will result in optimized system performance, and a reduction in waste volumes and program costs.

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

405

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Multiphysics simulation of corona discharge induced ionic wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ionic wind devices or electrostatic fluid accelerators are becoming of increasing interest as tools for thermal management, in particular for semiconductor devices. In this work, we present a numerical model for predicting the performance of such devices, whose main benefit is the ability to accurately predict the amount of charge injected at the corona electrode. Our multiphysics numerical model consists of a highly nonlinear strongly coupled set of PDEs including the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow, Poisson's equation for electrostatic potential, charge continuity and heat transfer equations. To solve this system we employ a staggered solution algorithm that generalizes Gummel's algorithm for charge transport in semiconductors. Predictions of our simulations are validated by comparison with experimental measurements and are shown to closely match. Finally, our simulation tool is used to estimate the effectiveness of the design of an electrohydrodynamic cooling apparatus for power electronics applicat...

Cagnoni, Davide; Christen, Thomas; de Falco, Carlo; Parolini, Nicola; Stevanovi?, Ivica

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

408

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

409

Waste Logic™ Liquid Waste Manager (WL-LWM) Software, Version 2.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to continuing industry efforts to reduce operating expenditures, EPRI developed the Waste Logic&trade: Liquid Waste Manager code to analyze costs associated with liquid waste processing and the disposition of its resultant solid waste. EPRI's Waste Logic: Liquid Waste Manager software for windows-based PC computers provides a detailed economic and performance view of liquid waste processing activities. The software will help nuclear utilities evaluate the costs associated with liquid radwaste...

2002-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

410

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

connected to the cooler and condenser through a liquid feedmixed with liquid) to a condenser attached to the coolervacuum failure. Tube to Condenser Magnet Coil Magnet Mandrel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

413

Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

414

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

415

Texas--RRC District 5 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 5 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

416

Texas--RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

417

Texas--RRC District 7C Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 7C Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

418

Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

419

Texas--RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

420

Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 8 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Texas--RRC District 7B Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 7B Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

422

Texas--RRC District 6 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 6 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

423

Texas--RRC District 8A Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 8A Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

424

Texas--RRC District 2 Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 2 Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

425

Texas--RRC District 9 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 9 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

426

Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

427

Liquidity facilities and signaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

Arregui, Nicolás

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Nonconventional Liquid Fuels  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the AEO2006 projections.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Natural-gas liquids  

SciTech Connect

Casinghead gasoline or natural gasoline, now more suitably known as natural-gas liquids (NGL), was a nuisance when first found, but was developed into a major and profitable commodity. This part of the petroleum industry began at about the turn of the century, and more than 60 yr later the petroleum industry recovers approx. one million bbl of natural-gas liquids a day from 30 billion cu ft of natural gas processed in more than 600 gasoline plants. Although casinghead gasoline first was used for automobile fuel, natural-gas liquids now are used for fuel, industrial solvents, aviation blending stock, synthetic rubber, and many other petrochemical uses. Production from the individual plants is shipped by tank car, tank truck, pipeline, and tankers all over the world. Most of the natural-gas liquids come from wet natural gas which contains a considerable quantity of vapor, ranging from 0.5 to 6 gal/Mcf, and some particularly rich gases contain even more which can be liquefied. Nonassociated gas is generally clean, with a comparatively small quantity of gasoline, 0.1 to 0.5 gas/Mcf. The natural-gas liquids branch of the industry is build around the condensation of vapors in natural gas. Natural-gas liquids are processed either by the compression method or by adsorption processes.

Blackstock, W.B.; McCullough, G.W.; McCutchan, R.C.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Computational Studies on Oxygen-ionic Conduction in Rare-earth ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of oxygen-ionic conductors which have low activation energies in ... for reducing the lower limit of operating temperatures of solid oxide fuel cells. ... electronic densities of states, oxygen migration paths and activation energies in ...

431

Experimental Verification of the Linear Relationship between IR Extinction and Liquid Water Content of Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The IR extinction of clouds has been measured with a CO2 laster transmissometer (? = 10.6 ?m). Using an established linear relationship (based on the Chýlek approximation to the Mie theory) between extinction and liquid water content, the liquid ...

Alan W. Gertler; Roger L. Steele

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Strongly coupled ionic mixtures and the H/He EOS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper summarizes recent work on the strongly coupled OCP and Binary Ionic Mixture equation of state and other thermodynamic quantities in white dwarf interior conditions for both fluid and solid phases with the assumption of a uniform background. Conditions for phase separation of different elements in fluid or solid phases is strongly dependent on deviations from the linear mixing rule which gives the equation of state as an additive function of the OCP equation of state. These deviations turn out to be small (a few parts in 10{sup 5}) and always positive including the case where the fraction of the higher Z component approaches 0. Also the equation of state of strongly coupled light elements (H and He particularly) obtained from simulations with a linear response description of the electrons is given for conditions appropriate to brown dwarf star interiors. Recent Livermore work on a band structure calculation of the enthalpy of H and He mixtures under jovian conditions is discussed. This work leads to a prediction of a high temperature (15,000 K) for miscibility of He in ionized H at 10 Mb.

DeWitt, H.E.

1993-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

433

Glass formation, ionic conductivity, and conductivity/viscosity decoupling, in LiAlCl{sub 4} + LiClO{sub 4} and LiAlCl{sub 4} + LiAlCl{sub 3}{center_dot}imide solutions  

SciTech Connect

As part of a search for chemically and electrochemically stable ambient temperature molten lithium salt systems the authors have investigated the properties of solutions of LiAlCl{sub 4} with various second components. In this paper they review the factors which determine the ambient temperature conductivity and report results for two systems, one of which satisfies the stability requirements although failing to provide the high conductivities which are needed for a successful ambient temperature Li battery electrolyte. These ionic solutions appear to be very fragile liquids. Evidence is found for a mixing incompatibility of polarizable and nonpolarizable components of binary melts.

Videa, M.; Angeli, C.A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

434

Apparatus for dispensing a liquid additive  

SciTech Connect

A predetermined amount of an oil-spreading agent is automatically dispensed to the surface of ballast water contained in a cargo carrier tank having oil-based materials such as oil and sludge deposits floating on the ballast surface. After addition of the oil-spreading agent, the floating oil-based material is compressed against the vertical steel surfaces of the tank. The apparatus consists of a base fitting mounted on a pressurized tank containing the surface-contaminated ballast water. A pressure equalization line extends downward through an opening in the fitting to a point above the surface of the water. A valve is located in the intermediate portion of the line above the base fitting. A liquid flow line also extends downward through an opening in the base fitting adjacent the pressure equalization line to a point above the liquid surface. The intermediate portion of this liquid flow line contains an adjustable orifice and a valve to control flow. The upper portion of the liquid flow and pressure equalization lines extend upward through a container fitting having an inverted container containing a predetermined quantity of an oil spreading agent to be added to the ballast water.

Pelov, I.P.; Penman, B.R.

1982-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

435

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

436

Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The resulting diffusion constants as measured were all less than 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/sec, and therefore these compounds are not superionic. However, there remain a large number of potentially superionic pseudobinary lanthanide compounds and a number of alternate ionic carbides which might act as dopants to produce vacancies on the carbon-ion sublattice and thereby increase carbon-ion diffusion rates. The discovery of a superionic carbon conductor would usher in a truly revolutionary new coal technology, and could dramatically improve the way in which we generate electricity from coal. The work completed to date is a promising first step towards this end.

Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

438

Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of ionic liquids containing tetrakis(perfluorophenyl)borate, tetraphenylborate and trifluorophenylborate anions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

only of ions. They are molten salts with melting pointspoints Three of the six molten salts have melting points

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Yakelis, Neal; Prausnitz, John M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Rayleigh Scattering in Rare Gas Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Rayleigh scattering length has been calculated for rare-gas liquids in the ultraviolet for the frequencies at which they luminesce. The calculations are based on the measured dielectric constants in the gas phase, except in the case of xenon for which measurements are available in the liquid. The scattering length mayplace constraints on the design of some large-scale detectors, using uv luminescence, being proposed to observe solar neutrinos and dark matter. Rayleigh scattering in mixtures of rare-gas mixtures is also discussed.

G. M. Seidel; R. E. Lanou; W. Yao

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Liquid crystalline thermosetting polyimides. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase separation of rodlike reinforcing polymers and flexible coil matrix polymers is a common problem in formulating molecular composites. One way to reduce phase separation might be to employ liquid crystalline thermosets as the matrix material. In this work, functionally terminated polyimide oligomers which exhibit lyotropic liquid crystalline behavior were successfully prepared. Materials based on 2,2{prime}-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4{prime}-diaminobiphenyl and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-biphenylenetetra-carboxylic dianhydride have been synthesized and characterized.

Hoyt, A.E.; Huang, S.J. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Inst. of Materials Science

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ionic liquid based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

442

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

443

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

444

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

445

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

446

ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

HOLROYD,R.A.

2002-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

447

Liquid metal hydrogen barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

Grover, George M. (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Thurman G. (Los Alamos, NM); Keddy, Edward S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Determination of Supercooled Liquid Water Content by Measuring Rime Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ground-based technique is described for determining the liquid water content of supercooled clouds orfog by measuring the mass rate of rime accumulation on a small rotating wire. Development of the techniqueis described, examples of the data ...

David C. Rogers; Darrel Baumgardner; Gabor Vali

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Offshore--California Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

451

Determination of Liquid Water Altitudes Using Combined Remote Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods by which attitude ranges of supercooled cloud liquid water in the atmosphere may be estimated are explored using measurements from a combination of ground-based remote sensors. The tests were conducted as part of the Winter Icing and ...

Marcia K. Politovich; B. Boba Stankov; Brooks E. Martner

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Energy Basics: Solar Liquid Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Solar Liquid Heating Solar liquid heating systems use a collector with a heat transfer or "working" fluid such as water, antifreeze (usually non-toxic propylene...

453

Mapping Ionic Currents and Reactivity on the Nanoscale: Electrochemical Strain Microscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid-state electrochemical processes in oxides underpin a broad spectrum of energy and information storage devices, ranging from Li-ion and Li-air batteries, to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to electroresistive and memristive systems. These functionalities are controlled by the bias-driven diffusive and electromigration transport of mobile ionic species, as well as intricate a set of electrochemical and defect-controlled reactions at interfaces and in bulk. Despite the wealth of device-level and atomistic studies, little is known on the mesoscopic mechanisms of ion diffusion and electronic transport on the level of grain clusters, individual grains, and extended defects. The development of the capability for probing ion transport on the nanometer scale is a key to deciphering complex interplay between structure, functionality, and performance in these systems. Here we introduce Electrochemical Strain Microscopy, a scanning probe microscopy technique based on strong strain-bias coupling in the systems in which local ion concentrations are changed by electrical fields. The imaging capability, as well as time- and voltage spectroscopies analogous to traditional current based electrochemical characterization methods are developed. The reversible intercalation of Li and mapping electrochemical activity in LiCoO2 is demonstrated, illustrating higher Li diffusivity at non-basal planes and grain boundaries. In Si-anode device structure, the direct mapping of Li diffusion at extended defects and evolution of Li-activity with charge state is explored. The electrical field-dependence of Li mobility is studied to determine the critical bias required for the onset of electrochemical transformation, allowing reaction and diffusion processes in the battery system to be separated at each location. Finally, the applicability of ESM for probing oxygen vacancy diffusion and oxygen reduction/evolution reactions is illustrated, and the high resolution ESM maps are correlated with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. The future potential for deciphering mechanisms of electrochemical transformations on an atomically-defined single-defect level is discussed.

Kalinin, S.V. (Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, ORNL)

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

454

A variational approach to motion of triple junction of gas, liquid and solid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variational approach to motion of triple junction of gas, liquid and solid Kensuke Yokoia;b;c;1 a to deal with motion of triple junctions of gas, liquid (or two kinds of uid) and solid based on the level with triple junctions of gas, liquid and solid. Numerical simulations for free surface ows with moving

Soatto, Stefano

455

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

457

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Kinetic Isotopic Fractionation During Diffusion of Ionic Speciesin Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments specifically designed to measure the ratio of the diffusivities of ions dissolved in water were used to determine D{sub Li}/D{sub K}, D{sub 7{sub Li}}/D{sub 6{sub Li}}, D{sub 25{sub Mg}}/D{sub 24{sub Mg}}, D{sub 26{sub Mg}}/D{sub 25{sub Mg}}, and D{sub 37{sub Cl}}/D{sub 35{sub Cl}}. The measured ratio of the diffusion coefficients for Li and K in water (D{sub Li}/D{sub K} = 0.6) is in good agreement with published data, providing evidence that the experimental design being used resolves the relative mobility of ions with adequate precision to also be used for determining the fractionation of isotopes by diffusion in water. In the case of Li we found measurable isotopic fractionation associated with the diffusion of dissolved LiCl (D{sub 7{sub Li}}/D{sub 6{sub Li}} = 0.99772 {+-} 0.00026). This difference in the diffusion coefficient of {sup 7}Li compared to {sup 6}Li is significantly less than reported in an earlier study, a difference we attribute to the fact that in the earlier study Li diffused through a membrane separating the water reservoirs. Our experiments involving Mg diffusing in water found no measurable isotopic fractionation (D{sub 25{sub Mg}}/D{sub 24{sub Mg}} = 1.00003 {+-} 0.00006). Cl isotopes were fractionated during diffusion in water (D{sub 37{sub Cl}}/D{sub 35{sub Cl}} = 0.99857 {+-} 0.00080) whether or not the co-diffuser (Li or Mg) was isotopically fractionated. The isotopic fractionation associated with the diffusion of ions in water is much smaller than values we found previously for the isotopic fractionation of Li and Ca isotopes by diffusion in molten silicate liquids. A major distinction between water and silicate liquids is that water, being a polar liquid, surrounds dissolved ions with hydration shells, which very likely play an important but still poorly understood role in reducing isotopic fractionation associated with diffusion.

Richter, Frank M.; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Christensen, John; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Williams, Ross W.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Beloso Jr.,Abelardo D.

2005-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

459

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_GATech_Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for SOFC Cathodes Matthew E. Lynch, Lei Yang, Meilin Liu Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 771 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Telephone: 404-894-6114 Email: meilin.liu@mse.gatech.edu Porous cathodes are of primary importance to the electrochemical operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The compound La 1-x Sr x Co 1-y Fe y O 3-δ (LSCF) is a candidate material for the cathode, and shows good mixed ionic-electronic conductivity as well as good activity toward the oxygen reduction

460

Atomistic-to-Continuum Multiscale Modeling with Long-Range Electrostatic Interactions in Ionic Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a multiscale atomistic-to-continuum method for ionic crystals with defects. Defects often play a central role in ionic and electronic solids, not only to limit reliability, but more importantly to enable the functionalities that make these materials of critical importance. Examples include solid electrolytes that conduct current through the motion of charged point defects, and complex oxide ferroelectrics that display multifunctionality through the motion of domain wall defects. Therefore, it is important to understand the structure of defects and their response to electrical and mechanical fields. A central hurdle, however, is that interactions in ionic solids include both short-range atomic interactions as well as long-range electrostatic interactions. Existing atomistic-to-continuum multi-scale methods, such as the Quasicontinuum method, are applicable only when the atomic interactions are short-range. In addition, empirical reductions of quantum mechanics to density functional models are unable...

Marshall, Jason

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago; Northern Illinois University; the University of California, Santa Cruz; and ChemMatCARS (sector 15 at the APS) used x-ray reflectivity from ion distributions at the liquid-liquid interface to provide strong evidence that the interfacial structure of a liquid alters the ion distributions near a charged interface, contrary to earlier theories about ions at charged surfaces. Coulomb's Law describes the interaction between two, otherwise isolated, point charges. If many charges are present in the region between these two charges, the net interaction between them is modified. This is commonly found in real systems, such as a plasma gas of electrons and ionized

462

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

463

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

464

Theoretical model of liquid metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theory for calculating the bulk properties of metals and other materials is described. The approach is based upon the fluid perturbation theory of Kerley and the electronic structure model of Liberman. Application of the theory involves three steps. First, the zero Kelvin isotherm of the solid is constructed from electronic structure calculations, experimental data, or both. This curve contains information about the effective interactions between atoms in the ground electronic state. Next, the cold curve is combined with perturbation theory to compute contributions from thermal motion of the atoms to the liquid properties. Finally, contributions from thermal electron excitation are computed using the electronic structure model. This paper shows that theory agrees well with experimental data for xenon and iron.

Kerley, G.I.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Liquid Metal Processing and Casting 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ceramic, Slag and Refractory Reactions with Liquid Metals - Refining, Evaporation and Gas/Metal Reactions - Fundamentals of Reactions involving Liquid ...

466

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

CO2-Binding Organic Liquids, an Integrated Acid Gas Capture System  

SciTech Connect

Amine systems are effective for CO2 capture, but they are still inefficient because the solvent regeneration energy is largely defined by the amount of water in the process. Most amines form heat-stable salts with SO2 and COS resulting in parasitic solvent loss and degradation. Stripping the CO2-rich solvent is energy intensive it requires temperatures above 100 ?C due to the high specific heat and heat of vaporization of water. CO2-capture processes could be much more energy efficient in a water free amine process. In addition, if the capture-material is chemically compatible with other acid gases, less solvent would be lost to heat-stable salts and the process economics would be further improved. One such system that can address these concerns is Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs), a class of switchable ionic liquids.

Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

469

Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computer Simulations Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help scientists predict how carbon is stored underground August 22, 2013 | Tags: Earth Sciences, Geosciences Dan Krotz 510-486-4019 dakrotz@lbl.gov red2.jpg Artistic rendition of liquid-liquid separation in a supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. New research suggests that a dense liquid phase (shown in red in the background and in full atomistic detail based on computer simulations in the foreground) forms at the onset of calcium carbonate crystallization. (Credit: Berkeley Lab) Computer simulations conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could help scientists

470

Calculation of activities and solubilities of alkali metal perchlorates at high ionic strengths in multicomponent aqueous systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equations of Nyvlt, of Bromley, and of Pitzer for the representation of activity coefficients of electrolytes in multicomponent ionic systems have been used to fit solubility data for some alkali metal perchlorates and ammonium perchlorate in mixture with other electrolytes at ionic strengths varying from 0.08 mol-kg/sup -1/ to as high as 24 mol-kg/sup -1/. Only the Pitzer equations can be used reliably to fit the solubility data over the whole range of ionic strengths encountered for ternary systems but there are certain limitations and certain assumptions which have to be made concerning the Pitzer ionic interaction parameters. A method is also proposed for the calculation of the Pitzer single electrolyte parameters, ..beta../sup 0/, ..beta../sup 1/, and C/sup phi/, for the less soluble perchlorates from fitting their solubility data over a wide range of high ionic strengths.

Chan, C.; Khoo, K.H.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Performance Evaluation of Advanced LLW Liquid Processing Technology: Boiling Water Reactor Liquid Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides condensed information on boiling water reactor (BWR) membrane based liquid radwaste processing systems. The report presents specific details of the technology, including design, configuration, and performance. This information provides nuclear plant personnel with data useful in evaluating the merits of applying advanced processes at their plant.

2001-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

472

LANNDD -A line of liquid argon TPC detectors scalable in mass from 200 Tons to 100 KTons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and to its large liquid nitrogen consumption (~1 liquid m3/hour), the 300-ton geometry and construction required for a detector based on an ultra high purity (UHP) liquefied noble gas and for coping

McDonald, Kirk

473

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

474

Using liquid desiccant as a regenerable filter for capturing and deactivating contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method, and systems for implementing such method, for purifying and conditioning air of weaponized contaminants. The method includes wetting a filter packing media with a salt-based liquid desiccant, such as water with a high concentration of lithium chloride. Air is passed through the wetted filter packing media and the contaminants in are captured with the liquid desiccant while the liquid desiccant dehumidifies the air. The captured contaminants are then deactivated in the liquid desiccant, which may include heating the liquid desiccant. The liquid desiccant is regenerated by applying heat to the liquid desiccant and then removing moisture. The method includes repeating the wetting with the regenerated liquid desiccant which provides a regenerable filtering process that captures and deactivates contaminants on an ongoing basis while also conditioning the air. The method may include filtration effectiveness enhancement by electrostatic or inertial means.

Slayzak, Steven J. (Denver, CO); Anderson, Ren S. (Broomfield, CO); Judkoff, Ronald D. (Golden, CO); Blake, Daniel M. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Ryan, Joseph P. (Golden, CO)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

475

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation at high ionic strength in microbial fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation at high ionic strength in microbial fuel cell organic matter using elec- trochemically active bacteria as catalysts to generate electrical energy of the most exciting applications of MFCs is their use as benthic unattended generators to power electrical

Sun, Baolin

476

A High-Resolution Ionic Anemometer for Boundary-Layer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new high-resolution ionic anemometer was constructed using inexpensive electronics. Calibration and data procedures are outlined and preliminary results of field trials are given. The detection limit is better than 10?2 m s?1 and the frequency ...

J. Barat

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Characterization of voltage-gated ionic currents in a peripheral sensory neuron in larval Drosophila  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the normalized I-V relationship for INa in larval dbds (n = 8). These data show that in dbds, INa begins to activate at - 50 to -40 mV and reaches peak amplitude at -30 to -20 mV. Discussion In this study, we have presented measurements of volt- age-gated ionic...

Nair, Amit; Bate, Michael; Pulver, Stefan R

2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

478

Techniques for geothermal liquid sampling and analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A methodology has been developed that is particularly suited to liquid-dominated resources and adaptable to a variety of situations. It is intended to be a base methodology upon which variations can be made to meet specific needs or situations. The approach consists of recording flow conditions at the time of sampling, a specific insertable probe sampling system, a sample stabilization procedure, commercially available laboratory instruments, and data quality check procedures.

Kindle, C.H.; Woodruff, E.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Gas-liquid hydrodynamics in Taylor Flows with complex liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Universitá di Pisa Facoltá di Ingegneria Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei Materiali Relazione di tirocinio in Ingegneria Chimica Gas-liquid hydrodynamics in… (more)

ALBERINI, FEDERICO

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

U.S. Department of Energy Cateerorical Exclusion Determination...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agency - Energy Project Title: (0289-1529) University of Notre Dame - Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid Based Refrigerants Location: Indiana Proposed Action or...