National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ion exchange technology

  1. Small Column Ion Exchange at Savannah River Site Technology Readiness...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site Compilation of TRA Summaries External Technical Review Report for Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River ...

  2. Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) system being developed for deployment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is a supplementary salt waste processing technology that, if implemented, will augment...

  3. Vitrification of ion exchange materials. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    Ion exchange is a process that safely and efficiently removes radionuclides from tank waste. Cesium and strontium account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams from US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is an inorganic sorbent that strongly binds cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides. Developed jointly by Sandia National Laboratory and Texas A and M University, CST was commercialized through a cooperative research and development agreement with an industrial partner. Both an engineered (mesh pellets) and powdered forms are commercially available. Cesium removal is a baseline in HLW treatment processing. CST is very effective at removing cesium from HLW streams and is being considered for adoption at several sites. However, CST is nonregenerable, and it presents a significant secondary waste problem. Treatment options include vitrification of the CST, vitrification of the CST coupled with HLW, direct disposal, and low-temperature processes such as grouting. The work presented in this report demonstrates that it is effective to immobilize CST using a baseline technology such as vitrification. Vitrification produces a durable waste form. CST vitrification was not demonstrated before 1996. In FY97, acceptable glass formulations were developed using cesium-loaded CST obtained from treating supernatants from Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) tanks, and the CST was vitrified in a research melter at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). In FY98, SRS decided to reevaluate the use of in-tank precipitation using tetraphenylborate to remove cesium from tank supernatant and to consider other options for cesium removal, including CST. Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory also require radionuclide removal in their baseline flowsheets.

  4. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Ion-Exchanged Derived Cathodes (IE-LL_NCM) for High Energy Density LIBs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ion-exchanged...

  6. External Technical Review Report for Small Column Ion Exchange...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Report for Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site External Technical Review Report for Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site Full ...

  7. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  8. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  9. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  10. Summary - Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX)Technology at the SRS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ETR R Un Baseline The Sm being The SC operat which Sr, and waste critical the SC deploy Specif exchan [CST]) CST, a (mono and so (RMF) maturi readin design moving The pu techni projec Site: S roject: S E Report Date: F ited States Sma Why DOE e SCIX System Pr mall Column Io developed at S CIX system is tions (ion excha function to rem d actinides) fro and prepare th l technology ele CIX system tha yment and thes fically the critica nge on a selec ) housed in an actinide and Sr osodium titanat

  11. Technology Performance Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  12. External Technical Review Report for Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ambitious Technology Aboard | Department of Energy Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises with Ambitious Technology Aboard Experimental Endeavour on a Pillar of Flame: Space Shuttle Rises with Ambitious Technology Aboard May 17, 2011 - 5:15pm Addthis Smoke cloud from Endeavour's Final Launge | Photo: NASA, Troy Cryder Smoke cloud from Endeavour's Final Launge | Photo: NASA, Troy Cryder Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Communications Specialist (detailee)

  13. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Workman, Rhonda Jackson

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  14. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  15. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  16. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  17. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  18. DOE Technology Performance Exchange

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daniel Studer, Daniel.Studer@nrel.gov National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL - DOE Technology Performance Exchange 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: January 27, 2012 Planned end date: November 20, 2015 Key Milestones 1. Calibrated Energy Model; 5/22/15 2. BPA Sector Simulation; 10/16/15 Budget: BTO $ to date: $769,000 FEMP $ to date: $565,000 Other $ to date: $323,759 Total future DOE $: TBD Key Partners: Project Goal: Provides a pipeline

  19. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1997-01-01

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  20. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1998-01-27

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

  1. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  2. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-12-17

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means.

  3. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  4. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herchenroeder, L.A.; Burkholder, H.R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity. 2 figs.

  5. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  6. Technology Performance Exchange | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Performance Exchange The Technology Performance Exchange(tm) (TPEx(tm)) is a Web-based portal that allows technology manufacturers, evaluators, utilities, consumers, ...

  7. Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane Colorado School of Mines ... DescriptionCharacterization of the membrane has been accomplished using a variety of ...

  8. Technology Performance Exchange

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Meeting * Open invitation for peer review 12 | Building Technologies Office ... data flows with Building Component Library * Seamless information flow from ...

  9. Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers Title: Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers Compositions, ...

  10. NREL - DOE Technology Performance Exchange

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NREL - DOE Technology Performance Exchange 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review William Livingood, William.Livingood@nrel.gov National Renewable Energy Laboratory Project Summary Timeline: Start date: January 27, 2012 Planned end date: September 30, 2014 Key Milestones 1. Launch TPEx with 15 technology product categories; 9/30/2014 2. Recruit three utilities to commit up to $100,000 and use TPEx data; 9/30/2014 Budget: BTO $ to date: $614,000 FEMP $ to date: $565,000 Other $ to date:

  11. Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-03-09

    Non-elutable ion exchange is being considered as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removing cesium from Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) particles are the reference ion exchange medium for the process. A major factor in the construction cost of this process is the size of the ion exchange column required to meet product specifications for decontaminated waste. To validate SRS column sizing calculations, SRS subcontracted two reknowned experts in this field to perform similar calculations: Professor R. G. Anthony, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&038;M University, and Professor S. W. Wang, Department of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University. The appendices of this document contain reports from the two subcontractors. Definition of the design problem came through several meetings and conference calls between the participants and SRS personnel over the past few months. This document summarizes the problem definition and results from the two reports.

  12. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, Jane P.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  13. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  14. The many faces of ion-exchange resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutty, J.T.

    1997-06-01

    Ion-exchange resins have been used commercially for over 60 years. Softening and demineralization of water for boiler feed and process use were then, and continue to be, the most familiar and widespread applications of ion-exchange resins throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Several types of membrane-based technologies, such as electrodialysis, reverse osmosis and, more recently, electrodeionization are recognized as alternative methods for water treatment. Yet, modern versions of ion-exchange resins remain a major player in water treatment. In addition, these versatile materials can be found performing a wide range of tasks in both aqueous and nonaqueous environments. Some of these diverse applications include: acid or base catalysis; manufacture of high-purity solvents and reagent chemicals; separation of by-products of fermentation processes; deacidification of organic solvents; high-purity water production for semiconductor manufacture; recovery of valuable waste from dilute process effluents; controlled release of pharmaceutical products; and chromatography, both on the analytical and the industrial scale. The key to understanding the potential of ion-exchange resins is to look beyond their exchange and adsorptive characteristics, and to see their fundamental nature. In other words, it`s necessary to first consider them as spherical, particulate reactive polymers that perform chemical reactions.

  15. Waste separation and pretreatment using crystalline silicotitanate ion exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadros, M.E.; Miller, J.E.; Anthony, R.G.

    1997-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) has been developed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University to selectively remove Cs and other radionuclides from a wide spectrum of radioactive defense wastes. The CST exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and Sr under a wide range of conditions. Tests show it can remove part-per-million concentrations of Cs{sup +} from highly alkaline, high-sodium simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. The materials exhibit ion exchange properties based on ionic size selectivity. Specifically, crystalline lattice spacing is controlled to be highly selective for Cs ions even in waste streams containing very high (5 to 10 M) concentrations of sodium. The CST technology is being demonstrated with actual waste at several DOE facilities. The use of inorganic ion exchangers. The inorganics are more resistant to chemical, thermal, and radiation degradation. Their high selectivities result in more efficient operations offering the possibility of a simple single-pass operation. In contrast, regenerable organic ion exchangers require additional processing equipment to handle the regeneration liquids and the eluant with the dissolved Cs.

  16. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid embrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selected for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  17. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid membrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selective for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  18. ION EXCHANGE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, G.E.; Russell, E.R.; Taylor, M.D.

    1961-07-11

    Ion exchange processes for the separation of plutonium from fission products are described. In accordance with these processes an aqueous solution containing plutonium and fission products is contacted with a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring adsorption of plutonium and fission products on the resin. A portion of the fission product is then eluted with a solution containing 0.05 to 1% by weight of a carboxylic acid. Plutonium is next eluted with a solution containing 2 to 8 per cent by weight of the same carboxylic acid, and the remaining fission products on the resin are eluted with an aqueous solution containing over 10 per cent by weight of sodium bisulfate.

  19. Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arora, Michelle B.; Hestekin, Jamie A.; Lin, YuPo J.; St. Martin, Edward J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2007-12-11

    A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag. A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above.

  20. Ion exchange materials, method of forming ion exchange materials, and methods of treating liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wertsching, Alan K.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wey, John E.

    2007-12-25

    The invention includes an ion affinity material having an organic component which is sulfonated and which is chemically bonded to an inorganic substrate component. The invention includes a method of forming a metal binding material. A solid support material comprising surface oxide groups is provided and an organic component having at least one alkyl halide is covalently linked to at least some of the surface oxide groups to form a modified support material. The at least one alkyl halide is subsequently converted into an alkyl sulfonate. The invention further includes a method and system for extracting ions from a liquid. An ion exchange material having a sulfonated alkyl silane component covalently bonded to a metal oxide support material is provided and a liquid is exposed to the ion exchange material.

  1. Biodegradation of ion-exchange media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Clinton, J.H.; Cowdery, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate further the potential for ion-exchange media (resin beads or powdered filter media) to support biological growth. A mixed microbial culture was grown from resin wastes obtained from the BNL HFBR by mixing the resin with a nutrient salt solution containing peptone and yeast extract. Bacterial and fungal growths appeared in the solution and on the resins after 7 to 10 days incubation at 337)degree)C. The mixed microbial cultures were used to inoculate several resin types, both irradiated and unirradiated. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Fixation of radioactive ions in porous media with ion exchange gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mercer, Jr., Basil W.; Godfrey, Wesley L.

    1979-01-01

    A method is provided for fixing radioactive ions in porous media by injecting into the porous media water-soluble organic monomers which are polymerizable to gel structures with ion exchange sites and polymerizing the monomers to form ion exchange gels. The ions and the particles of the porous media are thereby physically fixed in place by the gel structure and, in addition, the ions are chemically fixed by the ion exchange properties of the resulting gel.

  3. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  4. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.; Babcock, W.C.; Tuttle, M.

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets. 5 figs.

  5. Multicomponent liquid ion exchange with chabazite zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Byers, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In spite of the increasing commercial use of zeolites for binary and multicomponent sorption, the understanding of the basic mass-transfer processes associated with multicomponent zeolite ion-exchange systems is quite limited. This study was undertaken to evaluate Na-Ca-Mg-Cs-Sr ion exchange from an aqueous solution using a chabazite zeolite. Mass-transfer coefficients and equilibrium equations were determined from experimental batch-reactor data for single and multicomponent systems. The Langmuir isotherm was used to represent the equilibrium relationship for binary systems, and a modified Dubinin-Polyani model was used for the multicomponent systems. The experimental data indicate that diffusion through the microporous zeolite crystals is the primary diffusional resistance. Macropore diffusion also significantly contributes to the mass-transfer resistance. Various mass-transfer models were compared to the experimental data to determine mass-transfer coefficients. Effective diffusivities were obtained which accurately predicted experimental data using a variety of models. Only the model which accounts for micropore and macropore diffusion occurring in series accurately predicted multicomponent data using single-component diffusivities. Liquid and surface diffusion both contribute to macropore diffusion. Surface and micropore diffusivities were determined to be concentration dependent.

  6. Ion-beam technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-10-01

    We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included.

  8. Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

    2012-07-01

    Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

  9. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

    2010-12-28

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  10. Enhanced capacity and stability for the separation of cesium in electrically switched ion exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tawfic, A.F.; Dickson, S.E.; Kim, Y.; Mekky, W.

    2015-03-15

    Electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) can be used to separate ionic contaminants from industrial wastewater, including that generated by the nuclear industry. The ESIX method involves sequential application of reduction and oxidation potentials to an ion exchange film to induce the respective loading and unloading of cesium. This technology is superior to conventional methods (e.g electrodialysis reversal or reverse osmosis) as it requires very little energy for ionic separation. In previous studies, ESIX films have demonstrated relatively low ion exchange capacities and limited film stabilities over repeated potential applications. In this study, the methodology for the deposition of electro-active films (nickel hexacyanoferrate) on nickel electrodes was modified to improve the ion exchange capacity for cesium removal using ESIX. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the ion exchange capacity and stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the modified film surfaces. Additionally, the films were examined for the separation of cesium ions. This modified film preparation technique enhanced the ion exchange capacity and improves the film stability compared to previous methods for the deposition of ESIX films. (authors)

  11. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resins ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  12. Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes and method for preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Danesi, Pier R.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1989-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes include a microporous polymeric support film interpenetrated by an ion exchange polymer and are produced by absorbing and polymerizing monomers within the support film. The ion exchange polymer provides ion exchange ligands at the surface of and throughout the support film which have sufficient ligand mobility to extract and transport ions across the membrane.

  13. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  14. Desalination of brackish waters using ion-exchange media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, J.D.; Philips, M.L.F.; Voigt, J.A.; Moore, D.; Axness, M.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Nenoff, T.M.

    2006-06-21

    An environmentally friendly method and materials study for desalinating inland brackish waters (i.e., coal bed methane produced waters) using a set of ion-exchange materials is presented. This desalination process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps with minimal caustic waste generation. The anion-exchange material, hydrotalcite (HTC), exhibits an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of around 3 mequiv g{sup -1}. The cation-exchange material, an amorphous aluminosilicate permutite-like material, (Na{sub x}+2yAl{sub x}Si{sub 1}-xO{sub 2+y}), has an IEC of around to 2.5 mequiv g{sup -1}. These ion-exchange materials were studied and optimized because of their specific ion-exchange capacity for the ions of interest and their ability to function in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. Room temperature, minimum pressure column studies (once-pass through) on simulant brackish water (total dissolved solids (TDS) = 2222 ppm) resulted in water containing TDS = 25 ppm. A second once-pass through column study on actual produced water (TDS = similar to 11 000) with a high carbonate concentration used an additional lime softening step and resulted in a decreased TDS of 600 ppm.

  15. Desalination of brackish waters using ion exchange media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, Jason D.; Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An environmentally friendly method and materials study for desalinating inland brackish waters (i.e., coal bed methane produced waters) using a set of ion-exchange materials is presented. This desalination process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps with minimal caustic waste generation. The anion-exchange material, hydrotalcite (HTC), exhibits an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of {approx} 3 mequiv g{sup -1}. The cation-exchange material, an amorphous aluminosilicate permutite-like material, (Na{sub x+2y}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2+y}), has an IEC of {approx}2.5 mequiv g{sup -1}. These ion-exchange materials were studied and optimized because of their specific ion-exchange capacity for the ions of interest and their ability to function in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. Room temperature, minimum pressure column studies (once-pass through) on simulant brackish water (total dissolved solids (TDS) = 2222 ppm) resulted in water containing TDS = 25 ppm. A second once-pass through column study on actual produced water (TDS = {approx}11,000) with a high carbonate concentration used an additional lime softening step and resulted in a decreased TDS of 600 ppm.

  16. International Technology Exchange Division: 1993 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) was established to ensure that reliable and acceptable technologies are available for implementation at DOE sites and that a technically trained work force is available to complete the EM mission by 2019. OTD established the International Technology Exchange Staff (ITES) to identify, evaluate, and acquire international technologies which can accelerate US DOE cleanup operations. ITES`s goal is to pursue international collaboration among government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify world-wide needs and available technologies that will meet US environmental needs in general, and EM cleanup needs in particular; and establish mechanisms by which US government ER/WM technologies will be transferred to the US private sector for commercialization and export to international markets. ITES has developed the following strategic objectives to implement its international goals: develop and implement EM`s policy for international programs in accordance with DOE and US Government policies and regulations; establish efficient and predictable international technology transfer mechanisms; assist the US private sector in the commercialization and deployment of federally funded EM technologies and related knowledge in international markets; leverage US and non-US resources to accelerate international development and regulatory acceptance of EM technologies; contribute to the improvement of EM`s training of US students, scientists, and managers on international environmental issues. A summary and descriptions of program activities and accomplishments are given for 17 programs which comprise the four main areas of the ITES program: Activities with the Former Soviet Union, International Technology Transfer, International Cooperation, and Information Systems and Publications. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Quantitative ion-exchange separation of plutonium from impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pietri, C.E.; Freeman, B.P.; Weiss, J.R.

    1981-09-01

    The methods used at the New Brunswick Laboratory for the quantitative ion exchange separation of plutonium from impurities prior to plutonium assay are described. Other ion exchange separation procedures for impurity determination and for isotopic abundance measurements are given. The primary technique used consists of sorption of plutonium(IV) in 8N HNO/sub 3/ on Dowex-1 anion exchange resin and elution of the purified plutonium with 0.3N HCl-0.01N HF. Other methods consist of the anion exchange separation of plutonium(IV) in 12N HCl and the cation exchange separation of plutonium(III) in 0.2 N HNO/sub 3/. The application of these procedures to the subsequent assay of plutonium, isotopic analysis, and impurity determination is described.

  18. ION EXCHANGE PERFORMANCE OF TITANOSILICATES, GERMANATES AND CARBON NANOTUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsobrook, A.; Hobbs, D.

    2013-04-24

    This report presents a summary of testing the affinity of titanosilicates (TSP), germanium-substituted titanosilicates (Ge-TSP) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for lanthanide ions in dilute nitric acid solution. The K-TSP ion exchanger exhibited the highest affinity for lanthanides in dilute nitric acid solutions. The Ge-TSP ion exchanger shows promise as a material with high affinity, but additional tests are needed to confirm the preliminary results. The MWCNT exhibited much lower affinities than the K-TSP in dilute nitric acid solutions. However, the MWCNT are much more chemically stable to concentrated nitric acid solutions and, therefore, may candidates for ion exchange in more concentrated nitric acid solutions. This technical report serves as the deliverable documenting completion of the FY13 research milestone, M4FT-13SR0303061 measure actinide and lanthanide distribution values in nitric acid solutions with sodium and potassium titanosilicate materials.

  19. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, Shigeki Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  20. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Marsh, S. Fredric; Bartsch, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a ell-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  1. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1997-09-23

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a well-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  2. Hydrous oxide ion-exchange compound catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.

    1990-01-01

    A catalytic material of improved activity which comprises a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal or quaternary ammonium titanate, zirconate, niobate, or tantalate, in which the metal or ammonium cations have been exchange with a catalytically effective quantity of a catalyst metal, and which has been subsequently treated with a solution of a Bronsted acid.

  3. Ion extraction and charge exchange in laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostein, D.; Doneddu, F.

    1996-02-01

    In the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process, a vapor is ionized by pulsed laser beams, and the ions are extracted by negatively biased collectors. The authors compute the unsteady dynamics of the photoplasma using a two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. Collisions between ions and neutral species are simulated by a Monte Carlo technique. The plasma dynamics is visualized by snapshots of particle positions showing the directions of their velocities. The three kinds of particles (electrons, photo-ions, and ions created by charge exchange) are marked by different colors. The graphic outputs illustrate the motion of the electrons toward the anodes, the vertical drift of the plasma, its erosion by the transient ion sheath, and nonselective ionization by charge exchange.

  4. Cementation of residue ion exchange resins at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Beckman, T.D.; Madore, C.M.

    1998-03-03

    Ion exchange resins have been used to purify nitric acid solutions of plutonium at Rocky Flats since the 1950s. Spent ion exchange resins were retained for eventual recovery of residual plutonium, typically by incineration followed by the aqueous extraction of plutonium from the resultant ash. The elimination of incineration as a recovery process in the late 1980s and the absence of a suitable alternative process for plutonium recovery from resins led to a situation where spent ion exchange resins were simply placed into temporary storage. This report describes the method that Rocky Flats is currently using to stabilize residue ion exchange resins. The objective of the resin stabilization program is: (1) to ensure their safety during interim storage at the site, and (2) to prepare them for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Included in the discussion is a description of the safety concerns associated with ion exchange resins, alternatives considered for their stabilization, the selection of the preferred treatment method, the means of implementing the preferred option, and the progress to date.

  5. Information systems to enhance technology exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, T.; Harrington, M.; Harlan, C.; Drozhko, E.

    1994-03-01

    A fundamental part of international technology exchange is the compilation and dissemination of information. Worldwide environmental problems and technology development activities form the basis for important opportunities across the world and especially for those in the former Soviet Union. Recently, important agreements have been reached among Russian institutes engaged in environmental work and the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories. These agreements will allow a systematic compilation of information on environmental contamination problems in Russia that can be included in DOE`s environmental information systems. A computer hardware and software system has been loaned to Russian scientists by the DOE for the sharing of environmental software and data, while establishing standards for future information networks.

  6. Summary of Testing of SuperLig 639 at the TFL Ion Exchange Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2000-12-19

    A pilot scale facility was designed and built in the Thermal Fluids Laboratory at the Savannah River Technology Center to test ion exchange resins for removing technetium and cesium from simulated Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW). The facility supports the design of the Hanford River Protection Project for BNFL, Inc. The pilot scale system mimics the full-length of the columns and the operational scenario of the planned ion exchange system. Purposes of the testing include confirmation of the design, evaluation of methods for process optimization and developing methods for waste volume minimization. This report documents the performance of the technetium removal resin.

  7. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN CHEMISTRY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2010-01-14

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange technology is being considered for cesium removal using a polymer resin made of resorcinol formaldehyde that has been engineered into microspheres. The waste under study is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste; therefore, the resin performance was evaluated with actual dissolved salt waste. The ion exchange performance and resin chemistry results are discussed.

  8. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchanges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.; Stohl, Frances V.

    1985-01-01

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  9. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

    1983-07-21

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  10. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  11. Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies Lawrence ... improved battery life when used in the fabrication of negative silicon electrodes. ...

  12. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  13. Method and solvent composition for regenerating an ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, William R.; Irvin, David J.; Irvin, Jennifer A.; Tarver, Edward E.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Wang, James C. F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and composition for removing perchlorate from a highly selective ion exchange resin is disclosed. The disclosed approach comprises treating the resin in a solution of super critical or liquid carbon dioxide and one or more quaternary ammonium chloride surfactant compounds.

  14. NREL: DOE Technology Performance Exchange - 2015 Peer Review | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy NREL: DOE Technology Performance Exchange - 2015 Peer Review NREL: DOE Technology Performance Exchange - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Daniel Studer, NREL View the Presentation NREL: DOE Technology Performance Exchange (2.23 MB) More Documents & Publications What is OpenStudio? OpenStudio OpenStudio Core Development and Deployment Support - 2014 BTO Peer Review OpenStudio - 2013 Peer

  15. CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange (CCIX) technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, I.R.; Denton, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The CSA-CCIX concept started at ORNL in 1951. It has been adapted to a wide variety of applications worldwide, in water and waste water treatment, fertilizers, hydrometallurgy, and general chemical processing. Unique features and how it works are described. Two extreme applications are described in detail. One is for the extraction of trace amounts of uranium from a copper leach, at 37.85mT/min (10,000 gpm) where very high throughput rates are emphasized. The other is for Acid Retardation, where a strong acid waste is purified and recovered. The feed processing rate here is much lower than the resin rate.

  16. ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION OF MATERIALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Long, R.S.; Bailes, R.H.

    1958-04-15

    A process for the recovery of certain metallic ions from aqueous solutions by ion exchange techniques is described. It is applicable to elements such as vanadium, chromium, nnanganese, and the like, which are capable of forming lower valent cations soluble in aqueous solutions and which also form ldgher valent anions soluble in aqueous acidic solutions. For example, small amounts of vanadium occurring in phosphoric acid prepared from phosphate rock may be recovered by reducing the vanadium to a trivalent cation adsorbing; the vanadium in a cationic exchange resin, then treating the resin with a suitable oxidizing agent to convert the adsorbed vanadium to a higher valent state, and finally eluting; the vanadium as an anion from the resin by means of an aqueous acidic solution.

  17. Closed cycle ion exchange method for regenerating acids, bases and salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    A method for conducting a chemical reaction in acidic, basic, or neutral solution as required and then regenerating the acid, base, or salt by means of ion exchange in a closed cycle reaction sequence which comprises contacting the spent acid, base, or salt with an ion exchanger, preferably a synthetic organic ion-exchange resin, so selected that the counter ions thereof are ions also produced as a by-product in the closed reaction cycle, and then regenerating the spent ion exchanger by contact with the by-product counter ions. The method is particularly applicable to closed cycle processes for the thermochemical production of hydrogen.

  18. The quantitative ion exchange separation of uranium from impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayanan, U.I.; Mason, P.B.; Zebrowski, J.P.; Rocca, M.; Frank, I.W.; Smith, M.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Orlowicz, G.J.; Dallmann, E.

    1995-03-01

    Two methods were tested for the quantitative separation of uranium from elemental impurities using commercially available resins. The sorption and elution behavior of uranium and the separation of it from a variety of other elements was studied. The first method utilized an anion exchange resin while the second method employed an extraction resin. The first method, the anion exchange of uranium (VI) in an acid chloride medium, was optimized and statistically tested for quantitative recovery of uranium. This procedure involved adsorption of uranium onto Blo-Rad AG 1-X8 or MP-1 ion exchange resins in 8 M HCl, separation of uncompleted or weakly complexed matrix ions with an 8 M HCI wash, and subsequent elution of uranium with 1 M HCl. Matrix ions more strongly adsorbed than uranium were left on the resin. Uranium recoveries with this procedure averaged greater than 99.9% with a standard deviation of 0.1%. In the second method, recovery of uranium on the extraction resin did not meet the criteria of this study and further examination was terminated.

  19. Technology Performance Exchange - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Technology Performance Exchange - 2014 BTO Peer Review Technology Performance Exchange - 2014 BTO Peer Review Project Objective This project's overall goal is to ensure that necessary energy performance data is easily accessible for a broad array of technologies to reduce investment risk and drive uptake of cost-effective efficiency measures. The objectives of this project include defining the characteristics necessary to credibly predict energy performance, and creating the

  20. Charge exchange spectroscopy as a fast ion diagnostic on TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Nielsen, S. K.; Marchuk, O.

    2008-10-15

    An upgraded charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic has been taken into operation at the TEXTOR tokamak. The angles of the viewing lines with the toroidal magnetic field are close to the pitch angles at birth of fast ions injected by one of the neutral beam injectors. Using another neutral beam for active spectroscopy, injected counter the direction in which fast ions injected by the first beam are circulating, we can simultaneously measure a fast ion tail on the blue wing of the D{sub {alpha}} spectrum while the beam emission spectrum is Doppler shifted to the red wing. An analysis combining the two parts of the spectrum offers possibilities to improve the accuracy of the absolute (fast) ion density profiles. Fast beam modulation or passive viewing lines cannot be used for background subtraction on this diagnostic setup and therefore the background has to be modeled and fitted to the data together with a spectral model for the slowing down feature. The analysis of the fast ion D{sub {alpha}} spectrum obtained with the new diagnostic is discussed.

  1. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR ION-EXCHANGE COLUMN SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-05-23

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed, inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature.

  2. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-06-11

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.0 , which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590 PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590 PTF TEF RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  3. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  4. Metal-ion recycle technology for metal electroplating waste waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, N.N.; Smith, B.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of a collaboration with Boeing Aerospace, the authors have begun a program to identify suitable treatments or to develop new treatments for electroplating baths. The target baths are mixed-metal or alloy baths that are being integrated into the Boeing electroplating complex. These baths, which are designed to replace highly toxic chromium and cadmium baths, contain mixtures of two metals, either nickel-tungsten, nickel-zinc, or zinc-tin. This report reviews the literature and details currently available on emerging technologies that could affect recovery of metals from electroplating baths under development by Boeing Aerospace. This literature survey summarizes technologies relevant to the recovery of metals from electroplating processes. The authors expanded the scope to investigate single metal ion recovery technologies that could be applied to metal ion recovery from alloy baths. This review clearly showed that the electroplating industry has traditionally relied on precipitation and more recently on electrowinning as its waste treatment methods. Despite the almost ubiquitous use of precipitation to remove contaminant metal ions from waste electroplating baths and rinse waters, this technology is clearly no longer feasible for the electroplating industry for several reasons. First, disposal of unstabilized sludge is no longer allowed by law. Second, these methods are no longer adequate as metal-removal techniques because they cannot meet stringent new metal discharge limits. Third, precious resources are being wasted or discarded because these methods do not readily permit recovery of the target metal ions. As a result, emerging technologies for metal recovery are beginning to see application to electroplating waste recycle. This report summarizes current research in these areas. Included are descriptions of various membrane technologies, such as reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, ion exchange and chelating polymer technology, and electrodialysis.

  5. An investigation of the radiolytic stability of a resorcinol-formaldehyde ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.

    1994-01-31

    Developing and demonstrating waste separations technologies are the principal objectives of the Underground Storage Tank -Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program carried out by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) at the DOE Hanford site. One planned separation technique utilizes ion exchange for removal of cesium and strontium from high-level liquid supernates. A resorcinol-formaldehyde resin, which is a polycondensation-type cation exchange resin for cesium removal, has been developed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and has demonstrated superlative performance in testing at SRS, Oak Ridge and PNL. Advantages of this resin relative to other media for cesium removal are its high capacity for cesium and its compatibility with the high pH and aluminum and sodium concentrations of both Hanford and SRS high-level liquid wastes.

  6. Data quality objectives for Ion Exchange Module (IXM) disposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, I.

    1995-01-31

    This Data Quality Objective (DQO) document presents the data needs and accuracy requirements for sampling ion exchange modules at the K Basins, 100 K Area, to determine if there is a hydrogen gas buildup within the modules. This document was produced by PNL, with the assistance of Neptune and Associates, and was partly funded (for facilitator) by DOE-HQ as a demonstration DQO for EM activities. PNL involved a number of PNL, WHC and support contract staff (including external technical consultants) in meetings to define the data needed, along with the necessary accuracy, to resolve issues associated with hydrogen accumulation in Ion Exchange Modules (IXMS) that were generated prior to July 1994 and only have one nuc-fil vent. IXMs generated after July 1994 have multiple nuc-fil vents and do not require sampling. PNL transmitted this DQO to WHC on January 31, 1995. This Supporting Document is to assure that the document is captured into the document retrieval system. WHC review focused on the acceptability of the technical conclusions such that the data collected will meet minimum operational, safety and environmental needs.

  7. Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, I.R. )

    1986-12-01

    A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2[und M] LiCl or 2[und M] LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3[und M] HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

  8. Engineering study for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin resulting from nuclear process applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Place, B.G.

    1990-09-01

    This document is an engineering study of spent ion exchange resin treatment processes with the purpose of identifying one or more suitable treatment technologies. Classifications of waste considered include all classes of low-level waste (LLW), mixed LLW, transuranic (TRU) waste, and mixed TRU waste. A total of 29 process alternatives have been evaluated. Evaluation parameters have included economic parameters (both total life-cycle costs and capital costs), demonstrated operability, environmental permitting, operational availability, waste volume reduction, programmatic consistency, and multiple utilization. The results of this study suggest that there are a number of alternative process configurations that are suitable for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin. The determinative evaluation parameters were economic variables (total life-cycle cost or capital cost) and waste volume reduction. Immobilization processes are generally poor in volume reduction. Thermal volume reduction processes tend to have high capital costs. There are immobilization processes and thermal volume reduction processes that can treat all classifications of spent ion exchange resin likely to be encountered. 40 refs., 19 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Process for loading weak-acid ion exchange resin with uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notz, Karl J.

    1976-01-01

    A method for loading ion exchange resins is described. The process comprises contacting a weak acid cation exchange resin in the ammonium form with a uranyl fluoride salt solution.

  10. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-07-02

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.01, which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590-PTF-TEF-RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  11. Microsoft Word - DVZ Technologies Public Information Exchange Summary.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DVZ Technologies Public Information Exchange June 7, 2011 Location: Shilo Inn, Richland, WA Opening Session - Flip Chart Notes Comments  Excavation technologies are good to approximately 40 ft. and make a big footprint. Develop some cost curves to get general understanding of cost/benefit.  Excavation can be cheap and quick.  Lots of deep vadose zone problems are black and white at 60 to 120 ft, but not at 250 ft.  Good technology screening process important. Need to categorize and

  12. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. There is considerable interest in developing processes that remove or destroy the nitrate wastes. Electrodialysis-Ion Exchange (EDIX) is a possible process that should be more cost effective in treating aqueous waste steams. This report describes the EDIX process.

  13. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species.

  14. Ion exchange resins. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning preparation, properties, and applications of ion exchange resins. Applications include water and waste treatment, chemical recovery, separation, purification, catalysis, desalination, and ore treatment. Regeneration and disposal of ion exchange resins are also covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte | Department of Energy Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte Presentation given by Daikin America at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Daikin advanced lithium ion battery technology - high

  17. Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Soin, Aleksandr

    2014-04-15

    Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

  18. ION-EXCHANGE METHOD FOR SEPARATING RADIUM FROM RADIUM-BARIUM MIXTURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuentevilla, M.E.

    1959-06-30

    An improved process is presented for separating radium from an aqueous feed solution containing radium and barium values and a complexing agent for these metals. In this process a feed solutlon containing radium and barium ions and a complexing agent for said ions ls cycled through an exchange zone in resins. The radiumenriched resin is then stripped of radium values to form a regeneration liquid, a portion of which is collected as an enriched product, the remaining portion being recycled to the exchange zone to further enrich the ion exchange resin in radium.

  19. Salt Processing Through Ion Exchange at the Savannah River Site Selection of Exchange Media and Column Configuration - 9198

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, Renee; Punch, Timothy; McCabe, Daniel

    2009-02-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed, modeled, and tested several different ion exchange media and column designs for cesium removal. One elutable resin and one non-elutable resin were considered for this salt processing application. Deployment of non-elutable Crystalline Silicotitanate and elutable Resorcinol Formaldehyde in several different column configurations were assessed in a formal Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE). Salt solutions were selected that would allow a grouping of non-compliant tanks to be closed. Tests were run with the elutable resin to determine compatibility with the resin configuration required for an in-tank ion exchange system. Models were run to estimate the ion exchange cycles required with the two resins in several column configurations. Material balance calculations were performed to estimate the impact on the High Level Waste (HLW) system at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Conceptual process diagrams were used to support the hazard analysis. Data from the hazard analysis was used to determine the relative impact on safety. This report will discuss the technical inputs, SEE methods, results and path forward to complete the technical maturation of ion exchange.

  20. Experimental Findings On Minor Actinide And Lanthanide Separations Using Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.; Clearfield, A.

    2013-09-17

    This project seeks to determine if inorganic or hybrid inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective americium and curium separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of the tested ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. During FY13, experimental work focused in the following areas: (1) investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium and (2) synthesis, characterization and testing of ion-exchange materials. Ion-exchange materials tested included alkali titanates, alkali titanosilicates, carbon nanotubes and group(IV) metal phosphonates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of Am(III). Experimental findings indicated that Pu(IV) is oxidized to Pu(VI) by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of plutonium affects the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used. Tests also explored the influence of nitrite on the oxidation of Am(III). Given the formation of Am(V) and Am(VI) in the presence of nitrite, it appears that nitrite is not a strong deterrent to the oxidation of Am(III), but may be limiting Am(VI) by quickly reducing Am(VI) to Am(V). Interestingly, additional absorbance peaks were observed in the UV-Vis spectra at 524 and 544 nm in both nitric acid and perchloric acid solutions when the peroxydisulfate was added as a solution. These peaks have not been previously observed and do not correspond to the expected peak locations for oxidized americium in solution. Additional studies are in progress to identify these unknown peaks. Three titanosilicate ion exchangers were synthesized using a microwave-accelerated reaction system (MARS�) and determined to have high

  1. Method of detecting defects in ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells by chemochromic sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooker, Robert Paul; Mohajeri, Nahid

    2016-01-05

    A method of detecting defects in membranes such as ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells. The electrochemical cell includes an assembly having an anode side and a cathode side with the ion exchange membrane in between. In a configuration step a chemochromic sensor is placed above the cathode and flow isolation hardware lateral to the ion exchange membrane which prevents a flow of hydrogen (H.sub.2) between the cathode and anode side. The anode side is exposed to a first reactant fluid including hydrogen. The chemochromic sensor is examined after the exposing for a color change. A color change evidences the ion exchange membrane has at least one defect that permits H.sub.2 transmission therethrough.

  2. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  3. Experimental Ion Exchange Column With SuperLig 639 And Simulant Formulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Megan; Nash, C.

    2013-08-26

    SuperLig639 ion exchange resin was tested as a retrieval mechanism for pertechnetate, through decontamination of a perrhenate spiked 5M Simple Average Na{sup +} Mass Based Simulant. Testing included batch contacts and a three-column ion exchange campaign. A decontamination of perrhenate exceeding 99% from the liquid feed was demonstrated. Analysis of the first formulation of a SBS/WESP simulant found unexpectedly low concentrations of soluble aluminum. Follow-on work will complete the formulation.

  4. Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-10-31

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu-SAPO-34 Catalysts for Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction. 1. Aqueous Solution Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-06

    SAPO-34 molecular sieves are synthesized using various structure directing agents (SDAs). Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are prepared via aqueous solution ion exchange. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. During solution ion exchange, different SAPO-34 samples undergo different extent of structural damage via irreversible hydrolysis. Si content within the samples (i.e., Al-O-Si bond density) and framework stress are key factors that affect irreversible hydrolysis. Even using very dilute Cu acetate solutions, it is not possible to generate Cu-SAPO-34 samples with only isolated Cu2+ ions. Small amounts of CuOx species always coexist with isolated Cu2+ ions. Highly active and selective Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts for NH3-SCR are readily generated using this synthesis protocol, even for SAPO-34 samples that degrade substantially during solution ion exchange. High-temperature aging is found to improve the catalytic performance. This is likely due to reduction of intracrystalline mass-transfer limitations via formation of additional porosity in the highly defective SAPO-34 particles formed after ion exchange. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  6. Enabling Detailed Energy Analyses via the Technology Performance Exchange: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studer, D.; Fleming, K.; Lee, E.; Livingood, W.

    2014-08-01

    One of the key tenets to increasing adoption of energy efficiency solutions in the built environment is improving confidence in energy performance. Current industry practices make extensive use of predictive modeling, often via the use of sophisticated hourly or sub-hourly energy simulation programs, to account for site-specific parameters (e.g., climate zone, hours of operation, and space type) and arrive at a performance estimate. While such methods are highly precise, they invariably provide less than ideal accuracy due to a lack of high-quality, foundational energy performance input data. The Technology Performance Exchange was constructed to allow the transparent sharing of foundational, product-specific energy performance data, and leverages significant, external engineering efforts and a modular architecture to efficiently identify and codify the minimum information necessary to accurately predict product energy performance. This strongly-typed database resource represents a novel solution to a difficult and established problem. One of the most exciting benefits is the way in which the Technology Performance Exchange's application programming interface has been leveraged to integrate contributed foundational data into the Building Component Library. Via a series of scripts, data is automatically translated and parsed into the Building Component Library in a format that is immediately usable to the energy modeling community. This paper (1) presents a high-level overview of the project drivers and the structure of the Technology Performance Exchange; (2) offers a detailed examination of how technologies are incorporated and translated into powerful energy modeling code snippets; and (3) examines several benefits of this robust workflow.

  7. ROTARY FILTER FINES TESTING FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D.

    2011-08-03

    SRNL was requested to quantify the amount of 'fines passage' through the 0.5 micron membranes currently used for the rotary microfilter (RMF). Testing was also completed to determine if there is any additional benefit to utilizing a 0.1 micron filter to reduce the amount of fines that could pass through the filter. Quantifying of the amount of fines that passed through the two sets of membranes that were tested was accomplished by analyzing the filtrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for titanium. Even with preparations to isolate the titanium, all samples returned results of less than the instrument's detection limit of 0.184 mg/L. Test results show that the 0.5 micron filters produced a significantly higher flux while showing a negligible difference in filtrate clarity measured by turbidity. The first targeted deployment of the RMF is with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). SCIX uses crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to sorb cesium to decontaminate a clarified salt solution. The passage of fine particles through the filter membranes in sufficient quantities has the potential to impact the downstream facilities. To determine the amount of fines passage, a contract was established with SpinTek Filtration to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disk and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of 0.1 micron filter disks to determine the amount of fine particles that would pass the membrane and to determine the flux each set produced. The membrane on both disk sets is manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with three feed combinations: prototypically ground CST, CST plus monosodium titanate (MST), and CST, MST, plus Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) simulant. Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected, measured for turbidity, and sent back

  8. High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-08-18

    The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were

  9. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, J.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C[sub 3] or larger.

  10. Metal-air cell with ion exchange material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-08-25

    Embodiments of the invention are related to anion exchange membranes used in electrochemical metal-air cells in which the membranes function as the electrolyte material, or are used in conjunction with electrolytes such as ionic liquid electrolytes.

  11. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, James E.; Fritz, James S.

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C.sub.3 or larger.

  12. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    1980-04-01

    The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

  13. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  14. Ion-exchange sorption and preparative chromatography of biologically active materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the problems of fine physico-chemical biotechnology; types of highly permeable network polyelectrolytes; methods for studying the permeability and porosity of network polyelectrolytes; the conformation state and flexibility of the structural elements of network polyelectrolytes; ion-exchange processes without the sorption of physiologically active substances; ion exchange, hydration, and swelling; nucleosides, nucleotides, alkaloids, sulfonamides, and miscellaneous physiologically active subtances; sharp front formation for the exchange of ions with the same valences; standard quasi-equilibrium frontal chromatography on ionites; sorption kinetics in ionites with structural heterogeneity; experimental investigations of the diffusivities of organic and physiologically active ions in ionite beads; and increasing the efficiency of low-pressure chromatography by using surface-layer and bidispersed ionites.

  15. Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veazey, G.W.; Ames, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, compatibility with Rocky Flats equipment, and throughput efficiency. The work was performed with surrogate gel-type Dowex cation- and anion-exchange resins chosen to be representative of the resin inventory at RFETS. Work was initiated with nonactinide resins to establish formulation ranges that would meet performance standards. Results were then verified and refined with actinide-containing resins. The final recommended formulation that passed all performance standards was determined to be a cement/water/resin (C/W/R) wt % ratio of 63/27/10 at a pH of 9 to 12. The recommendations include the acceptable compositional ranges for each component of the C/W/R ratio. Also included in this report are a recommended procedure, an equipment list, and observations/suggestions for implementation at RFETS. In addition, information is included that explains why denitration of the resin is unnecessary for stabilizing its ignitability potential.

  16. Improved hydrous oxide ion-exchange compound catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.

    1986-04-09

    Disclosed is a catalytic material of improved activity which comprises a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal or quaternary ammonium titanate, zirconate, niobate, or tantalate, in which the metal or ammonium cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective quantity of a catalyst metal, and which has been subsequently treated with a solution of a Bronsted acid.

  17. Preparation of catalysts via ion-exchangeable coatings on supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.

    1986-04-09

    Disclosed are: new catalytic compositions which comprise an inert support coated with a hydrous alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, or quaternary ammonium titanate, niobate, zirconate, or tantalate, in which the alkali or alkaline earth metal or quaternary ammonium cations have been exchanged for a catalytically effective quantity of a catalytically effective metal.

  18. Tabulation and evaluation of ion exchange data on smectites, certain zeolites and basalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, L.V.

    1980-05-01

    An extensive search of the literature has been made for ion exchange data on smectites, certain zeolites and basalt. The data are in the form of thermodynamic equilibrium constants, corrected selectivity coefficients, and distribution coefficients. Room temperature alkali and alkaline earth metal cation ion exchange data for smectites are extensive. Correlation between the exchange free energies of alkali metal cations on Camp Berteau montmorillonite values with their Debeye-Hueckel parameter was found. Significant differences in values of exchange constants for the same reaction on different smectites were noted. While this in part may be attributable to differences in experimental procedures, much of the variance is probably due to differences in charge densities and the effective field strengths of the smectites. Differences in field strength are related to the type and amount of substitution on intercrystalline octahedral and tetrahedral sites. Data on smectites suggest that cation exchange selectivities are very strong functions of temperature. Experiments on the exchange properties of clinoptilolite and mordenite have been generally confined to alkali and alkaline earth cations although data for certain transition metal ions are also available for synthetic mordenite. The temperature dependences of zeolite exchange selectivities remain largely unknown. Distribution coefficients for groundwater-basalt systems have been measured for a variety of elements at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. Steady state concentrations are often never achieved either from the sorption or the desorption side. Classical models of ion exchange have been applied successfully to zeolite and smectite exchange reactions. The sorption behavior of a basalt is better treated with models of the interface which take surface ionization and complexation into account.

  19. METHOD OF SEPARATING RARE EARTHS BY ION EXCHANGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spedding, F.H.; Powell, J.E.

    1960-10-18

    A process is given for separating yttrium and rare earth values having atomic numbers of from 57 through 60 and 68 through 71 from an aqueous solution whose pH value can range from 1 to 9. All rare earths and yttrium are first adsorbed on a cation exchange resin, and they are then eluted with a solution of N-hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) in the order of decreasing atomic number, yttrium behaving like element 61; the effluents are collected in fractions. The HEDTA is recovered by elution with ammonia solution and the resin is regenerated with sulfuric acid. Rare earths are precipitated from the various effluents with oxalic acid, and each supernatant is passed over cation exchange resin for adsorption of HEDTA and nonprecipitated rare earths: the oxalic acid is not retained by the resin.

  20. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, DEMONSTRATION, DEPLOYMENT AND EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy C. Herndon

    2001-02-28

    Cooperative Agreement (DE-FC21-95EW55101) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Florida State University's Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research (IICER) was designed to facilitate a number of joint programmatic goals of both the DOE and the IICER related to international technology identification, development, demonstration and deployment using a variety of mechanisms to accomplish these goals. These mechanisms included: laboratory and field research; technology demonstrations; international training and technical exchanges; data collection, synthesis and evaluation; the conduct of conferences, symposia and high-level meetings; and other appropriate and effective approaches. The DOE utilized the expertise and facilities of the IICER at Florida State University to accomplish its goals related to this cooperative agreement. The IICER has unique and demonstrated capabilities that have been utilized to conduct the tasks for this cooperative agreement. The IICER conducted activities related to technology identification, development, evaluation, demonstration and deployment through its joint centers which link the capabilities at Florida State University with collaborating academic and leading research institutions in the major countries of Central and Eastern Europe (e.g., Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland) and Russia. The activities and accomplishments for this five-year cooperative agreement are summarized in this Final Technical Report.

  1. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ION-EXCHANGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schubert, J.

    1958-06-01

    A process is described for the separation of plutonium from an aqueous solution of a plutonium salt, which comprises adding to the solution an acid of the group consisting of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and oxalic acid, and mixtures thereof to provide an acid concentration between 0.0001 and 1 M, contacting the resultant solution with a synthetic organic anion exchange resin, and separating the aqueous phase and the resin which contains the plutonium.

  2. Water exchange dynamics around H?O? and OH? ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Santanu; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-05-01

    Proton transfer in water and other solvents is a complicated process and an active research area. Conformational changes of water hydrating a proton can have a significant influence on proton dynamics. A hydrated proton leads to H?O? that forms three hydrogen bonds with neighboring water molecules. In this letter, we report the first computer simulation of the dynamics of water exchanging between the first and second solvation shells of H?O?. Employing different rate theories for chemical reactions such as the transition state theory, the Grote-Hynes theory, the reactive flux method, and the Impey-Madden-McDonald method, we calculate the solvent exchange rates from molecular dynamics simulations that account for explicit polarization effects. In addition, we also study water exchanges around OH? and find that the corresponding time scale (~50 picoseconds [ps]) is much smaller than that for H?O? (~100 ps). Results from all the rate theories are computed and compared. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  3. International cooperation and technology transfer, a success U.S. and german environmental technology exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlessman, D.C.

    1995-12-01

    The U.S. - German Annual Environmental Technology Data Exchange (Jahrestagung Umwelttechnologie Datenaustauschabkommen) is coming up on its tenth year, and is a real success story. The 1994 program is the source of this case study, which identifies the lessons learned from nine years of running this international forum to exchange ideas, research, and technology needs. This data exchange is a component of the {open_quotes}Mutual Weapons Development Master Data Exchange Agreement US//GE.{close_quotes} This component focuses on the environmental technology that the two countries military research and development (R&D) communities are working on. Five focus areas of interest for this group are: hazardous material substitutes, air emissions reductions, soil and groundwater contamination characterization and restoration, and demilitarization and disposal of conventional munitions. Under the U.S. - German agreement, scientist and R&D organizations use this agreement to share research results and develop a forum for collaboration on similar work. This study will highlight the scope of the research presented at the 1994 exchange. In addition, the study will capture many lessons learned from administering a successful program that bridged the challenges of distance, culture, language, patient right, and government bureaucracy. A side benefit that is just now being explored is using the forum to have U.S. developed technologies introduced and accepted within the German environmental regulatory community. In these austere days in the two governments, the ultimate success of a program like this is the payback received by customers of the R&D community. The U.S. Army, Europe is one of those fortunate customers.

  4. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and solar Renewable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Systems | Department of Energy Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and solar Renewable Energy Systems Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and solar Renewable Energy Systems Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and solar Renewable Energy Systems presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. university_of_nevada_peer2013.pdf (770.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium

  5. Denitration of Rocky Flats Ion-Exchange Resins: Recommendation of Denitration Processes, October 19, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob Espinoza; Mary Barr; Wayne Smith

    1998-12-01

    Resin denitration via anion-exchange is an implementable process that can effectively mitigate the hazards associated with stored resins in which the bulk of the nitrate consists of an "exchangeable nitrate" ionically bound to the cationic sites of the anion-exchange resins. Salicylate has been selected as the exchange anion of choice because of its superior selectivity for the Rocky Flats resins and its unique potential for comprehensive recovery and recycle. This report outlines a single recommended resin denigration procedure that is reasonably independent of the resin composition and the current stored form. This procedure is not optimized but rather seeks to `over-treat' the resins so that a single procedure works for the variety of stored resins. The recommended treatment with sodium salicylate reduces resins by 95-99+% the measured exothermic behavior of the ion-exchange.

  6. Reverse electrodialysis using bipolar ion-exchange membranes as a source of electric energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovarov, N.Ya.; Greben`, V.P.; Kovarskii, N.Ya.

    1994-06-01

    It is established that, in the regime of the H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}} ions recombination, voltage on the bipolar membranes and the efficiency of the latter, as a transformer of chemical energy into electric, increases in the series of ionogen groups contained in the bipolar region. This is due to an increase in the recombination rate constants in the bipolar contact for the H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}} ions. As the sodium and chlorine ions penetrate the bipolar transition region, they sharply decrease the membrane potential and the voltage drop on the bipolar membranes, because the ionogen groups turn into salt form, which is catalytically inactive in the H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}} ions recombination reaction. It is shown that the source of current, containing the MB-24 (bipolar), MF-4sk (cation-exchange), and AMV (anion-exchange) ion-exchange membranes, has a specific power of 0.11 W/dm{sup 2} (calculated in terms of one bipolar membrane) and efficiency of 29% for 0.5 M solution of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, and 0.5 A/dm{sup 2} current density.

  7. Small Column Ion Exchange at Savannah River Site Technology Readiness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... X 29 M-SPP-H-00513, SCIX Spent Resin Disposal Unit (SRD) ... and development in nuclear fuel reprocessing actinide ... Phil has served as a reviewer on expert panels for DOE-EM ...

  8. New PerfSONAR Updates Showcased at 2015 Technology Exchange

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exchange Updates include support for accelerating node deployment; reduction of NOC costs October 5, 2015 To propel the automation and deployment of large scale...

  9. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    important source of irreversibility in a power plant is the heatmass exchange process. ... which translates to an improvement in power plant thermal efficiency. * Compressed ...

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: Foundation Heat Exchanger, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-01

    The foundation heat exchanger, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a new concept for a cost-effective horizontal ground heat exchanger that can be connected to water-to-water or water-to-air heat pump systems for space conditioning as well as domestic water heating.

  11. Staff exchange with Spokane Intercollegiate Research and Technology Institute (SIRTI), final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, G.M.

    1994-12-01

    Staff exchanges, such as the one described in this report, are intended to facilitate communication and collaboration among scientists and engineers at Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, in U.S. industry, and academia. Funding support for these exchanges is provided by the DOE, Office of Energy Research, Laboratory Technology Transfer Program. Funding levels for each exchange typically range from $20,000 to $40,000. The exchanges offer the opportunity for the laboratories to transfer technology and expertise to industry, gain a perspective on industry`s problems, and develop the basis for further cooperative efforts through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAS) or other mechanisms.

  12. Hydrogen production in the K-Basin ion exchange columns, modules and cartridge filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-21

    K-Basin uses ion exchange modules and ion exchange (IX) columns for removing radionuclides from the basin water. When the columns and modules are loaded, they are removed from service, drained and stored. After a few IX columns accumulate in storage, they are moved to a burial box. One of the burial box contains 33 columns and the other, six. The radionuclides act on the liquid left within and adhering to the beads to produce hydrogen. This report describes the generation rate, accumulation rate and significance of that accumulation. This summary also highlights those major areas of concern to the external (to Westinghouse Hanford Company [WHC]) reviewers. Appendix H presents the comments made by the external reviewers and, on a separate sheet, the responses to those comments. The concerns regarding the details of the analytical approach, are addressed in Appendix H and in the appropriate section.

  13. Safety Evaluation for Packaging for onsite Transfer of plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchange columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.J.

    1995-09-11

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the use of three U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 7A, Type A metal boxes (Capital Industries Part No. S 0600-0600-1080- 0104) to package 12 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange columns as low-level waste (LLW). The packages will be transferred from the 309 Building in the 300 Area to low level waste burial in the 200 West Area. Revision 1 of WHC-SD-TP-SEP-035 (per ECN No. 621467) documents that the boxes containing ion exchange columns and grout will maintain the payload under normal conditions of transport if transferred without the box lids

  14. Membrane permeation process for dehydration of organic liquid mixtures using sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cabasso, Israel; Korngold, Emmanuel

    1988-01-01

    A membrane permeation process for dehydrating a mixture of organic liquids, such as alcohols or close boiling, heat sensitive mixtures. The process comprises causing a component of the mixture to selectively sorb into one side of sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene (e.g., polyethylene) membranes and selectively diffuse or flow therethrough, and then desorbing the component into a gas or liquid phase on the other side of the membranes.

  15. Status and Challenges of Hydroxide Ion-Conducting Polymers for Anion Exchange Membrane Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Challenges of Hydroxide Ion-Conducting Polymers for Anion Exchange Membrane Applications 1 Chulsung Bae Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology New York State Center for Polymer Synthesis Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute DOE AMFC Workshop 2016 (04/01/2016) Contact: baec@rpi.edu 2 Solid Electrolyte in Fuel Cells: PEM vs. AEM * Since 1960s (most advanced fuel cells) * Bipolar plate: titanium (acidic environment) * Catalyst: expensive Pt * PEM: insufficient H + conductivity at low RH

  16. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR ION-EXCHANGE WASTE REMOVAL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2010-07-12

    The small column ion exchange (SCIX) process treats low curie salt (LCS) waste before feeding it to the saltstone facility to be made into grout. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is absorbed into the CST bed. A CST column loaded with radioactive cesium will generate significant heat from radiolytic decay. If engineering designs of the CST sorption column can not handle this thermal load, hot spots may develop locally within the column and degrade the performance of the ion-exchange process. The CST starts to degrade at about 80 to 85 C, and the CST completely changes to another material above 120 C. In addition, the process solution will boil around 130 C. If the column boiled dry, the sorbent could plug the column and require replacement of the column module. The objective of the present work is to compute temperature distributions across the column as a function of transit time after the initiation of accidents when there is loss of the salt solution flow in the CST column under abnormal conditions of the process operations. In this situation, the customer requested that the calculations should be conservative in that the model results would show the maximum centerline temperatures achievable by the CST design configurations. The thermal analysis results will be used to evaluate the fluid temperature distributions and the process component temperatures within the ion exchange system. This information will also assist in the system design and maintenance.

  17. Selective extraction of metal ions with polymeric extractants by ion exchange/redox

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.

    1987-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for the extraction of metal ions having a reduction potential of above about +0.3 from an aqueous solution. The method includes contacting the aqueous solution with a polymeric extractant having primary phosphinic acid groups, secondary phosphine oxide groups, or both phosphinic acid and phosphine oxide groups.

  18. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David E.; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium.

  19. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the water exchange reactions are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium, and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium. LXD was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  20. BTO Awards Small Business Grants for Lighting, Building-Integrated Heat and Moisture Exchange Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science has awarded four Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants targeting advances in solid-state lighting (SSL) and building-integrated heat and moisture exchange technology.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology – High Voltage Electrolyte

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Daikin America at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Daikin advanced lithium ion...

  2. IEA Energy Technology Data Exchange | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    member countries with access to the widest range of information on energy research, science and technology and to increase dissemination of this information to developing...

  3. Ion exchange resins: Water purification. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ion exchange resins for purification or treatment of water or wastewater. The citations cover both treatment and pretreatment of municipal and industrial wastewater, often for the purpose of reusing the treated water in an industrial process. Desalination and remediation of groundwater and other water supplies is also examined. Some instances of recovery of rare elements, such as radioactive species, from process water are included. (Contains a minimum of 98 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Ion exchange resins: Water purification. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ion exchange resins for purification or treatment of water or wastewater. The citations cover both treatment and pretreatment of municipal and industrial wastewater, often for the purpose of reusing the treated water in an industrial process. Desalination and remediation of groundwater and other water supplies is also examined. Some instances of recovery of rare elements, such as radioactive species, from process water are included. (Contains a minimum of 100 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Exchange bias in polycrystalline magnetite films made by ion-beam assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Jiang, Weilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Burks, Edward C.; Liu, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 98163 (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Iron oxide films were produced using ion-beam-assisted deposition, and Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction indicate single-phase magnetite. However, incorporation of significant fractions of argon in the films from ion bombardment is evident from chemical analysis, and Fe/O ratios are lower than expected from pure magnetite, suggesting greater than normal disorder. Low temperature magnetometry and first-order reversal curve measurements show strong exchange bias, which likely arises from defects at grain boundaries, possibly amorphous, creating frustrated spins. Since these samples contain grains ?6?nm, a large fraction of the material consists of grain boundaries, where spins are highly disordered and reverse independently with external field.

  6. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  7. Literature Review of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde for Cesium Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Garrett N.

    2014-09-30

    The current report summarizes work performed throughout the scientific community and DOE complex as reported in the open literature and DOE-sponsored reports to evaluate the Cs+ ion exchange (CIX) characteristics of SRF resin. King (2007) completed a similar literature review in support of material selection for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project. Josephson et al. (2010) and Sams et al. (2009) provided a similar brief review of SRF CIX for the near-tank Cs+ removal (NTCR) project. Thorson (2008a) documented the basis for recommending SRF over SuperLigTM 644 as the primary CIX resin in the WTP. The current review expands on previous work, summarizes additional work completed to date, and provides a broad view of the literature without focusing on a specific column system. Although the focus of the current review is the SRF resin, many cited references include multiple materials such as the non-spherical GGRF and SuperLigTM 644 organic resins and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IONSIVTM IE-911, a non-elutable inorganic material. This report summarizes relevant information provided in the literature.

  8. ION EXCHANGE MODELING FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM HANFORD WASTE USING SUPERLIG 644 RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, L

    2004-05-01

    The expected performance of a proposed ion exchange column using SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin for the removal of cesium from Hanford high level radioactive alkaline waste is discussed. This report represents a final report on the ability and knowledge with regard to modeling the Cesium-SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin ion exchange system. Only the loading phase of the cycle process is addressed within this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests and batch equilibrium experiments are addressed. The methodology employed and sensitivity analyses are also included (i.e., existing methodology employed is referenced to prior developmental efforts while updated methodology is discussed). Pilot-scale testing is not assessed since no pilot-scale testing was available at the time of this report. Column performance predictions are made considering three selected feed compositions under nominal operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses provided help to identify key parameters that aid in resin procurement acceptance criteria. The methodology and application presented within this report reflect the expected behavior of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin manufactured at the production-scale (i.e, 250 gallon batch size level). The primary objective of this work was, through modeling and verification based on experimental assessments, to predict the cesium removal performance of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin for application in the RPP pretreatment facility.

  9. Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

    2012-09-19

    The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

  10. Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, I.R.

    1986-12-01

    A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2{und M} LiCl or 2{und M} LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3{und M} HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

  11. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  12. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  13. Tennessee, Pennsylvania: Porous Power Technologies Improves Lithium Ion Battery, Wins R&D 100 Award

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Porous Power Technologies, partnered with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), developed SYMMETRIX HPX-F, a nanocomposite separator for improved lithium-ion battery technology.

  14. THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA FOR THE SMALL ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-09-12

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project is designed to accelerate closure of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS tanks store HLW in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. An in-tank ion exchange process is being designed to treat supernate and dissolved saltcake waste. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is adsorbed into Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. The waste supernate solution within the ion exchange bed will boil around 120 C. Solution superheating above the boiling point within the column could lead to violent hazardous energy releases. System heating from loaded CST is also of concern in other process modules, such as the waste tank. Due to tank structural integrity concerns, the wall temperature limit for the SRS waste tanks is 100 C. The transfer of cesium-loaded CST to the tank could result in localized hot spots on the tank floor and walls which may exceed this limit. As a result, thermal modeling calculations have been conducted to predict the maximum temperatures achievable both in the column and in the waste tank. As specified in the associated Technical Task Plan, one objective of the present work was to compute temperature distributions within the ion exchange column module under accident scenarios including loss of salt solution flow through the bed and loss of coolant system flow. The column modeling domain and the scope of the calculations in this case were broadened relative to previous two-dimensional calculations to include vertical temperature distributions within the packed bed of ion exchange media as well as the upper column plenum region containing only fluid. The baseline design conditions and in-column modeling domain for the ion-exchange column module are shown in Figure 1. These evaluations assumed the maximum

  15. The effect of ion-exchange purification on the determination of plutonium at the New Brunswick Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, W.G.; Spaletto, M.I.; Lewis, K.; Soriano, M.D.; Smith, M.W.

    1990-07-01

    The method of plutonium (Pu) determination at the Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) consists of a combination of ion-exchange purification followed by controlled-potential coulometric analysis (IE/CPC). The present report's purpose is to quantify any detectable Pu loss occurring in the ion-exchange (IE) purification step which would cause a negative bias in the NBL method for Pu analysis. The magnitude of any such loss would be contained within the reproducibility (0.05%) of the IE/CPC method which utilizes a state-of-the-art autocoulometer developed at NBL. When the NBL IE/CPC method is used for Pu analysis, any loss in ion-exchange purification (<0.05%) is confounded with the repeatability of the ion-exchange and the precision of the CPC analysis technique (<0.05%). Consequently, to detect a bias in the IE/CPC method due to the IE alone using the IE/CPC method itself requires that many randomized analyses on a single material be performed over time and that statistical analysis of the data be performed. The initial approach described in this report to quantify any IE loss was an independent method, Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry; however, the number of analyses performed was insufficient to assign a statistically significant value to the IE loss (<0.02% of 10 mg samples of Pu). The second method used for quantifying any IE loss of Pu was multiple ion exchanges of the same Pu aliquant; the small number of analyses possible per individual IE together with the column-to-column variability over multiple ion exchanges prevented statistical detection of any loss of <0.05%. 12 refs.

  16. REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE WITH SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN EXPERIMENTAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

    2010-03-31

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal. The spherical form of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) is being evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake waste at SRS, which is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. The sRF performance with SRS waste was evaluated in two phases: resin batch contacts and IX column testing with both simulated and actual dissolved salt waste. The tests, equipment, and results are discussed.

  17. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange for separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penwell, D.L.

    1994-12-28

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. The flowsheet also discusses process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs associated with the ion exchange process. It is expected that this flowsheet will evolve as open issues are resolved and progress is made on development needs. This is part of the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. 26 refs, 6 figs, 25 tabs.

  18. Bifunctional phenyl monophosphonic/sulfonic acid ion exchange resin and process for using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro; Shelley, Christopher A.; Horwitz, E. Philip; Chiarizia, Renato; Gula, Michael J.; Xue, Sui; Harvey, James T.

    2002-01-01

    A cross-linked water-insoluble ion exchange resin comprised of polymerized monomers having a phenyl ring is disclosed. A contemplated resin contains (i) polymerized phenyl ring-containing monomers having a phosphonic acid ligand linked to the phenyl ring, (ii) about 2 to about 5 millimoles per gram (mmol/g) of phosphorus as phosphonic acid ligands, and (iii) a sufficient amount of a sulfonic acid ligand such that the ratio of mmol/g of phosphonic acid to mmol/g sulfonic acid is up to 3:1. A process for removing polyvalent metal cations from aqueous solution, and a process for removing iron(III) cations from acidic copper(II) cation-containing solutions that utilize the contemplated resin or other resins are disclosed.

  19. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2010-11-01

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. One salt processing scenario includes the transport of the loaded (and possibly ground) CST media to the treatment tank floor. Therefore, additional thermal modeling calculations were conducted using a three-dimensional approach to evaluate temperature distributions for the entire in-tank domain including distribution of the spent CST media either as a mound or a flat layer on the tank floor. These calculations included mixtures of CST with HLW sludge or loaded Monosodium Titanate (MST) media used for strontium/actinide sorption. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds

  20. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, J.L.; Baroch, C.J.; Litz, J.

    1996-07-19

    The program described in this report studies the suitability of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) to treat aqueous streams containing heavy metals and radioactive cations in a solution containing sodium and nitrates. The goal of the program was to produce a cation stream containing sodium, heavy metals, and radioactive cations; an anion stream of nitric acid free of heavy metals and radioactive cations; and a product stream that meets discharge criteria. The experimental results, described in detail, indicated that EDIX was not a suitable process for treating wastes containing metals that formed insoluble hydroxides in a basic solution; the metals precipitate in the catholyte and feed compartments, and in the cathode membrane. The test program was therefore terminated prior to completion of all planned activities. 2 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Bifunctional phenyl monophosphonic/sulfonic acid ion exchange resin and process for using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro; Shelley, Christopher A.; Horwitz, E. Philip; Chiarizia, Renato

    2001-01-01

    A cross-linked water-insoluble ion exchange resin comprised of polymerized monomers having a phenyl ring is disclosed. A contemplated resin contains (i) polymerized phenyl ring-containing monomers having a phosphonic acid ligand linked to the phenyl ring, (ii) about 2 to about 5 millimoles per gram (mmol/g) of phosphorus as phosphonic acid ligands, and (iii) a sufficient amount of a sulfonic acid ligand such that the ratio of mmol/g of phosphonic acid to mmol/g sulfonic acid is up to 3:1. A process for removing polyvalent metal cations from aqueous solution, and a process for removing iron(III) cations from acidic copper(II) cation-containing solutions that utilize the contemplated resin or other resins are disclosed.

  2. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVE SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE 105 K EAST ION EXCHANGE COLUMN MONOLITH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOCHEN, R.M.

    2007-08-02

    The 105-K East (KE) Basin Ion Exchange Column (IXC) cells, lead caves, and the surrounding vault are to be removed as necessary components in implementing ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (Ecology et al. 2003) milestone M-034-32 (Complete Removal of the K East Basin Structure). The IXCs consist of six units located in the KE Basin, three in operating positions in cells and three stored in a lead cave. Methods to remove the IXCs from the KE Basin were evaluated in KBC-28343, ''Disposal of K East Basin Ion Exchange Column Evaluation''. The method selected for removal was grouting the six IXCs into a single monolith for disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Grout will be added to the IXC cells, IXC lead caves containing spent IXCs, and in the spaces between the lead cave walls and metal skin, to immobilize the contaminants, provide self-shielding, minimize void space, and provide a structurally stable waste form. The waste to be offered for disposal is the encapsulated monolith defined by the exterior surfaces of the vault and the lower surface of the underlying slab. This document presents summary of the data quality objective (DQO) process establishing the decisions and data required to support decision-making activities for the disposition of the IXC monolith. The DQO process is completed in accordance with the seven-step planning process described in EPA QA/G-4, ''Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process'', which is used to clarify and study objectives; define the appropriate type, quantity, and quality of data; and support defensible decision-making. The DQO process involves the following steps: (1) state the problem; (2) identify the decision; (3) identify the inputs to the decision; (4) define the boundaries of the study; (5) develop a decision rule (DR); (6) specify tolerable limits on decision errors; and (7) optimize the design for obtaining data.

  3. Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-10-21

    This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

  4. Using Process Knowledge to Manage Disposal Classification of Ion-Exchange Resin - 13566

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohnsack, Jonathan N.; James, David W.

    2013-07-01

    It has been previously shown by EPRI [1] that Class B and C resins represent a small portion by volume of the overall generation of radioactively contaminated resins. In fact, if all of the resins were taken together the overall classification would meet Class A disposal requirements. Lowering the classification of the ion exchange resins as they are presented for disposal provides a path for minimizing the amount of waste stored. Currently there are commercial options for blending wastes from various generators for Class A disposal in development. The NRC may have by this time introduced changes and clarifications to the Branch Technical Position (BTP) on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation [2] that may ultimately add more flexibility to what can be done at the plant level. The BTP has always maintained that mixtures of resins that are combined for ALARA purposes or operational efficiency can be classified on the basis of the mixture. This is a point often misinterpreted and misapplied. This paper will address options that can be exercised by the generator that can limit B and C waste generation by more rigorous tracking of generation and taking advantage of the normal mix of wastes. This can be achieved through the monitoring of reactor coolant chemistry data and coupled with our knowledge of radionuclide production mechanisms. This knowledge can be used to determine the overall accumulation of activity in ion-exchange resins and provides a 'real-time' waste classification determination of the resin and thereby provide a mechanism to reduce the production of waste that exceeds class A limits. It should be noted that this alternative approach, although rarely used in a nuclear power plant setting, is acknowledged in the original BTP on classification [3] as a viable option for determining radionuclide inventories for classification of waste. Also included is a discussion of an examination performed at the Byron plant to estimate radionuclide content in the

  5. Is the surface oxygen exchange rate linked to bulk ion diffusivity in mixed conducting Ruddlesden–Popper phases?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomkiewicz, Alex C.; Tamimi, Mazin A.; Huq, Ashfia; McIntosh, Steven

    2015-03-02

    There is a possible link between oxygen surface exchange rate and bulk oxygen anion diffusivity in mixed ionic and electronic conducting oxides; it is a topic of great interest and debate. While a large body of experimental evidence and theoretical analyses support a link, observed differences between bulk and surface composition of these materials are hard to reconcile with this observation. This is further compounded by potential problems with simultaneous measurement of both parameters. Here we utilize separate techniques, in situ neutron diffraction and pulsed isotopic surface exchange, to examine bulk ion mobility and surface oxygen exchange rates of threemore » Ruddlesden-Popper phases, general form An-1A2'BnO3n+1, An-1A2'BnX3n+1; LaSrCo0.5Fe0.5O4-δ (n = 1), La0.3Sr2.7CoFeO7-δ (n = 2) and LaSr3Co1.5Fe1.5O10-δ (n = 3). These measurements are complemented by surface composition determination via high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering. We observe a correlation between bulk ion mobility and surface exchange rate between materials. The surface exchange rates vary by more than one order of magnitude with high anion mobility in the bulk of an oxygen vacancy-rich n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper material correlating with rapid oxygen exchange. Furthermore this is in contrast with the similar surface exchange rates which we may expect due to similar surface compositions across all three samples. This paper conclude that experimental limitations lead to inherent convolution of surface and bulk rates, and that surface exchange steps are not likely to be rate limiting in oxygen incorporation.« less

  6. Novel Hybrid Materials with High Stability for Electrically Switched Ion Exchange: Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline/Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli

    2005-04-21

    A novel and stable carbon nanotubes /polyaniline /nickel hexacyanoferrates composite film has been synthesized with electrodeposition method, and the possibility for removing cesium through an electrically switched ion exchange has been evaluated in a mixture containing NaNO3 and CsNO3.

  7. Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these electrochemical cells have the high energy density, high voltage and light weight of metallic lithium, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge, improving their safety and cycle life.

  8. Ion exchange removal of cesium from simulated and actual supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carlson, C.D.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in conjunction with the Process Chemistry and Statistics Section of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), conducted this study as part of the Supernatant Treatment Development Task for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Applied Engineering Project. The study assesses the performance of the CS-100 ion exchange material for removing cesium from simulated and actual alkaline supernate from Hanford tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103. The objective of these experiments is to compare the cesium ion exchange loading and elution profiles of actual and simulated wastes. Specific experimental objectives include (1) demonstration of decontamination factors (DF) for cesium removal, 92) verification of simulant performance, (3) investigation of waste/exchanger chemistry, and (4) determination of the radionuclide content of the regenerated CS-100 resin prior to disposal.

  9. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, David W.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  10. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  11. Evolution of Ion Implantation Technology and its Contribution to Semiconductor Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsukamoto, Katsuhiro; Kuroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yoji

    2011-01-07

    Industrial aspects of the evolution of ion implantation technology will be reviewed, and their impact on the semiconductor industry will be discussed. The main topics will be the technology's application to the most advanced, ultra scaled CMOS, and to power devices, as well as productivity improvements in implantation technology. Technological insights into future developments in ion-related technologies for emerging industries will also be presented.

  12. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  13. International technology exchange in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitchen, B.G.

    1989-08-23

    The nearly completed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Savannah River Site that is designed to immobilize defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification in borosilicate glass and containment in stainless steel canisters suitable for storage in the future DOE HLW repository. The DWPF is expected to start cold operation later this year (1990), and will be the first full scale vitrification facility operating in the United States, and the largest in the world. The DOE has been coordinating technology transfer and exchange on issues relating to HLW treatment and disposal through bi-lateral agreements with several nations. For the nearly fifteen years of the vitrification program at Savannah River Laboratory, over two hundred exchanges have been conducted with a dozen international agencies involving about five-hundred foreign national specialists. These international exchanges have been beneficial to the DOE`s waste management efforts through confirmation of the choice of the waste form, enhanced understanding of melter operating phenomena, support for paths forward in political/regulatory arenas, confirmation of costs for waste form compliance programs, and establishing the need for enhancements of melter facility designs. This paper will compare designs and schedules of the international vitrification programs, and will discuss technical areas where the exchanges have provided data that have confirmed and aided US research and development efforts, impacted the design of the DWPF and guided the planning for regulatory interaction and product acceptance.

  14. International technology exchange in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitchen, B.G.

    1989-08-23

    The nearly completed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Savannah River Site that is designed to immobilize defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification in borosilicate glass and containment in stainless steel canisters suitable for storage in the future DOE HLW repository. The DWPF is expected to start cold operation later this year (1990), and will be the first full scale vitrification facility operating in the United States, and the largest in the world. The DOE has been coordinating technology transfer and exchange on issues relating to HLW treatment and disposal through bi-lateral agreements with several nations. For the nearly fifteen years of the vitrification program at Savannah River Laboratory, over two hundred exchanges have been conducted with a dozen international agencies involving about five-hundred foreign national specialists. These international exchanges have been beneficial to the DOE's waste management efforts through confirmation of the choice of the waste form, enhanced understanding of melter operating phenomena, support for paths forward in political/regulatory arenas, confirmation of costs for waste form compliance programs, and establishing the need for enhancements of melter facility designs. This paper will compare designs and schedules of the international vitrification programs, and will discuss technical areas where the exchanges have provided data that have confirmed and aided US research and development efforts, impacted the design of the DWPF and guided the planning for regulatory interaction and product acceptance.

  15. RHEOLOGY OF SETTLED SOLIDS IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, C.; Prior, M.; Koopman, D.; Edwards, T.

    2011-06-20

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank as process housing. This method includes the addition of monosodium titanate (MST) to a waste tank containing salt solution and entrained sludge solids, followed by tank mixing and filtration. The filtrate is then processed through in-tank ion exchange columns containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) media. While the process is operating, it is known that solid particles begin to settle in the tank and temperatures may reach beyond 45 C. Previous testing has shown that sludge-MST slurries that sit for extended periods at elevated temperatures can develop large shear strengths, making them difficult to resuspend and remove from the tank. The authors conducted rheological testing of mixtures containing various concentrations of sludge simulant, MST, and CST (three preparations) that were aged at different times (i.e., 0 to 13 weeks) and isothermally maintained to 30, 45, or 60 C. Two types of grinding methodologies were employed to prepare CST for this testing, herein called Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) ground materials. Unground CST particles were also tested. A small number of samples were irradiated prior to 4 week settling and 60 C temperature treatment, with exposures ranging from 0 to 100 MRad. Additional tests are also being conducted that will allow the solid particles to settle at 45 C for 6, 12, and 24 months. The objectives of this task are to determine the impact of feed composition, settling time, and temperature on the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency of the slurries and to determine the impact of radiation on slurry rheology. The testing will determine the relative impact of these parameters rather than predict the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency as a function of feed and operating conditions. This

  16. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2009-10-30

    This report presents data on batch contact and column testing tasks for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin. The testing used a non-radioactive simulant of SRS Tank 2F dissolved salt, as well as an actual radioactive waste sample of similar composition, which are both notably high in sodium (6 M). The resin was Microbeads batch 5E-370/641 which had been made on the hundred gallon scale. Equilibrium batch contact work focused on cesium at a temperature of 25 C due to the lack of such data to better benchmark existing isotherm models. Two campaigns were performed with small-scale ion exchange columns, first with Tank 2F simulant, then with actual dissolved salt in the Shielded Cells. An extrapolation of the batch contact results with radioactive waste over-predicted the cesium loaded onto the IX sRF resin bed by approximately 11%. This difference is not unexpected considering uncertainties from measurement and extrapolation and because the ion exchange that occurs when waste flows through a resin bed probably cannot reach the same level of equilibrium as when waste and resin are joined in a long term batch contact. Resin was also characterized to better understand basic chemistry issues such as holdup of trace transition metals present in the waste feed streams. The column tests involved using two beds of sRF resin in series, with the first bed referred to as the Lead column and the second bed as the Lag column. The test matrix included two complete IX cycles for both the simulant and actual waste phases. A cycle involves cesium adsorption, until the resin in the Lead column reaches saturation, and then regenerating the sRF resin, which includes eluting the cesium. Both the simulated and the actual wastes were treated with two cycles of operation, and the resin beds that were used in the Lead and Lag columns of simulant test phase were regenerated and reused in the actual waste test phase. This task is the first to demonstrate the treatment of SRS waste

  17. Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly and Highly Permeable Lignin-Based Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exchangers - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly and Highly Permeable Lignin-Based Ion Exchangers Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary For more than 10 years, a partnership between Kazakh and US researchers has led to the synthesis and testing of highly permeable ion-exchangers. These materials possess an increased

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROACH TO MODELING LOADING AND ELUTION OF SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION-EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleman, S.; Hamm, L.; Smith, F.

    2011-10-03

    The current strategy for removal of cesium from the Hanford waste stream is ion-exchange using spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) resin. The original resin of choice was granular SuperLig 644 resin and during testing of this resin several operational issues were identified. For example, the granular material had a high angle of internal friction resulting in fragmentation of resin particles along its edges during cycling and adverse hydraulic performance. Efforts to replace SuperLig 644 were undertaken and one candidate was the granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin where experience with this cation exchanger dates back to the late 1940's. To minimize hydraulic concerns a spherical version of RF was developed and several different chemically produced batches were created. The 5E-370/641 batch of sRF was selected and for the last decade numerous studies have been performed (e.g., batch contact tests, column loading and elution tests). The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) flowsheet shows that the aqueous phase waste stream will have a wide range of ionic concentrations (e.g., during the loading step 0-3 M free OH, 5+ M Na, 0-1 M K, 0-3 M NO{sub 3}). Several steps are required in the ion-exchange process to achieve the required Cs separation factors: loading, displacement, washing, elution, and regeneration. The sRF resin will be operated over a wide range in pH (i.e., pH of 12-14 during the loading step and pH of 0.01-1 during the elution step). During some of these steps very high levels of counter-ions and co-ions will be present within the aqueous phase. Alternative process feeds are under consideration as well (e.g., sodium levels as high as 8 M and column operation up to 45 C during loading, reduced and recycled HNO{sub 3} during elution). In order to model the performance of sRF resin through an entire ion-exchange cycle, a more robust isotherm model is required. To achieve this more robust isotherm model requires knowledge of the numbers and kinds of

  19. Waking the sleeping giant: Introducing new heat exchanger technology into the residential air-conditioning marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapp, T.; Voss, M.; Stephens, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Air Conditioning Industry has made tremendous strides in improvements to the energy efficiency and reliability of its product offerings over the past 40 years. These improvement can be attributed to enhancements of components, optimization of the energy cycle, and modernized and refined manufacturing techniques. During this same period, energy consumption for space cooling has grown significantly. In January of 1992, the minimum efficiency requirement for central air conditioning equipment was raised to 10 SEER. This efficiency level is likely to increase further under the auspices of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). A new type of heat exchanger was developed for air conditioning equipment by Modine Manufacturing Company in the early 1990's. Despite significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency, dehumidification, durability, and refrigerant charge there has been little interest expressed by the air conditioning industry. A cooperative effort between Modine, various utilities, and several state energy offices has been organized to test and demonstrate the viability of this heat exchanger design throughout the nation. This paper will review the fundamentals of heat exchanger design and document this simple, yet novel technology. These experiences involving equipment retrofits have been documented with respect to the performance potential of air conditioning system constructed with PF{trademark} Heat Exchangers (generically referred to as microchannel heat exchangers) from both an energy efficiency as well as a comfort perspective. The paper will also detail the current plan to introduce 16 to 24 systems into an extended field test throughout the US which commenced in the Fall of 1997.

  20. Exchange-bias instability in a bilayer with an ion-beam imprinted stripe pattern of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theis-Broehl, Katharina; Wolff, Maximilian; Westphalen, Andreas; Zabel, Hartmut; McCord, Jeffrey; Hoeink, Volker; Schmalhorst, Jan; Reiss, Guenther; Weis, Tanja; Engel, Dieter; Ehresmann, Arno; Ruecker, Ulrich; Toperverg, Boris P.

    2006-05-01

    We have investigated the magnetization arrangement in an in-plane stripe pattern with alternating exchange-bias domains. The stripe pattern was produced by ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning, which changed locally the exchange-bias direction at the ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interface, but not the magnetic or antiferromagnetic properties of the Co{sub 70}Fe{sub 30} and Mn{sub 83}Ir{sub 17} layers, respectively. For the analysis of the magnetic domain structure evolution along the hysteresis loop we used a combination of experimental techniques: magneto-optical Kerr effect, Kerr microscopy, polarized neutron reflectometry, and off-specular scattering of polarized neutrons with polarization analysis. Instead of a perfect antiparallel alignment we found that the magnetization in neighboring stripes is periodically canted with respect to the stripe axis so that the net magnetization of the ferromagnetic film turns almost perpendicular to the stripes. At the same time the projection of the magnetization vector onto the stripe axis has a periodically alternating sign. The experimental observations are explained and quantitatively described within the frame of a phenomenological model, taking into account interfacial exchange bias, intralayer exchange energy, and uniaxial anisotropy. The model defines conditions which can be used for tailoring nano- and micro-patterned exchange-bias systems with different types of magnetic order.

  1. TRIPLICATE SODIUM IODIDE GAMMA RAY MONITORS FOR THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couture, A.

    2011-09-20

    This technical report contains recommendations from the Analytical Development (AD) organization of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for a system of triplicate Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors to be used to monitor Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) content of the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) output of the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process. These detectors need to be gain stabilized with respect to temperature shifts since they will be installed on top of Tank 41 at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This will be accomplished using NaI crystals doped with the alpha-emitting isotope, Americium-241({sup 241}Am). Two energy regions of the detector output will be monitored using single-channel analyzers (SCAs), the {sup 137}Cs full-energy {gamma}-ray peak and the {sup 241}Am alpha peak. The count rate in the gamma peak region will be proportional to the {sup 137}Cs content in the DSS output. The constant rate of alpha decay in the NaI crystal will be monitored and used as feedback to adjust the high voltage supply to the detector in response to temperature variation. An analysis of theoretical {sup 137}Cs breakthrough curves was used to estimate the gamma activity expected in the DSS output during a single iteration of the process. Count rates arising from the DSS and background sources were predicted using Microshield modeling software. The current plan for shielding the detectors within an enclosure with four-inch thick steel walls should allow the detectors to operate with the sensitivity required to perform these measurements. Calibration, testing, and maintenance requirements for the detector system are outlined as well. The purpose of SCIX is to remove and concentrate high-level radioisotopes from SRS salt waste resulting in two waste streams. The concentrated high-level waste containing {sup 137}Cs will be sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification and the low-level DSS will be sent to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF

  2. SUMMARY REPORT ON POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Johnson, F.

    2011-04-27

    This report summarizes a large amount of experimental work completed to identify the potential impacts of material from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) on glass formulation at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The results show no significant issues with the predicted values of chemical durability and viscosity using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models when the SCIX components are added to projected DWPF glass compositions. No modifications to the viscosity and durability models appear to be necessary at this time in order to incorporate the SCIX streams at DWPF. It is recommended that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) continue to verify the durability and viscosity models as the projected compositions for DWPF processing evolve. It is also recommended that the data generated thus far be reviewed and a determination be made as to how best to extend the validation ranges of the durability and viscosity models. The liquidus temperatures for the experimental glasses are also reported and discussed in this report. The results show that the measured or estimated (based on measured data) liquidus temperature values for the glasses with SCIX components added are consistently higher than those predicted by the current model. Therefore, the PCCS liquidus temperature model will need to be modified in order to incorporate the SCIX streams at DWPF. It is recommended that SRNL carry out full measurements of the liquidus temperatures for those KT-series glasses where estimates have been made. These data should then be used to support an evaluation of whether a refitting of the liquidus temperature model coefficients will be sufficient to correctly predict the liquidus temperature of glasses containing the SCIX components (particularly higher TiO{sub 2} concentrations), or whether additional modifications to the model are required. While there are prediction issues with the current liquidus temperature model, they are not at this

  3. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  4. IMPACT OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION MELT RATE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-04-26

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential impacts of the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) streams - particularly the addition of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) - on the melt rate of simulated feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Additional MST was added to account for contributions from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) was used to evaluate four melter feed compositions: two with simulated SCIX and SWPF material and two without. The Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) was then used to compare two different feeds: one with and one without bounding concentrations of simulated SCIX and SWPF material. Analyses of the melter feed materials confirmed that they met their targeted compositions. Four feeds were tested in triplicate in the MRF. The linear melt rates were determined by using X-ray computed tomography to measure the height of the glass formed along the bottom of the beakers. The addition of the SCIX and SWPF material reduced the average measured melt rate by about 10% in MRF testing, although there was significant scatter in the data. Two feeds were tested in the SMRF. It was noted that the ground CST alone (ground CST with liquid in a bucket) was extremely difficult to resuspend during preparation of the feed with material from SCIX and SWPF. This feed was also more difficult to pump than the material without MST and CST due to settling occurring in the melter feed line, although the yield stress of both feeds was high relative to the DWPF design basis. Steady state feeding conditions were maintained for about five hours for each feed. There was a reduction in the feed and pour rates of approximately 15% when CST and MST were added to the feed, although there was significant scatter in the data. Analysis of samples collected from the SMRF pour stream showed that the composition of the glass changed as expected when MST and

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lithium-Ion Battery Production and Recycling Materials Issues

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about lithium-ion...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Optimization of Ion Transport in High-Energy Composite Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by UC San Diego at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about optimization of ion transport in...

  7. UV and EB Curable Binder Technology for Lithium Ion Batteries and UltraCapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelker, Gary

    2012-04-30

    the basic feasibility of using UV curing technology to produce Lithium ion battery electrodes at speeds over 200 feet per minute has been shown. A unique set of UV curable chemicals were discovered that were proven to be compatible with a Lithium ion battery environment with the adhesion qualities of PVDF.

  8. Chemical and radiation stability of a proprietary cesium ion exchange material manufactured from WWL membrane and SuperLig{reg_sign} 644

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Berry, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    Pretreatment of nuclear process wastes for ion exchange removal of Cs and other radionuclides is one way to minimize amount of high-level radioactive waste at Hanford. This study evaluated Cs-selective SuperLig{reg_sign}644 (IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork UT) entrapped in a proprietary WWL web membrane (3M) for chemical/radiation stability in simulated caustic neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), 0.5M HNO{sub 3}, water, and air. After exposure up to 2.0E+09 rad, the material was evaluated for Cs uptake in 5M sodium NCAW simulants with varying Cs contents. Radiolytic stability appears to be sufficient for ion exchange pretreatment of radioactive Cs: essentially no decrease in Cs selectivity or loading (Kd) was observed during {sup 60}Cs gamma irradiation in water or 0.5M HNO{sub 3} up to 1.0E+09 rad. Cs Kd decreased by a factor of 2 after 2.0E+09 rad exposure. Cs Kd did not change during irradiation in 5M NCAW or ambient air up to 1.0E+08 rad, but decreased by more than an order of magnitude between 1.0E+08 and 2.0E+09 rad (not typical of process conditions). Chemical stability under caustic conditions is lower than in air or under neutral/acidic conditions. Results indicate that this material is less stable in caustic solution irrespective of radiation exposure. Samples of the membrane retained their physical form throughout the entire experiment and were only slightly brittle after exposure to 2.0E+09 rad. (The material evaluated was a finely ground (400 mesh) particulate engineered to form a polymeric fiber (WWL), not the macroscopic form of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin (20 to 50 mesh).)

  9. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-08-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form`` (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.

  10. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.

  11. Method of uranium reclamation from aqueous systems by reactive ion exchange. [US DOE patent application; anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, L.

    1981-11-05

    A reactive ion exchange method for separation and recovery of values of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, or americium from substantially neutral aqueous systems of said metals comprises contacting said system with an effective amount of a basic anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands to achieve nearly 100% sorption of said actinyl ion onto said resin and an aqueous system practically free of said actinyl ions. The method is operational over an extensive range of concentrations from about 10/sup -6/ M to 1.0 M actinyl ion and a pH range of about 4 to 7. The method has particulr application to treatment of waste streams from Purex-type nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and hydrometallurgical processes involving U, Np, P, or Am.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advanced High Energy Li-Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell for PHEV and EV Applications | Department of Energy Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications Presentation given by 3M at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries es210_singh_2016_o_web.pdf (1.96 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office

  13. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  14. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  15. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-01-01

    Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are synthesized using two methods: solid-state ion exchange (SSIE) and one-pot synthesis. SSIE is conducted by calcining SAPO-34/CuO mixtures at elevated temperatures. For the one-pot synthesis method, Cu-containing chemicals (CuO and CuSO4) are added during gel preparation. A high-temperature calcination step is also needed for this method. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. In Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE, Cu presents both as isolated Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuO. The former is highly active and selective in NH3-SCR, while the latter catalyzes a side reaction; notably, the non-selective oxidation of NH3 above 350 ºC. Using the one-pot method followed by a high-temperature aging treatment, it is possible to form Cu SAPO-34 samples with predominately isolated Cu2+ ions at low Cu loadings. However at much higher Cu loadings, isolated Cu2+ ions that bind weakly with the CHA framework and CuO clusters also form. These Cu moieties are very active in catalyzing non-selective NH3 oxidation above 350 ºC. Low-temperature reaction kinetics indicate that Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE have core-shell structures where Cu is enriched in the shell layers; while Cu is more evenly distributed within the one-pot samples. Reaction kinetics also suggest that at low temperatures, the local environment next to Cu2+ ion centers plays little role on the overall catalytic properties. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental

  16. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  17. Method for digesting spent ion exchange resins and recovering actinides therefrom using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, III, Sherrod L.; Nichols, Sheldon T.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for digesting diphosphonic acid substituted cation exchange resins that have become loaded with actinides, rare earth metals, or heavy metals, in a way that allows for downstream chromatographic analysis of the adsorbed species without damage to or inadequate elution from the downstream chromatographic resins. The methods of the present invention involve contacting the loaded diphosphonic acid resin with concentrated oxidizing acid in a closed vessel, and irradiating this mixture with microwave radiation. This efficiently increases the temperature of the mixture to a level suitable for digestion of the resin without the use of dehydrating acids that can damage downstream analytical resins. In order to ensure more complete digestion, the irradiated mixture can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide or other oxidant, and reirradiated with microwave radiation.

  18. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Foundation Heat Exchanger, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study introduces the foundation heat exchanger that can significantly reduce the cost of the ground source heat pump (GHSP).

  19. Structure/function studies of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) copolymer ion-exchange resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Hogan, M.O.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.

    1996-09-01

    he U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site was established to produce plutonium for the U.S. defense mission. Over the course of decades, hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemical wastes were generated and disposed of in a variety of ways including storage in underground tanks. An estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes are stored in 177 underground storage tanks. During production of fissile plutonium, large quantities of 90Sr and 137CS were produced. The high abundance and intermediate length half- lives of these fission products are the reason that effort is directed toward selective removal of these radionuclides from the bulk waste stream before final tank waste disposal is effected. Economically, it is desirable to remove the highly radioactive fraction of the tank waste for vitrification. Ion-exchange technology is being evaluated for removing cesium from Hanford Site waste tanks. This report summarizes data and analysis performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for both resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resins and relates their observed differences in performance and chemical stability to their structure. The experimental approach used to characterize the resins was conducted using primarily two types of data: batch distribution coefficients (Kds) and solid-state 13C NMR. Comparison of these data for a particular resin allowed correlation of resin performance to resin structure. Additional characterization techniques included solid-state 19F NMR, and elemental analyses.

  20. An investigation of the radiolytic stability of a resorcinol- formaldehyde ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.; Bibler, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    Radiolytic stability of a resorcinol-formaldehyde polycondensation-type cation exchange resin was investigated for up to lE09 rads total dose. The resorcinol-formaldehyde resin is a resin that has potential cesium decontamination applications at Pacific Northwest and Savannah River. We have determined both radiation and storage effects on performance of the resin using 101-AW Hanford simulant and ASTM Type-I water. Distribution coefficient determinations, total carbon analysis, and physical observations lead us to conclude that radiation up to lE08 rads does not significantly affect the performance of the resin. The resin is more stable to radiation in water than in 101-AW Hanford simulant. Also radiation or storage does not affect the thermal stability of the resin. Gas production rates for several resin slurries increased in the order of resin/101-AW Hanford simulant, resin/ASTM water, and resin/0.5 M HNO{sub 3}. H{sub 2} is produced from radiolysis of resin in 101-AW Hanford simulant with a G value of G(H{sub 2}) of 0.11 {plus_minus} 0.02 molecules/100eV and in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} with a G value of G(H{sub 2}) of 0.27 {plus_minus} 0.02 molecules/lOOeV.

  1. Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA)/Technology Maturation Plan (TMP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Guide | Department of Energy Readiness Assessment (TRA)/Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Process Guide Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA)/Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Process Guide This document is a guide for those involved in conducting TRAs and developing TMPs for DOE-EM. Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA)/Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Process Guide (1.19 MB) More Documents & Publications Technology Readiness Assessment Report Small Column Ion Exchange Technology

  2. Summary - Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX)Technology at the SRS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ETR R Un Baseline The Sm being The SC operat which Sr, and waste critical the SC deploy Specif exchan CST) CST, a (mono and so (RMF) maturi readin design moving The pu techni ...

  3. Potential problems associated with ion-exchange resins used in the decontamination of light-water reactor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soo, P.; Adams, J.W.; Kempf, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    During a typical decontamination event, ion-exchange resin beds are used to remove corrosion products (radioactive and nonradioactive) and excess decontamination reagents from waste streams. The spent resins may be solidified in a binder, such as cement, or sealed in a high-integrity container (HIC) in order to meet waste stability requirements specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Lack of stability of low-level waste in a shallow land burial trench may lead to trench subsidence, enhanced water infiltration and waste leaching, which would result in accelerated transport of radionuclides and the complexing agents used for decontamination. The current program is directed at investigating safety problems associated with the handling, solidification and containerization of decontamination resin wastes. The three tasks currently underway include freeze-thaw cycling of cementitious and vinyl ester-styrene forms to determine if mechanical integrity is compromised, a study of the corrosion of container materials by spent decontamination waste resins, and investigations of resin degradation mechanisms.

  4. Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, L.L.

    2000-08-23

    A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste.

  5. Efficiencies and Optimization of Weak Base Anion Ion-Exchange Resin for Groundwater Hexavalent Chromium Removal at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesham, Dean O.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Miller, Charles W.; Meyers, P.; Jaschke, Naomi M.

    2014-02-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in treating groundwater contamination at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. During the production era, the nuclear reactors at the Hanford Site required a continuous supply of high-quality cooling water during operations. Cooling water consumption ranged from about 151,417 to 378,541 L/min (40,000 to 100,000 gal/min) per reactor, depending on specific operating conditions. Water from the Columbia River was filtered and treated chemically prior to use as cooling water, including the addition of sodium dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Hexavalent chromium was the primary component of the sodium dichromate and was introduced into the groundwater at the Hanford Site as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from the reactors starting in 1944. Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other contaminants related to nuclear reactor operations resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated, leading to the use of pump-and-treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex™ 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which was performed offsite. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion for the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. As a result, CH2M HILL performed testing at the Hanford Site in 2009 and 2010 to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at different waste sites. The testing demonstrated that a weak-base anion, single-use resin, specifically ResinTech SIR-700 ®, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly

  6. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange process for the separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eager, K.M.; Penwell, D.L.; Knutson, B.J.

    1994-12-01

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin to remove cesium from Hanford Tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. Process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs are discussed which relate to the process.

  7. Studies in reduction-roast leaching ion exchange of copper converter slag from an Indian copper complex, Ghatshila

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodas, M.G.; Mathur, S.B.

    1997-12-01

    Large quantities of converter and anode slags are generated in different unit operations for the production of copper in I.C.C. Ghatshila. The converter slag contains about 2.75% copper, 0.9% nickel, 52.0% iron, and 0.6% cobalt and cannot be rejected due to its economic importance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed the presence of copper in elemental, oxide, and silicate phases and iron in silicate (Feyalite) and oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) phases. From the earlier work on leaching by an acetic acid lixiviant up to 55% copper could be extracted at 250 mL of acetic acid/100 g of slag, 125 C temperature, and 35 atm of oxygen pressure. Low copper recovery was attributed to the presence of copper silicate and sulfide phases which could not be detected by XRD. Therefore, reduction roasting by noncoking coal was done to increase the copper recovery. A coal sample from Talchar which contained 30% fixed carbon, 40% volatile, and 30% ash was used for reduction roasting. Maximum percent extraction of copper and nickel (97% Cu and 20% Ni) could be achieved at the temperature of 720 C for 90 min of roasting with 20% reductant. The acetic acid requirement was 130 mL/100 g of reduced pellets, while leaching at the oxygen pressure of 35 atm for 120 min at 120 C. Iron dissolution was minimum (max 1%) in all the experiments. The ion-exchange technique was employed to separate copper from acetate solution. Zeolite resin was found to be suitable for the separation of copper from leach liquor. About 92% copper was recovered by geolite. 2.5 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was found to be most effective for the stripping of the copper from resin.

  8. Enhancement of exchange bias and training effect in ion-beam sputtered Fe{sub 46}Mn{sub 54}/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulara, Himanshu; Chaudhary, Sujeet Kashyap, Subhash C.; Granville, Simon

    2014-01-28

    We present a remarkable enhancement by 300% of the exchange-bias field at room temperature, without affecting the coercivity value, via optimum magnetic annealing (250 °C/3 kOe) in ion-beam sputtered FeMn(30 nm)/NiFe(10 nm) bilayers. This specific behavior has been attributed to a higher degree of γ-FeMn(111) orientation that offers more interfacial FeMn moments to get pinned with the moments of the adjacent NiFe layer. Unlike the absence of training effect at room temperature, a pronounced training effect and an accompanying magnetization reversal asymmetry are evidenced upon field cooling below 50 K due to the presence of biaxial exchange induced anisotropy across the interdiffused FeMn/NiFe interface. The present findings not only have technological significance but also are of relevance to the understanding of interfacial spin disorder and frustration in these exchange-biased systems.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 3M at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced high energy Li-ion cell for PHEV...

  10. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-05-26

    This report describes experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions using monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST)-laden filter cartridges. Four types of ion exchange cartridge media (CST and MST designed by both 3M and POROX{reg_sign}) were evaluated. In these proof-of-principle tests effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 was observed. However, the experiments were not performed long enough to determine the saturation levels or breakthrough curve for each filter cartridge. POREX{reg_sign} MST cartridges, which by design were based on co-sintering of the active titanates with polyethylene particles, seem to perform as well as the 3M-designed MST cartridges (impregnated filter membrane design) in the uptake of strontium. At low salt simulant conditions (0.29 M Na{sup +}), the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with the 3M-design MST cartridge measured 26, representing the removal of 96% of the Sr-85. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with the POREX{reg_sign} design MST cartridge measured 40 or 98% removal of the Sr-85. Strontium removal with the 3M-design MST and CST cartridges placed in series filter arrangement produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 or 97.6% removal compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 or 99.7% removal of the strontium with the POREX{reg_sign} MST and CST cartridge design placed in series. At high salt simulant conditions (5.6 M Na{sup +}), strontium removal with 3M-designed MST cartridge only and with 3M-designed MST and CST cartridges operated in a series configuration were identical. The instantaneous decontamination factor and the strontium removal efficiency, under the above configuration, averaged 8.6 and 88%, respectively. There were no POREX{reg_sign} cartridge experiments using the higher ionic strength simulant solution. At low salt simulant conditions, the uptake of Cs-137 with

  11. Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

    2005-05-16

    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

  12. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a strong commitment to transfer the results of its science and technology programs to the private sector. The intent is to apply innovative and sometimes advanced technologies to address needs while simultaneously stimulating new commercial business opportunities. Such focused technology transfer was evident in the late 1990s as the results of DOE investments in environmental management technology development led to new tools for characterizing and remediating contaminated sites as well as handling and minimizing the generation of hazardous wastes. The Departments Office of Environmental Management was attempting to reduce the cost, accelerate the schedule, and improve the efficacy of clean-up efforts in the nuclear weapons complex. It recognized that resulting technologies had broader world market applications and that their commercialization would further reduce costs and facilitate deployment of improved technology at DOE sites. DOEs Albuquerque Operations Office (now part of the National Nuclear Security Administration) began in 1995 to build the foundation for a technology exchange program with Mexico. Initial sponsorship for this work was provided by the Departments Office of Environmental Management. As part of this effort, Applied Sciences Laboratory, Inc. (ASL) was contracted by the DOE Albuquerque office to identify Mexicos priority environmental management needs, identify and evaluate DOE-sponsored technologies as potential solutions for those needs, and coordinate these opportunities with decision makers from Mexicos federal government. That work led to an improved understanding of many key environmental challenges that Mexico faces and the many opportunities to apply DOEs technologies to help resolve them. The above results constituted, in large part, the foundation for an initial DOE-funded program to apply the Departments technology base to help address some of Mexicos challenging environmental

  13. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Christopher J.

    2006-04-04

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  14. Effect of pH on the release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resins collected from operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small-scale waste--form specimens collected during solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station were leach-tested and subjected to compressive strength testing in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1). Samples of untreated resin waste collected from each solidification vessel before the solidification process were analyzed for concentrations of radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to determine the quantities of these chemicals in the waste-form specimens. The chelating agents included oxalic, citric, and picolinic acids. In order to determine the effect of leachant chemical composition and pH on the stability and leachability of the waste forms, waste-form specimens were leached in various leachants. Results of this study indicate that differences in pH do not affect releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms, but that differences in leachant chemistry and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. Also, this study indicates that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents are similar for waste- form specimens that decomposed and those that retained their general physical form. 36 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. CdS and CdS/CdSe sensitized ZnO nanorod array solar cells prepared by a solution ions exchange process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ling; Gong, Haibo; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shikuan; Cao, Bingqiang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: CdS and CdS/CdSe quantum dots are assembled on ZnO nanorods by ion exchange process. The CdS/CdSe sensitization of ZnO effectively extends the absorption spectrum. The performance of ZnO/CdS/CdSe cell is improved by extending absorption spectrum. - Abstract: In this paper, cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium sulfide/cadmium selenide (CdS/CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) are assembled onto ZnO nanorod arrays by a solution ion exchange process for QD-sensitized solar cell application. The morphology, composition and absorption properties of different photoanodes were characterized with scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum and Raman spectrum in detail. It is shown that conformal and uniform CdS and CdS/CdSe shells can grow on ZnO nanorod cores. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS/CdSe nanocable arrays were assembled with gold counter electrode and polysulfide electrolyte solution. The CdS/CdSe sensitization of ZnO can effectively extend the absorption spectrum up to 650 nm, which has a remarkable impact on the performance of a photovoltaic device by extending the absorption spectrum. Preliminary results show one fourth improvement in solar cell efficiency.

  16. Chemical and radiation stability of SuperLig{reg_sign}644, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and CS-100 cesium ion exchange materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.N.; Adami, S.R.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    At the request of the Initial Pretreatment Module Project within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) under the task ``Develop and Test Sorbents.`` The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the chemical and radiolytic stability of several cesium-selective ion exchange materials in simulated alkaline Hanford tank waste matrices. Pretreatment of nuclear process wastes to remove of cesium and other radionuclides by ion exchange was proposed previously as one method of minimizing the amount of high-level radioactive waste at Hanford. In this study, PNL evaluated three cesium-selective materials SuperLig{reg_sign}644, resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F), and CS-100 for chemical and radiation stability in 1 M NaOH and a simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). The objective of the study is to investigate the stability of the newly produced SuperLig{reg_sign}644 under a variety of conditions in an attempt to simulate and predict the degradation process. The following specific conclusions and recommendations resulted from the study.

  17. Role of associated defects in oxygen ion conduction and surface exchange reaction for epitaxial samaria-doped ceria thin films as catalytic coatings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Nan; Shi, Yanuo; Schweiger, Sebastian; Strelcov, Evgheni; Foglietti, Vittorio; Orgiani, Pasquale; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jennifer L. M. Rupp; Aruta, Carmela; et al

    2016-05-18

    Samaria-doped ceria (SDC) thin films are particularly important for energy and electronic applications such as micro-solid oxide fuel cells, electrolysers, sensors and memristors. In this paper we report a comparative study investigating ionic conductivity and surface reactions for well-grown epitaxial SDC films varying the samaria doping concentration. With increasing doping above 20 mol% of samaria, an enhancement in the defect association was observed by Raman spectroscopy. The role of such defect associates on the films` oxygen ion transport and exchange was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM). The measurements reveal that the ionic transport has amore » sharp maximum in ionic conductivity and drop in its activation energy down to 0.6 eV for 20 mol% doping. Increasing the doping concentration further up to 40 mol%, raises the activation energy substantially by a factor of two. We ascribe the sluggish transport kinetics to the "bulk" ionic-near ordering in case of the heavily doped epitaxial films. Analysis of the ESM first order reversal curve measurements indicate that these associated defects may have a beneficial role by lowering the activation of the oxygen exchange "surface" reaction for heavily doped 40 mol% of samaria. We reveal in a model experiment through a solid solution series of samaria doped ceria epitaxial films that the occurrence of associate defects in the bulk affects the surface charging state of the films to increase the exchange rates. Lastly, the implication of these findings are the design of coatings with tuned oxygen surface exchange by control of bulk associate clusters for future electro-catalytic applications.« less

  18. PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

    2010-06-29

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is

  19. Excellent stability of a lithium-ion-conducting solid electrolyte upon reversible Li+/H+ exchange in aqueous solutions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Cheng; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Liang, Chengdu; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; More, Karren Leslie; Chi, Miaofang

    2014-10-21

    Batteries with an aqueous catholyte and a Li metal anode have attracted interest owing to their exceptional energy density and high charge/discharge rate. The long-term operation of such batteries requires that the solid electrolyte separator between the anode and aqueous solutions must be compatible with Li and stable over a wide pH range. Unfortunately, no such compound has yet been reported. In this study, an excellent stability in neutral and strongly basic solutions was observed when using the cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 garnet as a Li-stable solid electrolyte. The material underwent a Li+/H+ exchange in aqueous solutions. Nevertheless, its structure remained unchangedmore » even under a high exchange rate of 63.6%. When treated with a 2 M LiOH solution, the Li+/H+ exchange was reversed without any structural change. Furthermore, these observations suggest that cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 is a promising candidate for the separator in aqueous lithium batteries.« less

  20. Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite as a Highly Efficient and Low Cost Electrically Switched Ion Exchanger for Removing ClO4- from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Iihan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-10-10

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) contamination is now recognized as a widespread concern affecting many water utilities. In this report, graphene is employed as the scaffold to synthesize novel graphene-polypyrrole nanocomposite, which is demonstrated as excellent electrically switched ion exchanger for perchlorate removal. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical measurements showed that the 3D nanostructured graphene/Ppy nanocomposite exhibited the significantly improved uptake capacity for ClO4- compared with Ppy film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the uptake and release process of ClO4- in graphene/Ppy nanocomposite. In addition, the presence of graphene substrate resulted in high stability of graphene/Ppy nanocomposite during potential cycling. The present work provides a promising method for large scale water treatment.

  1. Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

    1994-12-01

    Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of {sup 137}Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve {sup 137}Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m{sup 3} and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m{sup 3} i.e., 0.1/m{sup 3}. The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified.

  2. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; Peters, Bethanne D.; Lavina, Sandra; Vezz, Keti; Yang, Yuan; Poynton, Simon D.; Varcoe, John R.; Seifert, Soenke; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Di Noto, Vito; Herring, Andrew M.

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm-1 at 80 C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there is little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH- form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH- as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.

  3. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; Peters, Bethanne D.; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzu, Keti; Yang, Yuan; Poynton, Simon D.; Varcoe, John R.; Seifert, Soenke; et al

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm-1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there ismore » little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. Furthermore, the reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH- form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH- as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.« less

  4. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; Peters, Bethanne D.; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzù, Keti; Yang, Yuan; Poynton, Simon D.; Varcoe, John R.; Seifert, Soenke; et al

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm-1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there ismore » little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH- form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH- as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.« less

  5. The development of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) with evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, W. Sun, L. T.; Qian, C.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.; Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Yang, Y.; Xiong, B.; Guo, S. Q.; Ruan, L.

    2015-04-15

    LECR4 (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) has been successfully constructed at IMP and has also been connected with the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) systems. These source magnet coils are cooled through evaporative cooling technology, which is the first attempt with an ECR ion source in the world. The maximum mirror field is 2.5 T (with iron plug) and the effective plasma chamber volume is 1.2 l. It was designed to be operated at 18 GHz and aimed to produce intense multiple charge state heavy ion beams for the linear injector project SSC-Linac at IMP. In February 2014, the first analyzed beam at 18 GHz was extracted. During about three months commissioning, some outstanding results have been achieved, such as 1.97 emA of O{sup 6+}, 1.7 emA of Ar{sup 8+}, 1.07 emA of Ar{sup 9+}, and 118 euA of Bi{sup 28+}. The source has also successfully delivered O{sup 5+} and Ar{sup 8+} ion beams for RFQ commissioning in April 2014. This paper will give a brief overview of the design of LECR4. Then, the latest results of this source at 18 GHz will be presented.

  6. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  7. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  8. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  9. Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: The Future is Here … Smart Home Technology, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, April 9, 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Future is Here - Smart Home Technology April 9, 2015 Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Opening Poll  Residential Network and Peer Exchange Call Overview  Featured Speakers  Matthew Harding, Assistant Professor at Duke University, Co-Director Duke Energy Data Analytics Lab and Associate Director Information Initiative at Duke  Jim Stewart, Principal Economist and Statistical Analysis Group Co-Manager at Cadmus  Marshall Runkel,

  10. Potential-energy surfaces for charge exchange between singly charged ions and a LiF surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirtz, Ludger; Burgdoerfer, Joachim; Dallos, Michal; Mueller, Thomas; Lischka, Hans

    2003-09-01

    We analyze the adiabatic potential-energy surfaces relevant for neutralization of singly charged ions in slow vertical incidence onto a lithium fluoride surface. The surface is represented by a cluster of varying size augmented by point charges of alternating sign in order to include the proper Madelung potential of the ionic crystal. Our calculation proceeds on the multiconfiguration self-consistent-field and multireference configuration-interaction levels. Size-consistency corrections based on the Davidson correction and multireference averaged quadratic coupled cluster methods are included as well. We emphasize the importance of a proper treatment of electron correlation signifying the polarization of the surrounding cluster environment in ab initio calculations of charge transfer at surfaces. From the topology of the surfaces, in particular the existence or absence of avoided crossings (or, more generally, conical intersections), qualitative predictions for the neutralization process can be made. The comparative analysis of potential curves for H{sup +}, C{sup +}, S{sup +}, and Ne{sup +} projectiles provides an explanation for the recently observed threshold behavior for potential sputtering.

  11. Porous polymer monolithic columns with gold nanoparticles as an intermediate ligand for the separation of proteins in reverse phase-ion exchange mixed mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terborg, Lydia; Masini, Jorge C.; Lin, Michelle; Lipponen, Katriina; Riekolla, Marja -Liisa; Svec, Frantisek

    2014-11-04

    A new approach has been developed for the preparation of mixed-mode stationary phases to separate proteins. The pore surface of monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) capillary columns was functionalized with thiols and coated with gold nanoparticles. The final mixed mode surface chemistry was formed by attaching, in a single step, alkanethiols, mercaptoalkanoic acids, and their mixtures on the free surface of attached gold nanoparticles. Use of these mixtures allowed fine tuning of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amount of attached gold nanoparticles according to thermal gravimetric analysis was 44.8 wt.%. This value together with results of frontal elution enabled calculation of surface coverage with the alkanethiol and mercaptoalkanoic acid ligands. Interestingly, alkanethiols coverage in a range of 4.464.51 molecules/nm2 significantly exceeded that of mercaptoalkanoic acids with 2.392.45 molecules/nm2. The mixed mode character of these monolithic stationary phases was for the first time demonstrated in the separations of proteins that could be achieved in the same column using gradient elution conditions typical of reverse phase (using gradient of acetonitrile in water) and ion exchange chromatographic modes (applying gradient of salt in water), respectively.

  12. Porous polymer monolithic columns with gold nanoparticles as an intermediate ligand for the separation of proteins in reverse phase-ion exchange mixed mode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Terborg, Lydia; Masini, Jorge C.; Lin, Michelle; Lipponen, Katriina; Riekolla, Marja -Liisa; Svec, Frantisek

    2014-11-04

    A new approach has been developed for the preparation of mixed-mode stationary phases to separate proteins. The pore surface of monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) capillary columns was functionalized with thiols and coated with gold nanoparticles. The final mixed mode surface chemistry was formed by attaching, in a single step, alkanethiols, mercaptoalkanoic acids, and their mixtures on the free surface of attached gold nanoparticles. Use of these mixtures allowed fine tuning of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amount of attached gold nanoparticles according to thermal gravimetric analysis was 44.8 wt.%. This value together with results of frontal elution enabled calculation of surfacemore »coverage with the alkanethiol and mercaptoalkanoic acid ligands. Interestingly, alkanethiols coverage in a range of 4.46–4.51 molecules/nm2 significantly exceeded that of mercaptoalkanoic acids with 2.39–2.45 molecules/nm2. The mixed mode character of these monolithic stationary phases was for the first time demonstrated in the separations of proteins that could be achieved in the same column using gradient elution conditions typical of reverse phase (using gradient of acetonitrile in water) and ion exchange chromatographic modes (applying gradient of salt in water), respectively.« less

  13. Evaluation and comparison of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, resorcinol-formaldehyde and CS-100 ion exchange materials for the removal of cesium from simulated alkaline supernate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Eloviche, R.J.; Bruening, R.L.; Decker, R.M.; Kafka, T.M.; White, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    PNL evaluated three polymeric materials for Cs removal efficiency from a simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) supernatant liquid using 200 mL ion exchange columns. Cs loadings (mmole Cs/g resin) were 0.20, 0.18, and 0.039 for Super Lig 644, R-F, and CS-100 (0.045, 0.070, 0.011 mmole Cs/mL resin). Elution of each resin material with 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} required 3.5, 7.0, and 3.2 cv to reach 0.1 C/C{sub 0} for the respective materials, resulting in volume compressions of 27, 20, and 6.9. Peak Cs concentrations during elution was 185, 38.5, and 27.8 C/C{sub 0}. SuperLig 644 had the highest Cs loading per gram in NCAW and the greatest volume compression on aci elution. Because of high density and poor elution, R-F had the highest Cs loading per unit volume and lower volume compression. CS-100, the baseline material for Cs removal at Hanford, was inferior to both SuperLig 644 and R-F in terms of Cs loading and selectivity over sodium.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li-ion cells for...

  15. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-11-10

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with MST impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% Sr-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with co-sintered active MST cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the MST impregnated membrane cartridges and CST impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active MST cartridges and co-sintered active CST cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of Cs-137 with co-sintered CST cartridges. Tests results with CST impregnated membrane cartridges for Cs-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  16. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-01-03

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both strontium-85 and cesium-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor for strontium-85 with monosodium titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% strontium-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the strontium-85 instantaneous decontamination factor with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the monosodium titanate impregnated membrane cartridges and crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges and co-sintered active crystalline silicotitanate cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of cesium-137 with co-sintered crystalline silicotitanate cartridges. Tests results with crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges for cesium-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semicontinuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: High Energy Anode Material Development for Li-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sinode Systems at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Lithium Dendrite Prevention for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Optimization of Ion Transport in High Energy Composite Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of California San Diego at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Exploratory Studies of Novel Sodium-Ion Battery Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  3. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  4. Anion exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  5. Mass transport of heavy metal ions and radon in gels used as sealing agents in containment technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakatos, I.; Bauer, K.; Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Kretzschmar, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    The diffusion and hydrodynamic mass transport of multivalent cations, mostly Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions and radon in polymer/silicate gels and Montanwax emulsions were studied. It was concluded that the self-conforming gels may decrease the hydrodynamic mass transport in porous and fractured media by 4-6 orders of magnitude. In water saturated systems, however, the diffusion transport can be restricted by hydrogels only to a moderate extent. On the other hand, the high and selective retention capacity of gels towards different diffusing species may open new vistas in the sealing technologies. Similar results were obtained for transport phenomena of radon. The almost perfect quenching process of radon and its nuclides in gels and emulsions further enhances the positive effects of the encapsulation methods. The laboratory experiments provided valuable new information to design the different containment technologies.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Anode Material Development for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sinode Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy anode material...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Metal-Based High Capacity Li-Ion Anodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Binghamton University-SUNY at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal-based high...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Optimization of Ion Transport in High-Energy Composite Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of California, San Diego at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Studies on High Capacity Cathodes for Advanced Lithium-Ion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Next Generation Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries: Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries