National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ion transport membrane

  1. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  2. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  3. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  4. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  5. Fabrication of catalyzed ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Kibby, Charles Leonard

    2013-06-04

    Process for fabricating a catalyzed ion transport membrane (ITM). In one embodiment, an uncatalyzed ITM is (a) contacted with a non-reducing gaseous stream while heating to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM possessing anion mobility; (b) contacted with a reducing gaseous stream for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM having anion mobility and essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry; (c) cooled while contacting the ITM with the reducing gaseous stream to provide an ITM having essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry and no anion mobility; and (d) treated by applying catalyst to at least one of (1) a porous mixed conducting multicomponent metallic oxide (MCMO) layer contiguous with a first side of a dense layer of MCMO and (2) a second side of the dense MCMO layer. In another embodiment, these steps are carried out in the alternative order of (a), (d), (b), and (c).

  6. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Makitka, III, Alexander; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2012-04-03

    An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

  7. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Minford, Eric; Waldron, William Emil

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  8. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  9. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  10. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  11. FINAL REPORT:Observation and Simulations of Transport of Molecules and Ions Across Model Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MURAD, SOHAIL; JAMESON, CYNTHIA J

    2013-10-22

    During the this new grant we developed a robust methodology for investigating a wide range of properties of phospho-lipid bilayers. The approach developed is unique because despite using periodic boundary conditions, we can simulate an entire experiment or process in detail. For example, we can follow the entire permeation process in a lipid-membrane. This includes transport from the bulk aqueous phase to the lipid surface; permeation into the lipid; transport inside the lipid; and transport out of the lipid to the bulk aqueous phase again. We studied the transport of small gases in both the lipid itself and in model protein channels. In addition, we have examined the transport of nanocrystals through the lipid membrane, with the main goal of understanding the mechanical behavior of lipids under stress including water and ion leakage and lipid flip flop. Finally we have also examined in detail the deformation of lipids when under the influence of external fields, both mechanical and electrostatic (currently in progress). The important observations and conclusions from our studies are described in the main text of the report

  12. Smart membranes for nitrate removal, water purification, and selective ion transportation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, William D.; Schaldach, Charlene M.; Bourcier, William L.; Paul, Phillip H.

    2009-12-15

    A computer designed nanoengineered membrane for separation of dissolved species. One embodiment provides an apparatus for treatment of a fluid that includes ions comprising a microengineered porous membrane, a system for producing an electrical charge across the membrane, and a series of nanopores extending through the membrane. The nanopores have a pore size such that when the fluid contacts the membrane, the nanopores will be in a condition of double layer overlap and allow passage only of ions opposite to the electrical charge across the membrane.

  13. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2016-01-12

    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  14. Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Takashi )

    1994-06-01

    Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  15. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  16. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped Ti-substituted perovskites, La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}, with 0 {le} x {le} 0.20, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization, electric resistivity, and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. All samples show a rhombohedral structure (space group R3C) from 10 K to room temperature. At room temperature, the cell parameters a, c and the unit cell volume increase with increasing Ti content. However, at 10 K, the cell parameter a has a maximum value for x = 0.10, and decreases for x > 0.10, while the unit cell volume remains nearly constant for x > 0.10. The average (Mn,Ti)-O bond length increases up to x = 0.15, and the (Mn,Ti)-O-(Mn,Ti) bond angle decreases with increasing Ti content to its minimum value at x = 0.15 at room temperature. Below the Curie temperature TC, the resistance exhibits metallic behavior for the x {le} 0.05 samples. A metal (semiconductor) to insulator transition is observed for the x {ge} 0.10 samples. A peak in resistivity appears below TC for all samples, and shifts to a lower temperature as x increases. The substitution of Mn by Ti decreases the 2p-3d hybridization between O and Mn ions, reduces the bandwidth W, and increases the electron-phonon coupling. Therefore, the TC shifts to a lower temperature and the resistivity increases with increasing Ti content. A field-induced shift of the resistivity maximum occurs at x {le} 0.10 compounds. The maximum MR effect is about 70% for La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}. The separation of TC and the resistivity maximum temperature T{sub {rho},max} enhances the MR effect in these compounds due to the weak coupling between the magnetic ordering and the resistivity as compared with La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. The bulk densities of the membranes were determined using the

  18. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  19. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  1. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid membrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selective for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with

  3. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report

  4. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  5. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  6. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  7. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid embrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selected for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  8. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-10-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  9. Active membrane having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klingler, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2012-09-24

    The present invention relates to a physicochemically-active porous membrane for electrochemical cells that purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. One dimension of the pore surface has a macroscopic length (1 nm-1000 .mu.m) and is directed parallel to the direction of an electric field, which is produced between the cathode and the anode electrodes of an electrochemical cell. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  10. Hydrogen transport in composite inorganic membranes (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen transport in composite inorganic membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen transport in composite inorganic membranes A theoretical model simulating ...

  11. Nanoengineered membranes for controlled transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doktycz, Mitchel J. [Oak Ridge, TN; Simpson, Michael L. [Knoxville, TN; McKnight, Timothy E. [Greenback, TN; Melechko, Anatoli V. [Oak Ridge, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H. [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael A. [Knoxville, TN; Merkulov, Vladimir I. [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-01-05

    A nanoengineered membrane for controlling material transport (e.g., molecular transport) is disclosed. The membrane includes a substrate, a cover definining a material transport channel between the substrate and the cover, and a plurality of fibers positioned in the channel and connected to an extending away from a surface of the substrate. The fibers are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and have a width of 100 nanometers or less. The diffusion limits for material transport are controlled by the separation of the fibers. In one embodiment, chemical derivitization of carbon fibers may be undertaken to further affect the diffusion limits or affect selective permeability or facilitated transport. For example, a coating can be applied to at least a portion of the fibers. In another embodiment, individually addressable carbon nanofibers can be integrated with the membrane to provide an electrical driving force for material transport.

  12. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  13. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  14. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  15. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is

  16. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  18. Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane Colorado School of Mines ... DescriptionCharacterization of the membrane has been accomplished using a variety of ...

  19. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  20. Carrier-mediated transport of actinide ions using supported liquid membranes containing TODGA as the carrier extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panja, S.; Dakshinamoorthy, A.; Munshi, S.K.; Dey, P.K.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    The transport behavior of Pu{sup 3+} under varying reducing conditions was investigated from a feed containing 3.0 M HNO{sub 3} into a receiver phase containing 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} using TODGA (N,N,N',N' - tetraoctyl-diglycolamide) as the carrier ligand. A mixture of 0.2 M hydroxyl ammonium nitrate and 0.2 M hydrazinium nitrate (used in the feed as the reducing agent) has been found to be effective for quantitative (>99%) transport of the trivalent Pu in about 3 h. Transport of trivalent plutonium in 3 h (>99%) was higher as compared to that of the tetravalent plutonium (94%), though their D values followed an opposite trend. The permeability coefficient (P) of Pu{sup 3+} was (4.63 {+-} 0.26) x 10{sup -3} cm/s as compared to (2.10 {+-} 0.14) x 10{sup -3} cm/s for Pu{sup 4+} and (3.67 {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -3} cm/s Am{sup 3+}. P values of trivalent actinide ions such as Am{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 3+}, and Cm{sup 3+} are compared with their distribution data. (authors)

  1. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2006-05-01

    In this quarter a systematic analysis on the decomposition behavior of the OTM membranes at air and nitrogen were initiated to understand the structural and stoichiometric changes associated with elevated temperatures. Evaluation of the flexural strengths using 4-point bend test was also started for the dual phase membranes. Initial results on the synthesis of dual phase composite materials have been obtained. The measurements have focused on the compatibility of mixed conductors with the pure ionic conductors yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinium doped ceria (GDC). The initial results obtained for three different mixed conductors suggest that (GDC) is the better choice. A new membrane permeation system has been designed and tested and sintering studies of biphasic systems are in progress.

  2. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-02-01

    This is the fifth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. Results of wetting experiments on commercially available Nickel based brazing alloys on perovskite surfaces are described. Additionally, experimental and numerical investigations on the strength of concentric ceramic/metal joints are presented.

  3. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-07-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. The first experiments using the La-Sr-Fe-O ceramic are reported. Some of the analysis performed on the samples obtained are commented upon. A set of experiments to characterize the mechanical strength and thermal fatigue properties of the joints has been designed and begun. Finite element models of joints used to model residual stresses are described.

  4. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  5. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  6. Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes and method for preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Danesi, Pier R.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1989-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes include a microporous polymeric support film interpenetrated by an ion exchange polymer and are produced by absorbing and polymerizing monomers within the support film. The ion exchange polymer provides ion exchange ligands at the surface of and throughout the support film which have sufficient ligand mobility to extract and transport ions across the membrane.

  7. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

  8. Anion Exchange Membranes - Transport/Conductivity | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - TransportConductivity Anion Exchange Membranes - TransportConductivity Presentation at the AMFC Workshop, May 8-9, 2011, Arlington, VA PDF icon amfc110811aemstransport.pdf ...

  9. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Wednesday, 25 May 2005 00:00 Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells. While life scientists have solved the structures of protein channels for ions, uncharged solutes, and even water, up to now they have only been able to guess at the precise mechanisms by which gases (such as NH3, CO2, O2, NO, N2O, etc.) cross

  10. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells. While life scientists have solved the structures of protein channels for ions, uncharged solutes, and even water, up to now they have only been able to guess at the precise mechanisms by which gases (such as NH3, CO2, O2, NO, N2O, etc.) cross biological membranes. But, with the first high-resolution structure of a

  11. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells. While life scientists have solved the structures of protein channels for ions, uncharged solutes, and even water, up to now they have only been able to guess at the precise mechanisms by which gases (such as NH3, CO2, O2, NO, N2O, etc.) cross biological membranes. But, with the first high-resolution structure of a

  12. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells. While life scientists have solved the structures of protein channels for ions, uncharged solutes, and even water, up to now they have only been able to guess at the precise mechanisms by which gases (such as NH3, CO2, O2, NO, N2O, etc.) cross biological membranes. But, with the first high-resolution structure of a

  13. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes The ...

  14. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Wednesday, 27 January ...

  15. Secondary ion collection and transport system for ion microprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, James W.; Schlanger, Herbert; McNulty, Jr., Hugh; Parker, Norman W.

    1985-01-01

    A secondary ion collection and transport system, for use with an ion microprobe, which is very compact and occupies only a small working distance, thereby enabling the primary ion beam to have a short focal length and high resolution. Ions sputtered from the target surface by the primary beam's impact are collected between two arcuate members having radii of curvature and applied voltages that cause only ions within a specified energy band to be collected. The collected ions are accelerated and focused in a transport section consisting of a plurality of spaced conductive members which are coaxial with and distributed along the desired ion path. Relatively high voltages are applied to alternate transport sections to produce accelerating electric fields sufficient to transport the ions through the section to an ion mass analyzer, while lower voltages are applied to the other transport sections to focus the ions and bring their velocity to a level compatible with the analyzing apparatus.

  16. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C.; Besecker, Charles J.; Chen, Hancun; Robinson, Earil T.

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  17. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  18. Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near ...

  19. Solenoid transport for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Edward

    2004-06-15

    Solenoid transport of high current, heavy ion beams is considered for several stages of a heavy ion fusion driver. In general this option is more efficient than magnetic quadrupole transport at sufficiently low kinetic energy and/or large e/m, and for this reason it has been employed in electron induction linacs. Ideally an ion beam would be transported in a state of Brillouin flow, i.e. cold in the transverse plane and spinning at one half the cyclotron frequency. The design of appropriate solenoids and the equilibrium and stability of transported ion beams are discussed. An outline of application to a fusion driver is also presented.

  20. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  1. Crossing Over: Nanostructures that Move Electrons and Ions Across Cellular Membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ajo-Franklin, C. M.; Noy, A.

    2015-04-27

    Critical biological processes such as energy generation and signal transduction are driven by the flow of electrons and ions across the membranes of living cells. As a result, there is substantial interest in creating nanostructured materials that control transport of these charged species across biomembranes. The recent advances in the synthesis of de novo and protein nanostructures for transmembrane ion and electron transport and the mechanistic understanding underlying this transport are described. Moreover, this body of work highlights the promise such nanostructures hold for directing transmembrane transport of charged species as well as challenges that must be overcome to realizemore » that potential.« less

  2. Crossing Over: Nanostructures that Move Electrons and Ions Across Cellular Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo-Franklin, C. M.; Noy, A.

    2015-04-27

    Critical biological processes such as energy generation and signal transduction are driven by the flow of electrons and ions across the membranes of living cells. As a result, there is substantial interest in creating nanostructured materials that control transport of these charged species across biomembranes. The recent advances in the synthesis of de novo and protein nanostructures for transmembrane ion and electron transport and the mechanistic understanding underlying this transport are described. Moreover, this body of work highlights the promise such nanostructures hold for directing transmembrane transport of charged species as well as challenges that must be overcome to realize that potential.

  3. Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-02-21

    The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  4. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells. ...

  5. Monte Carlo Ion Transport Analysis Code.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-04-15

    Version: 00 TRIPOS is a versatile Monte Carlo ion transport analysis code. It has been applied to the treatment of both surface and bulk radiation effects. The media considered is composed of multilayer polyatomic materials.

  6. Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Structure and Ion ...

  7. Measurements of classical transport of fast ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, L.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Leneman, D.; Vincena, S.

    2005-05-15

    To study the fast-ion transport in a well controlled background plasma, a 3-cm diameter rf ion gun launches a pulsed, {approx}300 eV ribbon shaped argon ion beam parallel to or at 15 deg. to the magnetic field in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at UCLA. The parallel energy of the beam is measured by a two-grid energy analyzer at two axial locations (z=0.32 m and z=6.4 m) from the ion gun in LAPD. The calculated ion beam slowing-down time is consistent to within 10% with the prediction of classical Coulomb collision theory using the LAPD plasma parameters measured by a Langmuir probe. To measure cross-field transport, the beam is launched at 15 deg. to the magnetic field. The beam then is focused periodically by the magnetic field to avoid geometrical spreading. The radial beam profile measurements are performed at different axial locations where the ion beam is periodically focused. The measured cross-field transport is in agreement to within 15% with the analytical classical collision theory and the solution to the Fokker-Planck kinetic equation. Collisions with neutrals have a negligible effect on the beam transport measurement but do attenuate the beam current.

  8. Membranes for nanometer-scale mass fast transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakajin, Olgica; Holt, Jason; Noy, Aleksandr; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2011-10-18

    Nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material were fabricated for fluid mechanics and mass transfer studies on the nanometer scale and commercial applications. Average pore size can be 2 nm to 20 nm, or seven nm or less, or two nanometers or less. The membrane can be free of large voids spanning the membrane such that transport of material such as gas or liquid occurs exclusively through the tubes. Fast fluid, vapor, and liquid transport are observed. Versatile micromachining methods can be used for membrane fabrication. A single chip can comprise multiple membranes. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  9. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as AmtB) that passes ammonia gas molecules through the bacterial cell membrane of E. coli. The structure allowed them to deduce how a positively charged ammonium ion is...

  10. Sulfur control in ion-conducting membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Richards, Robin Edward; Brengel, David Douglas; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2003-08-05

    A method for controlling the sulfur dioxide partial pressure in a pressurized, heated, oxygen-containing gas mixture which is contacted with an ion-conducting metallic oxide membrane which permeates oxygen ions. The sulfur dioxide partial pressure in the oxygen-depleted non-permeate gas from the membrane module is maintained below a critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure, p.sub.SO2 *, to protect the membrane material from reacting with sulfur dioxide and reducing the oxygen flux of the membrane. Each ion-conducting metallic oxide material has a characteristic critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure which is useful in determining the required level of sulfur removal from the feed gas and/or from the fuel gas used in a direct-fired feed gas heater.

  11. Membrane permeation process for dehydration of organic liquid mixtures using sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cabasso, Israel; Korngold, Emmanuel

    1988-01-01

    A membrane permeation process for dehydrating a mixture of organic liquids, such as alcohols or close boiling, heat sensitive mixtures. The process comprises causing a component of the mixture to selectively sorb into one side of sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene (e.g., polyethylene) membranes and selectively diffuse or flow therethrough, and then desorbing the component into a gas or liquid phase on the other side of the membranes.

  12. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

  13. Anion Exchange Membranes - Transport/Conductivity

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    transport * Computational Modeling * MORPHOLOGYCHEMISTRY * Vibrational Spectroscopy: FTIR, Raman * Scattering: SANS, SAXS * Crystallinity WAXSXRD * Microscopy * ...

  14. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Air Products and Chemicals

    2008-09-30

    An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

  15. Hydrogen transport membranes for dehydrogenation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran; Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    2008-02-12

    A method of converting C.sub.2 and/or higher alkanes to olefins by contacting a feedstock containing C.sub.2 and/or higher alkanes with a first surface of a metal composite membrane of a sintered homogenous mixture of an Al oxide or stabilized or partially stabilized Zr oxide ceramic powder and a metal powder of one or more of Pd, Nb, V, Zr, Ta and/or alloys or mixtures thereof. The alkanes dehydrogenate to olefins by contact with the first surface with substantially only atomic hydrogen from the dehydrogenation of the alkanes passing through the metal composite membrane. Apparatus for effecting the conversion and separation is also disclosed.

  16. Membranes with functionalized carbon nanotube pores for selective transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakajin, Olgica; Noy, Aleksandr; Fornasiero, Francesco; Park, Hyung Gyu; Holt, Jason K; Kim, Sangil

    2015-01-27

    Provided herein composition and methods for nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, or multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material. Average pore size of the carbon nanotube can be 6 nm or less. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  17. Method of making a hydrogen transport membrane, and article

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph M.; Corpus, Joseph M.; Lim, Hankwon

    2015-07-21

    The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a hydrogen transport membrane and the composite article itself. More specifically, the invention relates to producing a membrane substrate, wherein the ceramic substrate is coated with a metal oxide slurry, thereby eliminating the need for an activation step prior to plating the ceramic membrane through an electroless plating process. The invention also relates to modifying the pore size and porosity of the substrate by oxidation or reduction of the particles deposited by the metal oxide slurry.

  18. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; Brown, Warren; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gangli

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–V curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.

  19. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; Brown, Warren; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gangli

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–Vmore » curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.« less

  20. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  1. Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Lithium-Ion Batteries (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries Authors: Lordi, V ; Ong, M T ; Verners, O ; van Duin, A ; Draeger, E W ; Pask, J E Publication Date: 2014-11-03 OSTI Identifier: 1178394 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-663739 DOE

  2. The Structure and Transport of Water and Hydrated Ions Within Hydrophobic, Nanoscale Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, J K; Herberg, J L; Wu, Y; Schwegler, E; Mehta, A

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this project includes an experimental and modeling investigation into water and hydrated ion structure and transport at nanomaterials interfaces. This is a topic relevant to understanding the function of many biological systems such as aquaporins that efficiently shuttle water and ion channels that permit selective transport of specific ions across cell membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are model nanoscale, hydrophobic channels that can be functionalized, making them artificial analogs for these biological channels. This project investigates the microscopic properties of water such as water density distributions and dynamics within CNTs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the structure of hydrated ions at CNT interfaces via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Another component of this work is molecular simulation, which can predict experimental measurables such as the proton relaxation times, chemical shifts, and can compute the electronic structure of CNTs. Some of the fundamental questions this work is addressing are: (1) what is the length scale below which nanoscale effects such as molecular ordering become important, (2) is there a relationship between molecular ordering and transport?, and (3) how do ions interact with CNT interfaces? These are questions of interest to the scientific community, but they also impact the future generation of sensors, filters, and other devices that operate on the nanometer length scale. To enable some of the proposed applications of CNTs as ion filtration media and electrolytic supercapacitors, a detailed knowledge of water and ion structure at CNT interfaces is critical.

  3. Energetic ion transport by microturbulence is insignificant in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Staebler, G. M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Waltz, R. E.; Austin, M. E.; Bass, E. M.; Budny, R. V.; Gorelenkova, M.; Grierson, B. A.; McCune, D. C.; Yuan, X.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Muscatello, C. M.; Zhu, Y. B.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Wang, G.; Holcomb, C. T.; McKee, G. R.; and others

    2013-05-15

    Energetic ion transport due to microturbulence is investigated in magnetohydrodynamic-quiescent plasmas by way of neutral beam injection in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)]. A range of on-axis and off-axis beam injection scenarios are employed to vary relevant parameters such as the character of the background microturbulence and the value of E{sub b}/T{sub e}, where E{sub b} is the energetic ion energy and T{sub e} the electron temperature. In all cases, it is found that any transport enhancement due to microturbulence is too small to observe experimentally. These transport effects are modeled using numerical and analytic expectations that calculate the energetic ion diffusivity due to microturbulence. It is determined that energetic ion transport due to coherent fluctuations (e.g., Alfvn eigenmodes) is a considerably larger effect and should therefore be considered more important for ITER.

  4. Benchmarking of Neutron Production of Heavy-Ion Transport Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remec, Igor; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in design and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required.

  5. Method of detecting defects in ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells by chemochromic sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooker, Robert Paul; Mohajeri, Nahid

    2016-01-05

    A method of detecting defects in membranes such as ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells. The electrochemical cell includes an assembly having an anode side and a cathode side with the ion exchange membrane in between. In a configuration step a chemochromic sensor is placed above the cathode and flow isolation hardware lateral to the ion exchange membrane which prevents a flow of hydrogen (H.sub.2) between the cathode and anode side. The anode side is exposed to a first reactant fluid including hydrogen. The chemochromic sensor is examined after the exposing for a color change. A color change evidences the ion exchange membrane has at least one defect that permits H.sub.2 transmission therethrough.

  6. Ion mixing, hydration, and transport in aqueous ionic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Voth, Gregory A.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2015-05-14

    The enhancement effect on the ion mobility of fluoride (and that of chloride) in a polycationic system, as the chloride content increases, is shown to also exist in other more simple ionic systems with cations such as the cesium ion and an organic ammonium ion. As the chloride content increases, in addition to the finding that there is more unbound water associated with the cation, we also observe that the average lifetime of a hydrogen bond decreases. This change to the hydrogen bonds is correlated to significant changes to both the structural and dynamical properties of water. The more disordered water structure and faster water dynamics are hypothesized to be also responsible for the enhanced ion mobilities. Furthermore, when either the chloride content or hydration level is changed, the self-diffusion constant of each co-ion changes by almost the same factor, implying the existence of a single universal transport mechanism that determines ion mobilities.

  7. Ion-conduction mechanisms in NaSICON-type membranes for energy storage and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, Anthony H.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2015-10-01

    Next generation metal-ion conducting membranes are key to developing energy storage and utilization technologies like batteries and fuel ce lls. Sodium super-ionic conductors (aka NaSICON) are a class of compounds with AM 1 M 2 (PO 4 ) 3 stoichiometry where the choice of "A" and "M" cation varies widely. This report, which de scribes substitutional derivatives of NZP (NaZr 2 P 3 O 12 ), summarizes the accomplishments of a Laboratory D irected Research and Development (LDRD) project to analyze transport mec hanisms using a combination of in situ studies of structure, composition, and bonding, com bined with first principles theory and modeling. We developed an experimental platform and applied methods, such as synchrotron- based X-ray spectroscopies, to probe the electronic structure of compositionally well-controlled NaSICON films while in operation ( i.e ., conducting Na ions exposed to oxygen or water va por atmospheres). First principles theory and modeling were used to interpret the experimental observations and develop an enhanced understanding of atomistic processes that give rise to, and affect, ion conduction.

  8. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  9. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  10. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-02-15

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  11. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  12. Excess Surface Area in Bioelectrochemical Systems Causes ion Transport Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Timothy D.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Davenport, Emily K.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    We investigated ion transport limitations on 3D graphite felt electrodes by growing Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms with advection to eliminate external mass transfer limitations. We characterized ion transport limitations by: (i) showing that serially increasing NaCl concentration up to 200mM increased current linearly up to a total of þ273% vs. 0mM NaCl under advective conditions; (ii) growing the biofilm with a starting concentration of 200mM NaCl, which led to a maximum current increase of 400% vs. current generation without NaCl, and (iii) showing that un-colonized surface area remained even after steadystate current was reached. After accounting for iR effects, we confirmed that the excess surface area existed despite a non-zero overpotential. The fact that the biofilm was constrained from colonizing and producing further current under these conditions confirmed the biofilms under study here were ion transport-limited. Our work demonstrates that the use of high surface area electrodes may not increase current density when the system design allows ion transport limitations to become dominant.

  13. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  14. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  15. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test. Authors: Schwartz, Joseph 1 ; Porter, Jason 2 ; Patki, Neil 2 ; ...

  16. Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Govind, Niranjan; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Sprenkle, Vince L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-23

    Lack of comprehensive understanding about the interactions between Nafion membrane and battery electrolytes prevents the straightforward tailoring of optimal materials for redox flow battery applications. In this work, we analyzed the interaction between aqua-vanadyl cation and sulfonic sites within the pores of Nafion membranes using combined theoretical and experimental X-ray spectroscopic methods. Molecular level interactions, namely, solvent share and contact pair mechanisms are discussed based on Vanadium and Sulfur K-edge spectroscopic analysis.

  17. Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion® membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Govind, Niranjan; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Sprenkle, Vince L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-23

    Lack of comprehensive understanding about the interactions between Nafion membrane and battery electrolytes prevents the straightforward tailoring of optimal materials for redox flow battery applications. In this work, we analyzed the interaction between aqua-vanadyl cation and sulfonic sites within the pores of Nafion membranes using combined theoretical and experimental X-ray spectroscopic methods. Molecular level interactions, namely, solvent share and contact pair mechanisms are discussed based on Vanadium and Sulfur K-edge spectroscopic analysis.

  18. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Miller, Christopher Francis (Macungie, PA)

    2008-09-16

    Method for gas purification comprising (a) obtaining a feed gas stream containing one or more contaminants selected from the group consisting of volatile metal oxy-hydroxides, volatile metal oxides, and volatile silicon hydroxide; (b) contacting the feed gas stream with a reactive solid material in a guard bed and reacting at least a portion of the contaminants with the reactive solid material to form a solid reaction product in the guard bed; and (c) withdrawing from the guard bed a purified gas stream.

  19. Characterization of vanadium ion uptake in sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lawton, Jamie; Jones, Amanda; Tang, Zhijiang; Lindsey, Melanie; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2015-11-28

    Sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP), alternative aromatic hydrocarbon membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Membranes soaked in sulfuric acid and vanadyl sulfate are analyzed to determine the membrane environment in which the vanadyl ion (VO2+) diffuses in the membranes. These results are compared to Nafion 117 membranes. In contrast to Nafion, the VO2+ in SDAPP membranes exists in two different environments. The results of analysis of rotational diffusion determined from fits the EPR spectral lineshapes in comparison with previously reported permeation studies and measurements of partitioning functions reported here suggest that themore » diffusion pathways in SDAPP are very different than in Nafion.« less

  20. Characterization of vanadium ion uptake in sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawton, Jamie; Jones, Amanda; Tang, Zhijiang; Lindsey, Melanie; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2015-11-28

    Sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP), alternative aromatic hydrocarbon membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Membranes soaked in sulfuric acid and vanadyl sulfate are analyzed to determine the membrane environment in which the vanadyl ion (VO2+) diffuses in the membranes. These results are compared to Nafion 117 membranes. In contrast to Nafion, the VO2+ in SDAPP membranes exists in two different environments. The results of analysis of rotational diffusion determined from fits the EPR spectral lineshapes in comparison with previously reported permeation studies and measurements of partitioning functions reported here suggest that the diffusion pathways in SDAPP are very different than in Nafion.

  1. Reverse electrodialysis using bipolar ion-exchange membranes as a source of electric energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovarov, N.Ya.; Greben`, V.P.; Kovarskii, N.Ya.

    1994-06-01

    It is established that, in the regime of the H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}} ions recombination, voltage on the bipolar membranes and the efficiency of the latter, as a transformer of chemical energy into electric, increases in the series of ionogen groups contained in the bipolar region. This is due to an increase in the recombination rate constants in the bipolar contact for the H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}} ions. As the sodium and chlorine ions penetrate the bipolar transition region, they sharply decrease the membrane potential and the voltage drop on the bipolar membranes, because the ionogen groups turn into salt form, which is catalytically inactive in the H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}} ions recombination reaction. It is shown that the source of current, containing the MB-24 (bipolar), MF-4sk (cation-exchange), and AMV (anion-exchange) ion-exchange membranes, has a specific power of 0.11 W/dm{sup 2} (calculated in terms of one bipolar membrane) and efficiency of 29% for 0.5 M solution of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, and 0.5 A/dm{sup 2} current density.

  2. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2004-10-21

    During this quarter, work was focused on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes in a one hundred percent permeate environment. Permeation data was also collected on cermets as a function of thickness. A thin film deposition procedure was used to deposit dense thin BCY/Ni onto a tubular porous support. Thin film tubes were then tested for permeation at ambient pressure. Process flow diagrams were prepared for inclusion of hydrogen separation membranes into IGCC power plants under varying conditions. Finally, membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation experiments were performed.

  3. Test particle study of ion transport in drift type turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.

    2013-12-15

    Ion transport regimes in drift type turbulence are determined in the frame of a realistic model for the turbulence spectrum based on numerical simulations. The model includes the drift of the potential with the effective diamagnetic velocity, turbulence anisotropy, and dominant waves. The effects of the zonal flow modes are also analyzed. A semi-analytical method that is able to describe trajectory stochastic trapping or eddying is used for obtaining the transport coefficients as function of the parameters of the turbulence. Analytical approximations of the transport coefficients are derived from the results. They show the transition from Bohm to gyro-Bohm scaling as plasma size increases in very good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  4. Ion Transport Dynamics in Acid Variable Charge Subsoils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nik; Sumner, Malcolm E.; Toma, Mitsuru

    2005-06-06

    This is a mini-review of the research work conducted by the authors with the objective of studying ion transport in variable charge subsoils collected from different areas around the world. An attempt is made in these studies to relate the unique behavior manifested during ionic transport in these subsoils with their mineralogical, physical and chemical properties, which are markedly different from those in soils from temperate regions. The variable charge subsoils have a relatively high salt sorption capacity and anion exchange capacity (AEC) that retards anions downward movement. The AEC correlates closely with the anion retardation coefficients. Ca2+ applied with gypsum in topsoil may be transported to the subsoil and may improve the subsoil chemical properties. These results may help in developing appropriate management strategies under a range of mineralogical, physical, and chemical conditions.

  5. Handbook of industrial membrane technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book emphasizes the use of synthetic membranes for separations involving industrial or municipal process streams. In addition to the classic membrane processes-microfiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, gas separation, and electrodialysis-chapters on enzyme membrane reactors, membrane fermentors and coupled transport membranes are included. The preparation of synthetic membranes and process design and optimization are also covered. Most of the membrane processes are pressure driven, the notable exception being electrodialysis, by which ions are separated under the influence of an electric field. In addition, coupled transport covers processes driven under the influence of a concentration gradient.

  6. Exceptional ion rejection ability of directional solvent for non-membrane desalination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rish, Daniel; Luo, Shirui; Kurtz, Brien; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-01-13

    The recently demonstrated directional solvent extraction (DSE) is promising for very low temperature, membrane-free water desalination. In this paper, we combine atomistic simulations and experimental validation to demonstrate that the currently used directional solvent, decanoic acid, can reject all major salt ions in seawater, with very high rejection rates. The salinities of the DSE recovered water show that ion rejection rates are ∼98%–99%—similar to those of the best reverse osmosis membranes. Our test also shows that the DSE process can desalt seawater to produce fresh water that meets drinking water standards.

  7. Particle back-transport and permeate flux behavior in crossflow membrane filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chellam, S.; Wiesner, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    Particle residence time distributions in a membrane channel are interpreted to elucidate mechanisms of particle transport and colloidal fouling in membrane filtration. A comparison of particle size distributions in the membrane feed suspensions and deposited cakes provides evidence for selective particle transport and accumulation on membranes. These data support a previously hypothesized minimum in particle back-transport from the membrane as a function of particle size. The back-transport of smaller particles is apparently due to Brownian diffusion, while larger macrocolloids are controlled by an orthokinetic mechanism such as shear-induced diffusion. In all cases, cake specific resistances measured in the dead-end mode were higher than those of the corresponding feed suspensions. Also, cake specific resistances measured under a crossflow were higher than those in the dead-end mode. Further, the specific resistance of particle deposits on membranes increased with shear rate and decreased as the initial permeation rate increased, suggesting that cake morphology is an important parameter in determining permeate flux. Thus, the effects of hydrodynamics on cake resistance needs to be established before a comprehensive model for crossflow filtration can be derived. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  9. Free Energy Landscapes of Membrane Transport Proteins | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility The Na/K pump (yellow) is a P-type ATPase that spans the plasma membrane of animal cells. It acts to maintain the ionic gradient (orange and blue spheres) that gives rise to the cell potential, a critical component of cell machinery and signal transduction. This project will develop new simulation models and methodologies to study the sensitivity of key, pH-sensitive amino acid residues in the transmembrane region (red spheres) of the Na/K pump and other P-type ATPases, as

  10. Atomistic Simulation of Nafion Membrane: 2. Dynamics of Water Molecules and Hydronium Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ram; Venkatnathan, Arun; Dupuis, Michel

    2007-10-20

    We have performed a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the dynamics of water molecules and hydronium ions in hydrated Nafion using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the DREIDING force field. In addition to calculating diffusion coefficients as a function of hydration level, we have also determined mean residence time of H2O molecules and H3O+ ions in the first solvation shell of SO3- groups. The diffusion coefficient of H2O molecules increases with increasing hydration level and is in good agreement with experiment. The mean residence time of H2O molecules decreases with increasing membrane hydration from 1 ns at a low hydration level to 75 ps at the highest hydration level studied. These dynamical changes are related to the changes in membrane nanostructure reported in the first part of this work. Our results provide insights into slow proton dynamics observed in neutron scattering experiments and are consistent with the Gebel model of Nafion structure.

  11. Status and Challenges of Hydroxide Ion-Conducting Polymers for Anion Exchange Membrane Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Challenges of Hydroxide Ion-Conducting Polymers for Anion Exchange Membrane Applications 1 Chulsung Bae Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology New York State Center for Polymer Synthesis Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute DOE AMFC Workshop 2016 (04/01/2016) Contact: baec@rpi.edu 2 Solid Electrolyte in Fuel Cells: PEM vs. AEM * Since 1960s (most advanced fuel cells) * Bipolar plate: titanium (acidic environment) * Catalyst: expensive Pt * PEM: insufficient H + conductivity at low RH

  12. Qualitative determination of H2S crossover rates in nation membranes using ion-probe techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, Eric L; Rockward, Tommy; Uribe, Francisco A; Garzon, Fernando H

    2008-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are sensitive to impurities that may be present in either the oxidizer or fuel. H2S, even at the ppb level, will have a dramatic and adverse affect on fuel cell performance. The H2S permeability through dry and humidified Nafion PEMFC membranes was studied using ion probe techniques. A sulfide anti-oxidant buffer solution was used to trap and concentrate trace quantities of H2S that permeated through 50 cm2samples of Nafion 117 and 212 membranes using a partial pressure difference up to I030ppm at room temperature. Experiments were conducted for up to 24 hours in order to achieve sulfide ion concentrations high enough to be precisely determined by subsequent titration with Pb(N03)2. The rate of H2S crossover for dry 117 and 212 were identical at 1.2e-7 g/min. Humidification increased the crossover rate to 5.ge-7 glmin and 1.8e-6 glmin for 117 and 212 respectively. Although the data collected in this work show that the rate of H2S crossover increases with water content and reduced membrane thickness, an accurate determination of permeation constants from this work was not possible because the H2S partial pressure was not constant throughout the experiment.

  13. Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E.; Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M.

    2001-11-06

    then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the

  14. Catalyzed CO.sub.2-transport membrane on high surface area inorganic support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei

    2014-05-06

    Disclosed are membranes and methods for making the same, which membranes provide improved permeability, stability, and cost-effective manufacturability, for separating CO.sub.2 from gas streams such as flue gas streams. High CO.sub.2 permeation flux is achieved by immobilizing an ultra-thin, optionally catalyzed fluid layer onto a meso-porous modification layer on a thin, porous inorganic substrate such as a porous metallic substrate. The CO.sub.2-selective liquid fluid blocks non-selective pores, and allows for selective absorption of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures such as flue gas mixtures and subsequent transport to the permeation side of the membrane. Carbon dioxide permeance levels are in the order of 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 mol/(m.sup.2sPa) or better. Methods for making such membranes allow commercial scale membrane manufacturing at highly cost-effective rates when compared to conventional commercial-scale CO.sub.2 separation processes and equipment for the same and such membranes are operable on an industrial use scale.

  15. Performance of a Cross-Flow Humidifier with a High Flux Water Vapor Transport Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Johnson, W. B.; Berg, F.; Kadylak, D.

    2015-09-30

    Water vapor transport (WVT) flux across a composite membrane that consists of a very thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layer sandwiched between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous layers is investigated. Static and dynamic tests are conducted to measure WVT flux for different composite structures; a transport model shows that the underlying individual resistances for water diffusion in the gas phase and microporous and ionomer layers and for interfacial kinetics of water uptake at the ionomer surface are equally important under different conditions. A finite-difference model is formulated to determine water transport in a full-scale (2-m2 active membrane area) planar cross-flow humidifier module assembled using pleats of the optimized composite membrane. In agreement with the experimental data, the modeled WVT flux in the module increases at higher inlet relative humidity (RH) of the wet stream and at lower pressures, but the mass transfer effectiveness is higher at higher pressures. The model indicates that the WVT flux is highest under conditions that maintain the wet stream at close to 100% RH while preventing the dry stream from becoming saturated. The overall water transport is determined by the gradient in RH of the wet and dry streams but is also affected by vapor diffusion in the gas layer and the microporous layer.

  16. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  17. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  18. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  19. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  20. Mechanism of Proton Transport in Proton Exchange Membranes: Insights from Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory A. Voth

    2010-11-30

    The solvation and transport of hydrated protons in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) such as NafionTM will be described using a novel multi-state reactive molecular dynamics (MD) approach, combined with large scale MD simulation to help probe various PEM morphological models. The multi-state MD methodology allows for the treatment of explicit (Grotthuss) proton shuttling and charge defect delocalization which, in turn, can strongly influence the properties of the hydrated protons in various aqueous and complex environments. A significant extension of the methodology to treat highly acidic (low pH) environments such as the hydrophilic domains of a PEM will be presented. Recent results for proton solvation and transport in NafionTM will be described which reveal the significant role of Grotthuss shuttling and charge defect delocalization on the excess proton solvation structures and transport properties. The role of PEM hydration level and morphology on these properties will also be described.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Optimization of Ion Transport in High-Energy Composite Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by UC San Diego at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about optimization of ion transport in...

  2. Coupled ion Binding and Structural Transitions Along the Transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    binding primes the transport domain to accept its substrate and triggers extracellular gate opening, which prevents inward domain translocation until substrate binding takes place. ...

  3. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Li-ion Batteries Monday, February 13, 2012 - 1:30pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Stephen J. Harris, General Motors R&D While battery performance is well predicted by the...

  4. Radial transport of energetic ions in the presence of trapped electron mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Wang, W.; Ethier, S.; Manickam, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2011-11-15

    The nature of transport of hot ions is studied in the presence of microturbulence generated by the trapped electron mode in a Tokamak using massively parallel, first principle based global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation, and with the help of a passive tracer method. Passing and trapped hot ions are observed to exhibit inverse and inverse square scaling with energy, while those with isotropic pitch distribution are found to exhibit inverse dependence on energy. For all types of hot ions, namely, isotropic, passing, and trapped, the radial transport appears to be subdiffusive for the parameters considered.

  5. Modeling Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W M; Niller, D A C; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2002-08-02

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  6. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-10-01

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  7. Design and characterization of a neutralized-transport experiment for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Houck, T.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Sefkow, A.B.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2004-03-14

    In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit millimeter-sized spots on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams in this final transport is essential for a heavy-ion fusion power plant to be economically competitive. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with particle-in-cell simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed magnetic quadrupoles, permits the study of beam tuning, as well as the effects of phase space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, the converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present initial results from the experiment.

  8. Anomalous Electron Transport Due to Multiple High Frequency Beam Ion Driven Alfven Eigenmode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Boozer, A.; Delgardo-Aparicio, L.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaye, S.; White, R.

    2010-07-13

    We report on the simulations of recently observed correlations of the core electron transport with the sub-thermal ion cyclotron frequency instabilities in low aspect ratio plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In order to model the electron transport of the guiding center code ORBIT is employed. A spectrum of test functions of multiple core localized Global shear Alfven Eigenmode (GAE) instabilities based on a previously developed theory and experimental observations is used to examine the electron transport properties. The simulations exhibit thermal electron transport induced by electron drift orbit stochasticity in the presence of multiple core localized GAE.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ionic liquid (EMImBF{sub 4})/Li{sup +} - chitosan membranes for ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasaribu, Marvin H. Arcana, I Made Wahyuningrum, Deana

    2015-09-30

    Lithium ion battery has been currently developed and produced because it has a longer life time, high energycapacity, and the efficient use of lithium ion battery that is suitable for storing electrical energy. However, this battery has some drawbacks such as use liquid electrolytes that are prone to leakage and flammability during the battery charging process in high temperature. In this study, an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) containing Li{sup +} ions was synthesized and combined with chitosan polymer host as a polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium-ion batteries to solve this problems. This ionic liquid was obtained from the anion metathesis reaction between EMImBr and LiBF4 salt, while EMImBr was synthesized from the reaction between 1-methylimidazole and ethyl bromide utilizing Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. The ionic liquid obtained was characterized by microstructure analysis with using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The polymer electrolyte membrane was characterized by analysis functional groups (FTIR), ionic conductivity (EIS), and surface morphology (SEM). The analysis results of ion conductivity by the EIS method showed the increase the ionic conductivity value of membranes from 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan to 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan with EMImBF4/Li{sup +}, and this result was supported by analysis the surface morphology (SEM)

  10. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  11. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  12. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  13. Charged Amino Acids (R83, E567, D617, E625, R669, and K678) of CusA Are Required for Metal Ion Transport in the Cus Efflux System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Chih-Chia; Long, Feng; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Reddy Bolla, Jani; Do, Sylvia V.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Yu, Edward W. (Cornell); (Iowa State)

    2012-10-23

    Gram-negative bacteria expel various toxic chemicals via tripartite efflux pumps belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily. These pumps span both the inner and outer membranes of the cell. The three components of these tripartite systems are an inner-membrane, substrate-binding transporter (or pump); a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (or adaptor); and an outer-membrane-anchored channel. These three efflux proteins interact in the periplasmic space to form the three-part complexes. We previously presented the crystal structures of both the inner-membrane transporter CusA and membrane fusion protein CusB of the CusCBA tripartite efflux system from Escherichia coli. We also described the co-crystal structure of the CusBA adaptor-transporter, revealing that the trimeric CusA efflux pump assembles with six CusB protein molecules to form the complex CusB{sub 6}-CusA{sub 3}. We here report three different conformers of the crystal structures of CusBA-Cu(I), suggesting a mechanism on how Cu(I) binding initiates a sequence of conformational transitions in the transport cycle. Genetic analysis and transport assays indicate that charged residues, in addition to the methionine pairs and clusters, are essential for extruding metal ions out of the cell.

  14. Measurement of energetic-particle-driven core magnetic fluctuations and induced fast-ion transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Koliner, J. J.; Eilerman, S.; Reusch, J. A.; Anderson, J. K.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Liu, D.

    2013-03-15

    Internal fluctuations arising from energetic-particle-driven instabilities, including both density and radial magnetic field, are measured in a reversed-field-pinch plasma. The fluctuations peak near the core where fast ions reside and shift outward along the major radius as the instability transits from the n = 5 to n = 4 mode. During this transition, strong nonlinear three-wave interaction among multiple modes accompanied by enhanced fast-ion transport is observed.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF REACTION-DRIVEN IONIC TRANSPORT MEMBRANES (ITMs) TECHNOLOGY: PHASE IV/BUDGET PERIOD 6 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, Studer

    2012-03-01

    Air Products and Chemicals, along with development participants and in association with the U.S. Department of Energy, has made substantial progress in developing a novel air separation technology. Unlike conventional cryogenic processes, this method uses high-temperature ceramic membranes to produce high-purity oxygen. The membranes selectively transport oxygen ions with high flux and infinite theoretical selectivity. Reaction-driven ceramic membranes are fabricated from non-porous, multi-component metallic oxides, operate at temperatures typically over 700°C, and have exceptionally high oxygen flux and selectivity. Oxygen from low-pressure air permeates as oxygen ions through the ceramic membrane and is consumed through chemical reactions, thus creating a chemical driving force that pulls oxygen ions across the membrane at high rates. The oxygen reacts with a hydrocarbon fuel in a partial oxidation process to produce a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture – synthesis gas. This project expands the partial-oxidation scope of ITM technology beyond natural gas feed and investigates the potential for ITM reaction-driven technology to be used in conjunction with gasification and pyrolysis technologies to provide more economical routes for producing hydrogen and synthesis gas. This report presents an overview of the ITM reaction-driven development effort, including ceramic materials development, fabrication and testing of small-scale ceramic modules, ceramic modeling, and the investigation of gasifier integration schemes

  16. Intrinsic slow charge response in the perovskite solar cells: Electron and ion transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Huiyin; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-10-19

    The intrinsic charge response and hysteresis characteristic in the perovskite solar cell has been investigated by an electrically modulated transient photocurrent technology. An ultraslow charge response process in the timescale of seconds is observed, which can be well explained by the ion migration in the perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} film driven by multiple electric fields derived from the heterojunction depletion charge, the external modulation, and the accumulated ion charge. Furthermore, theoretical calculation of charge transport reveals that the hysteresis behavior is also significantly influenced by the interfacial charge extraction velocity and the carrier transport properties inside the cell.

  17. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Bruce M.

    1986-01-01

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  18. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, B.M.

    1986-12-23

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  19. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  20. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; Peters, Bethanne D.; Lavina, Sandra; Vezz, Keti; Yang, Yuan; Poynton, Simon D.; Varcoe, John R.; Seifert, Soenke; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Di Noto, Vito; Herring, Andrew M.

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm-1 at 80 C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there is little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH- form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH- as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.

  1. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; Peters, Bethanne D.; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzu, Keti; Yang, Yuan; Poynton, Simon D.; Varcoe, John R.; Seifert, Soenke; et al

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm-1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there ismore » little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. Furthermore, the reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH- form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH- as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.« less

  2. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; Peters, Bethanne D.; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzù, Keti; Yang, Yuan; Poynton, Simon D.; Varcoe, John R.; Seifert, Soenke; et al

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm-1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there ismore » little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH- form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH- as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.« less

  3. X-transport of ions in diverted tokamaks, with application to DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2011-12-15

    A calculation model for X-transport due to the radially outward grad-B and curvature drift of ions trapped poloidally in the null-B{sub {theta}} X-region just inside the X-point in diverted tokamaks is presented. Calculations are presented for two representative DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] shots which indicate that X-transport effects are significant and should be taken into account in calculations of present and future experiments.

  4. Status of the SNS H- ion source and low-energy beam transport system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, R.; Thomae, R.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2002-04-01

    The ion source and Low-Energy Transport (LEBT) system that will provide H{sup -} ion beams to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Front End and the accelerator chain have been developed into a mature unit that will satisfy the operational needs through the commissioning and early operating phases of SNS. The ion source was derived from the SSC ion source, and many of its original features have been improved to achieve reliable operation at 6% duty factor, producing beam currents in the 35-mA range and above. The LEBT utilizes purely electrostatic focusing and includes static beam-steering elements and a pre-chopper. This paper will discuss the latest design features of the ion source and LEBT, give performance data for the integrated system, and report on relevant commissioning results obtained with the SNS RFQ accelerator. Perspectives for further improvements will be outlined in concluding remarks.

  5. ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

    2003-06-10

    Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

  6. Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.

    2014-05-15

    Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) driven modes with fishbone-like structure are observed during 1?MW tangential neutral-beam injection in a reversed field pinch (RFP) device. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of EP instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport. Density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving, inboard-outboard asymmetric spatial structure that peaks in the core where fast ions reside. The measured mode frequencies are close to the computed shear Alfvn frequency, a feature consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The frequency pattern of the dominant mode depends on the fast-ion species. Multiple frequencies occur with deuterium fast ions compared to single frequency for hydrogen fast ions. Furthermore, as the safety factor (q) decreases, the toroidal mode number of the dominant EP mode transits from n=5 to n=6 while retaining the same poloidal mode number m=1. The transition occurs when the m=1, n=5 wave-particle resonance condition cannot be satisfied as the fast-ion safety factor (q{sub fi}) decreases. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growth phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop when the EP modes peak, indicating that the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced with the onset of multiple EP modes.

  7. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, ystein; University of Oslo, Oslo

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup ?} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  8. Membrane architectures for ion-channel switch-based electrochemical biosensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sansinena, Jose-Maria; Redondo, Antonio; Swanson, Basil I.; Yee, Chanel Kitmon; Sapuri/Butti, Annapoorna R.; Parikh, Atul N.; Yang, Calvin

    2008-10-28

    The present invention is directed to a process of forming a bilayer lipid membrane structure by depositing an organic layer having a defined surface area onto an electrically conductive substrate, removing portions of said organic layer upon said electrically conductive substrate whereby selected portions of said organic layer are removed to form defined voids within said defined surface area of said organic layer and defined islands of organic layer upon said electrically conductive substrate, and, depositing a bilayer lipid membrane over the defined voids and defined islands of organic layer upon said substrate whereby aqueous reservoirs are formed between said electrically conductive substrate and said bilayer lipid membrane, said bilayer lipid membrane characterized as spanning across the defined voids between said defined islands. A lipid membrane structure is also described together with an array of such lipid membrane structure.

  9. High-intensity ion sources for accelerators with emphasis on H-beam formation and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Roderich

    2009-01-01

    This paper lays out the fundamental working principles of a variety of high-current ion sources for accelerators in a tutorial manner, and gives examples of specific source types such as d. c. discharge- and rf-driven multicusp sources. Penning-type and ECR-based sources while discussing those principles, pointing out general performance limits as well as the performance parameters of specific sources. Laser-based, two-chamber-. and surface-ionization sources are briefly mentioned. Main aspects of this review are particle feed. ionization mechanism, beam formation and beam transport. Issues seen with beam formation and low-energy transport of negative hydrogen-ion beams are treated in detail.

  10. Transport rates and momentum isotropization of gluon matter in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2007-08-15

    To describe momentum isotropization of gluon matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the transport rate of gluon drift and the transport collision rates of elastic (gg{r_reversible}gg) as well as inelastic (gg{r_reversible}ggg) perturbative quantum chromodynamics- (pQCD) scattering processes are introduced and calculated within the kinetic parton cascade Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings (BAMPS), which simulates the space-time evolution of partons. We define isotropization as the development of an anisotropic system as it reaches isotropy. The inverse of the introduced total transport rate gives the correct time scale of the momentum isotropization. The contributions of the various scattering processes to the momentum isotropization can be separated into the transport collision rates. In contrast to the transport cross section, the transport collision rate has an indirect but correctly implemented relationship with the collision-angle distribution. Based on the calculated transport collision rates from BAMPS for central Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies, we show that pQCD gg{r_reversible}ggg bremsstrahlung processes isotropize the momentum five times more efficiently than elastic scatterings. The large efficiency of the bremsstrahlung stems mainly from its large momentum deflection. Due to kinematics, 2{yields}N (N>2) production processes allow more particles to become isotropic in momentum space and thus kinetically equilibrate more quickly than their back reactions or elastic scatterings. We also show that the relaxation time in the relaxation time approximation, which is often used, is strongly momentum dependent and thus cannot serve as a global quantity that describes kinetic equilibration.

  11. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Nanowires are Outer Membrane and Periplasmic Extensions of the Extracellular Electron Transport Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirbadian, S.; Barchinger, S. E.; Leung, K. M.; Byun, H. S.; Jangir, Y.; Bouhenni, Rachida; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad; Shi, Liang; Gorby, Yuri A.; Golbeck, J. H.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2014-08-20

    Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic-abiotic interaction, the composition, physiological relevance, and electron transport mechanisms of bacterial nanowires remain unclear. We report the first in vivo observations of the formation and respiratory impact of nanowires in the model metal-reducing microbe Shewanella neidensis MR-1. Using live fluorescence measurements, immunolabeling, and quantitative gene expression analysis, we report that S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires are extensions of the outer membrane and periplasm that include the multiheme cytochromes responsible for EET, rather than pilin-based structures, as previously thought. These bacterial nanowires were also associated with outer membrane vesicles and vesicle chains, structures ubiquitous in gram-negative bacteria. Redoxfunctionalized membrane and vesicular extensions may represent a general microbial strategy for electron transport and energy distribution.

  12. Tail-ion transport and Knudsen layer formation in the presence of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmit, P. F.; Molvig, Kim; Nakhleh, C. W.

    2013-11-15

    Knudsen layer losses of tail fuel ions could reduce significantly the fusion reactivity of highly compressed cylindrical and spherical targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the class of magnetized ICF targets in mind, the effect of embedded magnetic fields on Knudsen layer formation is investigated for the first time. The modified energy scaling of ion diffusivity in magnetized hot spots is found to suppress the preferential losses of tail-ions perpendicular to the magnetic field lines to a degree that the tail distribution can be at least partially, if not fully, restored. Two simple threshold conditions are identified leading to the restoration of fusion reactivity in magnetized hot spots. A kinetic equation for tail-ion transport in the presence of a magnetic field is derived, and solutions to the equation are obtained numerically in simulations. Numerical results confirm the validity of the threshold conditions for restored reactivity and identify two different asymptotic regimes of the fusion fuel. While Knudsen layer formation is shown to be suppressed entirely in strongly magnetized cylindrical hot spot cavities, uniformly magnetized spherical cavities demonstrate remnant, albeit reduced, levels of tail-ion depletion.

  13. Separation of Olefin/Paraffin Mixtures With Carrier-Facilitated Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    Use of Membranes Could Significantly Reduce Energy Costs. Olefins, a group of petrochemicals that includes ethylene and propylene, are the primary building blocks for the petrochemical industry.

  14. Conceptual design report for a Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for transportation application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-05

    This report presents the conceptual design for a Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for transportation applications. The design is based on the initial selection of the Chrysler LH sedan as the target vehicle with a 50 kW (gross) PEM Fuel Cell Stack (FCS) as the primary power source, a battery-powered Load Leveling Unit (LLU) for surge power requirements, an on-board hydrogen storage subsystem containing high pressure gaseous storage, a Gas Management Subsystem (GMS) to manage the hydrogen and air supplies for the FCS, and electronic controllers to control the electrical system. The design process has been dedicated to the use of Design-to-Cost (DTC) principles. The Direct Hydrogen-Powered PEM Fuel Cell Stack Hybrid Vehicle (DPHV) system is designed to operate on the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) and Hiway Cycles. These cycles have been used to evaluate the vehicle performance with regard to range and hydrogen usage. The major constraints for the DPHV vehicle are vehicle and battery weight, transparency of the power system and drive train to the user, equivalence of fuel and life cycle costs to conventional vehicles, and vehicle range. The energy and power requirements are derived by the capability of the DPHV system to achieve an acceleration from 0 to 60 MPH within 12 seconds, and the capability to achieve and maintain a speed of 55 MPH on a grade of seven percent. The conceptual design for the DPHV vehicle is shown in a figure. A detailed description of the Hydrogen Storage Subsystem is given in section 4. A detailed description of the FCS Subsystem and GMS is given in section 3. A detailed description of the LLU, selection of the LLU energy source, and the power controller designs is given in section 5.

  15. Benchmarking Heavy Ion Transport Codes FLUKA, HETC-HEDS MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronningen, Reginald Martin; Remec, Igor; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.

    2013-06-07

    Powerful accelerators such as spallation neutron sources, muon-collider/neutrino facilities, and rare isotope beam facilities must be designed with the consideration that they handle the beam power reliably and safely, and they must be optimized to yield maximum performance relative to their design requirements. The simulation codes used for design purposes must produce reliable results. If not, component and facility designs can become costly, have limited lifetime and usefulness, and could even be unsafe. The objective of this proposal is to assess the performance of the currently available codes – PHITS, FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and HETC-HEDS – that could be used for design simulations involving heavy ion transport. We plan to access their performance by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data of benchmark quality. Quantitative knowledge of the biases and the uncertainties of the simulations is essential as this potentially impacts the safe, reliable and cost effective design of any future radioactive ion beam facility. Further benchmarking of heavy-ion transport codes was one of the actions recommended in the “Report of the 2003 RIA R&D Workshop".

  16. Full-f Neoclassical Simulations toward a Predictive Model for H-mode Pedestal Ion Energy, Particle and Momentum Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaglia, D. J.; Boedo, J. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Chang, C. S.; Canik, J. M.; deGrassie, J. S.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Maingi, Rajesh; Smith, S. P.

    2014-09-01

    Energy and particle transport rates are decoupled in the H-mode edge since the ion thermal transport rate is primarily set by the neoclassical transport of the deuterium ions in the tail of the thermal energy distribution, while the net particle transport rate is set by anomalous transport of the colder bulk ions. Ion orbit loss drives the energy distributions away from Maxwellian, and describes the anisotropy, poloidal asymmetry and local minimum near the separatrix observed in the Ti profile. Non-Maxwellian distributions also drive large intrinsic edge flows, and the interaction of turbulence at the top of the pedestal with the intrinsic edge flow can generate an intrinsic core torque. The primary driver of the radial electric field (Er) in the pedestal and scrapeoff layer (SOL) are kinetic neoclassical effects, such as ion orbit loss of tail ions and parallel electron loss to the divertor. This paper describes the first multi-species kinetic neoclassical transport calculations for ELM-free H-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer on DIII-D using XGC0, a 5D full-f particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. Quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles is achieved by adding random-walk particle diffusion to the guiding-center drift motion. This interpretative technique quantifies the role of neoclassical, anomalous and neutral transport to the overall pedestal structure, and consequently illustrates the importance of including kinetic effects self-consistently in transport calculations around transport barriers.

  17. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lightsource Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries Monday, February 13, 2012 - 1:30pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Stephen J. Harris, General Motors R&D While battery performance is well predicted by the macrohomogeneous model of Newman and co-workers, predicting degradation and failure remains a challenge. It may be that, like most materials, failure depends on local imperfections and inhomogeneities. We use tomographic data to evaluate the homogeneity of the tortuosity of the

  18. Uranium transport in Topopah Spring tuff: An ion-microscope investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeegan, K.D.; Phinney, D.; Oversby, V.M.; Buchholtz-ten Brink, M.; Smith, D.K.

    1988-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different methods of surface preparation on ion-microscope profiles of uranium concentration (added to the sample by diffusion from an aqueous solution) vs depth in a welded, devitrified, tuffaceous rock from Yucca Mountain. The concentration profiles were used to study transport of uranium in the tuff. Four wafers of rock were prepared from primary drill core material and finished by polishing with increasingly finer abrasive material. Final polishes were made with 400 grit SiC, 600 grit SiC, 0.3 um alumina, and 0.05 um alumina. The polished tuff wafers were exposed for eight hours to a solution of groundwater doped with 2 ppM 235-U. The wafers were then examined by SEM and the ion microscope was used to measure the lateral and depth distributions of 235-U and other isotopes in the wafer. No systematic correlation of the measured 235-U concentration- vs-depth profiles with the degree of surface finish was observed, indicating that the polishing does not affect the measurable transport of U in the tuff. A zone of enhanced 235-U concentration was observed in the upper few microns, which we attribute to sorption onto surfaces of exposed pores. Concentrations of 235-U were elevated above background to depths >15 um, indicating that rapid transport paths exist. When the uranium distribution near the surface of the wafer was modelled by an error function, an upper limit for a slower transport path was defined by an apparent diffusion coefficient of approximately 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2}/s. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The effect of ion orbit loss and X-loss on the interpretation of ion energy and particle transport in the DIII-D edge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2011-10-15

    Calculation models are presented for treating ion orbit loss effects in interpretive fluid transport calculations for the tokamak edge pedestal. Both standard ion orbit loss of particles following trapped or passing orbits across the separatrix and the X-loss of particles that are poloidally trapped in a narrow null-B{sub {theta}} region extending inward from the X-point, where they gradB and curvature drift outward, are considered. Calculations are presented for a representative DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] shot which indicate that ion orbit loss effects are significant and should be taken into account in calculations of present and future experiments.

  20. Uranium transport in Topopah spring tuff; An ion-microscope investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeegan, K.D.; Phinney, D.; Oversby, V.M.; Buchholtz-tenBrink, M.; Smith, D.K.

    1989-12-31

    The authors discuss their investigation of the effect of different methods of surface preparation on ion-microscope profiles of uranium concentration (added to the sample by diffusion from an aqueous solution) vs depth in a welded, devitrified, tuffaceous rock from Yucca Mountain. The concentration profiles were used to study transport of uranium in the tuff. Four wafers of rock were prepared from primary drill core material and finished by polishing with increasingly finer abrasive material. Final polishes were made with 400 grit SiC, 600 grit SiC, 0.3{mu}m alumina, and 0.05{mu}m alumina. The polished tuff wafers were exposed for eight hours to a solution of groundwater doped with 2 ppm 235-U. The wafers were then examined by SEM and the ion microscope was used to measure the lateral and depth distributions of 235-U and other isotopes in the wafer. No systematic correlation of the measured 235-U concentration- vs-depth profiles with the degree of surface finish was observed, indicating that the polishing does not affect the measurable transport of U in the tuff.

  1. Studies on low energy beam transport for high intensity high charged ions at IMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y. Lu, W.; Fang, X.; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 ; Sun, L. T.; Hu, Q.; Cao, Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2014-02-15

    Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an advanced fully superconducting ECR ion source at IMP designed to be operational at the microwave frequency of 1824 GHz. The existing SECRAL beam transmission line is composed of a solenoid lens and a 110 analyzing magnet. Simulations of particle tracking with 3D space charge effect and realistic 3D magnetic fields through the line were performed using particle-in-cell code. The results of the beam dynamics show that such a low energy beam is very sensitive to the space charge effect and significantly suffers from the second-order aberration of the analyzing magnet resulting in large emittance. However, the second-order aberration could be reduced by adding compensating sextupole components in the beam line. On this basis, a new 110 analyzing magnet with relatively larger acceptance and smaller aberration is designed and will be used in the design of low energy beam transport line for a new superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL-II. The features of the analyzer and the corresponding beam trajectory calculation will be detailed and discussed in this paper.

  2. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  3. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    50% smaller in footprint, has a smaller diameter, and is up to 50% lower in weight, resulting in very compact design with reduced material cost and labor costs, while requiring less boiler room floor space. For enhanced energy efficiency, the heat recovery system uses a transport membrane condenser (TMC), a humidifying air heater (HAH), and a split-stage economizer to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. The TMC is a new innovation that pulls a major portion of water vapor produced by the combustion process from the flue gases along with its sensible and latent heat. This results in nearly 100% transfer of heat to the boiler feed water. The HAH improves the effectiveness of the TMC, particularly in steam systems that do not have a large amount of cold makeup water. In addition, the HAH humidifies the combustion air to reduce NOx formation. The split-stage economizer preheats boiler feed water in the same way as a conventional economizer, but extracts more heat by working in tandem with the TMC and HAH to reduce flue gas temperature. These components are designed to work synergistically to achieve energy efficiencies of 92-94% which is 10-15% higher than today's typical firetube boilers.

  4. Nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane for continuous fluid transport in micro cooling device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.; Cheng, Jim C.

    2013-10-14

    We report an efficient passive micro pump system combining the physical properties of nanowires and micropores. This nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane was created to feed coolant continuously onto the surface of the wick in a micro cooling device to ensure it remains hydrated and in case of dryout, allow for regeneration of the system. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to form micropores followed by hydrothermal growth of nanowires. This study shows a promising approach to address thermal management challenges for next generation electronic devices with absence of external power.

  5. Toxicological significance of renal Bcrp: Another potential transporter in the elimination of mercuric ions from proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridges, Christy C. Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Joshee, Lucy

    2015-06-01

    Secretion of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) from proximal tubular cells into the tubular lumen has been shown to involve the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). Considering similarities in localization and substrate specificity between Mrp2 and the breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), we hypothesize that Bcrp may also play a role in the proximal tubular secretion of mercuric species. In order to test this hypothesis, the uptake of Hg{sup 2+} was examined initially using inside-out membrane vesicles containing Bcrp. The results of these studies suggest that Bcrp may be capable of transporting certain conjugates of Hg{sup 2+}. To further characterize the role of Bcrp in the handling of mercuric ions and in the induction of Hg{sup 2+}-induced nephropathy, Sprague–Dawley and Bcrp knockout (bcrp{sup −/−}) rats were exposed intravenously to a non-nephrotoxic (0.5 μmol·kg{sup −1}), a moderately nephrotoxic (1.5 μmol·kg{sup −1}) or a significantly nephrotoxic (2.0 μmol·kg{sup −1}) dose of HgCl{sub 2}. In general, the accumulation of Hg{sup 2+} was greater in organs of bcrp{sup −/−} rats than in Sprague–Dawley rats, suggesting that Bcrp may play a role in the export of Hg{sup 2+} from target cells. Within the kidney, cellular injury and necrosis was more severe in bcrp{sup −/−} rats than in controls. The pattern of necrosis, which was localized in the inner cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla, was significantly different from that observed in Mrp2-deficient animals. These findings suggest that Bcrp may be involved in the cellular export of select mercuric species and that its role in this export may differ from that of Mrp2. - Highlights: • Bcrp may mediate transport of mercury out of proximal tubular cells. • Hg-induced nephropathy was more severe in Bcrp knockout rats. • Bcrp and Mrp2 may differ in their ability to transport Hg.

  6. Ultem®/ZIF-8 mixed matrix membranes for gas separation: Transport and physical properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eiras, Daniel; Labreche, Ying; Pessan, Luiz Antonio

    2016-02-19

    Mixed matrix membranes are promising options for improving gas separation processes. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have a porous structure similar to conventional zeolites, being capable in principle of separating gases based on their differences in kinetic diameter while offering the advantage of having a partial organic character. This partial organic nature improves the compatibility between the sieve and the polymer, and a combination of the mentioned characteristics makes these hybrid materials interesting for the preparation of mixed matrix gas separation membranes. In this context the present work reports the preparation of Ultem®/ZIF-8 mixed matrix membranes and their permeabilities to puremore » CO2, N2 and CH4 gases. A significant increase in permeability with increase in CO2/N2 selectivity was observed for the mixed matrix systems as compared to the properties of the neat Ultem®. Sorption results allowed to speculate that the ZIF-8 framework is not completely stable dimensionally, what influences the separation process by allowing gases with higher kinetic diameter than its nominal aperture to be sorbed and to diffuse through the crystal. Lastly, sorption and diffusion selectivities indicate that the higher separation performance of the mixed matrix membranes is governed by the diffusion process associated with the influence of gas molecule´s geometry.« less

  7. Final Technical Report DE-FG02-08ER41540. Establishing the Transport Properties of QCD With Heavy Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teaney, Derek

    2015-03-17

    We review the results of the DE-FG02-08ER41540, "Establishing the transport properties of QCD with heavy ion reactions"

  8. Investigation of ion and electron heat transport of high-Te ECH heated discharges in the large helical device

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pablant, N. A.; Satake, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Gates, D. A.; Bitter, M.; Bertelli, N.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Dinklage, A.; Goto, M.; Hill, K. W.; et al

    2016-01-28

    An analysis of the radial electric field and heat transport, both for ions and electrons, is presented for a high-more » $${{T}_{\\text{e}}}$$ electron cyclotron heated (ECH) discharge on the large helical device (LHD). Transport analysis is done using the task3d transport suite utilizing experimentally measured profiles for both ions and electrons. Ion temperature and perpendicular flow profiles are measured using the recently installed x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer diagnostic (XICS), while electron temperature and density profiles are measured using Thomson scattering. The analysis also includes calculated ECH power deposition profiles as determined through the travis ray-tracing code. This is the first time on LHD that this type of integrated transport analysis with measured ion temperature profiles has been performed without NBI, allowing the heat transport properties of plasmas with only ECH heating to be more clearly examined. For this study, a plasma discharge is chosen which develops a high central electron temperature ($${{T}_{\\text{eo}}}=9$$ keV) at moderately low densities ($${{n}_{\\text{eo}}}=1.5\\times {{10}^{19}}$$ m-3). The experimentally determined transport properties from task3d are compared to neoclassical predictions as calculated by the gsrake and fortec-3d codes. The predicted electron fluxes are seen to be an order of magnitude less than the measured fluxes, indicating that electron transport is largely anomalous, while the neoclassical and measured ion heat fluxes are of the same magnitude. Neoclassical predictions of a strong positive ambipolar electric field ($${{E}_{\\text{r}}}$$ ) in the plasma core are validated through comparisons to perpendicular flow measurements from the XICS diagnostic. Furthermore, this provides confidence that the predictions are producing physically meaningful results for the particle fluxes and radial electric field, which are a key component in correctly predicting plasma confinement.« less

  9. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  10. Compounds having aromatic rings and side-chain amide-functionality and a method for transporting monovalent anions across biological membranes using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jeffery T.; Sidorov, Vladimir; Kotch, Frank W.

    2008-04-08

    A compound containing at least two aromatic rings covalently bonded together, with each aromatic ring containing at least one oxyacetamide-based side chain, the compound being capable of forming a chloride ion channel across a lipid bilayer, and transporting chloride ion across the lipid bilayer.

  11. Heavy-quark production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within a partonic transport model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uphoff, Jan; Fochler, Oliver; Greiner, Carsten; Xu Zhe

    2010-10-15

    The production and space-time evolution of charm and bottom quarks in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are investigated with the partonic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings). Heavy quarks, produced in primary hard parton scatterings during nucleon-nucleon collisions, are sampled using the Monte Carlo event generator pythia or the leading-order minijet model in conjunction with the Glauber model, revealing a strong sensitivity on the parton distribution functions, scales, and heavy-quark mass. In a comprehensive study exploring different charm masses, K factors, and possible initial gluon conditions, secondary production and the evolution of heavy quarks are examined within a fully dynamic BAMPS simulation for central heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Although charm production in the quark-gluon plasma can be neglected at RHIC, it is significant at LHC but very sensitive to the initial conditions and the charm mass. Bottom production in the quark-gluon plasma, however, is negligible both at RHIC and LHC.

  12. Effect of resistivity gradient on laser-driven electron transport and ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuo, H. B.; Yang, X. H.; Ma, Y. Y.; Li, X. H.; Zhou, C. T.; Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 ; Yu, M. Y.; Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, Bochum D-44780

    2013-09-15

    The effect of resistivity gradient on laser-driven electron transport and ion acceleration is investigated using collisional particle-in-cell simulation. The study is motivated by recent proton acceleration experiments [Gizzi et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14, 011301 (2011)], which showed significant effect of the resistivity gradient in layered targets on the proton angular spread. This effect is reproduced in the present simulations. It is found that resistivity-gradient generation of magnetic fields and inhibition of electron transport is significantly enhanced when the feedback interaction between the magnetic field and the fast-electron current is included. Filamentation of the laser-generated hot electron jets inside the target, considered as the origin of the nonuniform proton patterns observed in the experiments, is clearly suppressed by the resistive magnetic field. As a result, the electrostatic sheath field at the target back surface acquires a relatively smooth profile, which contributes to the superior quality of the proton beams accelerated off layered targets in the experiments.

  13. Computational and experimental study of nanoporous membranes for water desalination and decontamination.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickner, Michael A.; Chinn, Douglas Alan; Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Long, Kevin R.; Kent, Michael Stuart; Debusschere, Bert J.; Zendejas, Frank J.; Tran, Huu M.; Najm, Habib N.; Simmons, Blake Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Fundamentals of ion transport in nanopores were studied through a joint experimental and computational effort. The study evaluated both nanoporous polymer membranes and track-etched nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. The track-etched membranes provide a geometrically well characterized platform, while the polymer membranes are more closely related to ion exchange systems currently deployed in RO and ED applications. The experimental effort explored transport properties of the different membrane materials. Poly(aniline) membranes showed that flux could be controlled by templating with molecules of defined size. Track-etched polycarbonate membranes were modified using oxygen plasma treatments, UV-ozone exposure, and UV-ozone with thermal grafting, providing an avenue to functionalized membranes, increased wettability, and improved surface characteristic lifetimes. The modeling effort resulted in a novel multiphysics multiscale simulation model for field-driven transport in nanopores. This model was applied to a parametric study of the effects of pore charge and field strength on ion transport and charge exclusion in a nanopore representative of a track-etched polycarbonate membrane. The goal of this research was to uncover the factors that control the flux of ions through a nanoporous material and to develop tools and capabilities for further studies. Continuation studies will build toward more specific applications, such as polymers with attached sulfonate groups, and complex modeling methods and geometries.

  14. Predicted Structure, Thermo-Mechanical Properties and Li Ion Transport in LiAlF4 Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechert, T. R.; Rushton, M. J. D.; Grimes, R. W.; Dillon, A. C.

    2012-08-15

    Materials with the LiAlF{sub 4} composition are of interest as protective electrode coatings in Li ion battery applications due to their high cationic conductivity. Here classical molecular dynamics calculations are used to produce amorphous model structures by simulating a quench from the molten state. These are analysed in terms of their individual pair correlation functions and atomic coordination environments. This indicates that amorphous LiAlF{sub 4} is formed of a network of corner sharing AlF{sub 6} octahedra. Li ions are distributed within this network, primarily associated with non-bridging fluorine atoms. The nature of the octahedral network is further analysed through intra- and interpolyhedral bond angle distributions and the relative populations of bridging and non-bridging fluorine ions are calculated. Network topology is considered through the use of ring statistics, which indicates that, although topologically well connected, LiAlF{sub 4} contains an appreciable number of corner-linked branch-like AlF{sub 6} chains. Thermal expansion values are determined above and below the predicted glass transition temperature of 1340 K. Finally, movement of Li ions within the network is examined with predictions of the mean squared displacements, diffusion coefficients and Li ion activation energy. Different regimes for lithium ion movement are identified, with both diffusive and sessile Li ions observed. For migrating ions, a typical trajectory is illustrated and discussed in terms of a hopping mechanism for Li transport.

  15. Mesoscale Phase-Field Modeling of Charge Transport in Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sushko, Maria L.

    2013-01-10

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the influence of microstructure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and charging conditions on charged particle transport in nanocomposite electrodes. Two sets of field variables are used to describe the microstructure. One is comprised of the order parameters describing size, orientation and spatial distributions of nanoparticles, and the other is comprised of the concentrations of mobile species. A porous nanoparticle microstructure filled with electrolyte is taken as a model system to test the phase-field model. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic dielectric constants and mobilities of charged particles, and stresses associated with lattice deformation due to Li-ion insertion/extraction are considered in the model. Iteration methods are used to find the elastic and electric fields in an elastically and electrically inhomogeneous medium. The results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting charge separation associated with the formation of a double layer at the electrochemical interface between solid and electrolyte, and the effect of microstructure, inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermodynamic and kinetic properties, charge rates, and stresses on voltage versus current density and capacity during charging and discharging.

  16. Effect of Molecular Weight on the Ion Transport Mechanism in Polymerized Ionic Liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fan, Fei; Wang, Weiyu; Holt, Adam P.; Feng, Hongbo; Uhrig, David; Lu, Xinyi; Hong, Tao; Wang, Yangyang; Kang, Nam-Goo; Mays, Jimmy; et al

    2016-06-07

    The unique properties of ionic liquids (ILs) have made them promising candidates for electrochemical applications. Polymerization of the corresponding ILs results in a new class of materials called polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs). Though PolyILs offer the possibility to combine the high conductivity of ILs and the high mechanical strength of polymers, their conductivities are typically much lower than that of the corresponding small molecule ILs. In this study, seven PolyILs were synthesized having degrees of polymerization ranging from 1 to 333, corresponding to molecular weights (MW) from 482 to 160 400 g/mol. Depolarized dynamic light scattering, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, rheology,more » and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to systematically study the influence of MW on the mechanism of ionic transport and segmental dynamics in these materials. Finally, the modified Walden plot analysis reveals that the ion conductivity transforms from being closely coupled with structural relaxation to being strongly decoupled from it as MW increases.« less

  17. Strongly enhanced oxygen ion transport through samarium-doped CeO2 nanopillars in nanocomposite films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Lee, Shinbuhm; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Wenrui; Lu, Ping; Jia, Quanxi; Wang, Haiyan; Won Noh, Tae; Kalinin, Sergei V.; MacManus‐Driscoll, Judith L.

    2015-10-08

    Enhancement of oxygen ion conductivity in oxides is important for low-temperature (<500 °C) operation of solid oxide fuel cells, sensors and other ionotronic devices. While huge ion conductivity has been demonstrated in planar heterostructure films, there has been considerable debate over the origin of the conductivity enhancement, in part because of the difficulties of probing buried ion transport channels. Here we create a practical geometry for device miniaturization, consisting of highly crystalline micrometre-thick vertical nanocolumns of Sm-doped CeO2 embedded in supporting matrices of SrTiO3. The ionic conductivity is higher by one order of magnitude than plain Sm-doped CeO2films. Then bymore » using scanning probe microscopy, we show that the fast ion-conducting channels are not exclusively restricted to the interface but also are localized at the Sm-doped CeO2 nanopillars. Furthermore, this work offers a pathway to realize spatially localized fast ion transport in oxides of micrometre thickness.« less

  18. Strongly enhanced oxygen ion transport through samarium-doped CeO2 nanopillars in nanocomposite films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Sangmo; Lee, Shinbuhm; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Wenrui; Lu, Ping; Jia, Quanxi; Wang, Haiyan; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V.; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2015-10-08

    Enhancement of oxygen ion conductivity in oxides is important for low-temperature (<500 °C) operation of solid oxide fuel cells, sensors and other ionotronic devices. While huge ion conductivity has been demonstrated in planar heterostructure films, there has been considerable debate over the origin of the conductivity enhancement, in part because of the difficulties of probing buried ion transport channels. Here we create a practical geometry for device miniaturization, consisting of highly crystalline micrometre-thick vertical nanocolumns of Sm-doped CeO2 embedded in supporting matrices of SrTiO3. The ionic conductivity is higher by one order of magnitude than plain Sm-doped CeO2 films. Bymore » using scanning probe microscopy, we show that the fast ion-conducting channels are not exclusively restricted to the interface but also are localized at the Sm-doped CeO2 nanopillars. This work offers a pathway to realize spatially localized fast ion transport in oxides of micrometre thickness.« less

  19. Strongly enhanced oxygen ion transport through samarium-doped CeO2 nanopillars in nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Lee, Shinbuhm; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Wenrui; Lu, Ping; Jia, Quanxi; Wang, Haiyan; Won Noh, Tae; Kalinin, Sergei V.; MacManus?Driscoll, Judith L.

    2015-10-08

    Enhancement of oxygen ion conductivity in oxides is important for low-temperature (<500 C) operation of solid oxide fuel cells, sensors and other ionotronic devices. While huge ion conductivity has been demonstrated in planar heterostructure films, there has been considerable debate over the origin of the conductivity enhancement, in part because of the difficulties of probing buried ion transport channels. Here we create a practical geometry for device miniaturization, consisting of highly crystalline micrometre-thick vertical nanocolumns of Sm-doped CeO2 embedded in supporting matrices of SrTiO3. The ionic conductivity is higher by one order of magnitude than plain Sm-doped CeO2films. Then by using scanning probe microscopy, we show that the fast ion-conducting channels are not exclusively restricted to the interface but also are localized at the Sm-doped CeO2 nanopillars. Furthermore, this work offers a pathway to realize spatially localized fast ion transport in oxides of micrometre thickness.

  20. Fast-ion transport in qmin>2, high- β steady-state scenarios on DIII-D

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Ferron, J. R.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Garofalo, A. M.; Solomon, W. M.; Gong, X.; Mueller, D.; Grierson, B.; Bass, E. M.; et al

    2015-05-22

    The results from experiments on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] aimed at developing high β steady-state operating scenarios with high-qminqmin confirm that fast-ion transport is a critical issue for advanced tokamak development using neutral beam injection current drive. In DIII-D, greater than 11 MW of neutral beam heating power is applied with the intent of maximizing βN and the noninductive current drive. However, in scenarios with qmin>2 that target the typical range of q95= 5–7 used in next-step steady-state reactor models, Alfvén eigenmodes cause greater fast-ion transport than classical models predict. This enhanced transport reducesmore » the absorbed neutral beam heating power and current drive and limits the achievable βN. Conversely similar plasmas except with qmin just above 1 have approximately classical fast-ion transport. Experiments that take qmin>3 plasmas to higher βP with q95= 11–12 for testing long pulse operation exhibit regimes of better than expected thermal confinement. Compared to the standard high-qmin scenario, the high βP cases have shorter slowing-down time and lower ∇βfast, and this reduces the drive for Alfvénic modes, yielding nearly classical fast-ion transport, high values of normalized confinement, βN, and noninductive current fraction. These results suggest DIII-D might obtain better performance in lower-q95, high-qmin plasmas using broader neutral beam heating profiles and increased direct electron heating power to lower the drive for Alfvén eigenmodes.« less

  1. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hibbs, Michael; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  2. Mass transport of heavy metal ions and radon in gels used as sealing agents in containment technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakatos, I.; Bauer, K.; Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Kretzschmar, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    The diffusion and hydrodynamic mass transport of multivalent cations, mostly Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions and radon in polymer/silicate gels and Montanwax emulsions were studied. It was concluded that the self-conforming gels may decrease the hydrodynamic mass transport in porous and fractured media by 4-6 orders of magnitude. In water saturated systems, however, the diffusion transport can be restricted by hydrogels only to a moderate extent. On the other hand, the high and selective retention capacity of gels towards different diffusing species may open new vistas in the sealing technologies. Similar results were obtained for transport phenomena of radon. The almost perfect quenching process of radon and its nuclides in gels and emulsions further enhances the positive effects of the encapsulation methods. The laboratory experiments provided valuable new information to design the different containment technologies.

  3. Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sansinena, J. M.; Yee, C. K.; Sapuri, A.; Swanson, Basil I.; Redondo, A.; Parikh, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    We present a simple approach for the design of ionic reservoir arrays within a double phospholipid bilayer to ultimately develop a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors. As a first step, a primary bilayer lipid membrane is deposited onto an array of electrodes patterned onto a substrate surface. Subsequently, an array of microvoids is created within the bilayer by a wet photolithographic patterning of phospholipid bilayers using a deep UV light source and a quartz/chrome photomask. To ensure registry, the photomask used to pattern bilayers is designed to match up the microvoids within the primary bilayer with the array of electrodes on the substrate surface. The deposition of a secondary bilayer lipid membrane onto the primary bilayer that spans across the patterned microvoids leads to the formation of the array of ionic reservoirs within the double phospholipid bilayer. This is accomplished using giant unilamellar vesicles and by exploiting membrane electrostatics. The use of ion-channels incorporated into the secondary bilayer that covers the individual ionic reservoirs allows the construction of a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors that are able to recognize different target-agents simultaneously.

  4. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: The {sup 132}Sn{sup +} case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osswald, F. Bouquerel, E.; Boutin, D.; Dinkov, A.; Sellam, A.

    2014-12-15

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards.

  5. Plasma channel and Z-pinch dynamics for heavy ion transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponce-Marquez, David

    2002-07-09

    A self stabilized, free standing, z-pinch plasma channel has been proposed to deliver the high intensity heavy ion beam from the end of a driver to the fuel target in a heavy ion inertial fusion power plant. The z-pinch relaxes emittance and energy spread requirements requiring a lower cost driver. A z-pinch transport would reduce the number of beam entry port holes to the target chamber from over a hundred to four as compared to neutralized ballistic focusing thus reducing the driver hardware exposure to neutron flux. Experiments where a double pulse discharge technique is used, z-pinch plasma channels with enhanced stability are achieved. Typical parameters are 7 kV pre-pulse discharge and 30 kV main bank discharge with 50 kA of channel current in a 7 torr background gas atmosphere. This work is an experimental study of these plasma channels examining the relevant physics necessary to understand and model such plasmas. Laser diagnostics measured the dynamical properties of neutrals and plasma. Schlieren and phase contrast techniques probe the pre-pulse gas dynamics and infrared interferometry and faraday effect polarimetry are used on the z-pinch to study its electron density and current distribution. Stability and repeatability of the z-pinch depend on the initial conditions set by the pre-pulse. Results show that the z-pinch channel is wall stabilized by an on-axis gas density depression created by the pre-pulse through hydrodynamic expansion where the ratio of the initial gas density to the final gas density is > 10/1. The low on-axis density favors avalanching along the desired path for the main bank discharge. Pinch time is around 2 s from the main bank discharge initiation with a FWHM of {approx} 2 cm. Results also show that typical main bank discharge plasma densities reach 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} peak on axis for a 30 kV, 7 torr gas nitrogen discharge. Current rise time is limited by the circuit-channel inductance with the highest contribution to the

  6. Systematic computational and experimental investigation of lithium-ion transport mechanisms in polyester-based polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Michael A.; Jung, Yukyung; Pesko, Danielle M.; Savoie, Brett M.; Yamamoto, Umi; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Wang, Zhen -Gang; Miller, III, Thomas F.

    2015-07-10

    Understanding the mechanisms of lithium-ion transport in polymers is crucial for the design of polymer electrolytes. We combine modular synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and molecular simulation to investigate lithium-ion transport in a new family of polyester-based polymers and in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Theoretical predictions of glass-transition temperatures and ionic conductivities in the polymers agree well with experimental measurements. Interestingly, both the experiments and simulations indicate that the ionic conductivity of PEO, relative to the polyesters, is far higher than would be expected from its relative glass-transition temperature. The simulations reveal that diffusion of the lithium cations in the polyesters proceeds via a different mechanism than in PEO, and analysis of the distribution of available cation solvation sites in the various polymers provides a novel and intuitive way to explain the experimentally observed ionic conductivities. This work provides a platform for the evaluation and prediction of ionic conductivities in polymer electrolyte materials.

  7. Survey of ion-acoustic-instability particle simulations and relevance to laser-fusion thermal-transport inhibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mead, W.C.

    1980-09-11

    Ion acoustic turbulence is examined as one mechanism which could contribute to the inhibition of electron thermal transport which has been inferred from many laser-plasma experiments. The behavior of the ion acoustic instability is discussed from the viewpoint of the literature of 2-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Simulation techniques, limitations, and reported saturation mechanisms and levels are discussed. A scaling law for the effective collision frequency ..nu..* can be fit to several workers' results to within an order-of-magnitude. The inferred ..nu..* is shown to be 1-2 orders-of-magnitude too small to account for the transport inhibition seen in Nd-laser-produced plasmas. Several differences between the simulation conditions and laser-produced plasma conditions are noted.

  8. Bulk matter evolution and extraction of jet transport parameters in heavy-ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xiaofang; Greiner, Carsten; Wang Enke; Wang Xinnian; Xu Zhe

    2010-06-15

    Within the picture of jet quenching induced by multiple parton scattering and gluon bremsstrahlung, medium modification of parton fragmentation functions and therefore the suppression of large transverse-momentum hadron spectra are controlled by both the value and the space-time profile of the jet transport parameter along the jet propagation path. Experimental data on single-hadron suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energy are analyzed within the higher-twist (HT) approach to the medium-modified fragmentation functions and the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD parton model. Assuming that the jet transport parameter q is proportional to the particle number density in both quark gluon plasma (QGP) and hadronic phase, experimental data on jet quenching in deeply inelastic scattering off nuclear targets can provide guidance on q{sub h} in the hot hadronic matter. One can then study the dependence of the extracted initial value of jet-quenching parameter q{sub 0} at initial time tau{sub 0} on the bulk medium evolution. Effects of transverse expansion, radial flow, phase transition, and nonequilibrium evolution are examined. The extracted values are found to vary from q{sub 0}tau{sub 0}=0.54 GeV{sup 2} in the (1+3)d ideal hydrodynamic model to 0.96 GeV{sup 2} in a cascade model, with the main differences coming from the initial nonequilibrium evolution and the later hadronic evolution. The overall contribution to jet quenching from the hadronic phase, about 22%-44%, is found to be significant. Therefore, a realistic description of the early nonequilibrium parton evolution and later hadronic interaction will be critical for accurate extraction of the jet transport parameter in the strongly interacting QGP phase in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  9. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S.; Nair, Balakrishnan G.; Small, Troy; Heck, Brian

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  10. Application of Momentum Transfer Theory for Ion and Electron Transport in Pure Gases and in Gas Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jovanovic, J.V.; Vrhovac, S. B.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we have presented two applications of Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT), which were both aimed at obtaining reliable data for modeling of non-equilibrium plasma. Transport properties of ion swarms in presence of Resonant Charge Transfer (RCT) collisions are studied using Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT). Using the developed MTT we tested a previously available anisotropic set of cross-sections for Ar++Ar collisions bay making the comparisons with the available data for the transverse diffusion coefficient. We also developed an anisotropic set of Ne++Ne integral cross-sections based on the available data for mobility, longitudinal and transverse diffusion. Anisotropic sets of cross-sections are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of ion transport and plasma models. Application of Blanc's Law for drift velocities of electrons and ions in gas mixtures at arbitrary reduced electric field strengths E/n0 was studied theoretically and by numerical examples. Corrections for Blanc's Law that include effects of inelastic collisions were derived. In addition we have derived the common mean energy procedure that was proposed by Chiflikian in a general case both for ions and electrons. Both corrected common E/n0 and common mean energy procedures provide excellent results even for electrons at moderate E/n0 where application of Blanc's Law was regarded as impossible. In mixtures of two gases that have negative differential conductivity (NDC) even when neither of the two pure gases show NDC the Blanc's Law procedure was able to give excellent predictions.

  11. Research and development of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    Objective during Phase I was to develop a methanol-fueled 10-kW fuel cell power source and evaluate its feasibility for transportation applications. This report documents research on component (fuel cell stack, fuel processor, power source ancillaries and system sensors) development and the 10-kW power source system integration and test. The conceptual design study for a PEM fuel cell powered vehicle was documented in an earlier report (DOE/CH/10435-01) and is summarized herein. Major achievements in the program include development of advanced membrane and thin-film low Pt-loaded electrode assemblies that in reference cell testing with reformate-air reactants yielded performance exceeding the program target (0.7 V at 1000 amps/ft{sup 2}); identification of oxidation catalysts and operating conditions that routinely result in very low CO levels ({le} 10 ppm) in the fuel processor reformate, thus avoiding degradation of the fuel cell stack performance; and successful integrated operation of a 10-kW fuel cell stack on reformate from the fuel processor.

  12. Membranes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Cornell Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Membranes Fig. 1 PEM Fuel Cell Fuel cells are highly efficient devices that convert the chemical energy stored in a fuel directly intoelectricity. Within a fuel cell, the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) serves as the conducting interface between the anode and cathode, transporting the ions (Figure 1). As a result, the PEM is a central, and often performance-limiting,

  13. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  14. Solenoid transport of a heavy ion beam for warm dense matterstudies and inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Julien

    2006-10-01

    From February to July 2006, I have been doing research as a guest at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in the Heavy Ion Fusion group. This internship, which counts as one semester in my master's program in France, I was very pleased to do it in a field that I consider has the beauty of fundamental physics, and at the same time the special appeal of a quest for a long-term and environmentally-respectful energy source. During my stay at LBNL, I have been involved in three projects, all of them related to Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). The first one, experimental and analytical, has consisted in measuring the effects of the eddy currents induced by the pulsed magnets in the conducting plates of the source and diagnostic chambers of the Solenoid Transport Experiment (STX, which is a subset of NDCX). We have modeled the effect and run finite-element simulations that have reproduced the perturbation to the field. Then, we have modified WARP, the Particle-In-Cell code used to model the whole experiment, in order to import realistic fields including the eddy current effects and some details of each magnet. The second project has been to take part in a campaign of WARP simulations of the same experiment to understand the leakage of electrons that was observed in the experiment as a consequence to some diagnostics and the failure of the electrostatic electron trap. The simulations have shown qualitative agreement with the measured phenomena, but are still in progress. The third project, rather theoretical, has been related to the upcoming target experiment of a thin aluminum foil heated by a beam to the 1-eV range. At the beginning I helped by analyzing simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion and cooling of the heated material. But, progressively, my work turned into making estimates for the nature of the liquid/vapor two-phase flow. In particular, I have been working on criteria and models to predict the formation of droplets, their size, and

  15. Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

    2002-01-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel{reg_sign} Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To

  16. Momentum transport in the vicinity of q{sub min} in reverse shear tokamaks due to ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rameswar; Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex ; Singh, R; WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 ; Jhang, Hogun; Diamond, P. H.; Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093; Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0424

    2014-01-15

    We present an analytic study of momentum transport of tokamak plasmas in the vicinity of minimum safety factor (q) position in reversed magnetic shear configuration. Slab ion temperature gradient modes with an equilibrium flow profile are considered in this study. Quasi-linear calculations of momentum flux clearly show the novel effects of q-curvature on the generation of intrinsic rotation and mean poloidal flow without invoking reflectional symmetry breaking of parallel wavenumber (k{sub ?}). This q-curvature effect originates from the inherent asymmetry in k{sub ?} populations with respect to a rational surface due to the quadratic proportionality of k{sub ?} when q-curvature is taken into account. Discussions are made of possible implications of q-curvature induced plasma flows on internal transport barrier formation in reversed shear tokamaks.

  17. Synergy between fast-ion transport by core MHD and test blanket module fields in DIII-D experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Collins, C. S.; Gray, T.; Grierson, B. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Lanctot, M.; Pace, D. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Mclean, A. G.

    2015-07-21

    We measured fast-ion transport caused by the combination of MHD and a mock-up test-blanket module (TBM) coil in the DIII-D tokamak. The primary diagnostic is an infrared camera that measures the heat flux on the tiles surrounding the coil. The combined effects of the TBM and four other potential sources of transport are studied: neoclassical tearing modes, Alfvén eigenmodes, sawteeth, and applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields for the control of edge localized modes. A definitive synergistic effect is observed at sawtooth crashes where, in the presence of the TBM, the localized heat flux at a burst increases from 0.36±0.27 tomore » 2.6±0.5 MW/m-2.« less

  18. Manipulation of transport hysteresis on graphene field effect transistors with Ga ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Quan, E-mail: wangq@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Shuai; Ren, Naifei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2014-09-29

    We have studied the effect of Ga ion irradiation on the controllable hysteretic behavior of graphene field effect transistors fabricated on Si/SO{sub 2} substrates. The various densities of defects in graphene were monitored by Raman spectrum. It was found that the Dirac point shifted to the positive gate voltage constantly, while the hysteretic behavior was enhanced first and then weakened, with the dose of ion irradiation increasing. By contrasting the trap charges density induced by dopant and the total density of effective trap charges, it demonstrated that adsorbate doping was not the decisive factor that induced the hysteretic behavior. The tunneling between the defect sites induced by ion irradiation was also an important cause for the hysteresis.

  19. Systematic computational and experimental investigation of lithium-ion transport mechanisms in polyester-based polymer electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Webb, Michael A.; Jung, Yukyung; Pesko, Danielle M.; Savoie, Brett M.; Yamamoto, Umi; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Wang, Zhen -Gang; Miller, III, Thomas F.

    2015-07-10

    Understanding the mechanisms of lithium-ion transport in polymers is crucial for the design of polymer electrolytes. We combine modular synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and molecular simulation to investigate lithium-ion transport in a new family of polyester-based polymers and in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Theoretical predictions of glass-transition temperatures and ionic conductivities in the polymers agree well with experimental measurements. Interestingly, both the experiments and simulations indicate that the ionic conductivity of PEO, relative to the polyesters, is far higher than would be expected from its relative glass-transition temperature. The simulations reveal that diffusion of the lithium cations in the polyesters proceeds viamore » a different mechanism than in PEO, and analysis of the distribution of available cation solvation sites in the various polymers provides a novel and intuitive way to explain the experimentally observed ionic conductivities. This work provides a platform for the evaluation and prediction of ionic conductivities in polymer electrolyte materials.« less

  20. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

    1997-01-01

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  1. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

    1997-08-05

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  2. Electron capture and electron transport by fast ions penetrating solids: An open quantum system approach with sources and sinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seliger, Marek; Reinhold, Carlos O.; Minami, Tatsuya; Schultz, David R.; Pindzola, Michael S.; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdoerfer, Joachim; Lamour, Emily; Rozet, Jean-Pierre; Vernhet, Dominique

    2007-03-15

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental study of the time evolution of electronic states of highly charged hydrogenic ions formed by capture during transmission through solids as they undergo multiple collisions and radiative decay. For this transport problem we have developed an inhomogeneous nonunitary Lindblad master equation that allows for a description of open quantum systems with both sinks (electron loss) and source (capture) present. We apply this theoretical framework to study transient coherences created in electron capture by 13.6 MeV/amu Ar{sup 18+} ions transmitted through amorphous carbon foils and decoherence during subsequent interaction with the foil. In the limit of thin targets we can directly probe electron capture cross sections under single collision conditions, while for thicker targets we follow the partially coherent dynamics of the open quantum system in interaction with the solid as a function of interaction time. The calculated results are in close agreement with experimental data obtained at the LISE facility in GANIL. Photon intensities from excited argon ions were determined through high resolution x-ray spectroscopy in which individual fine structure components were resolved. Measurements were performed for a wide range of carbon foil thickness to study the time development of the excited state populations.

  3. Electron Capture and Electron Transport by Fast Ions Penetrating Solids: An open Quantum System Approach with Sources and Sinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seliger, M.

    2007-03-01

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental study of the time evolution of electronic states of highly charged hydrogenic ions formed by capture during transmission through solids as they undergo multiple collisions and radiative decay. For this transport problem we have developed an inhomogeneous nonunitary Lindblad master equation that allows for a description of open quantum systems with both sinks (electron loss) and source (capture) present. We apply this theoretical framework to study transient coherences created in electron capture by 13.6 MeV/amu Ar18+ ions transmitted through amorphous carbon foils and decoherence during subsequent interaction with the foil. In the limit of thin targets we can directly probe electron capture cross sections under single collision conditions, while for thicker targets we follow the partially coherent dynamics of the open quantum system in interaction with the solid as a function of interaction time. The calculated results are in close agreement with experimental data obtained at the LISE facility in GANIL. Photon intensities from excited argon ions were determined through high resolution x-ray spectroscopy in which individual fine structure components were resolved. Measurements were performed for a wide range of carbon foil thickness to study the time development of the excited state populations.

  4. Synthesis of an un-supported, high-flow ZSM-22 zeolite membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoma, Steven G.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2006-10-10

    Novel methods for synthesizing wholly un-supported, high-flow catalytic membranes consisting of 100% crystalline ZSM-22 crystals with no binder phase, having sufficient porosity to allow high Weight Hourly Space Velocities of feedstock to pass through without generating back pressure. The ZSM-22 membranes perform favorably to existing bulk ZSM-22 catalysts (e.g., via 1-butene conversion and selectivity). The method of membrane synthesis, based on Vapor Phase Transport, allows free-standing, binder-less membranes to be fabricated in varied geometries and sizes so that membranes can be tailor-made for particular geometries applications. The ZSM-22 precursor gel may be consolidated into a semi-cohesive body prior to vapor phase crystallization, for example, by uniaxial pressing. These crystalline membranes may be modified by ion exchange, pore ion exchange, framework exchange, synthesis modification techniques to incorporate other elements into the framework, such as K, H, Mg, Zn, V, Ga, and Pt.

  5. Understanding extraction and beam transport in the ISIS H{sup -} Penning surface plasma ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Gabor, C.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.; Jolly, S.; Pozimski, J.; Savage, P.; Woods, M.

    2008-02-15

    The ISIS H{sup -} Penning surface plasma source has been developed to produce beam currents up to 70 mA and pulse lengths up to 1.5 ms at 50 Hz. This paper details the investigation into beam extraction and beam transport in an attempt to understand the beam emittance and to try to improve the emittance. A scintillator profile measurement technique has been developed to assess the performance of different plasma electrode apertures, extraction electrode geometries, and postextraction acceleration configurations. This work shows that the present extraction, beam transport, and postacceleration system are suboptimal and further work is required to improve it.

  6. transportation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    security missions undertaken by the U.S. government.

    Pantex Plant's Calvin Nelson honored as Analyst of the Year for Transportation Security http:nnsa.energy.gov...

  7. Chemical and radiation stability of a proprietary cesium ion exchange material manufactured from WWL membrane and SuperLig{reg_sign} 644

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Berry, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    Pretreatment of nuclear process wastes for ion exchange removal of Cs and other radionuclides is one way to minimize amount of high-level radioactive waste at Hanford. This study evaluated Cs-selective SuperLig{reg_sign}644 (IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork UT) entrapped in a proprietary WWL web membrane (3M) for chemical/radiation stability in simulated caustic neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), 0.5M HNO{sub 3}, water, and air. After exposure up to 2.0E+09 rad, the material was evaluated for Cs uptake in 5M sodium NCAW simulants with varying Cs contents. Radiolytic stability appears to be sufficient for ion exchange pretreatment of radioactive Cs: essentially no decrease in Cs selectivity or loading (Kd) was observed during {sup 60}Cs gamma irradiation in water or 0.5M HNO{sub 3} up to 1.0E+09 rad. Cs Kd decreased by a factor of 2 after 2.0E+09 rad exposure. Cs Kd did not change during irradiation in 5M NCAW or ambient air up to 1.0E+08 rad, but decreased by more than an order of magnitude between 1.0E+08 and 2.0E+09 rad (not typical of process conditions). Chemical stability under caustic conditions is lower than in air or under neutral/acidic conditions. Results indicate that this material is less stable in caustic solution irrespective of radiation exposure. Samples of the membrane retained their physical form throughout the entire experiment and were only slightly brittle after exposure to 2.0E+09 rad. (The material evaluated was a finely ground (400 mesh) particulate engineered to form a polymeric fiber (WWL), not the macroscopic form of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin (20 to 50 mesh).)

  8. PHITS-2.76, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Version 03 PHITS can deal with the transport of almost all particles (nucleons, nuclei, mesons, photons, and electrons) over wide energy ranges, using several nuclear reaction models and nuclear data libraries. Geometrical configuration of the simulation can be set with GG (General Geometry) or CG (Combinatorial Geometry). Various quantities such as heat deposition, track length and production yields can be deduced from the simulation, using implemented estimator functions called "tally". The code also has amore » function to draw 2D and 3D figures of the calculated results as well as the setup geometries, using a code ANGEL. The physical processes included in PHITS can be divided into two categories, transport process and collision process. In the transport process, PHITS can simulate motion of particles under external fields such as magnetic and gravity. Without the external fields, neutral particles move along a straight trajectory with constant energy up to the next collision point. However, charge particles interact many times with electrons in the material losing energy and changing direction. PHITS treats ionization processes not as collision but as a transport process, using the continuous-slowing-down approximation. The average stopping power is given by the charge density of the material and the momentum of the particle taking into account the fluctuations of the energy loss and the angular deviation. In the collision process, PHITS can simulate the elastic and inelastic interactions as well as decay of particles. The total reaction cross section, or the life time of the particle is an essential quantity in the determination of the mean free path of the transport particle. According to the mean free path, PHITS chooses the next collision point using the Monte Carlo method. To generate the secondary particles of the collision, we need the information of the final states of the collision. For neutron induced reactions in low energy region, PHITS employs

  9. ACCELERATION OF LOW-ENERGY IONS AT PARALLEL SHOCKS WITH A FOCUSED TRANSPORT MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Pingbing; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2013-04-10

    We present a test particle simulation on the injection and acceleration of low-energy suprathermal particles by parallel shocks with a focused transport model. The focused transport equation contains all necessary physics of shock acceleration, but avoids the limitation of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) that requires a small pitch angle anisotropy. This simulation verifies that the particles with speeds of a fraction of to a few times the shock speed can indeed be directly injected and accelerated into the DSA regime by parallel shocks. At higher energies starting from a few times the shock speed, the energy spectrum of accelerated particles is a power law with the same spectral index as the solution of standard DSA theory, although the particles are highly anisotropic in the upstream region. The intensity, however, is different from that predicted by DSA theory, indicating a different level of injection efficiency. It is found that the shock strength, the injection speed, and the intensity of an electric cross-shock potential (CSP) jump can affect the injection efficiency of the low-energy particles. A stronger shock has a higher injection efficiency. In addition, if the speed of injected particles is above a few times the shock speed, the produced power-law spectrum is consistent with the prediction of standard DSA theory in both its intensity and spectrum index with an injection efficiency of 1. CSP can increase the injection efficiency through direct particle reflection back upstream, but it has little effect on the energetic particle acceleration once the speed of injected particles is beyond a few times the shock speed. This test particle simulation proves that the focused transport theory is an extension of DSA theory with the capability of predicting the efficiency of particle injection.

  10. Structural features and enhanced high-temperature oxygen ion transport in SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markov, Alexey A.; Shalaeva, Elizaveta V.; Tyutyunnik, Alexander P.; Kuchin, Vasily V.; Patrakeev, Mikhail V.; Leonidov, Ilya A.; Kozhevnikov, Victor L.

    2013-01-15

    Structural features, oxygen non-stoichiometry and transport properties are studied in the oxide series SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where x=0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy data evidence formation of the inhomogeneous materials at x=0.3 and 0.4, which include phase constituents with a cubic perovskite and a double perovskite structure types. The composition, the amount and the typical grain size of the phase inhomogeneities are shown to depend both on doping and oxygen content. The increased oxygen-ion conductivity is observed in oxygen depleted materials, which is explained by the increase in the amount of cubic perovskite-like phase and development of interfacial pathways favorable for enhanced oxygen ion transport. - Graphical abstract: The structural studies, oxygen content and conductivity measurements suggest that oxygen depletion from the double perovskite phase constituent of SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} for x>0.2 is accompanied by formation of pathways for fast ion transport. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The double perovskite type regions are shown to exist in SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen depletion is accompanied with phase separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase separation favors formation of pathways for enhanced oxygen ion transport.

  11. Polyarylether composition and membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hung, Joyce; Brunelle, Daniel Joseph; Harmon, Marianne Elisabeth; Moore, David Roger; Stone, Joshua James; Zhou, Hongyi; Suriano, Joseph Anthony

    2010-11-09

    A composition including a polyarylether copolymer is provided. The copolymer includes a polyarylether backbone; and a sulfonated oligomeric group bonded to the polyarylether suitable for use as a cation conducting membrane. Method of bonding a sulfonated oligomeric group to the polyarylether backbone to form a polyarylether copolymer. The membrane may be formed from the polyarylether copolymer composition. The chain length of the sulfonated oligomeric group may be controlled to affect or control the ion conductivity of the membrane.

  12. Chamber transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  13. WIPP Documents - Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation

  14. BASELINE MEMBRANE SELECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION FOR AN SDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D

    2007-04-03

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05 and FY06, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and have a low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate commercial and experimental membranes for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and modified Nafion{reg_sign} 117 were evaluated for SO{sub 2} transport as well. These membranes exhibited reduced transport coefficient for SO{sub 2} transport without the loss in ionic conductivity. The use of Nafion{reg_sign} with EW 1100 is recommended for the present SDE testing due to the limited data regarding chemical

  15. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klinger, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2013-11-26

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li.sup.+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  16. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al2O3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  17. Fast-ion transport in q{sub min}>2, high-β steady-state scenarios on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Collins, C.; Ferron, J. R.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Garofalo, A. M.; Bass, E. M.; Luce, T. C.; Pace, D. C.; Solomon, W. M.; Mueller, D.; Grierson, B.; Podesta, M.; Gong, X.; Ren, Q.; Park, J. M.; Kim, K.; Turco, F.

    2015-05-15

    Results from experiments on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] aimed at developing high β steady-state operating scenarios with high-q{sub min} confirm that fast-ion transport is a critical issue for advanced tokamak development using neutral beam injection current drive. In DIII-D, greater than 11 MW of neutral beam heating power is applied with the intent of maximizing β{sub N} and the noninductive current drive. However, in scenarios with q{sub min}>2 that target the typical range of q{sub 95}= 5–7 used in next-step steady-state reactor models, Alfvén eigenmodes cause greater fast-ion transport than classical models predict. This enhanced transport reduces the absorbed neutral beam heating power and current drive and limits the achievable β{sub N}. In contrast, similar plasmas except with q{sub min} just above 1 have approximately classical fast-ion transport. Experiments that take q{sub min}>3 plasmas to higher β{sub P} with q{sub 95}= 11–12 for testing long pulse operation exhibit regimes of better than expected thermal confinement. Compared to the standard high-q{sub min} scenario, the high β{sub P} cases have shorter slowing-down time and lower ∇β{sub fast}, and this reduces the drive for Alfvénic modes, yielding nearly classical fast-ion transport, high values of normalized confinement, β{sub N}, and noninductive current fraction. These results suggest DIII-D might obtain better performance in lower-q{sub 95}, high-q{sub min} plasmas using broader neutral beam heating profiles and increased direct electron heating power to lower the drive for Alfvén eigenmodes.

  18. Research and Development of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications: Initial Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-30

    This report addresses Task 1.1, model development and application, and Task 1.2, vehicle mission definition. Overall intent is to produce a methanol-fueled 10-kW power source, and to evaluate electrochemical engine (ECE) use in transportation. Major achievements include development of an ECE power source model and its integration into a comprehensive power source/electric vehicle propulsion model, establishment of candidate FCV (fuel cell powered electric vehicle) mission requirements, initial FCV studies, and a candidate FCV recommendation for further study.

  19. Anion exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  20. Production, formation, and transport of high-brightness atomic hydrogen beam studies for the relativistic heavy ion collider polarized source upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolmogorov, A. Stupishin, N.; Atoian, G.; Ritter, J.; Zelenski, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk

    2014-02-15

    The RHIC polarized H{sup ?} ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H{sub 2} gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ?0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce geometrical beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench.

  1. Functional roles of Na/sup +/ and H/sup +/ in SO/sup 2 -//sub 4/ transport by rabbit ileal brush border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahearn, G.A.; Murer, H.

    1984-01-01

    Sulfate uptake by rabbit ileal brush border membrane vesicles was stimulated by a transmembrane sodium gradient, but not by a similar potassium gradient. /sup 35/SO/sub 4/(/sup +2/) influx (JSO4 oi) from outside (o) to inside (i) these vesicles was a hyperbolic function of (SO/sub 4//sup +2/)o and the affinity constant for anion transport was strongly influenced by (Na/sup +/)o. JSO/sub 4/ oi was a sigmoidal function of (Na/sup +/)o at pH 7.4 for both low (0.2 M) and high (4.0 mM) (SO/sub 4//sup +2/)o. The Na/sup +/-dependency of JSO/sub 4/ oi was examined at pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.0 (same pH inside and outside). When a H/sup +/ gradient was imposed across the vesicle wall (pHi . 8.0, pHo . 6.0), Na/sup +/-dependent JSO/sub 4/ oi was hyperbolic and significantly increased at each (Na/sup +/)o over values observed using bilateral pH 8.0. In contrast, a H/sup +/ gradient oriented in the opposite direction (pHi . 6.0, pHo . 8.0) led to Na/sup +/-dependent JSO/sub 4/ oi that was sigmoidal and significantly lower at each (Na/sup +/)o than values found using bilateral pH 6.0. Electrogenicity of JSO4 oi at pH 8.0 for both high and low (Na+)o was demonstrated by using a valinomycin-induced transmembrane electrical potential difference. A model is proposed for proton regulation of sodium sulphate cotransport where flux stoichiometry is controlled by (H/sup +/)i and sodium binding affinity is modified by (H/sup +/)o. Preliminary experiments with rabbit proximal tubular brush border membrane vesicles disclosed similar JSO/sub 4/ oi kinetic properties and a common transport mechanism may occur in both tissues.

  2. Membrane separation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.W.; Cussler, E.L.; Eykamp, W.; Koros, W.J.; Riley, R.L.; Strathman, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses developments and future directions in the field of membrane separation systems. It describes research needed to bring energy-saving membrane separation processes to technical and commercial readiness for commercial acceptance within the next 5 to 20 years. The assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in seven major membrane areas. These encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and pervaporation; and one emerging technology; facilitated transport.

  3. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  4. Ion Exclusion by Sub 2-nm Carbon Nanotube Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

    2008-04-09

    Carbon nanotubes offer an outstanding platform for studying molecular transport at nanoscale, and have become promising materials for nanofluidics and membrane technology due to their unique combination of physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. In particular, both simulations and experiments have proved that fluid flow through carbon nanotubes of nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast compared to what continuum hydrodynamic theories would predict when applied on this length scale, and also, compared to conventional membranes with pores of similar size, such as zeolites. For a variety of applications such as separation technology, molecular sensing, drug delivery, and biomimetics, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In particular, for water desalination, coupling the enhancement of the water flux with selective ion transport could drastically reduce the cost of brackish and seawater desalting. In this work, we study the ion selectivity of membranes made of aligned double-walled carbon nanotubes with sub-2 nm diameter. Negatively charged groups are introduced at the opening of the carbon nanotubes by oxygen plasma treatment. Reverse osmosis experiments coupled with capillary electrophoresis analysis of permeate and feed show significant anion and cation rejection. Ion exclusion declines by increasing ionic strength (concentration) of the feed and by lowering solution pH; also, the highest rejection is observed for the A{sub m}{sup Z{sub A}} C{sub n}{sup Z{sub C}} salts (A=anion, C=cation, z= valence) with the greatest Z{sub A}/Z{sub C} ratio. Our results strongly support a Donnan-type rejection mechanism, dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion

  5. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  6. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee; Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  7. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  8. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  9. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  10. MDR-ABC Transporters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cell membrane is one of the defining elements of life. It defines the border of each cell and allows the cell to maintain a chemical composition significantly different from its surroundings. The cell membrane does this in two principal ways. First, the double layer of lipid molecules that compose the cell membrane blocks the passage of most chemicals into and out of the cell. Second, membrane proteins embedded in this lipid bilayer facilitate the passage of particular ions and molecules, either

  11. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  12. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2005-12-20

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  13. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  14. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Wednesday, 26 October 2005 00:00 Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of

  15. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  16. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  17. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  18. Solvent Modification in Ion-Pair Extraction: Effect on Sodium Nitrate Transport in Nitrobenzene Using a Crown Ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-10-31

    A comparative quantitative analysis of the effect of solvent modifiers on an ion-pair extraction of an inorganic salt by a crown ether was conducted. Two classes of the solvent modifiers that possess electron-pair donor (EPD) or hydrogen-bond donor (HBD) groups were investigated. The equilibrium constants corresponding to the extraction of sodium nitrate into nitrobenzene (NB) employing model neutral host cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (1) with and without solvent modifier were determined using the SXLSQI computer model. For a series of EPD modifiers—including tri-n-butyl- and tri-phenylphosphate, tri-n-butyl- and tri-phenylphosphine oxide, N,N-di-n-butyl- and N,N-di-phenyl acetamide—the enhancement of the NaNO3 extraction by 1 was found to be dependent on the hydrogen-bond acceptance ability of the modifier quantified by the b solvatochromic parameter. Application of the solvent EPD modifier improved solvation of the sodium ion, lowering the large energy barrier of Na+ partitioning into the extraction phase. A HBD modifier 3,5-di-t-butylphenol 8 that forms strong hydrogen bonds with nitrate anion in NB, exhibited even greater enhancement of the NaNO3 extraction by 1. The determined extraction constants were correlated with the b or a solvatochromic parameters of the solvent modifiers and linear trends were observed. Hydrogen bond interaction between 3,5-di-t-butylphenol 8 and nitrate anion in the presence of the sodium-loaded crown ether in the extraction phases was studied by vibrational spectroscopy. Formation of the simple 1:1 adduct was demonstrated.

  19. Folding and Function of Proteorhodopsins in Photoenergy Transducing Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spudich, John L

    2012-08-10

    The overall research objectives are to develop proteorhodopsin (PR) proteins as a model system for {alpha}?-helical membrane protein insertion and folding, and to advance understanding of the diversity and mechanisms of PRs, a large family of photoenergy transducers (~4000 identified) abundant in the worlds oceans. Specific aims are: (1) To develop a highefficiency genetic selection procedure for light-driven proton-pumping in E. coli cells. Such a procedure would provide a positive selection method for proper folding and function of PRs in the E. coli membrane. (2) Characterize flash-induced absorption changes and photocurrents in PR variants in organisms from various environments, and their expression level and function when expressed in E. coli. Subaims are to: (a) elucidate the relationship of the transport mechanism to mechanisms of other microbial rhodopsins, some of which like PRs function as ion transporters and some of which use light energy to activate signaling pathways (sensory rhodopsins); and (b) identify important residues and chemical events in light-driven proton transport by PRs. In addition to their importance to the energy of the biosphere PRs have attracted interest for their potential for use in making photoenergy-transducing membranes for bioengineering applications.

  20. A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    learned in assessing transport) | Department of Energy of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons learned in assessing transport) A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons learned in assessing transport) Presentation on conductivity testing in high temperature membranes given by Jim Boncella of Los Alamos National Laboratory at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group meeting in October 2005. htmwg05_boncella.pdf (567.61 KB) More

  1. Numerical and experimental study of atomic transport and Balmer line intensity in Linac4 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, T. Nishida, K.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.

    2015-04-08

    Time structure of Balmer H{sub ?} line intensity in Linac4 RF plasma has been analyzed by the combined simulation model of atomic transport and Collisional-Radiative models. As a preliminary result, time variation of the line intensity in the ignition phase of RF plasma is calculated and compared with the experimental results by photometry. For the comparison, spatial distribution of the local H{sub ?} photon emission rate at each time is calculated from the numerical model. The contribution of the local photon emission rates to the observed line intensity via optical viewing port is also investigated by application of the mock-up of the optical viewing port and the known light source. It has been clarified from the analyses that the higher and the lower peaks of the H{sub ?} line intensity observed during 1 RF cycle is mainly due to the different spatial distributions in the electron energy distribution function and the resultant local photon emission rate. These results support previous suggestion that the existence of the capacitive electric field in axial direction leads to the higher/lower peaks of the line intensity.

  2. Multicomponent membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  3. Ion Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    19720 Product: Manufacturer of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for fuel cell and water electrolyser applications. References: Ion Power Inc1 This article is a stub. You...

  4. Separation of Cr(VI) on chitosan membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modrzejewska, Z.; Kaminski, W.

    1999-12-01

    Chitosan membranes were used for hexavalent chromium removal. Investigations covered membranes produced by phase inversion (wet-method). The modifications of membranes were made by acetylated and cross-linked Cu(II). In the experiments chitosan produced by the Sea Fisheries Institute, Poland, was used. The metal ions were removed on chitosan membranes during membrane processes. The modifications and the effect of the pH of the solution on the separation properties of membranes were determined. The concentration of metal ions was measured by the method of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry.

  5. Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempe, Susan B.

    2010-09-01

    Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric membrane technology is energy intensive and produces water depleted in useful electrolytes. Furthermore incremental improvements, based on engineering solutions rather than new materials, have yielded only modest gains in performance over the last 25 years. We have pursued a creative and innovative new approach to membrane design and development for cheap desalination membranes by approaching the problem at the molecular level of pore design. Our inspiration comes from natural biological channels, which permit faster water transport than current reverse osmosis membranes and selectively pass healthy ions. Aiming for an order-of-magnitude improvement over mature polymer technology carries significant inherent risks. The success of our fundamental research effort lies in our exploiting, extending, and integrating recent advances by our team in theory, modeling, nano-fabrication and platform development. A combined theoretical and experimental platform has been developed to understand the interplay between water flux and ion rejection in precisely-defined nano-channels. Our innovative functionalization of solid state nanoporous membranes with organic protein-mimetic polymers achieves 3-fold improvement in water flux over commercial RO membranes and has yielded a pending patent and industrial interest. Our success has generated useful contributions to energy storage, nanoscience, and membrane technology research and development important for national health and prosperity.

  6. Ion Removal - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Ion Removal Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's ion removal technology leverages the ability of phosphazene polymers discriminate between water and metal ions, which allows water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. Description The inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers are an added strengths for separating and

  7. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of multidrug resistance. Toward this end, researchers from The Scripps Research

  8. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of multidrug resistance. Toward this end, researchers from The Scripps Research

  9. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of multidrug resistance. Toward this end, researchers from The Scripps Research

  10. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of multidrug resistance. Toward this end, researchers from The Scripps Research

  11. New Proton-Ionizable, Calixarene-Based Ligands for Selective Metal Ion Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartsch, Richard A.

    2012-06-04

    The project objective was the discovery of new ligands for performing metal ion separations. The research effort entailed the preparation of new metal ion complexing agents and polymers and their evaluation in metal ion separation processes of solvent extraction, synthetic liquid membrane transport, and sorption. Structural variations in acyclic, cyclic, and bicyclic organic ligands were used to probe their influence upon the efficiency and selectivity with which metal ion separations can be performed. A unifying feature of the ligand structures is the presence of one (or more) side arm with a pendent acidic function. When a metal ion is complexed within the central cavity of the ligand, ionization of the side arm(s) produces the requisite anion(s) for formation of an overall electroneutral complex. This markedly enhances extraction/transport efficiency for separations in which movement of aqueous phase anions of chloride, nitrate, or sulfate into an organic medium would be required. Through systematic structural variations, new ligands have been developed for efficient and selective separations of monovalent metal ions (e.g., alkali metal, silver, and thallium cations) and of divalent metal ion species (e.g., alkaline earth metal, lead, and mercury cations). Research results obtained in these fundamental investigations provide important insight for the design and development of ligands suitable for practical metal ion separation applications.

  12. Continuum Modeling of Membrane Properties | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Continuum Modeling of Membrane Properties Continuum Modeling of Membrane Properties Presentation at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Oct. 14, 2010 high_temp_weber.pdf (1.4 MB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Minutes Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications Experimental and Modeling Investigation of Radionuclide Interaction and Transport in Representative Geologic Media

  13. Sulfonated polysulfone battery membrane for use in corrosive environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Assink, Roger

    1987-01-01

    For batteries containing strong oxidizing electrolyte and a membrane separating two electrolyte solutions, e.g., a zinc ferricyanide battery, an improved membrane is provided comprising an oxidative resistant, conductive, ion-selective membrane fabricated from a catenated aromatic polymer having an absence of tertiary hydrogens, e.g., a sulfonated polysulfone.

  14. Single nanopore transport of synthetic and biological polyelectrolytes in three-dimensional hybrid microfluidic/nanofluidic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, Travis L.; Gatimu, Enid N.; Bohn, Paul W.

    2009-01-02

    This paper presents a study of electrokinetic transport in single nanopores integrated into vertically-stacked three-dimensional hybrid microfluidic/nanofluidic structures. In these devices single nanopores, created by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in thin polymer films, provide fluidic connection between two vertically separated, perpendicular microfluidic channels. Experiments address both systems in which the nanoporous membrane is composed of the same (homojunction) or different (heterojunction) polymer as the microfluidic channels. These devices are then used to study the electrokinetic transport properties of synthetic (i.e., polystyrene sulfonate and polyallylamine) and biological (i.e.,DNA) polyelectrolytes across these nanopores. Single nanopore transport of polyelectrolytes across these nanoporesmore » using both electrical current measurements and confocal microscopy. Both optical and electrical measurements indicate that electroosmotic transport is predominant over electrophoresis in single nanopores with d > 180 nm, consistent with results obtained under similar conditions for nanocapillary array membranes.« less

  15. The RCK Domain of the KtrAB K+ Transporter: Multiple Conformations of an Octameric Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright,R.; Vazquez Ibar, J.; Kim, C.; Gruner, S.; Morais-Cabral, J.

    2006-01-01

    The KtrAB ion transporter is a complex of the KtrB membrane protein and KtrA, an RCK domain. RCK domains regulate eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane proteins involved in K{sup +} transport. Conflicting functional models have proposed two different oligomeric arrangements for RCK domains, tetramer versus octamer. Our results for the KtrAB RCK domain clearly show an octamer in solution and in the crystal. We determined the structure of this protein in three different octameric ring conformations that resemble the RCK-domain octamer observed in the MthK potassium channel but show striking differences in size and symmetry. We present experimental evidence for the association between one RCK octameric ring and two KtrB membrane proteins. These results provide insights into the quaternary organization of the KtrAB transporter and its mechanism of activation and show that the RCK-domain octameric ring model is generally applicable to other ion-transport systems.

  16. Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for lithium-ion batteries ...

  17. Laser driven compact ion accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-03-15

    A laser driven compact ion source including a light source that produces an energy pulse, a light source guide that guides the energy pulse to a target and produces an ion beam. The ion beam is transported to a desired destination.

  18. Primary ion sources for EBIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, R.

    2001-03-21

    This paper gives an introduction into the topic of primary ion sources that can be used to feed ions of normally solid elements into EBIS devices. Starting with a set of typical requirements for primary ion sources, some major types of ion generators are discussed first, with emphasis on their working principles rather than trying to give a fully representative listing of used and proposed generators. Beam-transport issues between primary ion source and EBIS are then examined, and generic characteristics of suitable beam-formation and transport systems are explained.

  19. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells | Department of Energy NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19, 2006. pintauro.pdf (276.25 KB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature Membrane Working Group Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Li-Ion Battery Anodes from

  20. FY08 MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

    2008-09-01

    This report summarizes results from all of the membrane testing completed to date at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Several types of commercially-available membranes have been analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyether-ketone-ketone (SPEKK), and polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI). Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Several experimental membranes have also been analyzed including hydrated sulfonated Diels-Alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) membranes from Sandia National Laboratory, perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) and sulfonated perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether (S-PFCB) prepared by Clemson University, hydrated platinum-treated PFSA prepared by Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) and Pt-Nafion{reg_sign} 115 composites prepared at SRNL. The chemical stability, SO{sub 2} transport and ionic conductivity characteristics have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton-conducting membranes. Commercially available PFSA membranes such as the Nafion{reg_sign} series exhibited excellent chemical stability and ionic conductivity in sulfur dioxide saturated sulfuric acid solutions. Sulfur dioxide transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes varied proportionally with the thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane. Although the SO{sub 2} transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes is higher than desired, the excellent chemical stability and conductivity makes this membrane the best commercially-available membrane at this time. Initial results indicated that a modified Nafion{reg_sign} membrane incorporating Pt nanoparticles exhibited significantly reduced SO{sub 2} transport. Reduced SO{sub 2} transport was also measured with commercially available PBI membrane and several experimental membranes produced

  1. Effect of bound state of water on hydronium ion mobility in hydrated Nafion using molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mabuchi, Takuya; Tokumasu, Takashi

    2014-09-14

    We have performed a detailed analysis of the structural properties of the sulfonate groups in terms of isolated and overlapped solvation shells in the nanostructure of hydrated Nafion membrane using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations have demonstrated the correlation between the two different areas in bound water region, i.e., the first solvation shell, and the vehicular transport of hydronium ions at different water contents. We have employed a model of the Nafion membrane using the improved force field, which is newly modified and validated by comparing the density and water diffusivity with those obtained experimentally. The first solvation shells were classified into the two types, the isolated area and the overlapped area. The mean residence times of solvent molecules explicitly showed the different behaviors in each of those areas in terms of the vehicular transport of protons: the diffusivity of classical hydronium ions in the overlapped area dominates their total diffusion at lower water contents while that in the isolated area dominates for their diffusion at higher water contents. The results provided insights into the importance role of those areas in the solvation shells for the diffusivity of vehicular transport of hydronium ions in hydrated Nafion membrane.

  2. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  3. COMBUSTION-ASSISTED CO2 CAPTURE USING MECC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-03-30

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO{sub 2} capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO{sub 2} driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO{sub 2} product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO{sub 2} capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE's goal that deployment of a CO{sub 2} capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  4. Combustion-Assisted CO2 Capture Using MECC Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Steven R; Gray, Dr. Joshua R.; Brinkman, Dr. Kyle S.; Huang, Dr. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO2 from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO2 capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO2 driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO2 in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO2 product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO2 capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE s goal that deployment of a CO2 capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  5. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haryadi, Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E.

    2015-12-29

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm{sup −1} and 3300 cm{sup −1} respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10{sup −2} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  6. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures Structures 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Principle Investigator: Dr. Stephen Grot Presenter: Dr. Walther Grot Ion Power, Inc September 28, 2010 September 28, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information t Overview Timeline * Start Sept 1, 2010 E d A 31 2013 * End August 31, 2013 * 0% Complete Budget * * Total project funding Total

  7. Solid state proton and electron mediating membrane and use in catalytic membrane reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, J.H.; Schwartz, M.; Sammells, A.F.

    1998-10-13

    This invention provides catalytic proton and electron mediating membranes useful in catalytic reactors. The membranes have an oxidation and a reduction surface and comprise a single-phase mixed metal oxide material of the formula: AB{sub 1{minus}x}B{prime}{sub x}O{sub 3{minus}y} wherein A is selected from Ca, Sr or Ba ions; B is selected from Ce, Tb, Pr, or Th ions; B{prime} is selected from Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Al, Ga, or In ions, or combinations thereof; and x is greater than or equal to 0.02 and less than or equal to 0.5. The membranes can further comprise a catalyst on either the oxidation or reduction surface, or both. Membranes include those which are fabricated by combining powders of metal oxides or metal carbonates of metal A ion, metal B ion and metal B{prime} ion such that the stoichiometric ratio A:B:B{prime} is 1:1{minus}x:x where 0.2{<=}{times}0.5, repeatedly calcining and milling the combined powders until a single-phase material is obtained and pressing and sintering the single phase material to obtain a membrane. 6 figs.

  8. Solid state proton and electron mediating membrane and use in catalytic membrane reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H.; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides catalytic proton and electron mediating membranes useful in catalytic reactors. The membranes have an oxidation and a reduction surface and comprise a single-phase mixed metal oxide material of the formula: AB.sub.1-x B'.sub.x O.sub.3-y wherein A is selected from Ca, Sr or Ba ions; B is selected from Ce, Tb, Pr, or Th ions; B' is selected from Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Al, Ga, or In ions, or combinations thereof; and x is greater than or equal to 0.02 and less than or equal to 0.5. The membranes can further comprise a catalyst on either the oxidation or reduction surface, or both. Membranes include those which are fabricated-by combining powders of metal oxides or metal carbonates of metal A ion, metal B ion and metal B' ion such that the stoichiometric ratio A:B:B' is 1:1-x:x where 0.2.ltoreq..times.0.5, repeatedly calcining and milling the combined powders until a single-phase material is obtained and pressing and sintering the singlephase material to obtain a membrane.

  9. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  10. Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI); Hill, Jr., Charles G. (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1996-01-01

    Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

  11. Automotive Perspective on Membrane Evaluation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Evaluation Automotive Perspective on Membrane Evaluation Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC waldecker_htmwg_2008.pdf (86.19 KB) More Documents & Publications Transportation Fuel Cell R&D Needs (Presentation) Automotive Fuel Cell Research and Development Needs Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications

  12. 2003 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2003 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View 2003 meeting presentations from the High Temperature Membrane Working Group. October 17, 2003, Orlando, Florida High T Membrane Development at Foster-Miller, Bindu Nair, Foster-Miller Highly Sulfonated Polymers for High Temperature Applications, Morton Litt, Case Western Reserve University Assessing Transport in New Electrolytes, Bryan Pivovar, LANL

  13. Measurement of plasma current dependent changes in impurity transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    simultaneous agreement between experiment and simulation in both the impurity particle transport and ion heat transport channels is attainable within experimental more ...

  14. ELECTROLYTIC MEMBRANE DIALYSIS FOR TREATING WASTEWATER STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe

    2000-04-01

    This project will determine whether electrolytic dialysis has promise in the separation of charged particles in an aqueous solution. The ability to selectively move ions from one aqueous solution to another through a semipermeable membrane will be studied as a function of emf, amperage, and particle electrical charge. The ions selected for the study are Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. These ions are of particular interest because of their electrical conduction properties in aqueous solution resulting with their association with the corrosive action of metals. The studies will be performed with commercial membranes on solutions prepared in the laboratory from reagent salts. pH adjustments will be made with dilute reagent acid and base. Specific objectives of the project include testing a selected membrane currently available for electrolytic dialysis, membrane resistance to extreme pH conditions, the effectiveness of separating a mixture of two ions selected on the basis of size, the efficiency of the membranes in separating chloride (Cl{sup 1-}) from sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and separation efficiency as a function of electromotive force (emf).

  15. Chemical stability of hydrogen transport membranes. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. Authors: Balachandran, U. ; Lee, T. H. ; Chen, L. ; Dorris, S. E. ; Energy Systems Publication Date: 2007-01-01 ...

  16. Ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  17. Solution dewatering with concomitant ion removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Eric S.; Marshall, Douglas W.; Stone, Mark L.

    2003-08-05

    One of the biggest needs in the separations and waste handling and reduction area is a method for dewatering ion-containing solutions. Unexpectedly, it has been found that phosphazene polymers can discriminate between water and metal ions, allowing water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. This unexpected result, along with the inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers, yields a powerful tool for separating and dewatering metal-ion-containing solutions.

  18. Magnetic Membrane System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElfresh, Michael W.; ; Lucas, Matthew S.

    2004-12-30

    The present invention provides a membrane with magnetic particles. In one embodiment the membrane is created by mixing particles in a non-magnetic base. The membrane may act as an actuator, a sensor, a pump, a valve, or other device. A magnet is operatively connected to the membrane. The magnet acts on and changes the shape of the membrane.

  19. RADIATION STABILITY OF NAFION MEMBRANES USED FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATION BY PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E

    2009-05-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers have potential interest for use for hydrogen isotope separation from water. In order for PEME to be fully utilized, more information is needed on the stability of Nafion when exposed to radiation. This work examines Nafion 117 under varying exposure conditions, including dose rate, total dosage and atmospheric condition. Analytical tools, such as FT-IR, ion exchange capacity, DMA and TIC-TOC were used to characterize the exposed membranes. Analysis of the water from saturated membranes can provide important data on the stability of the membranes during radiation exposure. It was found that the dose rate of exposure plays an important role in membrane degradation. Potential mechanisms for membrane degradation include peroxide formation by free radicals.

  20. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P.; Kinsey, J. E.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.

    2014-05-15

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by EB velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high EB velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  1. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 4_ion_power_grot.pdf (227.13 KB) More Documents & Publications Breakout Group 3: Water Management US DRIVE Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap Automotive Perspective on PEM Evaluation

  2. Simulation and modeling of membranes interactions with unstructured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    proteins and computational design of membrane channels for absorption of specified ions | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility One of the selected MD conformers of MccE492 microcin One of the selected MD conformers of MccE492 microcin is analyzed by the program MAPAS for the membrane-contacting surface location. The predicted orientation on the membrane surface is shown. This position is used for modeling of possible oligomerization of this microcin with further pore creation in bacterial

  3. Full membrane spanning self-assembled monolayers as model systems for UHV-based studies of cell-penetrating peptides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, Johannes; Graham, Daniel J.; Baio, Joe E.; Lelle, Marco; Peneva, Kalina; Müllen, Klaus; Castner, David G.; Weidner, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Biophysical studies of the interaction of peptides with model membranes provide a simple yet effective approach to understand the transport of peptides and peptide based drug carriers across the cell membrane. Therein, the authors discuss the use of self-assembled monolayers fabricated from the full membrane-spanning thiol (FMST) 3-((14-((4'-((5-methyl-1-phenyl-35-(phytanyl)oxy-6,9,12,15,18,21,24,27,30,33,37-undecaoxa-2,3-dithiahenpentacontan-51-yl)oxy)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)oxy)tetradecyl)oxy)-2-(phytanyl)oxy glycerol for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) based experiments. UHV-based methods such as electron spectroscopy and mass spectrometry can provide important information about how peptides bind and interact with membranes, especially with the hydrophobic core of a lipid bilayer. Moreover, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data showed that FMST forms UHV-stable and ordered films on gold. XPS and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiles indicated that a proline-rich amphipathic cell-penetrating peptide, known as sweet arrow peptide is located at the outer perimeter of the model membrane.

  4. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  5. Composite sensor membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Yue, Min

    2008-03-18

    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  6. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  7. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  8. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  9. Multi-scaled normal mode analysis method for dynamics simulation of protein-membrane complexes: A case study of potassium channel gating motion correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaokun; Han, Min; Ming, Dengming

    2015-10-07

    Membrane proteins play critically important roles in many cellular activities such as ions and small molecule transportation, signal recognition, and transduction. In order to fulfill their functions, these proteins must be placed in different membrane environments and a variety of protein-lipid interactions may affect the behavior of these proteins. One of the key effects of protein-lipid interactions is their ability to change the dynamics status of membrane proteins, thus adjusting their functions. Here, we present a multi-scaled normal mode analysis (mNMA) method to study the dynamics perturbation to the membrane proteins imposed by lipid bi-layer membrane fluctuations. In mNMA, channel proteins are simulated at all-atom level while the membrane is described with a coarse-grained model. mNMA calculations clearly show that channel gating motion can tightly couple with a variety of membrane deformations, including bending and twisting. We then examined bi-channel systems where two channels were separated with different distances. From mNMA calculations, we observed both positive and negative gating correlations between two neighboring channels, and the correlation has a maximum as the channel center-to-center distance is close to 2.5 times of their diameter. This distance is larger than recently found maximum attraction distance between two proteins embedded in membrane which is 1.5 times of the protein size, indicating that membrane fluctuation might impose collective motions among proteins within a larger area. The hybrid resolution feature in mNMA provides atomic dynamics information for key components in the system without costing much computer resource. We expect it to be a conventional simulation tool for ordinary laboratories to study the dynamics of very complicated biological assemblies. The source code is available upon request to the authors.

  10. A Simple Index for Characterizing Charge Transport in Molecular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar (fuels), photosynthesis (natural and artificial), bio-inspired, hydrogen and fuel cells, electrodes - solar, defects, charge transport, spin dynamics, membrane, materials...

  11. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grot, Stephen

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  12. Composite metal membranes for hydrogen separation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, T.S.; Dye, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    A novel multilayer metal membrane has been developed that can be used for the separation of hydrogen from feed streams with near perfect selectivity. The membrane is comprised of very thin layers of fully dense palladium film deposited on both sides of a thin Group V metal foil, ion-milled prior to sputtering of the palladium. Palladium loading are kept low using the thin film deposition technology: 0.0012 grams of palladium per square centimeter of membrane is typically used, although thinner coatings have been employed. This membrane operates at temperatures on the order of 300 C and is capable of high rates of hydrogen flow. Flows are dependent on the pressure differential applied to the membrane, but flows of 105 sccm/cm{sup 2} and higher are regularly observed with differentials below one atmosphere. Long term testing of the membrane for a period in excess of 775 hours under constant conditions showed stable flows and an 85% hydrogen recovery efficiency. A system has been successfully applied to the hydrogen handling system of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and was tested using a pseudo-reformate feed stream without any degradation in performance.

  13. New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids ...

  14. A Mechanistic Study of Chemically Modified Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Liquid Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Way, J Douglas

    2011-01-21

    This final report will summarize the progress made during the period August 1, 1993 - October 31, 2010 with support from DOE grant number DE-FG03-93ER14363. The objectives of the research have been to investigate the transport mechanisms in micro- and mesoporous, metal oxide membranes and to examine the relationship between the microstructure of the membrane, the membrane surface chemistry, and the separation performance of the membrane. Examples of the membrane materials under investigation are the microporous silica hollow fiber membrane manufactured by PPG Industries, chemically modified mesoporous oxide membranes, and polymer membranes containing microporous oxides (mixed matrix membranes). Analytical techniques such as NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and gas adsorption were used to investigate membrane microstructure and to probe the chemical interactions occurring at the gas-membrane interface.

  15. Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-02

    Driven by the motivation of searching for low-cost membrane alternatives, a novel nanoporous polytetrafluoroethylene/silica composite separator has been prepared and evaluated for its use in all-vanadium mixed-acid redox flow battery. This separator consisting of silica particles enmeshed in a polytetrafluoroethylene fibril matrix has no ion exchange capacity and is featured with unique nanoporous structures, which function as the ion transport channels in redox flow battery operation, with an average pore size of 38nm and a porosity of 48%. This separator has produced excellent electrochemical performance in the all-vanadium mixed-acid system with energy efficiency delivery comparable to Nafion membrane and superior rate capability and temperature tolerance. The separator also demonstrates an exceptional capacity retention capability over extended cycling, offering additional operational latitude towards conveniently mitigating the capacity decay that is inevitable for Nafion. Because of the inexpensive raw materials and simple preparation protocol, the separator is particularly low-cost, estimated to be at least an order of magnitude more inexpensive than Nafion. Plus the proven chemical stability due to the same backbone material as Nafion, this separator possesses a good combination of critical membrane requirements and shows great potential to promote market penetration of the all-vanadium redox flow battery by enabling significant reduction of capital and cycle costs.

  16. Composite zeolite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

  17. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants ...

  18. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  19. Supported inorganic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  20. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Charles Page (Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  1. High Conductivity Single-ion Cross-linked Polymers for Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Conductivity Single-ion Cross-linked Polymers for Lithium Batteries and Fuel Cells ... for use as membranes in lithium batteries, fuel cells, and electrochromic windows. ...

  2. Ligand-gated Diffusion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B Lepore; M Indic; H Pham; E Hearn; D Patel; B van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    Ligand-gated channels, in which a substrate transport pathway is formed as a result of the binding of a small-molecule chemical messenger, constitute a diverse class of membrane proteins with important functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Despite their widespread nature, no ligand-gated channels have yet been found within the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Here we show, using in vivo transport assays, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and X-ray crystallography, that high-affinity (submicromolar) substrate binding to the OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from Escherichia coli causes conformational changes in the N terminus that open up a channel for substrate diffusion. The OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from E. coli is a unique paradigm for OM diffusion-driven transport, in which ligand gating within a {beta}-barrel membrane protein is a prerequisite for channel formation.

  3. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  4. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  5. Meniscus membranes for separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Irvine, CA); Jorgensen, Betty (Jemez Springs, NM); Pesiri, David R. (Aliso Viejo, CA)

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  6. Polyphosphazene semipermeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Charles A.; McCaffrey, Robert R.; Cummings, Daniel G.; Grey, Alan E.; Jessup, Janine S.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    A semipermeable, inorganic membrane is disclosed; the membrane is prepared from a phosphazene polymer and, by the selective substitution of the constituent groups bound to the phosphorous in the polymer structure, the selective passage of fluid from a feedstream can be controlled. Resistance to high temperatures and harsh chemical environments is observed in the use of the phosphazene polymers as semipermeable membranes.

  7. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  8. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-01-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of

  9. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schwartz

    2003-10-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of

  10. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Schwartz

    2003-07-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of

  11. Applications of membrane processes for in-process materials recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.M.; Thornton, R.F.; Shapiro, A.P.; Freshour, A.R.; El-Shoubary, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Zero discharge of wastes should be the ultimate goal of manufacturers. Waste reduction lowers costs and lessens liability associated with plant effluents. One approach toward this goal is elimination or minimization of wastes by in-process recycling of waste materials. We have examined opportunities for waste minimization for many equipment manufacturing plants and have evaluated membrane processes for in-process recycling. Membrane processes evaluated include vibrating membranes for suspended solid removal, ion exchange membranes for acid recovery, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for dissolved salt removal, microporous membranes for recycling of machining coolants, oil emulsions, alkaline cleaners and others. This paper presents several examples of evaluations of membrane processes for materials recycling in manufacturing plants. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Molecular Mechanism of Biological Proton Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomes, R.

    1998-09-01

    Proton transport across lipid membranes is a fundamental aspect of biological energy transduction (metabolism). This function is mediated by a Grotthuss mechanism involving proton hopping along hydrogen-bonded networks embedded in membrane-spanning proteins. Using molecular simulations, the authors have explored the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties giving rise to long-range proton translocation in hydrogen-bonded networks involving water molecules, or water wires, which are emerging as ubiquitous H{sup +}-transport devices in biological systems.

  13. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  14. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  15. Transportation Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transportation-research TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Transportation Research Current Research Overview The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) has established its only high-performance computing and engineering analysis research facility at Argonne National Laboratory to provide applications support in key areas of applied research and development for the USDOT community. The Transportation Research and

  16. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  17. ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  18. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo; Morisato, Atsushi

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) ›PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

  19. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Morisato, Atsushi

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane is described which is useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula shown in the accompanying diagram, wherein R{sub 1} is chosen from the group consisting of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R{sub 2} is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP]. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations. 4 figs.

  20. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Morisato, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

  1. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - Nano Sep Membrane for H2 Flux brief.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Membrane separations are a key enabling technology for energy conversion devices. Ionic transport membranes must have both proton and electronic conductivity to function as hydrogen separation membranes without an external power supply. In addition, membrane materials electronic conductivity or material crystal stability should not be greatly affected by the presence of contaminant gases such as CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , and H 2 O that are associated with steam reforming/water gas shift reactions. SRNL

  3. With low projected manufacturing costs, high ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    With low projected manufacturing costs, high ion conductivities, reduced cross-over, chemical and thermal stability in both acidic and alkaline environments, the Sandia membrane technology is positioned to lower the cost of many energy-water systems. Poly (phenylene)-based Hydrocarbon Membrane Separators With a larger component of our electricity generation coming from intermittent and variable sources, stationary energy storage and local power generation will be essential for continued growth

  4. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Obligin, Alan S.

    1989-01-01

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional groups. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  5. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

    1989-10-31

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  6. Gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  7. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, J.P.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus are presented for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  8. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, Jane P.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  9. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Hong; Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

    2006-09-24

    } separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 molxm-2xs-1xPa-1, and the H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H{sub 2} with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H{sub 2} permeance more than one order of magnitude. The H{sub 2} separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Increasing the membrane feed pressure also increased the H{sub 2} flux and the H{sub 2} mole fraction in the permeate stream for both mixtures. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO{sub 2} adsorption inhibited H{sub 2} adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO{sub 2} permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H{sub 2} recompression because H{sub 2} remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO{sub 2} feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} sorption selectivity with increased CO{sub 2} partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H{sub 2} from CH{sub 4} because CH{sub 4} is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity is much lower than the H{sup 2} diffusivity. The H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity was almost independent of temperature, pressure, and feed composition. Silylation on SAPO-34 membranes increased H{sup 2}/CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivities but did not increase H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/N

  10. Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Michael

    2001-11-06

    ITN Energy Systems, Inc. (ITN) and its partners, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, LLC and Praxair, Inc. are developing composite membranes for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is pursuing a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into module fabrication designs; combining functionally-graded materials, monolithic module concept and thermal spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows for the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing techniques with low costs. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, are being assessed. This will result in an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed ICCM hydrogen separation approach for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and

  11. Composite plasma polymerized sulfonated polystyrene membrane for PEMFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Khan, Aziz; Chutia, Joyanti

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) is used as the sulfonating agent. • The proton conductivity of the membrane is found to be 0.141 S cm{sup −1}. • Power density of fuel cell with styrene/MMS membrane is 0.5 W cm{sup −2}. • The membrane exhibits thermal stability up to 140 °C. - Abstract: This work presents the introduction of an organic compound methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for the first time in fabrication of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane (PEM) by plasma polymerization process. The membrane is fabricated by co-polymerizing styrene and MMS in capacitively coupled continuous RF plasma. The chemical composition of the plasma polymerized polymer membrane is investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which reveals the formation of composite structure of styrene and MMS. The surface morphology studied using AFM and SEM depicts the effect of higher partial pressure of MMS on surface topography of the membrane. The proton transport property of the membrane studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the achievement of maximum proton conductivity of 0.141 S cm{sup −1} which is comparable to Nafion 117 membrane. Fuel cell performance test of the synthesized membrane shows a maximum power density of 500 mW cm{sup −2} and current density of 0.62 A cm{sup −2} at 0.6 V.

  12. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  13. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao

    1993-01-01

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  14. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  15. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  16. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  17. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor

  18. National Alliance for Advanced Transportation Battery Cell Manufacture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Manufacture Product: US-based consortium formed to research, develop, and mass produce lithium ion batteries. References: National Alliance for Advanced Transportation Battery Cell...

  19. Membrane projection lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L

    2015-03-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  20. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediate ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

  1. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediatemore » ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.« less

  2. EFFECT OF COMPRESSION ON CONDUCTIVITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PFSA MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam; Jiang, Ruichin; Gittleman, Craig

    2011-07-20

    Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cells (PEFCs) are promising candidates for powering vehicles and portable devices using renewable-energy sources. The core of a PEFC is the solid electrolyte membrane that conducts protons from anode to cathode, where water is generated. The conductivity of the membrane, however, depends on the water content of the membrane, which is strongly related to the cell operating conditions. The membrane and other cell components are typically compressed to minimize various contact resistances. Moreover, the swelling of a somewhat constrained membrane in the cell due to the humidity changes generates additional compressive stresses in the membrane. These external stresses are balanced by the internal swelling pressure of the membrane and change the swelling equilibrium. It was shown using a fuel-cell setup that compression could reduce the water content of the membrane or alter the cell resistance. Nevertheless, the effect of compression on the membrane’s transport properties is yet to be understood, as well as its implications in the structure-functions relationships of the membrane. We previously studied, both experimentally and theoretically, how compression affects the water content of the membrane.6 However, more information is required the gain a fundamental understanding of the compression effects. In this talk, we present the results of our investigation on the in-situ conductivity of the membrane as a function of humidity and cell compression pressure. Moreover, to better understand the morphology of compressed membrane, small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS) experiments were performed. The conductivity data is then analyzed by investigating the size of the water domains of the compressed membrane determined from the SAXS measurements.

  3. ION SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, B.

    1959-02-10

    An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.

  4. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor – in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900°C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors – in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600°C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to

  5. Modeling kinetics and equilibrium of membranes with fields: Milestoning analysis and implication to permeation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardenas, Alfredo E.; Elber, Ron

    2014-08-07

    Coarse graining of membrane simulations by translating atomistic dynamics to densities and fields with Milestoning is discussed. The space of the membrane system is divided into cells and the different cells are characterized by order parameters presenting the number densities. The dynamics of the order parameters are probed with Milestoning. The methodology is illustrated here for a phospholipid membrane system (a hydrated bilayer of DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) lipid molecules). Significant inhomogeneity in membrane internal number density leads to complex free energy landscape and local maps of transition times. Dynamics and distributions of cavities within the membrane assist the permeation of nonpolar solutes such as xenon atoms. It is illustrated that quantitative and detailed dynamics of water transport through DOPC membrane can be analyzed using Milestoning with fields. The reaction space for water transport includes at least two slow variables: the normal to the membrane plane, and the water density.

  6. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  7. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  8. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  9. ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leland, W.T.

    1960-01-01

    The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.

  10. Ion focusing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  11. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  12. Final Technical Report for SBIR entitled Four-Dimensional Finite-Orbit-Width Fokker-Planck Code with Sources, for Neoclassical/Anomalous Transport Simulation of Ion and Electron Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.

    2013-12-03

    Within the US Department of Energy/Office of Fusion Energy magnetic fusion research program, there is an important whole-plasma-modeling need for a radio-frequency/neutral-beam-injection (RF/NBI) transport-oriented finite-difference Fokker-Planck (FP) code with combined capabilities for 4D (2R2V) geometry near the fusion plasma periphery, and computationally less demanding 3D (1R2V) bounce-averaged capabilities for plasma in the core of fusion devices. Demonstration of proof-of-principle achievement of this goal has been carried out in research carried out under Phase I of the SBIR award. Two DOE-sponsored codes, the CQL3D bounce-average Fokker-Planck code in which CompX has specialized, and the COGENT 4D, plasma edge-oriented Fokker-Planck code which has been constructed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory scientists, where coupled. Coupling was achieved by using CQL3D calculated velocity distributions including an energetic tail resulting from NBI, as boundary conditions for the COGENT code over the two-dimensional velocity space on a spatial interface (flux) surface at a given radius near the plasma periphery. The finite-orbit-width fast ions from the CQL3D distributions penetrated into the peripheral plasma modeled by the COGENT code. This combined code demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed 3D/4D code. By combining these codes, the greatest computational efficiency is achieved subject to present modeling needs in toroidally symmetric magnetic fusion devices. The more efficient 3D code can be used in its regions of applicability, coupled to the more computationally demanding 4D code in higher collisionality edge plasma regions where that extended capability is necessary for accurate representation of the plasma. More efficient code leads to greater use and utility of the model. An ancillary aim of the project is to make the combined 3D/4D code user friendly. Achievement of full-coupling of these two Fokker

  13. Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumaker, Karen S

    2013-10-24

    The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are

  14. Polysulfide-Blocking Polymer Membrane for Li-S Batteries - Joint Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Research August 3, 2015, Research Highlights Polysulfide-Blocking Polymer Membrane for Li-S Batteries The microporous network allows the passage of smaller moieties such as solvent molecules, LiTFSI, and lithium ions while forbidding the passage of larger polysulfides (Li2Sx). Scientific Achievement Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity are harnessed as an ion-selective membrane, effectively blocking polysulfide crossover due to its microporous molecular-sieving network.

  15. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  16. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  17. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  18. Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux New processing technique to develop ionic transport membranes with improved ionic and electronic conductivity Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Brinkman_MRS_Spring_v2.pdf (756 KB) Dr. Kyle Brinkman Dr. Kyle Brinkman

  19. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  20. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  1. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  2. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  3. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  4. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the

  5. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, Nathaniel M.; Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.; Birdsell, Stephan A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  6. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  7. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  8. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  9. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  10. Beam Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam Transport A simplified drawing of the beam transport system from the linac to Target-1 (Lujan Center), Target-2 (Blue Room) and Target-4 is shown below. In usual operation ...

  11. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Ames

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate counterparts of similar thickness

  12. Final Report for DE-FG02-93ER14376,Ionic Transport in Electrochemical Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Halley

    2009-05-20

    This project was a molecular dynamics study of the relevant issues associated with the structure and transport of lithium in polymer electrolytes such as polyethylene oxide(PEO). In close collaboration with quantum chemist Larry Curtiss and neutron scatterers David Lee Price and Marie-Louise Saboungi at Argonne, we used molecular dynamics to study the local structure and dynamics and ion transport in the polymer. The studies elucidated the mechanism of Li transport in PEO, revealing that the rate limiting step is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the torsion forces in the backbone of the polymer. Because the torsion forces are difficult to manipulate chemically, this makes it easier to understand why improving the conductivity of PEO based electrolytes has proven to be very difficult. We studied the transport properties of cations in ionic liquids as possible additives to polymer membranes for batteries and fuel cells and found preliminary indications that the transport is enhanced near phase separation in acid-ionic liquid mixtures.

  13. WIPP Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transuranic Waste Transportation Container Documents Documents related to transuranic waste containers and packages. CBFO Tribal Program Information about WIPP shipments across tribal lands. Transportation Centralized Procurement Program - The Centralized Procurement Program provides a common method to procure standard items used in the packaging and handling of transuranic wasted destined for WIPP. Transuranic Waste Transportation Routes - A map showing transuranic waste generator sites and

  14. Novel membrane technology for green ethylene production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Lee, T. H.; Dorris, S. E.; Udovich, C. A.; Scouten, C. G.; Marshall, C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene is currently produced by pyrolysis of ethane in the presence of steam. This reaction requires substantial energy input, and the equilibrium conversion is thermodynamically limited. The reaction also produces significant amounts of greenhouse gases (CO and CO{sub 2}) because of the direct contact between carbon and steam. Argonne has demonstrated a new way to make ethylene via ethane dehydrogenation using a dense hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to drive the unfavorable equilibrium conversion. Preliminary experiments show that the new approach can produce ethylene yields well above existing pyrolysis technology and also significantly above the thermodynamic equilibrium limit, while completely eliminating the production of greenhouse gases. With Argonne's approach, a disk-type dense ceramic/metal composite (cermet) membrane is used to produce ethylene by dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 C. The gas-transport membrane reactor combines a reversible chemical reaction with selective separation of one product species and leads to increased reactant conversion to the desired product. In an experiment ethane was passed over one side of the HTM membrane and air over the other side. The hydrogen produced by the dehydrogenation of ethane was removed and transported through the HTM to the air side. The air provided the driving force required for the transport of hydrogen through the HTM. The reaction between transported hydrogen and oxygen in air can provide the energy needed for the dehydrogenation reaction. At 850 C and 1-atm pressure, equilibrium conversion of ethane normally limits the ethylene yield to 64%, but Argonne has shown that an ethylene yield of 69% with a selectivity of 88% can be obtained under the same conditions. Coking was not a problem in runs extending over several weeks. Further improved HTM materials will lower the temperature required for high conversion at a reasonable residence time, while the lower temperature will suppress unwanted side

  15. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  16. The evolution of cyclopropenium ions into functional polyelectrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Yivan; Freyer, Jessica L.; Cotanda, Pepa; Brucks, Spencer D.; Killops, Kato L.; Bandar, Jeffrey S.; Torsitano, Christopher; Balsara, Nitash P.; Lambert, Tristan H.; Campos, Luis M.

    2015-01-09

    We report that versatile polyelectrolytes with tunable physical properties have the potential to be transformative in applications such as energy storage, fuel cells and various electronic devices. Among the types of materials available for these applications, nanostructured cationic block copolyelectrolytes offer mechanical integrity and well-defined conducting paths for ionic transport. To date, most cationic polyelectrolytes bear charge formally localized on heteroatoms and lack broad modularity to tune their physical properties. To overcome these challenges, we describe herein the development of a new class of functional polyelectrolytes based on the aromatic cyclopropenium ion.We demonstrate the facile synthesis of a series ofmore » polymers and nanoparticles based on monomeric cyclopropenium building blocks incorporating various functional groups that affect physical properties. In conclusion, the materials exhibit high ionic conductivity and thermal stability due to the nature of the cationic moieties, thus rendering this class of new materials as an attractive alternative to develop ion-conducting membranes.« less

  17. Alkaline Membrane Electrolysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RPTnnnn Membrane-Based Electrolysis: Overview * Many cost and efficiency advancements still feasible for PEM electrolysis - >50% reduction in membrane thickness - >90% reduction in catalyst loading - Improved O 2 evolution activity - Part integration and high speed manufacturing - Balance of plant improvements: drying, electronics * AEM electrolysis can enable new cost curve - Will need to balance with potential efficiency loss based on OH- conduction - Durability still needs significant

  18. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W.; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  19. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  20. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

  1. Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao

    1993-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

  2. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J.; Hryn, John N.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  3. Transport Reactor Development Unit Modification to Provide a Syngas Slipstream at Elevated Conditions to Enable Separation of 100 LB/D of Hydrogen by Hydrogen Separation Membranes Year - 6 Activity 1.15 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlasner, Steven

    2012-03-01

    Gasification of coal when associated with carbon dioxide capture and sequestration has the potential to provide low-cost as well as low-carbon hydrogen for electric power, fuels or chemicals production. The key element to the success of this concept is inexpensive, effective separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide in synthesis gas. Many studies indicate that membrane technology is one of the most, if not the most, economical means of accomplishing separation; however, the advancement of hydrogen separation membrane technology is hampered by the absence of experience or demonstration that the technology is effective economically and environmentally at larger scales. While encouraging performance has been observed at bench scale (less than 12 lb/d hydrogen), it would be imprudent to pursue a largescale demonstration without testing at least one intermediate scale, such as 100 lb/d hydrogen. Among its many gasifiers, the Energy & Environmental Research Center is home to the transport reactor demonstration unit (TRDU), a unit capable of firing 200—500 lb/hr of coal to produce 400 scfm of synthesis gas containing more than 200 lb/d of hydrogen. The TRDU and associated downstream processing equipment has demonstrated the capability of producing a syngas over a wide range of temperatures and contaminant levels — some of which approximate conditions of commercial-scale gasifiers. Until this activity, however, the maximum pressure of the TRDU’ s product syngas was 120 psig, well below the 400+ psig pressures of existing large gasifiers. This activity installed a high-temperature compressor capable of accepting the range of TRDU products up to 450°F and compressing them to 500 psig, a pressure comparable to some large scale gasifiers. Thus, with heating or cooling downstream of the TRDU compressor, the unit is now able to present a near-raw to clean gasifier synthesis gas containing more than 100 lb/d of hydrogen at up to 500 psig over a wide range of temperatures

  4. Composite membranes for fluid separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Pinnau, Ingo; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for designing and making composite membranes having a microporous support membrane coated with a permselective layer. The method involves calculating the minimum thickness of the permselective layer such that the selectivity of the composite membrane is close to the intrinsic selectivity of the perselective layer. The invention also provides high performance membranes with optimized properties.

  5. Composite membranes for fluid separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Pinnau, Ingo; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    1990-01-01

    A method for designing and making composite membranes having a microporous support membrane coated with a permselective layer. The method involves calculating the minimum thickness of the permselective layer such that the selectivity of the composite membrane is close to the intrinsic selectivity of the permselective layer. The invention also provides high performance membranes with optimized properties.

  6. Composite membranes for fluid separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Pinnau, Ingo; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for designing and making composite membranes having a microporous support membrane coated with a permselective layer. The method involves calculating the minimum thickness of the permselective layer such that the selectivity of the composite membrane is close to the intrinsic selectivity of the permselective layer. The invention also provides high performance membranes with optimized properties.

  7. Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab scientists Guoying Chen and Thomas J. Richardson have invented a new type of separator membrane that prevents dangerous overcharge and overdischarge conditions in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, i.e., exploding lithium ion batteries. This low cost separator, with electroactive polymers

  8. ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  9. Systems and methods for selective hydrogen transport and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C

    2013-10-29

    Systems and methods for selectively removing hydrogen gas from a hydrogen-containing fluid volume are disclosed. An exemplary system includes a proton exchange membrane (PEM) selectively permeable to hydrogen by exclusively conducting hydrogen ions. The system also includes metal deposited as layers onto opposite sides or faces of the PEM to form a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA), each layer functioning as an electrode so that the MEA functions as an electrochemical cell in which the ionic conductors are hydrogen ions, and the MEA functioning as a hydrogen selective membrane (HSM) when located at the boundary between a hydrogen-containing fluid volume and a second fluid.

  10. Q1Report for CADWR Project: Desalination Using Carbon NAnotube Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakajin, O

    2008-05-14

    In this research and development project, LLNL will leverage the process for fabrication of the membranes developed by our internally funded effort (LLNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development). LLNL will then employ chemical manipulations to modify charge at the ends of the nanotubes and make the membranes more selective to either positive or negative ions through a combination of size and charge selectivity. LLNL's goal is to demonstrate ion exclusion while preserving high permeabilities and low energy use. Success of this research and development project may warrant further developments in the fabrication of membranes.

  11. An ultra-thin diamond membrane as a transmission particle detector and vacuum window for external microbeams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Iwamoto, N.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2013-12-09

    Several applications of external microbeam techniques demand a very accurate and controlled dose delivery. To satisfy these requirements when post-sample ion detection is not feasible, we constructed a transmission single-ion detector based on an ultra-thin diamond membrane. The negligible intrinsic noise provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and enables a hit-detection efficiency of close to 100%, even for energetic protons, while the small thickness of the membrane limits beam spreading. Moreover, because of the superb mechanical stiffness of diamond, this membrane can simultaneously serve as a vacuum window and allow the extraction of an ion microbeam into the atmosphere.

  12. Greening Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Goal 2: Greening Transportation LANL supports and encourages employees to reduce their personal greenhouse gas emissions by offering various commuting and work schedule options. Our goal is to reduce emissions related to employee travel and commuting to and from work by 13 percent. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science

  13. Structure of a Putative Metal-Chelate Type ABC Transporter: An

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inward-facing Conformation Putative Metal-Chelate Type ABC Transporter: An Inward-facing Conformation ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transporters represent a large family of integral membrane proteins, which are found in all organisms from mammals to bacteria. These proteins transport substrates across a biological membrane powered by the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. ABC transporters primarily consist of two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide binding domains

  14. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J.; Butler, Michael A.; Frye, Gregory C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method is provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine).

  15. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-04

    An apparatus and method are provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine). 6 figs.

  16. Sustainable Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  17. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for integrated polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems and fuel cell stacks operating on direct hydrogen for transportation applications.

  18. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webster, Elizabeth; Anderson, Marc

    1993-01-01

    A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

  19. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

    1993-12-14

    A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

  20. FY05 LDRD Final Report Molecular Engineering of Electrodialysis Membranes 03-ERD-060

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourcier, W; O'Brien, K; Sawvel, A; Johnson, M; Bettencourt, K; Letant, S; Felter, T; Langry, K; Wilson, B; Haslam, J; Schaldach, C; Sopchak, D

    2006-02-22

    Using a combination of modeling and experimental work we have developed a new method for purifying water that uses less energy than conventional methods and that can be made selective for removing targeted contaminants. The method uses nanoporous membranes that are permselective for anion or cation transfer. Ion selectivity results from double layer overlap inside the pores such that they dominantly contain ions opposite in charge to the surface charge of the membrane. Membrane charge can be adjusted through functionalization. Experiments confirm membrane permselectivity and overall energy use less than that for conventional electrodialysis. The nanoporous membranes are used in a conventional electrodialysis configuration and can be incorporated in existing electrodialysis systems without modification. The technology merits further development and testing in real systems, and could result in a significant reduction in water treatment costs.

  1. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Ciocco, M.; Doctor, R. D.; Dorris, S.E.; Emerson, J. E.; Fisher, B.; Lee, T. H.; Killmeyer, R. P.; Morreale,B.; Picciolo, J. J.; Siriwardane, R. V.; Song, S. J.

    2007-02-05

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. This goal of this project is to develop two types of dense ceramic membrane for producing hydrogen nongalvanically, i.e., without electrodes or external power supply, at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. The first type of membrane, hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs), will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. The second type of membrane, oxygen transport membranes (OTMs), will produce hydrogen by nongalvanically removing oxygen that is generated when water dissociates at elevated temperatures. This report describes progress that was made during FY 2006 on the development of OTM and HTM materials.

  2. Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Home/Transportation Energy CRF_climatechange Permalink Gallery Understanding Hazardous Combustion Byproducts Reduces Factors Impacting Climate Change CRF, Global Climate & Energy, News, News & Events, Transportation Energy Understanding Hazardous Combustion Byproducts Reduces Factors Impacting Climate Change By Micheal Padilla Researchers at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility are developing the understanding necessary to build cleaner combustion technologies that will in turn

  3. Conception and construction of an LPG tank using a composite membrane technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuvel, P.; Claude, J.

    1985-03-01

    TECHNIGAZ and TOTAL C.F.P. have developed a new LPG storage technology derived from the membrane concept used for LNG storage and transportation. This technology called GMS uses a composite membrane as primary barrier. A 2 000 m/sup 3/ storage pilot unit, based on that concept, is under construction in TOTAL's refinery at DUNKIRK (France) since September 1983.

  4. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  5. The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with biological membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johs, Alexander; Whited, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of peripheral proteins with membrane surfaces are critical to many biological processes, including signaling, recognition, membrane trafficking, cell division and cell structure. On a molecular level, peripheral membrane proteins can modulate lipid composition, membrane dynamics and protein-protein interactions. Biochemical and biophysical studies have shown that these interactions are in fact highly complex, dominated by several different types of interactions, and have an interdependent effect on both the protein and membrane. Here we examine three major mechanisms underlying the interactions between peripheral membrane proteins and membranes: electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and fatty acid modification of proteins. While experimental approachesmore » continue to provide critical insights into specific interaction mechanisms, emerging bioinformatics resources and tools contribute to a systems-level picture of protein-lipid interactions. Through these recent advances, we begin to understand the pivotal role of protein-lipid interactions underlying complex biological functions at membrane interfaces.« less

  6. The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with biological membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johs, Alexander; Whited, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of peripheral proteins with membrane surfaces are critical to many biological processes, including signaling, recognition, membrane trafficking, cell division and cell structure. On a molecular level, peripheral membrane proteins can modulate lipid composition, membrane dynamics and protein-protein interactions. Biochemical and biophysical studies have shown that these interactions are in fact highly complex, dominated by several different types of interactions, and have an interdependent effect on both the protein and membrane. Here we examine three major mechanisms underlying the interactions between peripheral membrane proteins and membranes: electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and fatty acid modification of proteins. While experimental approaches continue to provide critical insights into specific interaction mechanisms, emerging bioinformatics resources and tools contribute to a systems-level picture of protein-lipid interactions. Through these recent advances, we begin to understand the pivotal role of protein-lipid interactions underlying complex biological functions at membrane interfaces.

  7. Nanofluidic transport through isolated carbon nanotube channels: Advances, controversies, and challenges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Shirui; Meshot, Eric R.; Kuykendall, Tevye; Cabrini, Stefano; Fornasiero, Francesco

    2015-06-02

    Owing to their simple chemistry and structure, controllable geometry, and a plethora of unusual yet exciting transport properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as exceptional channels for fundamental nanofluidic studies, as well as building blocks for future fluidic devices that can outperform current technology in many applications. Leveraging the unique fluidic properties of CNTs in advanced systems requires a full understanding of their physical origin. Recent advancements in nanofabrication technology enable nanofluidic devices to be built with a single, nanometer-wide CNT as a fluidic pathway. These novel platforms with isolated CNT nanochannels offer distinct advantages for establishing quantitative structure–transport correlationsmore » in comparison with membranes containing many CNT pores. In addition, they are promising components for single-molecule sensors as well as for building nanotube-based circuits wherein fluidics and electronics can be coupled. With such advanced device architecture, molecular and ionic transport can be manipulated with vastly enhanced control for applications in sensing, separation, detection, and therapeutic delivery. Recent achievements in fabricating isolated-CNT nanofluidic platforms are highlighted, along with the most-significant findings each platform enables for water, ion, and molecular transport. Furthermore, the implications of these findings and remaining open questions on the exceptional fluidic properties of CNTs are also discussed.« less

  8. Nanofluidic transport through isolated carbon nanotube channels: Advances, controversies, and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shirui; Meshot, Eric R.; Kuykendall, Tevye; Cabrini, Stefano; Fornasiero, Francesco

    2015-06-02

    Owing to their simple chemistry and structure, controllable geometry, and a plethora of unusual yet exciting transport properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as exceptional channels for fundamental nanofluidic studies, as well as building blocks for future fluidic devices that can outperform current technology in many applications. Leveraging the unique fluidic properties of CNTs in advanced systems requires a full understanding of their physical origin. Recent advancements in nanofabrication technology enable nanofluidic devices to be built with a single, nanometer-wide CNT as a fluidic pathway. These novel platforms with isolated CNT nanochannels offer distinct advantages for establishing quantitative structure–transport correlations in comparison with membranes containing many CNT pores. In addition, they are promising components for single-molecule sensors as well as for building nanotube-based circuits wherein fluidics and electronics can be coupled. With such advanced device architecture, molecular and ionic transport can be manipulated with vastly enhanced control for applications in sensing, separation, detection, and therapeutic delivery. Recent achievements in fabricating isolated-CNT nanofluidic platforms are highlighted, along with the most-significant findings each platform enables for water, ion, and molecular transport. Furthermore, the implications of these findings and remaining open questions on the exceptional fluidic properties of CNTs are also discussed.

  9. ION PUMP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1961-01-01

    An ion pump and pumping method are given for low vacuum pressures in which gases introduced into a pumping cavity are ionized and thereafter directed and accelerated into a quantity of liquid gettering metal where they are absorbed. In the preferred embodiment the metal is disposed as a liquid pool upon one electrode of a Phillips ion gauge type pump. Means are provided for continuously and remotely withdrawing and degassing the gettering metal. The liquid gettering metal may be heated if desired, although various combinations of gallium, indium, tin, bismuth, and lead, the preferred metals, have very low melting points. A background pressure of evaporated gettering metal may be provided by means of a resistance heated refractory metal wick protruding from the surface of the pcol of gettering metal.

  10. New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Based on Heteropoly Acids | Department of Energy High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids "Summary of Colorado School of Mines heteropolyacid research presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003 " htwgf_fall2003.pdf (4.98 MB) More Documents & Publications Novel Approaches to Immobilized

  11. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P.; Way, J. Douglas

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2. s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  12. Hydrogen-Selective Membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P.; Way, J. Douglas

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2.s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  13. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  14. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  15. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) A revolutionary method of building a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for...

  16. Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High ...

  17. Some durability considerations for proton exchange membranes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Oct. 14, 2010 ... New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation ...

  18. Highly charged ion secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamza, Alex V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnes, Alan V.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-01-01

    A secondary ion mass spectrometer using slow, highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion trap permits ultra-sensitive surface analysis and high spatial resolution simultaneously. The spectrometer comprises an ion source producing a primary ion beam of highly charged ions that are directed at a target surface, a mass analyzer, and a microchannel plate detector of secondary ions that are sputtered from the target surface after interaction with the primary beam. The unusually high secondary ion yield permits the use of coincidence counting, in which the secondary ion stops are detected in coincidence with a particular secondary ion. The association of specific molecular species can be correlated. The unique multiple secondary nature of the highly charged ion interaction enables this new analytical technique.

  19. Ion selectivity of graphene nanopores

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rollings, Ryan C.; Kuan, Aaron T.; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2016-04-22

    As population growth continues to outpace development of water infrastructure in many countries, desalination (the removal of salts from seawater) at high energy efficiency will likely become a vital source of fresh water. Due to its atomic thinness combined with its mechanical strength, porous graphene may be particularly well-suited for electrodialysis desalination, in which ions are removed under an electric field via ion-selective pores. Here, we show that single graphene nanopores preferentially permit the passage of K+ cations over Cl- anions with selectivity ratios of over 100 and conduct monovalent cations up to 5 times more rapidly than divalent cations.more » Furthermore, the observed K+/Cl- selectivity persists in pores even as large as about 20 nm in diameter, suggesting that high throughput, highly selective graphene electrodialysis membranes can be fabricated without the need for subnanometer control over pore size.« less

  20. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-02-26

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a

  1. Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Peterson, Reid A.

    1996-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes.

  2. Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Peterson, R.A.

    1996-09-03

    Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes. 1 fig.

  3. Breaking New Ground in Membrane Protein Research | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility Atomic model for the simulation of the KvAP channel in a lipid membrane. Atomic model for the simulation of the KvAP channel in a lipid membrane. The model represents the channel in an open activated state as determined by EPR experiments from the laboratory of Eduardo Perozo (The University of Chicago). The atomic model comprises 964 amino acids, 302 lipid molecules, 12,046 water molecules, and 53 K+ and Cl- ion pairs. In total, there are 112,798 atoms in the system. The

  4. Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

    2008-03-31

    Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve the

  5. Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.W. ); Cussler, E.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. ); Koros, W.J. ); Riley, R.L. ); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

    1990-03-01

    Membrane based separation technology, a relative newcomer on the separations scene, has demonstrated the potential of saving enormous amounts of energy in the processing industries if substituted for conventional separation systems. Over 1 quad annually, out of 2.6, can possibly be saved in liquid-to-gas separations, alone, if membrane separation systems gain wider acceptance, according to a recent DOE/OIP (DOE/NBM-80027730 (1986)) study. In recent years great strides have been made in the field and offer even greater energy savings in the future when substituted for other conventional separation techniques such as distillation, evaporation, filtration, sedimentation, and absorption. An assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in the seven major membrane areas. This encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, micorfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and and pervaporation; and one emerging technology: facilitated transport. Particular attention was paid to identifying the innovative processes currently emerging, and even further improvements which could gain wider acceptance for the more mature membrane technology. The topics that were pointed out as having the greatest research emphasis are pervaporation for organic-organic separations; gas separation; micorfiltration; an oxidant-resistant reverse osmosis membrane; and a fouling-resistant ultrafiltration membrane. 35 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Communication: Nanoscale ion fluctuations in Nafion polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rumberger, Brant; Bennett, Mackenzie; Zhang, Jingyun; Israeloff, N. E.; Dura, J. A.

    2014-08-21

    Ion conduction mechanisms and the nanostructure of ion conduction networks remain poorly understood in polymer electrolytes which are used as proton-exchange-membranes (PEM) in fuel cell applications. Here we study nanoscale surface-potential fluctuations produced by Brownian ion dynamics in thin films of low-hydration Nafion™, the prototype PEM. Images and power spectra of the fluctuations are used to derive the local conductivity-relaxation spectrum, in order to compare with bulk behavior and hopping-conductivity models. Conductivity relaxation-times ranged from hours to milliseconds, depending on hydration and temperature, demonstrating that the observed fluctuations are produced by water-facilitated hydrogen-ion hopping within the ion-channel network. Due to the small number of ions probed, non-Gaussian statistics of the fluctuations can be used to constrain ion conduction parameters and mechanisms.

  7. Transportation | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation NREL's transportation infrastructure and programs are designed to significantly reduce petroleum use campus-wide. This infographic shows NREL's FY2015 fleet performance and fleet vehicle history compared to baseline FY 2005 and FY 2014. Petroleum fuel use decreased 28% from 2014 and increased 17% from baseline 2005. Alternative fuel use increased 53% from 2014 and increased 127% from baseline 2005. In baseline 2005, the fleet used 6,521 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) of E-85, in

  8. TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS The Pittsburgh Airport Marriott provides complimentary shuttle service. The hotel asks all guests arriving at the Pittsburgh International Airport to collect luggage in the baggage claim area of the airport and then call for the shuttle at 412-788- 8800. Let the Hotel Operator know that you have collected your luggage and have a reservation at the Marriott and need transportation from the airport. The Hotel Operator will instruct the guest which door to exit, which curb to

  9. Ion Stancu

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Search for Neutrino Oscillations with MiniBooNE Ion Stancu University of Alabama Frontiers in Neutrino Physics APC, Paris, October 6th, 2011 06.10.2011
FNP
 2
 Ion
Stancu
-
University
of
Alabama
 Introduction Review of the MiniBooNE oscillation results: * Motivation for MiniBooNE: testing the LSND signal * MiniBooNE design strategy and assumptions * Neutrino oscillation results: PRL 98, 231801 (2007) & PRL 102, 101802 (2009) * Antineutrino oscillation results: PRL 103,

  10. Improved ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  11. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grot, Stephen; Grot, Walther

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  12. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  13. The change of microstructure and thermal properties in ion irradiated carbon nanotube mats as a function of ion penetration depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitkaliyeva, A. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Shao, L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States) [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2013-02-11

    A stack of three carbon nanotube (CNT) mats was irradiated with 3 MeV He ions. The change in structural and thermal properties of individual mats as a function of ion penetration depth was characterized using electron microscopy and laser flash techniques. Ion irradiation can enhance thermal conductivity of the mats by introducing inter-tube displacements, which improve phonon transport across adjacent nanotubes. The enhancement, however, is reduced at higher damage levels due to the increasing phonon-defect scattering within the tubes. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ion irradiation to manipulate thermal transport in carbon nanotubes.

  14. Membrane Based Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Based Air Conditioning 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Brian Johnson, brian.johnson@daisanalytic.com Dais Analytic Corporation INSERT PROJECT SPECIFIC PHOTO (replacing this shape) 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2015 NEW PROJECT Planned end date: September 30, 2017 Key Milestones 1. System Design Review; March 2016 2. Compressor testing review; September 2016 3. Go/No-Go based on bench testing; September 2016 4. Experimental evaluation of V1 prototype;

  15. ION GUN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  16. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  17. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  18. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. ... calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ionbattery manufacturing process. ...

  19. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation News The following news stories highlight transportation research at NREL. August 25, 2016 NREL and NASA Receive Regional FLC Award for Notable Technology NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) were selected as 2016 recipients of a Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) Mid-Continent Regional Award, for their notable technology development of the patented Battery Internal Short-Circuit (ISC) Device. August 25, 2016 NREL Helps the National

  20. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Protic Salt Polymer Membranes Protic Salt Polymer Membranes A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19, 2006. More Documents & Publications Design and Development of High-Performance Polymer Fuel Cell Membranes High Temperature Membrane with HUmidification-Independent Cluster Structure Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

  1. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  2. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were grown in the absence of any ammonium derivative and in the presence of ammonium sulfate or methyl ammonium sulfate. A stereo view of the monomeric ammonia channel viewed...

  3. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How do You Save Energy During the Holidays? How do You Save Energy During the Holidays? December 20, 2011 - 9:03am Addthis Between family vacations, shopping, and cooking extravagant meals, energy conservation isn't usually at the top our list of things to do during the holiday season. But there are plenty of ways to save money & energy even now by doing little - and even fun - things to reduce our utility bills and use less energy overall. This week, Amanda showed us how she saves money and

  4. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the uncharged NH3 "gas." A Doorway for Letting Ammonia into Cells Like any factory, a biological cell takes in raw materials and energy and expels waste products. What goes in...

  5. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen

  6. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

    2007-09-24

    _dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1, and the H2/CO2 separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H2 with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H2 permeance more than one order of magnitude. Increasing the membrane feed pressure increased the H2 flux and the H2 mole fraction in the permeate stream for both H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 mixtures. The H2 separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO2 adsorption inhibited H2 adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO2/H2 separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO2 permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H2 recompression because H2 remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO2/H2 separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO2 feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO2/H2 sorption selectivity with increased CO2 partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H2 from CH4 because CH4 is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  7. Trifluorostyrene containing compounds, and their use in polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Biswajit; Roelofs, Mark Gerrit; Yang; Zhen-Yu

    2009-07-21

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting a monomer onto a base polymer, wherein the grafting monomer is selected from the group consisting of structure 1a, 1b and mixture thereof; ##STR00001## wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of --R.sub.FSO.sub.2F, --R.sub.FSO.sub.3M, --R.sub.SO.sub.2NH.sub.2 and --R.sub.FSO.sub.2N(M)SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F, where in M is hydrogen, an alkali cation or ammonium; and R.sub.F and R.sup.2.sub.F are perfluorinated or partially fluorinated, and may optionally include ether oxygens; and n is between 1 and 2 for 1a, or n is between 1 and 3 for 1b. These ion exchange polymers are useful is preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  8. Short wavelength ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Villard, L. [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode in the high wavenumber regime (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}>1), referred to as short wavelength ion temperature gradient mode (SWITG) is studied using the nonlinear gyrokinetic electromagnetic code GENE. It is shown that, although the SWITG mode may be linearly more unstable than the standard long wavelength (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}<1) ITG mode, nonlinearly its contribution to the total thermal ion heat transport is found to be low. We interpret this as resulting from an increased zonal flow shearing effect on the SWITG mode suppression.

  9. Ion mobility sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2005-08-23

    An ion mobility sensor which can detect both ion and molecules simultaneously. Thus, one can measure the relative arrival times between various ions and molecules. Different ions have different mobility in air, and the ion sensor enables measurement of ion mobility, from which one can identify the various ions and molecules. The ion mobility sensor which utilizes a pair of glow discharge devices may be designed for coupling with an existing gas chromatograph, where various gas molecules are already separated, but numbers of each kind of molecules are relatively small, and in such cases a conventional ion mobility sensor cannot be utilized.

  10. ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from thc source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a varuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  11. Ion Monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  12. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  13. Ion Trapping, Storage, and Ejection in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Garimella, Venkata BS; Prost, Spencer A.; Webb, Ian K.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Anderson, Gordon A.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-16

    A structure for lossless ion manipulation (SLIM) module was constructed with electrode arrays patterned on a pair of parallel printed circuit boards (PCB) separated by 5 mm and utilized to investigate capabilities for ion trapping at 4 Torr. Positive ions were confined by application of RF having alternating phases on a series of inner rung electrodes and by positive DC potentials on surrounding guard electrodes on each PCB. An axial DC field was also introduced by stepwise varying the DC potential of the inner rung electrodes so as to control the ion transport and accumulation inside the ion trap. We show that ions could be trapped and accumulated with 100% efficiency, stored for at least 5 hours with no losses, and could be rapidly ejected from the SLIM trap.

  14. Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy admin 2015-05-14T22:34:50+00:00 Transportation Energy The national-level objective for the future is to create a carbon-neutral fleet that is powered by low-carbon US sources. Sandia delivers advanced technologies and design tools to the broad transportation sector in the following areas: Predictive Simulation of Engines Fuel sprays and their transition from the liquid to gas phase and computationally tractable models that capture the physics of combustion. Convergence of Biofuels and

  15. Structure of ABC Transporter MsbA in Complex with ATP Vi and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lipopolysaccharide: Implications for Lipid Flipping ABC Transporter MsbA in Comlex with ATP Vi and Lipopolysaccharide: Implications for Lipid Flipping Christopher L. Reyes and Geoffrey Chang* Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Rd. CB105, La Jolla, CA 92137 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins critical for the transport of a wide variety of substrate molecules across the cell membrane. MsbA, along with human

  16. Single Molecule Kinetics of ENTH Binding to Lipid Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozovsky, Sharon; Forstner, Martin B.; Sondermann, Holger; Groves, Jay T.

    2012-04-03

    Transient recruitment of proteins to membranes is a fundamental mechanism by which the cell exerts spatial and temporal control over proteins’ localization and interactions. Thus, the specificity and the kinetics of peripheral proteins’ membrane residence are an attribute of their function. In this article, we describe the membrane interactions of the interfacial epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain with its target lipid phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). The direct visualization and quantification of interactions of single ENTH molecules with supported lipid bilayers is achieved using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) with a time resolution of 13 ms. This enables the recording of the kinetic behavior of ENTH interacting with membranes with physiologically relevant concentrations of PtdIns(4,5)P2 despite the low effective binding affinity. Subsequent single fluorophore tracking permits us to build up distributions of residence times and to measure ENTH dissociation rates as a function of membrane composition. In addition, due to the high time resolution, we are able to resolve details of the motion of ENTH associated with a simple, homogeneous membrane. In this case ENTH’s diffusive transport appears to be the result of at least three different diffusion processes.

  17. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  18. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R.; Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

  19. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not play a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.

  20. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not playmore » a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.« less

  1. Potentiometric measurement of polymer-membrane electrodes based on lanthanum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saefurohman, Asep Buchari, Noviandri, Indra; Syoni

    2014-03-24

    Quantitative analysis of rare earth elements which are considered as the standard method that has a high accuracy, and detection limits achieved by the order of ppm is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). But these tools are expensive and valuable analysis of the high cost of implementation. In this study be made and characterized selective electrode for the determination of rare earth ions is potentiometric. Membrane manufacturing techniques studied is based on immersion (liquid impregnated membrane) in PTFE 0.5 pore size. As ionophores to be used tri butyl phosphate (TBP) and bis(2-etylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate. There is no report previously that TBP used as ionophore in polymeric membrane based lanthanum. Some parameters that affect the performance of membrane electrode such as membrane composition, membrane thickness, and types of membrane materials studied in this research. Manufacturing of Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) Lanthanum (La) by means of impregnation La membrane in TBP in kerosene solution has been done and showed performance for ISE-La. FTIR spectrum results for PTFE 0.5 pore size which impregnated in TBP and PTFE blank showed difference of spectra in the top 1257 cm{sup ?1}, 1031 cm{sup ?1} and 794.7 cm{sup ?1} for P=O stretching and stretching POC from group ?OP =O. The result showed shift wave number for P =O stretching of the cluster (?OP=O) in PTFE-TBP mixture that is at the peak of 1230 cm{sup ?1} indicated that no interaction bond between hydroxyl group of molecules with molecular clusters fosforil of TBP or R{sub 3}P = O. The membrane had stable responses in pH range between 1 and 9. Good responses were obtained using 10{sup ?3} M La(III) internal solution, which produced relatively high potential. ISE-La showed relatively good performances. The electrode had a response time of 294.5 second and could be use for 50 days. The linear range was between 10{sup ?5} and 10{sup ?1} M.

  2. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul; Dempsey, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  3. Membrane Separator for Redox Flow Batteries that Utilize Anion Radical Mediators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    A Na + ion conducting polyethylene oxide membrane is developed for an organic electrolyte redox flow battery that utilizes anion radical mediators. To achieve high specific ionic conductivity, tetraethyleneglycol dimethylether (TEGDME) is used as a plasticizer to reduce crystallinity and increase the free volume of the gel film. This membrane is physically and chemically stable in TEGDME electrolyte that contains highly reactive biphenyl anion radical mediators.

  4. Fitting the Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a New Membrane - Joint Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Research October 22, 2015, Accomplishments Fitting the Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a New Membrane The lithium-sulfur battery has higher energy storage capacity and lower cost than lithium ion. But there is a serious stumbling block. Polysulfides form in the cathode during battery cycling and pass through the membrane to contaminate the lithium metal anode. This results in a rapid decline in performance. JCESR researchers appear to have found a solution to the problem - the

  5. Composite membrane with integral rim

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routkevitch, Dmitri; Polyakov, Oleg G

    2015-01-27

    Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes can include a porous support structure having elongate pore channels extending through the support structure. The composite membrane also includes an active layer comprising an active layer material, where the active layer material is completely disposed within the pore channels between the surfaces of the support structure. The active layer is intimately integrated within the support structure, thus enabling great robustness, reliability, resistance to mechanical stress and thermal cycling, and high selectivity. Methods for the fabrication of composite membranes are also provided.

  6. Consider nanofiltration for membrane separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, L.P. ); Cheryna, M.; Rajagopalan, N. )

    1994-03-01

    The best known liquid-phase membrane processes are reverse osmosis (RO), ultrafiltration (UF), microfiltration (MF), dialysis, and electrodialysis (ED). However, over the past few years, a new membrane process called nanofiltration (NF) has emerged that promises to significantly widen the application of membranes in liquid-phase separations. This paper discusses the following: NF operating range, membrane properties, and the following applications: demineralizing water, cleaning up contaminated groundwater, ultrapure water, effluents containing heavy metals, offshore oil platforms, yeast production, pulp and paper mills, textile production, electroless copper plating, and cheese whey production.

  7. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  8. Characterization of Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Separations in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Venkata BS; Webb, Ian K.; Deng, Liulin; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Anderson, Gordon A.; Prost, Spencer A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-10-28

    We report on the development and characterization of a new traveling wave-based Structure for Lossless Ion Manipulations (TW-SLIM) for ion mobility separations (IMS). The TW-SLIM module uses a parallel array of RF electrodes for ion confinement, spaced by an array of short DC electrodes to which a TW can be applied to drive ion motion. The ability of the TW-SLIM for efficient ion confinement, lossless ion transport, and ion mobility separations at different RF and TW parameters is reported. The TW-SLIM module is shown to allow transfers a wide mass range of ions (200-2500 Da) utilizing a confining RF waveform (1 MHz and 300 Vp-p), and low TW amplitudes (<20 V). Also, the short module achieved an ion mobility peak capacity of 24 and a peak generation rate of 1014 s-1 for TW speeds of <210 m/s. TW-SLIM performance was characterized over a wide range of RF and DC voltage parameters, and demonstrated robust performance. The combined attributes of flexible design and low voltage requirements for traveling wave IMS, provide a basis for SLIM devices incorporating extended series of ion manipulations.

  9. Electron–ion relaxation time in moderately degenerate plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vronskii, M. A. Koryakina, Yu. V.

    2015-09-15

    A formula is derived for the electron–ion relaxation time in a partially degenerate plasma with electron-ion interaction via a central field. The resulting expression in the form of an integral of the transport cross section generalizes the well-known Landau and Brysk approximations.

  10. MCNPX Extension for Using Light Ion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-05-23

    Version 00 US DOE 10CFR810 Jurisdiction. MCUNED is an MCNPX extension that handles a light ion evaluated nuclear data library. Using MCUNED, all MCNPX simulations involving transport of light ion could be solved using evaluated libraries instead of MCNPX built-in models.

  11. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  12. Parton equilibration in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biro, T.S.; van Doorn, E.; Mueller, B.; Thoma, M.H.; Wang, X. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, D-6300 Giessen Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 )

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the processes leading to phase-space equilibration of parton distributions in nuclear interactions at collider energies. We derive a set of rate equations describing the chemical equilibration of gluons and quarks including medium effects on the relevant QCD transport coefficients, and discuss their consequences for parton equilibration in heavy ion collisions.

  13. Metal ion complexation by ionizable crown ethers. Final report, January 1, 1988--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartsch, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    During the report period a variety of new lipophilic ionizable crown ethers with pendent proton-ionizable groups has been synthesized. The ligands possess one or more ionizable group (carboxylic acid, phosphonic acid monoethyl ester, para-nitrophenol, phosphonic acid) attached to crown ether, monoazacrown ether or diazacrown ether frameworks. These novel chelating agents have either pendent or inward-facing proton-ionizable groups. Such lipophilic proton-ionizable crown ethers are designed for use in multiphase metal ion separations (solvent extraction, liquid membrane transport). In addition a series of proton-ionizable crown ethers without lipophilic groups was prepared to study how structural variations within the ligand influence metal ion complexation in homogeneous media as assessed by NMR spectroscopy or titration calorimetry. A third class of new metal ion-complexing agents is a series of lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids. Competitive solvent extractions of alkali metal and alkaline earth cations and of the mixed species have been conducted to reveal the influence of ring size, nature and attachment site of the lipophilic group, sidearm length, and proton-ionizable group identity and location upon the selectivity and efficiency of metal ion complexation. In addition to such studies of structural variation within the lipophilic proton-ionizable crown ether, the effect of changing the organic solvent and variation of the stripping conditions have been assessed. The influence of structural variations within lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids upon competitive solvent extraction of alkaline earth cations has been probed. Also a new chromogenic, di-ionizable crown ether with extremely high selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} has been discovered.

  14. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels DOE would invest $52 million to fund a major fleet transformation at Idaho National Laboratory, along with the installation of nine fuel management systems, purchase of additional flex fuel cars and one E85 ethanol fueling station. Transportation projects, such as the acquisition of highly efficient and alternative-fuel vehicles, are not authorized by ESPC legislation. DOE has twice proportion of medium vehicles and three times as many heavy vehicles as compared to the Federal agency

  15. Palladium-coated zirconium membranes for oxidative extraction of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.; Buxbaum, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Palladium-coated metal membranes are attractive choices for low pressure, high temperature hydrogen and hydrogen isotope extractions, e.g. from fusion blanket fluids. The authors present experimental data on hydrogen transport through palladium-coated zirconium membranes at 600 - 700/sup 0/K. The upstream hydrogen pressure range is 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -6/ torr and an oxygen-containing gas flows over the downstream side of the membrane. Thus, the irreversible oxidation reaction drives the flux. Deuterium permeabilities in zirconium are 2.00x10/sup -6/exp(59/T)+-20% g-mol/m.s.Pa/sup 1/2/, similar to the values obtained from diffusivity and solubility measurements. Extrapolated deuterium absorptive sticking coefficients on palladium are about .05.

  16. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2010.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.

    2011-03-14

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. These membranes will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes the results from the development and testing of HTM materials during FY 2010.

  17. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  18. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  19. Electrochemical membrane incinerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Dennis C.; Houk, Linda L.; Feng, Jianren

    2001-03-20

    Electrochemical incineration of p-benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 .mu.g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called "supporting electrolyte" was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

  20. The APEX Project: Ion beam pulse-shaping experiments on Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator PBFA II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crow, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of ion beam pulse shaping, efficient extraction ion diodes, and efficient plasma channel transport for the particle beam fusion accelerator PBFA II. 10 refs. (LSP)

  1. Gas separations using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T.; Lin, C.L.; Flowers, D.L.; Wu, J.C.S.; Smith, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    Alcoa`s commercial membrane with 40{Angstrom} pore diameter has been identified as one of the potential candidates for high temperature gas separations. This asymmetric multiple layer membrane have been well characterized and evaluated. It has excellent thermal stability and acceptably hydrothermal stability at {approximately}650{degree}C or above. Gas separations with this membrane follow Knudsen diffusion. Its selectivity is suitable for bulk separations, or for reduction/elimination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} via selective removal of hydrogen. An improved separation efficiency with this membrane is highly desirable for applications involving hydrogen separation, and the removal of trace contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. One of the effective avenues in improving the efficiency of the existing membrane is to narrow its pore size through surface modifications. Thus membranes with a smaller pore size can be readily available through minor modifications of the existing commercial product. In this paper focus is on the morphological characterization and performance evaluation of hydrogen-selective and zeolitic membranes developed from existing commercial membranes.

  2. Gas separations using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T.; Lin, C.L.; Flowers, D.L.; Wu, J.C.S.; Smith, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    Alcoa's commercial membrane with 40[Angstrom] pore diameter has been identified as one of the potential candidates for high temperature gas separations. This asymmetric multiple layer membrane have been well characterized and evaluated. It has excellent thermal stability and acceptably hydrothermal stability at [approximately]650[degree]C or above. Gas separations with this membrane follow Knudsen diffusion. Its selectivity is suitable for bulk separations, or for reduction/elimination of H[sub 2]S and NH[sub 3] via selective removal of hydrogen. An improved separation efficiency with this membrane is highly desirable for applications involving hydrogen separation, and the removal of trace contaminants, such as H[sub 2]S and NH[sub 3]. One of the effective avenues in improving the efficiency of the existing membrane is to narrow its pore size through surface modifications. Thus membranes with a smaller pore size can be readily available through minor modifications of the existing commercial product. In this paper focus is on the morphological characterization and performance evaluation of hydrogen-selective and zeolitic membranes developed from existing commercial membranes.

  3. Identifying Calcium Channels and Porters in Plant Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sze, Heven

    1998-04-01

    The overall objectives of the proposal submitted in 6/90 was to understand how Ca was transported across plant membranes, and how these transport pathways were regulated. Ca participates in many cellular processes, including the transduction of hormonal and environmental signals, secretion, and protein folding. These processes depend on the coordination of passive Ca fluxes via channels and active Ca pumps; however these transport pathways are poorly understood in plants. We had, therefore, proposed to identify and characterize Ca transport proteins, such as the inositol-1 ,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca channels and Ca pumps. We have had difficulties characterizing and cloning the IP3-sensitive Ca channel, but have made considerable progress on the biochemical characterization, and partial purification of a 120 kD Ca-pumping ATPase. We have begun to determine the structure of Ca pumps by molecular cloning and have already obtained a partial cDNA with features characteristic of Ca pumps.

  4. Performance modelling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, C.; Li, X.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a performance model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell that has sufficient accuracy for engineering applications with reduced computational requirements. The model includes electrochemical reaction in the catalyst layers and formulation for electrical resistance in the membrane, electrodes and bipolar plates, and employs engineering correlation for the reactant gas transport in the flow channels and through the electrodes. It is shown that the present model predictions are in reasonable agreement with known experimental observations, indicating that the present model can be employed for fuel cell stack and system modeling. The effect of various operating and design parameters on the cell performance has been investigated. It is found that mass transport limitations are the largest cause of performance loss in the cell when graphite is used as the material for bipolar plates and electrodes. If conducting polymers are substituted as construction materials, cell performance is expected to suffer considerably at high current densities due to their reduced electrical conductivity.

  5. Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, K

    2013-09-30

    At the beginning of this project, thin film amorphous alloy membranes were considered a nascent but promising new technology for industrial-scale hydrogen gas separations from coal- derived syngas. This project used a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that had the potential to meet Department of Energy (DOE) targets in the testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol. The project is complete with Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Western Research Institute (WRI) having all operated independently and concurrently. GT studied the hydrogen transport properties of several amorphous alloys and found that ZrCu and ZrCuTi were the most promising candidates. GT also evaluated the hydrogen transport properties of V, Nb and Ta membranes coated with different transition-metal carbides (TMCs) (TM = Ti, Hf, Zr) catalytic layers by employing first-principles calculations together with statistical mechanics methods and determined that TiC was the most promising material to provide catalytic hydrogen dissociation. SwRI developed magnetron coating techniques to deposit a range of amorphous alloys onto both porous discs and tubular substrates. Unfortunately none of the amorphous alloys could be deposited without pinhole defects that undermined the selectivity of the membranes. WRI tested the thermal properties of the ZrCu and ZrNi alloys and found that under reducing environments the upper temperature limit of operation without recrystallization is ~250 °C. There were four publications generated from this project with two additional manuscripts in progress and six presentations were made at national and international technical conferences. The combination of the pinhole defects and the lack of high temperature stability make the theoretically identified most promising candidate amorphous alloys

  6. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Elyassi, Bahman; Lima, Fernando; Iyer, Aparna; Agrawal, Kumar; Sabnis, Sanket

    2015-04-06

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants

  7. Olefin separation membrane and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo; Toy, Lora G.; Casillas, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    A membrane and process for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5.times.10.sup.-6 cm.sup.3 (STP)/cm.sup.2 .multidot.s.multidot.cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment.

  8. Olefin separation membrane and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane and process are disclosed for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5{times}10{sup {minus}6}cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{center_dot}cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment. 4 figs.

  9. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  10. Transport mechanisms in nanopores and nanochannels: Can we mimic nature?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tagliazucchi, Mario; Szleifer, Igal

    2014-11-03

    The last few years have witnessed major advancements in the synthesis, modification, characterization and modeling of nanometer-size solid-state channels and pores. Future applications in sensing, energy conversion and purification technologies will critically rely on qualitative improvements in the control over the selectivity, directionality and responsiveness of these nanochannels and nanopores. It is not surprising, therefore, that researchers in the field seek inspiration in biological ion channels and ion pumps, paradigmatic examples of transport selectivity. This work reviews our current fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of transport of ions and larger cargoes through nanopores and nanochannels by examining recent experimental andmoretheoretical work. It is argued that that structure and transport in biological channels and polyelectrolyte-modified synthetic nanopores are strongly coupled: the structure dictates transport and transport affects the structure. We compare synthetic and biological systems throughout this review to conclude that while they present interesting similarities, they also have striking differences.less

  11. Transport mechanisms in nanopores and nanochannels: Can we mimic nature?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tagliazucchi, Mario [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Szleifer, Igal [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2014-11-03

    The last few years have witnessed major advancements in the synthesis, modification, characterization and modeling of nanometer-size solid-state channels and pores. Future applications in sensing, energy conversion and purification technologies will critically rely on qualitative improvements in the control over the selectivity, directionality and responsiveness of these nanochannels and nanopores. It is not surprising, therefore, that researchers in the field seek inspiration in biological ion channels and ion pumps, paradigmatic examples of transport selectivity. This work reviews our current fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of transport of ions and larger cargoes through nanopores and nanochannels by examining recent experimental and theoretical work. It is argued that that structure and transport in biological channels and polyelectrolyte-modified synthetic nanopores are strongly coupled: the structure dictates transport and transport affects the structure. We compare synthetic and biological systems throughout this review to conclude that while they present interesting similarities, they also have striking differences.

  12. Transportation Infrastructure

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    09 Archive Transportation Fact of the Week - 2009 Archive #603 Where Does Lithium Come From? December 28, 2009 #602 Freight Statistics by Mode, 2007 Commodity Flow Survey December 21, 2009 #601 World Motor Vehicle Production December 14, 2009 #600 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 December 7, 2009 #599 Historical Trend for Light Vehicle Sales November 30, 2009 #598 Hybrid Vehicle Sales by Model November 23, 2009 #597 Median Age of Cars and Trucks Rising in 2008 November 16, 2009

  13. Ion Beam Materials Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ion Beam Materials Lab Ion Beam Materials Lab A new research frontier awaits! Our door is open and we thrive on mutually beneficial partnerships, collaborations that drive innovations and new technologies. April 12, 2012 Ion Beam Danfysik Implanter High Voltage Terminal. Contact Yongqiang Wang (505) 665-1596 Email Devoted to the characterization and modification of surfaces through the use of ion beams The Ion Beam Materials Laboratory (IBML) is a Los Alamos National Laboratory resource devoted

  14. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Yun Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-15

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  15. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  16. Stopping Power and Range of Ions in Matter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-06-19

    SRIM is a group of programs which calculate the stopping and range of ions (10ev - 2 GeV/amu) into matter. TRIM (the Transport of Ions in Matter) is the most comprehensive program included. Trim will accept complex targets made of compound materials with up to eight layers, each with different materials. It will calculate both the final 3d distribution of the inner ions and also all kinetic phenomena associated with the ion''s energy loss; targetmore » damage, sputtering, ionization, and phonon production. All targets atom cascades in the target are followed in detail. It can be used for physics of recoil cascades, physics of sputtering, the stopping of ions in compounds and stopping power for ions in gases; This included radiation damage from neutron , electrons, and photons.« less

  17. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, Shigeki Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  18. PROTON-CONDUCTING DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y. S. Lin; Scott Cheng; Vineet Gupta

    2003-12-01

    Dense perovskite-type structured ceramic membranes, SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (SCTm), of different thickness, were prepared by the dry-press method. Membrane thickness was varied from 3 mm to 150 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation flux was found to be inversely proportional to the thickness of the dense films, indicating that the bulk diffusion rather than the surface reaction played a dominant role in the H{sub 2} transport through these dense membranes within the studied thickness range. Hydrogen permeation flux increases with increasing upstream hydrogen partial pressure and decreasing downstream hydrogen partial pressure. The activation energy for hydrogen permeation through the SCTm membrane is about 116 kJ/mol in 600-700 C and 16 kJ/mol in 750-950 C. This indicates a change in the electrical and protonic conduction mechanism at around 700 C. Pd-Cu thin films were synthesized with elemental palladium and copper targets by the sequential R.F. sputter deposition on porous substrates. Pd-Cu alloy films could be formed after proper annealing. The deposited Pd-Cu films were gas-tight. This result demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining an ultrathin SCTm film by the sequential sputter deposition of Sr, Ce and Tm metals followed by proper annealing and oxidation. Such ultrathin SCTm membranes will offer sufficiently high hydrogen permeance for practical applications.

  19. Cocktails and Ions - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cocktails and Ions BASE Ion List Download as a .pdf

  20. Functionalized inorganic membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung; Ruud, James Anthony; Molaison, Jennifer Lynn; Schick, Louis Andrew ,; Ramaswamy, Vidya

    2008-07-08

    A porous membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity. The porous membrane comprises a porous support layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia; a porous separation layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia, and a functional layer comprising a ceramic oxide contactable with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. In particular, the functional layer may be MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3 or a mixture thereof; wherein A is Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; and A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba.