National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ion exchange resins

  1. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  2. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  3. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  4. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  5. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  6. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, Jane P. (Aiken, SC); Wallace, Richard M. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  7. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  8. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  9. Cementation of residue ion exchange resins at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Beckman, T.D.; Madore, C.M.

    1998-03-03

    Ion exchange resins have been used to purify nitric acid solutions of plutonium at Rocky Flats since the 1950s. Spent ion exchange resins were retained for eventual recovery of residual plutonium, typically by incineration followed by the aqueous extraction of plutonium from the resultant ash. The elimination of incineration as a recovery process in the late 1980s and the absence of a suitable alternative process for plutonium recovery from resins led to a situation where spent ion exchange resins were simply placed into temporary storage. This report describes the method that Rocky Flats is currently using to stabilize residue ion exchange resins. The objective of the resin stabilization program is: (1) to ensure their safety during interim storage at the site, and (2) to prepare them for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Included in the discussion is a description of the safety concerns associated with ion exchange resins, alternatives considered for their stabilization, the selection of the preferred treatment method, the means of implementing the preferred option, and the progress to date.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLED SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2010-02-23

    This report presents characterization data for two spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin beds that had processed cesium in non-radioactive and radioactive cycles. All column cycle operations for the resin beds including loading, displacements, elution, regeneration, breakthroughs, and solution analyses are reported in Nash and Duignan, 2009a. That report covered four ion exchange (IX) campaigns using the two {approx}11 mL beds in columns in a lead-lag arrangement. The first two campaigns used Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 2F nonradioactive simulant while the latter two were fed with actual dissolved salt in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. Both radioactive cycles ran to cesium breakthrough of the lead column. The resin beds saw in excess of 400 bed volumes of feed in each cycle. Resin disposal plans in tank farm processing depend on characterizations of resin used with actual tank feed. Following a final 30 bed volume (BV) elution with nitric acid, the resin beds were found to contain detectable chromium, barium, boron, aluminum, iron, sodium, sulfur, plutonium, cesium, and mercury. Resin affinity for plutonium is important in criticality safety considerations. Cesium-137 was found to be less than 10E+7 dpm/g of resin, similar to past work with sRF resin. Sulfur levels are reasonably consistent with other work and are expected to represent sulfur chemistry used in the resin manufacture. There were low but detectable levels of technetium, americium, and curium. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) work on the used (eluted) resin samples showed significant contents of mercury, barium, and chromium. One resin sample exceeded the TCLP level for mercury while the other metals were below TCLP levels. TCLP organics measurements indicated measurable benzene in one case, though the source was unknown. Results of this work were compared with other work on similar sRF resin characterizations in this report. This is the first work to quantify mercury on sRF resin. Resin mercury content is important in plans for the disposition of used sRF resin. Mercury speciation in high level waste (HLW) is unknown. It may be partly organic, one example being methyl mercury cation. Further study of the resin's affinity for mercury is recommended.

  11. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-09-27

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit.

  12. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-06-11

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.0 , which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590 PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590 PTF TEF RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  13. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-07-02

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.01, which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590-PTF-TEF-RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  14. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  15. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  16. Studies of Ion Exchange Resin Integrity under Flowsheet Extremes: Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.A.

    2002-12-19

    This task addressed four items related to SuperLig(R) 644 ion exchange resin stability under nominal to extreme conditions.

  17. Denitration of Rocky Flats Ion-Exchange Resins: Recommendation of Denitration Processes, October 19, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob Espinoza; Mary Barr; Wayne Smith

    1998-12-01

    Resin denitration via anion-exchange is an implementable process that can effectively mitigate the hazards associated with stored resins in which the bulk of the nitrate consists of an "exchangeable nitrate" ionically bound to the cationic sites of the anion-exchange resins. Salicylate has been selected as the exchange anion of choice because of its superior selectivity for the Rocky Flats resins and its unique potential for comprehensive recovery and recycle. This report outlines a single recommended resin denigration procedure that is reasonably independent of the resin composition and the current stored form. This procedure is not optimized but rather seeks to `over-treat' the resins so that a single procedure works for the variety of stored resins. The recommended treatment with sodium salicylate reduces resins by 95-99+% the measured exothermic behavior of the ion-exchange.

  18. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, J.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C[sub 3] or larger.

  19. Investigating the Use of Ion Exchange Resins for Processing Biodiesel Feedstocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamal, Yousuf 1973-

    2012-11-27

    at a larger market share within the existing US economy. Alternative feedstocks must also be examined for their ability to produce biodiesel and additional recoverable organics. Use of ion exchange resins under low temperature and pressure...

  20. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN CHEMISTRY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2010-01-14

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange technology is being considered for cesium removal using a polymer resin made of resorcinol formaldehyde that has been engineered into microspheres. The waste under study is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste; therefore, the resin performance was evaluated with actual dissolved salt waste. The ion exchange performance and resin chemistry results are discussed.

  1. Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

    2012-09-19

    The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

  2. Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veazey, G.W.; Ames, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, compatibility with Rocky Flats equipment, and throughput efficiency. The work was performed with surrogate gel-type Dowex cation- and anion-exchange resins chosen to be representative of the resin inventory at RFETS. Work was initiated with nonactinide resins to establish formulation ranges that would meet performance standards. Results were then verified and refined with actinide-containing resins. The final recommended formulation that passed all performance standards was determined to be a cement/water/resin (C/W/R) wt % ratio of 63/27/10 at a pH of 9 to 12. The recommendations include the acceptable compositional ranges for each component of the C/W/R ratio. Also included in this report are a recommended procedure, an equipment list, and observations/suggestions for implementation at RFETS. In addition, information is included that explains why denitration of the resin is unnecessary for stabilizing its ignitability potential.

  3. Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better resolve differences between the adsorption abilities of the resins and to develop estimates of uranium loading on the resins. By determining the quantity of uranium that each resin can adsorb and the time required to reach various levels of loading, resin lifetime in the treatment system can be estimated.

  4. Using Process Knowledge to Manage Disposal Classification of Ion-Exchange Resin - 13566

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohnsack, Jonathan N.; James, David W.

    2013-07-01

    It has been previously shown by EPRI [1] that Class B and C resins represent a small portion by volume of the overall generation of radioactively contaminated resins. In fact, if all of the resins were taken together the overall classification would meet Class A disposal requirements. Lowering the classification of the ion exchange resins as they are presented for disposal provides a path for minimizing the amount of waste stored. Currently there are commercial options for blending wastes from various generators for Class A disposal in development. The NRC may have by this time introduced changes and clarifications to the Branch Technical Position (BTP) on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation [2] that may ultimately add more flexibility to what can be done at the plant level. The BTP has always maintained that mixtures of resins that are combined for ALARA purposes or operational efficiency can be classified on the basis of the mixture. This is a point often misinterpreted and misapplied. This paper will address options that can be exercised by the generator that can limit B and C waste generation by more rigorous tracking of generation and taking advantage of the normal mix of wastes. This can be achieved through the monitoring of reactor coolant chemistry data and coupled with our knowledge of radionuclide production mechanisms. This knowledge can be used to determine the overall accumulation of activity in ion-exchange resins and provides a 'real-time' waste classification determination of the resin and thereby provide a mechanism to reduce the production of waste that exceeds class A limits. It should be noted that this alternative approach, although rarely used in a nuclear power plant setting, is acknowledged in the original BTP on classification [3] as a viable option for determining radionuclide inventories for classification of waste. Also included is a discussion of an examination performed at the Byron plant to estimate radionuclide content in the final waste stream from upstream sampling of reactor coolant and fuel pool water. (authors)

  5. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2009-10-30

    This report presents data on batch contact and column testing tasks for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin. The testing used a non-radioactive simulant of SRS Tank 2F dissolved salt, as well as an actual radioactive waste sample of similar composition, which are both notably high in sodium (6 M). The resin was Microbeads batch 5E-370/641 which had been made on the hundred gallon scale. Equilibrium batch contact work focused on cesium at a temperature of 25 C due to the lack of such data to better benchmark existing isotherm models. Two campaigns were performed with small-scale ion exchange columns, first with Tank 2F simulant, then with actual dissolved salt in the Shielded Cells. An extrapolation of the batch contact results with radioactive waste over-predicted the cesium loaded onto the IX sRF resin bed by approximately 11%. This difference is not unexpected considering uncertainties from measurement and extrapolation and because the ion exchange that occurs when waste flows through a resin bed probably cannot reach the same level of equilibrium as when waste and resin are joined in a long term batch contact. Resin was also characterized to better understand basic chemistry issues such as holdup of trace transition metals present in the waste feed streams. The column tests involved using two beds of sRF resin in series, with the first bed referred to as the Lead column and the second bed as the Lag column. The test matrix included two complete IX cycles for both the simulant and actual waste phases. A cycle involves cesium adsorption, until the resin in the Lead column reaches saturation, and then regenerating the sRF resin, which includes eluting the cesium. Both the simulated and the actual wastes were treated with two cycles of operation, and the resin beds that were used in the Lead and Lag columns of simulant test phase were regenerated and reused in the actual waste test phase. This task is the first to demonstrate the treatment of SRS waste with sRF resin and the tests clearly demonstrated cesium decontamination for actual waste. The results of the column tests were similar for both the simulated and the actual waste and demonstrated Cs removal with sRF from both wastes. For a flowrate of 1.4 bed volumes (BV)/hour at 25 C those results with sRF resin were: (1) Simulant and actual waste results are equivalent; (2) Cs breakthrough began between 200 and 250 BV; (3) Cs breakthrough reached 100% at around 400 BV; (4) Cs breakthrough curve from 5% to 100% is approximately linear; (5) Cs elution with 0.5 M HNO3 starts at 2 BV and ends at 6BV; (6) Most, if not all, of Cs adsorbed during treatment is released during elution; (7) At 100% breakthrough of Cs the resin bed adsorbs approximately 85% of full capacity before detection in the effluent; the remaining 15% is adsorbed at saturation; (8) Approximately 90% of resin bed changes (color and volume) are complete by 6 BV; and (9) During elution the resin shrinks to about 80% of its fully working (sodium form) BV.

  6. REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE WITH SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN EXPERIMENTAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

    2010-03-31

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal. The spherical form of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) is being evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake waste at SRS, which is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. The sRF performance with SRS waste was evaluated in two phases: resin batch contacts and IX column testing with both simulated and actual dissolved salt waste. The tests, equipment, and results are discussed.

  7. Method for digesting spent ion exchange resins and recovering actinides therefrom using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, III, Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC); Nichols, Sheldon T. (Augusta, GA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for digesting diphosphonic acid substituted cation exchange resins that have become loaded with actinides, rare earth metals, or heavy metals, in a way that allows for downstream chromatographic analysis of the adsorbed species without damage to or inadequate elution from the downstream chromatographic resins. The methods of the present invention involve contacting the loaded diphosphonic acid resin with concentrated oxidizing acid in a closed vessel, and irradiating this mixture with microwave radiation. This efficiently increases the temperature of the mixture to a level suitable for digestion of the resin without the use of dehydrating acids that can damage downstream analytical resins. In order to ensure more complete digestion, the irradiated mixture can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide or other oxidant, and reirradiated with microwave radiation.

  8. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange for separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penwell, D.L.

    1994-12-28

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. The flowsheet also discusses process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs associated with the ion exchange process. It is expected that this flowsheet will evolve as open issues are resolved and progress is made on development needs. This is part of the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. 26 refs, 6 figs, 25 tabs.

  9. Immobilization of the Radionuclides from Spent Ion-Exchange Resins Using Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutson, N. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Russo, D. O.; Sterba, M. E.

    2002-02-25

    Approximately 60 g of an iron-enriched borosilicate glass was made in the radiochemical labs of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The glass was made to demonstrate the immobilization of the radioisotopes contained on representative Argentine ion exchange resins (similar to those used at the Embalse plant). The product was approximately 90% amorphous and was quite durable as measured by the release rates from the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The release rates were considerably better than those of the U. S. High Level Waste (HLW) benchmark DWPF EA glass. The release rate of the Cs-137 was predictably similar to that of Na and Li. No Co-60 or Sr-90 was measured in the PCT leachate. The mass balances for the inactive additives were quite good. Of the radioisotopes, approximately 71% of Cs-137 was accounted for in the glass product. This was similar to the Na mass balance. Approximately 89% of the Co-60 was accounted for in the glass product.

  10. Radiation Studies with Argentine Ion Exchange Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L.

    2002-06-28

    A recent technology exchange between Argentina Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEA) and the US Department of Energy involved vitrification studies of ion exchange resins. Details of the spent ion exchange resins currently stored at two Argentine nuclear power plants, Atucha I and Embalse, have been presented in earlier reports. The present study examines irradiation of simulant samples of ion exchange resins.

  11. Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, L.L.

    2000-08-23

    A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste.

  12. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange process for the separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eager, K.M.; Penwell, D.L.; Knutson, B.J.

    1994-12-01

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin to remove cesium from Hanford Tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. Process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs are discussed which relate to the process.

  13. Iodine Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins and Activated Carbons– Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows: • The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. • The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. • The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. • In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine sorption.

  14. Method of uranium reclamation from aqueous systems by reactive ion exchange. [US DOE patent application; anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, L.

    1981-11-05

    A reactive ion exchange method for separation and recovery of values of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, or americium from substantially neutral aqueous systems of said metals comprises contacting said system with an effective amount of a basic anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands to achieve nearly 100% sorption of said actinyl ion onto said resin and an aqueous system practically free of said actinyl ions. The method is operational over an extensive range of concentrations from about 10/sup -6/ M to 1.0 M actinyl ion and a pH range of about 4 to 7. The method has particulr application to treatment of waste streams from Purex-type nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and hydrometallurgical processes involving U, Np, P, or Am.

  15. Structure/function studies of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) copolymer ion-exchange resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Hogan, M.O.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.

    1996-09-01

    he U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site was established to produce plutonium for the U.S. defense mission. Over the course of decades, hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemical wastes were generated and disposed of in a variety of ways including storage in underground tanks. An estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes are stored in 177 underground storage tanks. During production of fissile plutonium, large quantities of 90Sr and 137CS were produced. The high abundance and intermediate length half- lives of these fission products are the reason that effort is directed toward selective removal of these radionuclides from the bulk waste stream before final tank waste disposal is effected. Economically, it is desirable to remove the highly radioactive fraction of the tank waste for vitrification. Ion-exchange technology is being evaluated for removing cesium from Hanford Site waste tanks. This report summarizes data and analysis performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for both resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resins and relates their observed differences in performance and chemical stability to their structure. The experimental approach used to characterize the resins was conducted using primarily two types of data: batch distribution coefficients (Kds) and solid-state 13C NMR. Comparison of these data for a particular resin allowed correlation of resin performance to resin structure. Additional characterization techniques included solid-state 19F NMR, and elemental analyses.

  16. Separation Report No. 100 Ion Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    ). Historically, the challenge for chromatographic resin manufactures has been to introduce a relatively thick ion-exchangeSeparation Report No. 100 TSK-GEL BioAssist® Series Ion Exchange Columns Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2 2. Basic Properties 2 2-1 Ion-Exchange Capacity and Pore Characteristics 2 2-2 Separation

  17. Magnetic ion exchange: Is there potential for international development? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neale, Peta A.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic ion exchange (MIEX®) is an ion exchange resin developed as an additive to existing water treatment plants where additional organic matter is to be removed. The smaller size, magnetic properties and simple ...

  18. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

    2010-12-28

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  19. Upgrade to Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Technetium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig® 639 Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, L.; Smith, F.; Aleman, S.; McCabe, D.

    2013-05-16

    This report documents the development and application of computer models to describe the sorption of pertechnetate [TcO??], and its surrogate perrhenate [ReO??], on SuperLig® 639 resin. Two models have been developed: 1) A thermodynamic isotherm model, based on experimental data, that predicts [TcO??] and [ReO??] sorption as a function of solution composition and temperature and 2) A column model that uses the isotherm calculated by the first model to simulate the performance of a full-scale sorption process. The isotherm model provides a synthesis of experimental data collected from many different sources to give a best estimate prediction of the behavior of the pertechnetate-SuperLig® 639 system and an estimate of the uncertainty in this prediction. The column model provides a prediction of the expected performance of the plant process by determining the volume of waste solution that can be processed based on process design parameters such as column size, flow rate and resin physical properties.

  20. Bifunctional anion-exchange resins with improved selectivity and exchange kinetics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a class of anion exchange resins containing two different exchange sites with improved selectivity and sorptive capability for chemical species in solution, such as heptavalent technetium (as pertechnetate anion, TcO.sub.4.sup.-). The resins are prepared by first reacting haloalkylated crosslinked copolymer beads with a large tertiary amine in a solvent in which the resin beads can swell, followed by reaction with a second, smaller, tertiary amine to more fully complete the functionalization of the resin. The resins have enhanced selectivity, capacity, and exchange kinetics.

  1. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  2. Separation of niobium and tantalum using a chelating ion exchange resin with N-benzoyl phenyl hydroxyl amine as functional group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pobi, M.; Das, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Niobium is separated from Ta and V by elution with 0.5 M HF in a column of chelating resin containing N-benzoyl-N-phenyl-hydroxylamine (NBPHA) as a function group. Niobium and tantalum can also be separated using their differential distribution coefficient and elution behavior, monitored by radiometric and also be spectrophotometric methods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  4. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-12-31

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  5. Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gu, Baohua (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

  6. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1997-09-23

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a well-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  7. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Marsh, S. Fredric (Los Alamos, NM); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX)

    1997-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a ell-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  8. Regeneration of strong-base anion-exchange resins by sequential chemical displacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Gu, Baohua; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    A method for regenerating strong-base anion exchange resins utilizing a sequential chemical displacement technique with new regenerant formulation. The new first regenerant solution is composed of a mixture of ferric chloride, a water-miscible organic solvent, hydrochloric acid, and water in which tetrachloroferrate anion is formed and used to displace the target anions on the resin. The second regenerant is composed of a dilute hydrochloric acid and is used to decompose tetrachloroferrate and elute ferric ions, thereby regenerating the resin. Alternative chemical displacement methods include: (1) displacement of target anions with fluoroborate followed by nitrate or salicylate and (2) displacement of target anions with salicylate followed by dilute hydrochloric acid. The methodology offers an improved regeneration efficiency, recovery, and waste minimization over the conventional displacement technique using sodium chloride (or a brine) or alkali metal hydroxide.

  9. Approach to the surface characteristics of the H and H -LaT forms of cation-exchange resins by measurement of the heat of immersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, T.; Uematsu, T.

    1985-11-07

    Surface characteristics of H and its multivalent cation-exchanged resins, which have been used as catalysts, were probed by measurement of the heats of immersion in 1-nitropropane, n-hexane, and water. It was found that the electrostatic field strengths (F) calculated from the heats of immersion in 1-nitropropane and n-hexane increased with increasing ratios of the exchanged multivalent cation (LaT ) in the univalent form (H ) cation-exchange resin. This tendency was also observed in the differences in F between the LaT exchanged resins and H form of the resin by using the calorimetric data obtained from the heats of immersion in water. These results suggest that the exchanged LaT ion does not homogeneously interact with three univalent anionic sites (SO3 ) of the cation-exchange resin, but interacts with only two SO3 ions, that is, the LaT ion is localized on the surface of the resin. The difference in F obtained from the heats of immersion into water was found to be useful as a simple and rapid criterion of the surface characteristics of the cation-exchange resins. 18 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  10. Continuous Bed Ion Exchange Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    UNOTM Q&S Continuous Bed Ion Exchange Column Instruction Manual Catalog Numbers 720-0001, 720 with 5 column volumes of water. Elevated backpressures may occur when wash- ing with deionized water. Do

  11. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  12. Ion Exchange Kinetics Testing with SRF Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site contains more than 53 million gallons of legacy waste generated as a byproduct of plutonium production and reprocessing operations. The wastes are a complex mixture composed mostly of NaNO3, NaNO2, NaOH, NaAlO2, Na3PO4, and Na2SO4, with a number of minor and trace metals, organics, and radionuclides stored in underground waste tanks. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has contracted Bechtel National Incorporated (BNI) to build a pretreatment facility, the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP), that will separate long-lived transuranics (TRU) and highly radioactive components (specifically 137Cs and, in selected cases, 90Sr) from the bulk (non-radioactive) constituents and immobilize the wastes by vitrification. The plant is designed to produce two waste streams: a high-volume low-activity waste (LAW) and a low-volume high-activity waste (HLW).

  13. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A. (Noblesville, IN); Burkholder, Harvey R. (Ames, IA)

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  14. New selective anion-exchange resins for nitrate removal from contaminated drinking water and studies on analytical anion-exchange chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockridge, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Phosphonium resins and ammonium resins of composition resin-R{sub 3}P{sup +}A{sup {minus}} where R is varied from methyl to pentyl were evaluated for nitrate/sulfate selectivity, capacity and nitrate decontamination of drinking water. Phosphonium resins were found to be more nitrate selective and have higher capacities than ammonium resins. A mixed bed process, where nitrate removal and water softening is accomplished in a single column, was also evaluated. A small piece of silver wire, coated with an insoluble silver salt, works well as a selective potentiometric detector for halide ions in ion chromatography. A silver-silver chloride electrode was found to be a selective and reproducible detector for chloride, bromide, iodide, thiocyanate and thiosulfate anions separated by ion chromatography. Calibration curves were non-linear and had slopes ranging from 40 to 60 mV/log concentrations. A working range of 0.05 to 2 mM was used. Two methods for the determination of aluminum by anion chromatography are presented. In the first method, a standard excess of fluoride ion is added to the sample. Evidence is given for the formation of a strong complex of neutral aluminum trifluoride which elutes very quickly from an anion exchange column. The excess fluoride is retained and can be determined. The aluminum concentration can then be related to the difference in fluoride peak height between the sample and standard. In a second method, Al(III) is determined directly by anion chromatography when sodium phthalate is used as an eluent. It was found that Al(III)-phthalate complexes thus formed would show some retention on an anion exchange column. The method is uniquely insensitive to the presence of many foreign cations. Al(III) was successfully determined, by this method, in a 40-fold molar excess of iron(III).

  15. Summary of Testing of SuperLig 639 at the TFL Ion Exchange Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2000-12-19

    A pilot scale facility was designed and built in the Thermal Fluids Laboratory at the Savannah River Technology Center to test ion exchange resins for removing technetium and cesium from simulated Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW). The facility supports the design of the Hanford River Protection Project for BNFL, Inc. The pilot scale system mimics the full-length of the columns and the operational scenario of the planned ion exchange system. Purposes of the testing include confirmation of the design, evaluation of methods for process optimization and developing methods for waste volume minimization. This report documents the performance of the technetium removal resin.

  16. Experimental Ion Exchange Column With SuperLig 639 And Simulant Formulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Megan; Nash, C.

    2013-08-26

    SuperLig®639 ion exchange resin was tested as a retrieval mechanism for pertechnetate, through decontamination of a perrhenate spiked 5M Simple Average Na{sup +} Mass Based Simulant. Testing included batch contacts and a three-column ion exchange campaign. A decontamination of perrhenate exceeding 99% from the liquid feed was demonstrated. Analysis of the first formulation of a SBS/WESP simulant found unexpectedly low concentrations of soluble aluminum. Follow-on work will complete the formulation.

  17. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  18. The effects of ionizing radiation on Reillex trademark HPQ, a new macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin, and on four conventional polystyrene anion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1990-11-01

    This study compares the effects of ionizing radiation on Reillex{trademark} HPQ, a recently available macroporous copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene, and on four conventional strong-base polystyrene anion exchange resins. The polystyrene resins investigated included one gel type, Dowex{trademark} 1 {times} 4, and three macroporous resins: Dow{trademark} MSA-1, Amberlite{trademark} IRA-900, and Lewatit{trademark} MP-500-FK. Each resin, in 7 M nitric acid, was subjected to seven different levels of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation ranging from 100 to 1000 megarads. Irradiated resins were measured for changes in dry weight, wet volume, chloride and Pu(IV) exchange capacities, and thermal stability. In separate experiments, each resin was subjected to approximately 340 megarads of in situ alpha particles from sorbed plutonium. Resin damage from alpha particles was less than half that caused by gamma rays, which may be a consequence of different production rates of radiolytic nitrite and nitro radicals in the two systems. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin provided the greatest radiation stability, whereas Lewatit{trademark} MP-500-FK was the least stable of the resins tested. Thermogravimetric analyses of dry, nitrate-form resin revealed that dry Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin offered the best thermal stability for absorbed gamma doses to 370 megarads, but the worst thermal stability after exposures of 550 megarads or more. 25 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  20. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebra, Martha A. (Aiken, SC); Wallace, Richard M. (Aiken, SC)

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  1. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  2. Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-03-09

    Non-elutable ion exchange is being considered as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removing cesium from Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) particles are the reference ion exchange medium for the process. A major factor in the construction cost of this process is the size of the ion exchange column required to meet product specifications for decontaminated waste. To validate SRS column sizing calculations, SRS subcontracted two reknowned experts in this field to perform similar calculations: Professor R. G. Anthony, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&038;M University, and Professor S. W. Wang, Department of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University. The appendices of this document contain reports from the two subcontractors. Definition of the design problem came through several meetings and conference calls between the participants and SRS personnel over the past few months. This document summarizes the problem definition and results from the two reports.

  3. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA. Application of RF for cesium removal in the Hanford WTP does not involve in-riser columns but does utilize the resin in large scale column configurations in a waste treatment facility. The basic conceptual design for SCIX involves the dissolution of saltcake in SRS Tanks 1-3 to give approximately 6 M sodium solutions and the treatment of these solutions for cesium removal using one or two columns supported within a high level waste tank. Prior to ion exchange treatment, the solutions will be filtered for removal of entrained solids. In addition to Tanks 1-3, solutions in two other tanks (37 and 41) will require treatment for cesium removal in the SCIX unit. The previous SCIX design (McCabe, 2005) utilized CST for cesium removal with downflow supernate processing and included a CST grinder following cesium loading. Grinding of CST was necessary to make the cesium-loaded material suitable for vitrification in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Because RF resin is elutable (and reusable) and processing requires conversion between sodium and hydrogen forms using caustic and acidic solutions more liquid processing steps are involved. The WTP baseline process involves a series of caustic and acidic solutions (downflow processing) with water washes between pH transitions across neutral. In addition, due to resin swelling during conversion from hydrogen to sodium form an upflow caustic regeneration step is required. Presumably, one of these basic processes (or some variation) will be utilized for MSP for the appropriate ion exchange technology selected. CST processing involves two primary waste products: loaded CST and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). RF processing involves three primary waste products: spent RF resin, DSS, and acidic cesium eluate, although the resin is reusable and typically does not require replacement until completion of multiple treatment cycles. CST processing requires grinding of the ion exchange media, handling of solids with high cesium loading, and handling of liquid wash and conditioning solutions. RF processing requires h

  4. IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

    2011-11-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

  5. Literature Review of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde for Cesium Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Garrett N.

    2014-09-30

    The current report summarizes work performed throughout the scientific community and DOE complex as reported in the open literature and DOE-sponsored reports to evaluate the Cs+ ion exchange (CIX) characteristics of SRF resin. King (2007) completed a similar literature review in support of material selection for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project. Josephson et al. (2010) and Sams et al. (2009) provided a similar brief review of SRF CIX for the near-tank Cs+ removal (NTCR) project. Thorson (2008a) documented the basis for recommending SRF over SuperLigTM 644 as the primary CIX resin in the WTP. The current review expands on previous work, summarizes additional work completed to date, and provides a broad view of the literature without focusing on a specific column system. Although the focus of the current review is the SRF resin, many cited references include multiple materials such as the non-spherical GGRF and SuperLigTM 644 organic resins and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IONSIVTM IE-911, a non-elutable inorganic material. This report summarizes relevant information provided in the literature.

  6. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination.

  7. Preliminary study of iron removal from hydrochloric pickling liquor by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranon, E.; Suarez, F.; Alonso, F.; Fernandez, Y.; Sastre, H. [Univ. of Oviedo, Asturias (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of Oviedo, Asturias (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Hydrochloric acid from exhausted pickling baths is a residue that has to be managed adequately because of its high pollutant potential. In this work, an ion exchange treatment for removing iron from the spent acid was studied in an attempt to make the re-utilization of said acid viable for industry while reducing the amount of waste generated. Several cationic, anionic, and chelating resins were tested. Cationic and chelating resins are able to remove Fe(II) that is present as a cation in the acid, whereas anionic resins are able to remove Fe(III) that forms anionic complexes with the chloride anion. The capacity of the cationic and chelating resins, although not high, does improve as the iron concentration in the hydrochloric acid increases and when the acid concentration decreases, because there is less competition between the ferrous cation and the protons. The anionic resins showed higher capacity for removing iron, especially the Lewatit MP-500, and this capacity also increased with iron concentration.

  8. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  9. Ion-Exchangeable, Electronically Conducting Layered Perovskite Oxyfluorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ion-Exchangeable, Electronically Conducting Layered Perovskite Oxyfluorides Yoji Kobayashi@chem.psu.edu Abstract: Cation-exchangeable d0 layered perovskites are amenable to intercalation, exfoliation of mixed-valent perovskites. Conversely, electronically and magnetically interesting layered perovskites

  10. Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-10-21

    This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

  11. Standard practice for the ion exchange separation of uranium and plutonium prior to isotopic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    Standard practice for the ion exchange separation of uranium and plutonium prior to isotopic analysis

  12. ION EXCHANGE PERFORMANCE OF TITANOSILICATES, GERMANATES AND CARBON NANOTUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsobrook, A.; Hobbs, D.

    2013-04-24

    This report presents a summary of testing the affinity of titanosilicates (TSP), germanium-substituted titanosilicates (Ge-TSP) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for lanthanide ions in dilute nitric acid solution. The K-TSP ion exchanger exhibited the highest affinity for lanthanides in dilute nitric acid solutions. The Ge-TSP ion exchanger shows promise as a material with high affinity, but additional tests are needed to confirm the preliminary results. The MWCNT exhibited much lower affinities than the K-TSP in dilute nitric acid solutions. However, the MWCNT are much more chemically stable to concentrated nitric acid solutions and, therefore, may candidates for ion exchange in more concentrated nitric acid solutions. This technical report serves as the deliverable documenting completion of the FY13 research milestone, M4FT-13SR0303061 – measure actinide and lanthanide distribution values in nitric acid solutions with sodium and potassium titanosilicate materials.

  13. Perchlorate Degradation Using Partially Oxidized Titanium Ions and Ion Exchange Membrane Hybrid System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sung Hyuk

    2011-08-08

    + and Ti3+) in solutions and as part of an ion exchange membrane reactor system. Aqueous titanium ions (Ti2+ and Ti3+) were applied to remove perchlorate ions and its destructive mechanism, reaction kinetics, and the effect of environmental factors were...

  14. Ion extraction and charge exchange in laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostein, D.; Doneddu, F.

    1996-02-01

    In the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process, a vapor is ionized by pulsed laser beams, and the ions are extracted by negatively biased collectors. The authors compute the unsteady dynamics of the photoplasma using a two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. Collisions between ions and neutral species are simulated by a Monte Carlo technique. The plasma dynamics is visualized by snapshots of particle positions showing the directions of their velocities. The three kinds of particles (electrons, photo-ions, and ions created by charge exchange) are marked by different colors. The graphic outputs illustrate the motion of the electrons toward the anodes, the vertical drift of the plasma, its erosion by the transient ion sheath, and nonselective ionization by charge exchange.

  15. Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes 2012 DOE...

  16. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

    1983-07-21

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  17. Modeling Uranium-Proton Ion Exchange in Biosorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Modeling Uranium-Proton Ion Exchange in Biosorption J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V O L E, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2 Biosorption of uranium metal ions by a nonliving protonated Sargassum fluitans seaweed biomass was used to remove the heavy metal uranium from the aqueous solution. Uranium biosorption

  18. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  19. 1.17972 Fractoprep Ion Exchange chromatography (IEX)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    1.17972 Fractoprep® SO3 - Ion Exchange chromatography (IEX) Fractoprep® is a hydrophilic synthetic Sulfogroup (SO3)- Protein binding capacity ~ 100 mg lysozyme/ml of gel pH stability range pH 2 up to pH 14

  20. Negative Joule Heating in Ion-Exchange Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Biesheuvel; D. Brogioli; H. V. M. Hamelers

    2014-02-06

    In ion-exchange membrane processes, ions and water flow under the influence of gradients in hydrostatic pressure, ion chemical potential, and electrical potential (voltage), leading to solvent flow, ionic fluxes and ionic current. At the outer surfaces of the membranes, electrical double layers (EDLs) are formed (Donnan layers). When a current flows through the membrane, we argue that besides the positive Joule heating in the bulk of the membrane and in the electrolyte outside the membrane, there is also negative Joule heating in one of the EDLs. We define Joule heating as the inner product of the two vectors current and field strength. Also when fluid flows through a charged membrane, at one side of the membrane there is pressure-related cooling, due to the osmotic and hydrostatic pressure differences across the EDLs.

  1. Negative Joule Heating in Ion-Exchange Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P M; Hamelers, H V M

    2014-01-01

    In ion-exchange membrane processes, ions and water flow under the influence of gradients in hydrostatic pressure, ion chemical potential, and electrical potential (voltage), leading to solvent flow, ionic fluxes and ionic current. At the outer surfaces of the membranes, electrical double layers (EDLs) are formed (Donnan layers). When a current flows through the membrane, we argue that besides the positive Joule heating in the bulk of the membrane and in the electrolyte outside the membrane, there is also negative Joule heating in one of the EDLs. We define Joule heating as the inner product of the two vectors current and field strength. Also when fluid flows through a charged membrane, at one side of the membrane there is pressure-related cooling, due to the osmotic and hydrostatic pressure differences across the EDLs.

  2. An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Lee, Denise L; Taylor, Paul Allen; Collins, Robert T; Hunt, Rodney Dale

    2010-09-01

    A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of spherical RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance, quantification of cesium adsorption performance as a function of operating temperature and pH, and evaluation of sodium uptake (titration) as function of pH and counteranion concentration. The results of these efforts are presented in this report. Hydraulic performance of the resin and the use of eluant alternatives to nitric acid have also been evaluated and have been reported elsewhere (Taylor 2009, Taylor and Johnson 2009).

  3. Nonlinear inverse problem for a model of ion-exchange filter: numerical recovery of parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methods of ion exchange is based on passing of source water or partially treated water through a filter-exchange filters results in highly mineralized, acidic and alkaline waste water [9]. With the continuous1 Nonlinear inverse problem for a model of ion-exchange filter: numerical recovery of parameters

  4. Water softening by single-bowl ion exchange filter efficiency estimate and improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostygin, V A; Kochetov, G M; Tugay, A M; Vashchenko, V N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of experimental investigations of the water softener in a laboratory installation of uninterruptible countercurrent ion exchange filter, which has a movable layer of ion exchange material. The installation provides for two simultaneous processes: counter ion sorption and regeneration of the sorbent with the processing capability of the sorbent in the regeneration zone by ultrasonic radiation.

  5. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

  6. NITRATE CONVERSION OF HB-LINE REILLEXTM HPQ RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Williams, M.; Steeper, T.; Leishear, R.

    2012-05-29

    Reillex{trademark} HPQ ion exchange resin is used by HB Line to remove plutonium from aqueous streams. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin currently available from Vertellus Specialties LLC is a chloride ionic form, which can cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. Therefore, HB Line Engineering requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) convert resin from chloride form to nitrate form in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL). To perform this task, SRNL treated two batches of resin in 2012. The first batch of resin from Reilly Industries Batch 80302MA was initially treated at SRNL in 2001 to remove chloride. This batch of resin, nominally 30 liters, has been stored wet in carboys since that time until being retreated in 2012. The second batch of resin from Batch 23408 consisted of 50 kg of new resin purchased from Vertellus Specialties in 2012. Both batches were treated in a column designed to convert resin using downflow of 1.0 M sodium nitrate solution through the resin bed followed by rinsing with deionized water. Both batches were analyzed for chloride concentration, before and after treatment, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The resin specification [Werling, 2003] states the total chlorine and chloride concentration shall be less than 250 ppm. The resin condition for measuring this concentration is not specified; however, in service the resin would always be fully wet. Measurements in SRNL showed that changing from oven dry resin to fully wet resin, with liquid in the particle interstices but no supernatant, increases the total weight by a factor of at least three. Therefore, concentration of chlorine or chloride expressed as parts per million (ppm) decreases by a factor of three. Therefore, SRNL recommends measuring chlorine concentration on an oven dry basis, then dividing by three to estimate chloride concentration in the fully wet condition. Chloride concentration in the first batch (No.80302MA) was nearly the same before the current treatment (759 ppm dry) and after treatment (745 ppm dry or {approx}248 ppm wet). Treatment of the second batch of resin (No.23408) was very successful. Chloride concentration decreased from 120,000 ppm dry to an average of 44 ppm dry or {approx}15ppm wet, which easily passes the 250 ppm wet criterion. Per guidance from HB Line Engineering, SRNL blended Batch 80302 resin with Batch P9059 resin which had been treated previously by ResinTech to remove chloride. The chloride concentrations for the two drums of Batch P9059 were 248 ppm dry ({approx}83 ppm wet) {+-}22.8% and 583 ppm dry ({approx}194 ppm wet) {+-} 11.8%. The blended resin was packaged in five gallon buckets.

  7. Data quality objectives for Ion Exchange Module (IXM) disposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, I.

    1995-01-31

    This Data Quality Objective (DQO) document presents the data needs and accuracy requirements for sampling ion exchange modules at the K Basins, 100 K Area, to determine if there is a hydrogen gas buildup within the modules. This document was produced by PNL, with the assistance of Neptune and Associates, and was partly funded (for facilitator) by DOE-HQ as a demonstration DQO for EM activities. PNL involved a number of PNL, WHC and support contract staff (including external technical consultants) in meetings to define the data needed, along with the necessary accuracy, to resolve issues associated with hydrogen accumulation in Ion Exchange Modules (IXMS) that were generated prior to July 1994 and only have one nuc-fil vent. IXMs generated after July 1994 have multiple nuc-fil vents and do not require sampling. PNL transmitted this DQO to WHC on January 31, 1995. This Supporting Document is to assure that the document is captured into the document retrieval system. WHC review focused on the acceptability of the technical conclusions such that the data collected will meet minimum operational, safety and environmental needs.

  8. Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Soin, Aleksandr

    2014-04-15

    Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

  9. Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: Supramolecular Aspects of Solvent Exchange Volume 21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gloe, Karsten [Technischen Universität Dresden] [Technischen Universität Dresden; Tasker, Peter A [ORNL] [ORNL; Oshima, Tatsuya [University of Miyazaki] [University of Miyazaki; Watarai, Hitoshi [Institute for NanoScience Design at Osaka University] [Institute for NanoScience Design at Osaka University; Nilsson, Mikael [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine

    2013-01-01

    Preface The theme of supramolecular chemistry (SC), entailing the organization of multiple species through noncovalent interactions, has permeated virtually all aspects of chemical endeavor over the past several decades. Given that the observed behavior of discrete molecular species depends upon their weak interactions with one another and with matrix components, one would have to conclude that SC must indeed form part of the fabric of chemistry itself. A vast literature now serves to categorize SC phenomena within a body of consistent terminology. The word supramolecular itself appears in the titles of dozens of books, several journals, and a dedicated encyclopedia. Not surprisingly, the theme of SC also permeates the field of solvent extraction (SX), inspiring the framework for this volume of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction. It is attempted in the six chapters of this volume to identify both how supramolecular behavior occurs and is studied in the context of SX and how SC is influencing the current direction of SX. Researchers and practitioners have long dealt with supramolecular interactions in SX. Indeed, the use of polar extractant molecules in nonpolar media virtually assures that aggregative interactions will dominate the solution behavior of SX. Analytical chemists working in the 1930s to the 1950s with simple mono- and bidentate chelating ligands as extractants noted that extraction of metal ions obeyed complicated mass-action equilibria involving complex stoichiometries. As chemists and engineers developed processes for nuclear and hydrometallurgical applications in the 1950s and 1960s, the preference for aliphatic diluents only enhanced the complexity and supramolecular nature of extraction chemistry. Use of physical techniques such as light scattering and vapor-pressure measurements together with various spectroscopic methods revealed organic-phase aggregates from well-defined dimers to small aggregates containing a few extractant molecules to large inverse micelles swollen with water molecules. Extraction systems involving long-chain cations such as alkylammonium species or long-chain anions such as sulfonates or carboxylates proved especially prone to extensive aggregate formation. The related phenomenon of third-phase formation in SX systems, long misunderstood, is now yielding to spectroscopic and scattering techniques showing extensive long-range organization. Over the last 50 years, tools for studying the structure and thermodynamics of aggregation have grown increasingly sophisticated, leading to a rich and detailed understanding of what we can now recognize as SC phenomena in SX. In the 1970s and 1980s, the rapid growth of SC elicited a paradigm shift in SX. The influence of SC principles had two major effects on the course of SX research. First, it provided a framework for understanding the supramolecular behavior that was already well appreciated in the field of SX, though earlier without the SC terminology. Second, it provided the conceptual tools to control supramolecular behavior in SX, direct it for intended functionality, and to simplify it. Extraction by designed reagents has been steadily progressing ever since, with commercial applications emerging to successfully validate this approach. With the discovery of crown ethers in the late 1960s, the advancement of extractant design has fruitfully employed the concept of inclusion. While considerable initial progress occurred with such molecules, especially because of their affinity and selectivity for alkali and alkaline earth metals, other molecular platforms such as calixarenes have proven more versatile. Multidentate receptors for partial to full inclusion of cations, anions, ion pairs, as well as neutral species, have now become commonplace for selective extraction. This volume of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction examines how the principles of SC are being employed both in advancing the design of new highly selective SX systems and in understanding aggregation phenomena in SX systems. Chapter 1 discusses the nature and definition of SC

  10. Vitrification of ion exchange materials. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    Ion exchange is a process that safely and efficiently removes radionuclides from tank waste. Cesium and strontium account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams from US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is an inorganic sorbent that strongly binds cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides. Developed jointly by Sandia National Laboratory and Texas A and M University, CST was commercialized through a cooperative research and development agreement with an industrial partner. Both an engineered (mesh pellets) and powdered forms are commercially available. Cesium removal is a baseline in HLW treatment processing. CST is very effective at removing cesium from HLW streams and is being considered for adoption at several sites. However, CST is nonregenerable, and it presents a significant secondary waste problem. Treatment options include vitrification of the CST, vitrification of the CST coupled with HLW, direct disposal, and low-temperature processes such as grouting. The work presented in this report demonstrates that it is effective to immobilize CST using a baseline technology such as vitrification. Vitrification produces a durable waste form. CST vitrification was not demonstrated before 1996. In FY97, acceptable glass formulations were developed using cesium-loaded CST obtained from treating supernatants from Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) tanks, and the CST was vitrified in a research melter at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). In FY98, SRS decided to reevaluate the use of in-tank precipitation using tetraphenylborate to remove cesium from tank supernatant and to consider other options for cesium removal, including CST. Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory also require radionuclide removal in their baseline flowsheets.

  11. Applications of Highly Cross Linked Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Resins in Biodiesel Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamal, Yousuf

    2010-10-12

    is far below the petro-diesel consumption and demand. To increase the availability of biodiesel in the market, new methods of biodiesel production must be developed to take advantage of the plentiful low quality waste derived feed stocks that currently...

  12. Sorption of micropollutant estrone to a water treatment ion exchange resin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neale, Peta A.; Mastrup, Maibritt; Borgmann, Thomas; Schäfer, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Micropollutants occur in natural waters from a range of sources. Estrogenic compounds are naturally excreted by humans and hence stem predominantly from wastewater effluents. Due to the small size and concentration of ...

  13. Evaluation and comparison of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, resorcinol-formaldehyde and CS-100 ion exchange materials for the removal of cesium from simulated alkaline supernate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Eloviche, R.J.; Bruening, R.L.; Decker, R.M.; Kafka, T.M.; White, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    PNL evaluated three polymeric materials for Cs removal efficiency from a simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) supernatant liquid using 200 mL ion exchange columns. Cs loadings (mmole Cs/g resin) were 0.20, 0.18, and 0.039 for Super Lig 644, R-F, and CS-100 (0.045, 0.070, 0.011 mmole Cs/mL resin). Elution of each resin material with 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} required 3.5, 7.0, and 3.2 cv to reach 0.1 C/C{sub 0} for the respective materials, resulting in volume compressions of 27, 20, and 6.9. Peak Cs concentrations during elution was 185, 38.5, and 27.8 C/C{sub 0}. SuperLig 644 had the highest Cs loading per gram in NCAW and the greatest volume compression on aci elution. Because of high density and poor elution, R-F had the highest Cs loading per unit volume and lower volume compression. CS-100, the baseline material for Cs removal at Hanford, was inferior to both SuperLig 644 and R-F in terms of Cs loading and selectivity over sodium.

  14. Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-10-31

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  15. ROTARY FILTER FINES TESTING FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D.

    2011-08-03

    SRNL was requested to quantify the amount of 'fines passage' through the 0.5 micron membranes currently used for the rotary microfilter (RMF). Testing was also completed to determine if there is any additional benefit to utilizing a 0.1 micron filter to reduce the amount of fines that could pass through the filter. Quantifying of the amount of fines that passed through the two sets of membranes that were tested was accomplished by analyzing the filtrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for titanium. Even with preparations to isolate the titanium, all samples returned results of less than the instrument's detection limit of 0.184 mg/L. Test results show that the 0.5 micron filters produced a significantly higher flux while showing a negligible difference in filtrate clarity measured by turbidity. The first targeted deployment of the RMF is with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). SCIX uses crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to sorb cesium to decontaminate a clarified salt solution. The passage of fine particles through the filter membranes in sufficient quantities has the potential to impact the downstream facilities. To determine the amount of fines passage, a contract was established with SpinTek Filtration to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disk and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of 0.1 micron filter disks to determine the amount of fine particles that would pass the membrane and to determine the flux each set produced. The membrane on both disk sets is manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with three feed combinations: prototypically ground CST, CST plus monosodium titanate (MST), and CST, MST, plus Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) simulant. Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected, measured for turbidity, and sent back to SRNL for analysis to quantify the amount of fines that passed through the membrane. It should be noted that even though ground CST was tested, it will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank and is not expected to require filtration.

  16. Allison Lab Protocol: Resin Bags, 1/2008, Steve Allison Making, deploying, and extracting resin bags

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German, Donovan P.

    bags Anion Exchange Resin: Amberlite reg IRA 400(Cl) VWR Catalog AA17246-36 Cation Exchange Resin: Amberlite reg IR 120 Plus VWR Catalog AA42833-A1 Mixed Bed Resin: Dowex Marathon MR-3 Sigma-Aldrich Catalog minutes. Remove bags and rinse in DI water. · Prepare a large volume of 2 M NaCl and soak bags until the p

  17. The Ion-Exchange Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Street, Kenneth Jr.; Seaborg, Glenn T.

    2008-01-01

    EXCHANGE SE~ARATION OF ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM Kenneth street,containing "'0.1 percent zirconium oxide by weight. Thefective method of separating zirconium from hafnimu. In view

  18. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  19. Improved hydrous oxide ion-exchange compound catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.

    1986-04-09

    Disclosed is a catalytic material of improved activity which comprises a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal or quaternary ammonium titanate, zirconate, niobate, or tantalate, in which the metal or ammonium cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective quantity of a catalyst metal, and which has been subsequently treated with a solution of a Bronsted acid.

  20. Preparation of catalysts via ion-exchangeable coatings on supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.

    1986-04-09

    Disclosed are: new catalytic compositions which comprise an inert support coated with a hydrous alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, or quaternary ammonium titanate, niobate, zirconate, or tantalate, in which the alkali or alkaline earth metal or quaternary ammonium cations have been exchanged for a catalytically effective quantity of a catalytically effective metal.

  1. Waste treatment by ion-exchange. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment by ion-exchange techniques. Methods for removing metals, nitrates, phosphates, fluorides, and organic pollutants are described. Applications of this technology to the electroplating, metal finishing, pulp, paper, and other industries are included. The citations examine the commercial feasibility of using ion-exchange methods for pollutant reduction when the process is used alone or in combination with various pretreatment techniques. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Waste treatment by ion-exchange. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment by ion-exchange techniques. Methods for removing metals, nitrates, phosphates, fluorides, and organic pollutants are described. Applications of this technology to the electroplating, metal finishing, pulp, paper, and other industries are included. The citations examine the commercial feasibility of using ion-exchange methods for pollutant reduction when the process is used alone or in combination with various pretreatment techniques. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, David M; Dang, Liem X

    2015-01-01

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reaction...

  4. High-resolution determination of {sup 147}Pm in urine using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elchuk, S.; Lucy, C.A.; Burns, K.I. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1992-10-15

    Ion exchange preconcentration followed by HPLC purification prior to scintillation counting was used to measure the concentration of {sup 147}Pm in urine. the detection limit for this method was found to be 0.1 Bq (3 fg) of {sup 147}Pm in 500 ml of urine.

  5. Chaotic behavior of ion exchange phenomena in polymer gel electrolytes through irradiated polymeric membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sangeeta Rawat; Barnamala Saha; Awadhesh Prasad; Amita Chandra

    2012-04-18

    A desktop experiment has been done to show the nonlinearity in the I-V characteristics of an ion conducting electrochemical micro-system. Its chaotic dynamics is being reported for the first time which has been captured by an electronic circuit. Polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte comprising of a combination of plasticizers (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) and salts have been prepared to study the exchange of ions through porous poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The nonlinearity of this system is due to the ion exchange of the polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) through a porous membrane. The different regimes of spiking and non-spiking chaotic motions are being presented. The possible applications are highlighted.

  6. Hydrogen production in the K-Basin ion exchange columns, modules and cartridge filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-21

    K-Basin uses ion exchange modules and ion exchange (IX) columns for removing radionuclides from the basin water. When the columns and modules are loaded, they are removed from service, drained and stored. After a few IX columns accumulate in storage, they are moved to a burial box. One of the burial box contains 33 columns and the other, six. The radionuclides act on the liquid left within and adhering to the beads to produce hydrogen. This report describes the generation rate, accumulation rate and significance of that accumulation. This summary also highlights those major areas of concern to the external (to Westinghouse Hanford Company [WHC]) reviewers. Appendix H presents the comments made by the external reviewers and, on a separate sheet, the responses to those comments. The concerns regarding the details of the analytical approach, are addressed in Appendix H and in the appropriate section.

  7. Safety Evaluation for Packaging for onsite Transfer of plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchange columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.J.

    1995-09-11

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the use of three U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 7A, Type A metal boxes (Capital Industries Part No. S 0600-0600-1080- 0104) to package 12 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange columns as low-level waste (LLW). The packages will be transferred from the 309 Building in the 300 Area to low level waste burial in the 200 West Area. Revision 1 of WHC-SD-TP-SEP-035 (per ECN No. 621467) documents that the boxes containing ion exchange columns and grout will maintain the payload under normal conditions of transport if transferred without the box lids

  8. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies of Highly Charged Ions on Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, Ilija N [ORNL; Seely, D. G. [Albion College; McCammon, D [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Havener, Charles C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Accurate studies of low energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H like, and He like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H like ions of C, N, O and fully stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV u 20 keV u) and compared to previous H oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV u 3.3 keV u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  9. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies Of Highly Charged Ions On Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Seely, D. G. [Department of Physics, Albion College, Albion, MI 49224 (United States); McCammon, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Accurate studies of low-energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X-ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H-like, and He-like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H-like ions of C, N, O and fully-stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV/u-20 keV/u) and compared to previous H-oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged-beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV/u-3.3 keV/u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H-oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  10. Membrane permeation process for dehydration of organic liquid mixtures using sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cabasso, Israel (131 Buckingham Ave., Syracuse, NY 13210); Korngold, Emmanuel (P.O. Box 1025, Beer-Sheva 84110, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A membrane permeation process for dehydrating a mixture of organic liquids, such as alcohols or close boiling, heat sensitive mixtures. The process comprises causing a component of the mixture to selectively sorb into one side of sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene (e.g., polyethylene) membranes and selectively diffuse or flow therethrough, and then desorbing the component into a gas or liquid phase on the other side of the membranes.

  11. Fire Safety Tests for Cesium-Loaded Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-09-01

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The results of initial fire safety tests on the SRF resin were documented in a previous report (WTP-RPT-218). The present report summarizes the results of additional tests performed by SwRI on the cesium-loaded SRF resin. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. The as-received SwRI report is attached to this report in the Appendix A. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the cesium-loaded SRF resin.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Ion-Exchanged Derived Cathodes (IE-LL_NCM) for High Energy Density LIBs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ion-exchanged...

  13. A Critical Evaluation on the Use of Kinetics for DeterminingThermodynamicsof Ion Exchange in Soils1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    not assist one in understanding the mechanisms and rates of K exchange in clay min- erals and soils, norA Critical Evaluation on the Use of Kinetics for DeterminingThermodynamicsof Ion Exchange in Soils1 (£,,) in the two soils ranged from 7.42 kJ mol~' using the miscible displacement tech- nique to 32.96 kJ mol

  14. Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Niobate Nanorods via Ion-Exchange Based on Molten-Salt Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Niobate Nanorods via Ion-Exchange Based on Molten-Salt Reaction by employing hydrothermal reaction2 or templates,3 molten-salt syn- thesis,4 and composite- exchange approach for the synthesis of single-crystal sodium and calcium niobates nanorods based on molten-salt

  15. Kinetics of Ion Exchange on Clay Minerals and Soil: I. Evaluation of Methods1 R. A. OGWADA AND D. L. SPARKS2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Kinetics of Ion Exchange on Clay Minerals and Soil: I. Evaluation of Methods1 R. A. OGWADA AND D. L,vermiculite. Ogwada, R.A., and D.L. Sparks. 1986. Kinetics of ion exchangeon clay minerals and soil: I. Evaluation displacement or flow techniques to investigate kinetics of ion exchange on soils and clay minerals (Sparks

  16. Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES PursuantEnergy Small Column Ion Exchange Technology

  17. Small Column Ion Exchange at Savannah River Site Technology Readiness Assessment Report

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES PursuantEnergy Small Column Ion Exchange

  18. Exchange bias in polycrystalline magnetite films made by ion-beam assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Jiang, Weilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Burks, Edward C.; Liu, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 98163 (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Iron oxide films were produced using ion-beam-assisted deposition, and Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction indicate single-phase magnetite. However, incorporation of significant fractions of argon in the films from ion bombardment is evident from chemical analysis, and Fe/O ratios are lower than expected from pure magnetite, suggesting greater than normal disorder. Low temperature magnetometry and first-order reversal curve measurements show strong exchange bias, which likely arises from defects at grain boundaries, possibly amorphous, creating frustrated spins. Since these samples contain grains ?6?nm, a large fraction of the material consists of grain boundaries, where spins are highly disordered and reverse independently with external field.

  19. The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K; West, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps.

  20. Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

    2003-02-25

    Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids.

  1. High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-08-18

    The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were combined into three batches for a total of about 3.2 million gallons of liquid waste. The chemical and radiological composition of these batches was estimated from the SpaceMan Plus{trademark} model using the same data set and assumptions as the baseline plans.

  2. Uranium-Loaded Water Treatment Resins: 'Equivalent Feed' at NRC and Agreement State-Licensed Uranium Recovery Facilities - 12094

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camper, Larry W.; Michalak, Paul; Cohen, Stephen; Carter, Ted [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Community Water Systems (CWSs) are required to remove uranium from drinking water to meet EPA standards. Similarly, mining operations are required to remove uranium from their dewatering discharges to meet permitted surface water discharge limits. Ion exchange (IX) is the primary treatment strategy used by these operations, which loads uranium onto resin beads. Presently, uranium-loaded resin from CWSs and mining operations can be disposed as a waste product or processed by NRC- or Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery facilities if that licensed facility has applied for and received permission to process 'alternate feed'. The disposal of uranium-loaded resin is costly and the cost to amend a uranium recovery license to accept alternate feed can be a strong disincentive to commercial uranium recovery facilities. In response to this issue, the NRC issued a Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) to clarify the agency's policy that uranium-loaded resin from CWSs and mining operations can be processed by NRC- or Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery facilities without the need for an alternate feed license amendment when these resins are essentially the same, chemically and physically, to resins that licensed uranium recovery facilities currently use (i.e., equivalent feed). NRC staff is clarifying its current alternate feed policy to declare IX resins as equivalent feed. This clarification is necessary to alleviate a regulatory and financial burden on facilities that filter uranium using IX resin, such as CWSs and mine dewatering operations. Disposing of those resins in a licensed facility could be 40 to 50 percent of the total operations and maintenance (O and M) cost for a CWS. Allowing uranium recovery facilities to treat these resins without requiring a license amendment lowers O and M costs and captures a valuable natural resource. (authors)

  3. Ion exchange columns for selective removal of cesium from aqueous radioactive waste using hydrous crystalline silico-titanates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricci, David Michael

    1995-01-01

    conscious society. In Hanford, WA, hundreds of underground storage tanks hold tens of millions of gallons of aqueous radioactive waste. This liquid waste, which has a very high sodium content, contains trace amounts of radioactive cesium 137. Since.... The radioactive waste would be concentrated in the exchanger so that it can be stored in solid form, which requires less storage space. The remaining liquid would no longer be radioactive and could be disposed of at a much lower cost. Ion exchange has...

  4. THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA FOR THE SMALL ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-09-12

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project is designed to accelerate closure of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS tanks store HLW in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. An in-tank ion exchange process is being designed to treat supernate and dissolved saltcake waste. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is adsorbed into Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. The waste supernate solution within the ion exchange bed will boil around 120 C. Solution superheating above the boiling point within the column could lead to violent hazardous energy releases. System heating from loaded CST is also of concern in other process modules, such as the waste tank. Due to tank structural integrity concerns, the wall temperature limit for the SRS waste tanks is 100 C. The transfer of cesium-loaded CST to the tank could result in localized hot spots on the tank floor and walls which may exceed this limit. As a result, thermal modeling calculations have been conducted to predict the maximum temperatures achievable both in the column and in the waste tank. As specified in the associated Technical Task Plan, one objective of the present work was to compute temperature distributions within the ion exchange column module under accident scenarios including loss of salt solution flow through the bed and loss of coolant system flow. The column modeling domain and the scope of the calculations in this case were broadened relative to previous two-dimensional calculations to include vertical temperature distributions within the packed bed of ion exchange media as well as the upper column plenum region containing only fluid. The baseline design conditions and in-column modeling domain for the ion-exchange column module are shown in Figure 1. These evaluations assumed the maximum bounding cesium loading considered possible based on current knowledge regarding CST media and the anticipated feed compositions. Since this cesium loading was considerably higher than the nominal loading conditions in SRS waste, cases with lower loading were also evaluated. Modeling parameters were the same as those used previously unless otherwise indicated. The current model does not capture multi-phase cooling mechanisms operative when solution boiling occurs. This feature is conservative in the sense that it does not account for the large cooling effects associated with phase transfer. However, the potential transfer of heat to the plenum region associated with vertical bubble ascension through the column during boiling is also neglected. Thermal modeling calculations were also performed for the entire waste storage tank for the case where loaded and ground CST was transferred to the tank. The modeling domain used for the in-tank calculations is provided in Figure 2. The in-tank domain is based on SRS Tank 41, which is a Type-IIIA tank. Temperature distributions were evaluated for cylindrical, ground CST mounds located on the tank floor. Media grinding is required prior to vitrification processing of the CST in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The location of the heat source region on the tank floor due to the accumulation of CST material was assumed to be just under the grinder. The shape of the CST mound was assumed to be cylindrical. This shape is believed to be most representative of the actual mound shape formed in the tank, given that submersible mixing pumps will be available for media dispersion. Alternative configurations involving other geometrical shapes for the CST mound were evaluated in the previous work. Sensitivity analysis for the in-tank region was performed for different amounts of CST media. As was the case for the in-column model, the in-tank model does not include multi-phase cooling mechanisms operative when solution boiling occurs. The in-column and the in-tank evaluations incorporated recently updated maximum cesi

  5. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2010-11-01

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. One salt processing scenario includes the transport of the loaded (and possibly ground) CST media to the treatment tank floor. Therefore, additional thermal modeling calculations were conducted using a three-dimensional approach to evaluate temperature distributions for the entire in-tank domain including distribution of the spent CST media either as a mound or a flat layer on the tank floor. These calculations included mixtures of CST with HLW sludge or loaded Monosodium Titanate (MST) media used for strontium/actinide sorption. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed (a primary heat transfer mechanism), inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The calculation results showed that for a wet CST column with active cooling through one central and four outer tubes and 35 C ambient external air, the peak temperature for the fully-loaded column is about 63 C under the loss of fluid flow accident, which is well below the supernate boiling point. The peak temperature for the naturally-cooled (no active, engineered cooling) wet column is 156 C under fully-loaded conditions, exceeding the 130 C boiling point. Under these conditions, supernate boiling would maintain the column temperature near 130 C until all supernate was vaporized. Without active engineered cooling and assuming a dry column suspended in unventilated air at 35 C, the fully-loaded column is expected to rise to a maximum of about 258 C due to the combined loss-of coolant and column drainage accidents. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. Results for the in-tank modeling calculations clearly indicate that when realistic heat transfer boundary conditions are imposed on the bottom surface of the tank wall, as much as 450 gallons of ground CST (a volume equivalent to two ion exchange processing cycles) in an ideal hemispherical shape (the most conservative geometry) can be placed in the tank without exceeding the 100 C wall temperature limit. Furthermore, in the case of an evenly-distributed flat layer, the tank wall reaches the temperature limit after the ground CST material reaches a height of approximately 8 inches.

  6. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Effects of pyrolysis conditions and ion-exchangeable cations on the thermal decomposition of a Victorian low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathe, C.; Pang, Y.; Li, C.Z. [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    A Loy Yang brown coal sample was acid-washed and ion-exchanged with Na and Ca to prepare the H-form, Na-form and Ca-form coal samples. These coal samples were pyrolyzed in a wire-mesh reactor where the extraparticle secondary reactions of the evolved volatiles were minimized. The ion-exchanged coal samples were found to give very different tar yields from those of the raw coal samples. The tar yields from the pyrolysis of the raw and H-form coal samples were observed to be very sensitive to changes in heating rate and the tar yields at 600 C were found to increase much more than the corresponding increases in the total volatile yields as the heating rate was increased from 1 to 1,000 K/s. In contrast, the tar yields from the Ca-form and Na-form coal samples showed little heating rate sensitivity. The heating rate sensitivity of pyrolysis yields is believed to be at least partly related to the presence of carboxyl/carboxylate groups and other bulky substitution groups in the coal as well as the rapid pressure buildup within the particles. Re-exchanging Na in the Na-form coal sample and Ca in the Ca-form coal sample with H confirmed the effects of Na and Ca, but also suggested that the irreversible structural changes taking place during ion-exchange should also be considered to evaluate the effects of ion-exchangeable cations during pyrolysis. The major roles of ion-exchangeable cations during pyrolysis are thought to be associated with the transformation of the alkali and alkaline earth metallic species. Some Ca was volatilized during pyrolysis, even at temperatures as low as 600 C.

  8. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVE SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE 105 K EAST ION EXCHANGE COLUMN MONOLITH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOCHEN, R.M.

    2007-08-02

    The 105-K East (KE) Basin Ion Exchange Column (IXC) cells, lead caves, and the surrounding vault are to be removed as necessary components in implementing ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (Ecology et al. 2003) milestone M-034-32 (Complete Removal of the K East Basin Structure). The IXCs consist of six units located in the KE Basin, three in operating positions in cells and three stored in a lead cave. Methods to remove the IXCs from the KE Basin were evaluated in KBC-28343, ''Disposal of K East Basin Ion Exchange Column Evaluation''. The method selected for removal was grouting the six IXCs into a single monolith for disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Grout will be added to the IXC cells, IXC lead caves containing spent IXCs, and in the spaces between the lead cave walls and metal skin, to immobilize the contaminants, provide self-shielding, minimize void space, and provide a structurally stable waste form. The waste to be offered for disposal is the encapsulated monolith defined by the exterior surfaces of the vault and the lower surface of the underlying slab. This document presents summary of the data quality objective (DQO) process establishing the decisions and data required to support decision-making activities for the disposition of the IXC monolith. The DQO process is completed in accordance with the seven-step planning process described in EPA QA/G-4, ''Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process'', which is used to clarify and study objectives; define the appropriate type, quantity, and quality of data; and support defensible decision-making. The DQO process involves the following steps: (1) state the problem; (2) identify the decision; (3) identify the inputs to the decision; (4) define the boundaries of the study; (5) develop a decision rule (DR); (6) specify tolerable limits on decision errors; and (7) optimize the design for obtaining data.

  9. Proton and light ion induced charge exchange reactions in nuclei This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Proton and light ion induced charge exchange reactions in nuclei This article has been downloaded Scripta. Vol. 48, 101-104, 1993 Proton and Light Ion Induced Charge Exchange Reactions in Nuclei E. Oset of strength from the proton to the deu- teron targets and an even more remarkable shift of the strength

  10. Light-assisted ion-neutral reactive processes in the cold regime: radiative molecule formation vs. charge exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Felix H J; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Willitsch, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of cold reactive collisions between laser-cooled Ca+ ions and Rb atoms in an ion-atom hybrid trap. We observe rich chemical dynamics consisting of a complex interplay between non-adiabatic and radiative charge exchange as well as radiative molecule formation which are interpreted using high-level electronic structure calculations. We study the role of light-assisted processes and show that the efficiency of the dominant chemical pathways is considerably enhanced in excited reaction channels. Our results point to a general framework of radiative and non-radiative processes dominating the cold chemistry in ion-atom hybrid traps.

  11. Novel Hybrid Materials with High Stability for Electrically Switched Ion Exchange: Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline/Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli

    2005-04-21

    A novel and stable carbon nanotubes /polyaniline /nickel hexacyanoferrates composite film has been synthesized with electrodeposition method, and the possibility for removing cesium through an electrically switched ion exchange has been evaluated in a mixture containing NaNO3 and CsNO3.

  12. STUDIES OF X-RAY PRODUCTION FOLLOWING CHARGE EXCHANGE RECOMBINATION BETWEEN HIGHLY CHARGED IONS AND NEUTRAL ATOMS AND MOLECULES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Clementson, J; Frankel, M; Gu, M F; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Thorn, D B; Wargelin, B J

    2008-08-28

    We have used microcalorimeters built by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Electron Beam Ion Trap to measure X-ray emission produced by charge exchange reactions between highly charged ions colliding with neutral helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas. Our measurements show the spectral dependence on neutral species and also show the distinct differences between spectra produced by charge exchange reactions and those produced by direct impact excitation. These results are part of an ongoing experimental investigation at the LLNL EBIT facility of charge exchange spectral signatures and can be used to interpret X-ray spectra produced by a variety of laboratory and celestial sources including cometary and planetary atmospheres, the Earth's magnetosheath, the heliosphere, and tokamaks.

  13. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX)

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  14. The TFTR E Parallel B Spectrometer for Mass and Energy Resolved Multi-Ion Charge Exchange Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.L. Roquemore; S.S. Medley

    1998-01-01

    The Charge Exchange Neutral Analyzer diagnostic for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor was designed to measure the energy distributions of both the thermal ions and the supra thermal populations arising from neutral-beam injection and ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating. These measurements yield the plasma ion temperature, as well as several other plasma parameters necessary to provide an understanding of the plasma condition and the performance of the auxiliary heating methods. For this application, a novel charge-exchange spectrometer using a dee-shaped region of parallel electric and magnetic fields was developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The design and performance of this spectrometer is described in detail, including the effects of exposure of the microchannel plate detector to magnetic fields, neutrons, and tritium.

  15. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu-SAPO-34 Catalysts for Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction. 1. Aqueous Solution Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-06

    SAPO-34 molecular sieves are synthesized using various structure directing agents (SDAs). Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are prepared via aqueous solution ion exchange. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. During solution ion exchange, different SAPO-34 samples undergo different extent of structural damage via irreversible hydrolysis. Si content within the samples (i.e., Al-O-Si bond density) and framework stress are key factors that affect irreversible hydrolysis. Even using very dilute Cu acetate solutions, it is not possible to generate Cu-SAPO-34 samples with only isolated Cu2+ ions. Small amounts of CuOx species always coexist with isolated Cu2+ ions. Highly active and selective Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts for NH3-SCR are readily generated using this synthesis protocol, even for SAPO-34 samples that degrade substantially during solution ion exchange. High-temperature aging is found to improve the catalytic performance. This is likely due to reduction of intracrystalline mass-transfer limitations via formation of additional porosity in the highly defective SAPO-34 particles formed after ion exchange. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  17. Radium-thorium disequilibrium and zeolite-water ion exchange in a Yellowstone hydrothermal environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.; Bohlke, J.K. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (USA)); Binz, C.M. (Loras College, Dubuque, IA (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Whole rock samples of hydrothermally altered Biscuit Basin rhyolite from Yellowstone drill cores Y-7 and Y-8 were analyzed for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 230}Th to determine the extent of radioactive disequilibrium and its relation to the rates and mechanisms of element transport in the shallow portion of an active hydrothermal system. The ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) activity ratios range from 0.73 to 1.46 and are generally correlated with Th-normalized Ba concentrations (Ba{sub N}). Compositions of clinoptilolite and mordenite in these samples are consistent with ion exchange equilibrium between zeolites and coexisting thermal waters. Average K{sup Ba}{sub d mineral-water} values are 1.0 {center dot} 10{sup 5} mL/g for clinoptilolite and 1.4 {center dot} 10{sup 4} mL/g for mordenite. Apparent diffusivities through matrix porosity estimated for R and Ba range from {approximately}10{sup {minus}12} to {approximately}10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} in thoroughly zeolitic rhyolite; these rates of diffusion are too low to account for the observed distance scale of ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) disequilibrium. The correlated values of ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) disequilibrium and Ba{sub N} represent zeolite-water ion exchange equilibrium that is caused by porous flow of water through the rock matrix and by the relatively rapid diffusion of cations within the zeolite lattices. A water flux of at least {approximately}2.5 (cm{sup 3}{sub water}/cm{sup 3}{sub rock}) yr{sup {minus}1} is required to produce measurable ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) disequilibrium, whereas at least {approximately}23 (cm{sup 3}{sub water}/cm{sup 3}{sub rock}) yr{sup {minus}1} is required for the sample exhibiting the most extreme ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) disequilibrium; these fluxes are much higher than those that can be inferred from net mass transfers of stable species.

  18. Fifteen years of operation with inorganic highly selective ion exchange materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tusa, E. [Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd (Finland); Harjula, R. [Helsinki Univ., Radiochemical laboratory (Finland); Yarnell, P. [Graver Technologies, LLC, Glasgow, DE (United States)

    2007-07-01

    During latest fifteen years three highly selective inorganic ion exchange materials, CsTreat{sup R}, SrTreat{sup R}, and CoTreat, have been in full scale commercial use. All these materials have high capacity, and they give high decontamination factor (DF) and remarkably good volume reduction factor for storage and final disposal. A new material for antimony removal is currently coming for demonstration phase. Since 1991 only 160 liters (5.7 cu.ft) of cesium specific material, CsTreat{sup R}, has been used to purify over 1,100 m{sup 3} (over 290,000 gal) of high salt evaporator concentrates in Fortum's Loviisa NPP in Finland (1-3). In Olkiluoto NPP about 240 m{sup 3} (63,400 gal) of pool water was purified by a single 12 liter (0.4 cu.ft) column. First US application at Callaway NPP purified cesium from about 3,000 m{sup 3} (800,000 gallons) with about 250 liters (9 cu.ft) of CsTreat in their de-min system. A demonstration project at SRS site showed possibilities to remove cesium and strontium from pool water by recirculation. In Japan, reprocessing liquid was efficiently treated at JAERI site in Tokai-mura. Original cesium and strontium concentrations of about 7,4 GBq/liter (200 mCi/liter) were reduced by factors of well over 1,000. In UK, UKAEA has used CsTreat in their effluent treatment system to remove cesium from sodium coolant of their prototype fast reactor (PFR). 950 tons of sodium resulting in the generation of approximately 9000 tons of liquid effluent was treated. Cesium levels were reduced to below detection limit for release. Because of slow kinetics of inorganic materials the use of these materials in powder form was developed. Powder form CoTreat was successfully tested for use as pre-coat to existing Funda filters in THOPR feed pond plant (Sellafield, UK). Based on the same chemistry, Graver Technologies developed CsFloc and CoFloc materials for US market. CoFloc material has also demonstrated a secondary specificity for antimony removal, but this is still under testing. Well over 200 different cases were tested by customers for these ion exchange materials. Many of those tests have led to real applications and there are still many cases to come. Best benefit for users come from high volume reduction of waste volume and from high decontamination of purified liquid. (authors)

  19. The effect of pore-regulating agents on the ion-exchange properties of ferrocyanide-aluminosilicate sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasyugin, A.S.; Trofimenko, N.E.; Komarov, V.S.; Rat`ko, A.I.; Masherova, N.P. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Minsk (Belarus)

    1994-08-01

    Among the methods of controlling the adsorptive and structural properties of porous materials is the use of pore-regulating agents, which are introduced at different synthesis stages and subsequently removed by washing or calcination to produce a porous structure characterized by either a peaked or bimodal pore-size distribution. The open porous structure thus produced is accessible to reactant molecules, improves diffusion characteristics, and contributes to an increase in both the intensity and rate of saturation of absorbents. Earlier, the authors studied the ion-exchange properties and the mechanism of formation of ferrocyanide-aluminosilicate sorbents prepared by modifying the surface of clinoptilolite with ferrocyanides of heavy metals. The application of ferrocyanides (FCs) onto the aluminosilicate surface renders diffusion much easier than in the case of pure ferrocyanides and enhances the sorbent selectivity for cesium ions. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of pore-regulation agents that are introduced during preparation of composite sorbents on the ion-exchange properties of these sorbents with respect to alkali ions (Cs{sup +}, Na{sup +}, and Li{sup +}). Analysis of the kinetic curves demonstrates that modification by ferrocyanides in the presence of boric acid causes a decrease in the internal diffusion rates during the exchange of H{sup +} for Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, and Cs{sup +} by 2.6, 2.1, and 0.2 times respectively. The introduction of pore-regulating agents was found to increase the selectivity of the modified samples for {sup 137}Cs by 1.8-6.7 and 1.5-2.2 times in comparison with the starting clinoptilolite and sorbents prepared without pore-regulating agents. This allow the use of ferrocyanide-aluminosilicate materials as selective sorbents for the {sup 137}Cs ion in the presence of considerable amounts of other ions.

  20. -Supporting Information-2 Patterned ion exchange membranes for improved power production in4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) 451-8628701723 24 25 26 *Corresponding Author27 28 29 #12;2 PTFE Plate Polymersolution PTFE Plate Membrane Smooth cation exchange membrane Smooth anion exchange membrane (A) (B) 30 31

  1. Investigation of the effect of intra-molecular interactions on the gas-phase conformation of peptides as probed by ion mobility-mass spectrometry, gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and molecular mechanics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawyer, Holly Ann

    2006-04-12

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange ion molecule reactions and molecular modeling provide complimentary information and are used here for the characterization of peptide ion structure, including fine...

  2. RHEOLOGY OF SETTLED SOLIDS IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, C.; Prior, M.; Koopman, D.; Edwards, T.

    2011-06-20

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank as process housing. This method includes the addition of monosodium titanate (MST) to a waste tank containing salt solution and entrained sludge solids, followed by tank mixing and filtration. The filtrate is then processed through in-tank ion exchange columns containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) media. While the process is operating, it is known that solid particles begin to settle in the tank and temperatures may reach beyond 45 C. Previous testing has shown that sludge-MST slurries that sit for extended periods at elevated temperatures can develop large shear strengths, making them difficult to resuspend and remove from the tank. The authors conducted rheological testing of mixtures containing various concentrations of sludge simulant, MST, and CST (three preparations) that were aged at different times (i.e., 0 to 13 weeks) and isothermally maintained to 30, 45, or 60 C. Two types of grinding methodologies were employed to prepare CST for this testing, herein called Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) ground materials. Unground CST particles were also tested. A small number of samples were irradiated prior to 4 week settling and 60 C temperature treatment, with exposures ranging from 0 to 100 MRad. Additional tests are also being conducted that will allow the solid particles to settle at 45 C for 6, 12, and 24 months. The objectives of this task are to determine the impact of feed composition, settling time, and temperature on the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency of the slurries and to determine the impact of radiation on slurry rheology. The testing will determine the relative impact of these parameters rather than predict the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency as a function of feed and operating conditions. This document describes the rheology of slurries containing MST, CST, and simulated sludge that sat at indicated temperatures for up to 13 weeks. A previous SRNL report described preliminary rheology data of slurries containing MST and sludge. Preliminary results of the irradiation tests are also presented in this report, though additional data are still being collected. Rheology of the long term settling samples (6, 12, and 24 months) and additional irradiation test results will be reported at a later date. Conclusions from this analysis are as follows: (1) Slurries containing MST and unground CST have the largest shear strength. Due to the high shear strengths measured in slurries containing unground CST, evaluations of specific tank contents and mixing capability should be performed prior to any addition of this material into a waste tank. Experimentally determined shear strengths indicate mixing could be problematic in mixtures containing unground CST. (2) Increasing the ground CST fraction in the slurry increases the slurry shear strength, yield stress, and consistency. (3) Increasing the sludge fraction in the slurry decreases the slurry shear strength, yield stress, and consistency. (4) Slurries containing VSL ground CST have larger shear strength, yield stress, and consistency than slurries containing SRNL ground CST. (5) The effects of settling time and temperature on slurry shear strength are slurry dependent. (6) No effects of settling time and temperature on slurry yield stress or consistency were observed. (7) Radiation up to 100 MRad does not appear to affect properties of shear strength, yield stress, or consistency of process feeds.

  3. The synthesis and characterization of Zirconium p-Phenylbis(phosphonate) Phosphate and other Zirconium Arylbis(phosphonates) for the application of ion exchange 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellinghausen, Paul Christian

    1995-01-01

    . These materials showed promise for many uses, of greatest interest were of catalysis and ion exchange. Zirconium p-Phenylbis(phosphonate) Phosphate was synthesized by several routes to investigate the inherent structural characteristics as they applied...

  4. SCALING SOLID RESUSPENSION AND SORPTION FOR THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.

    2010-12-14

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing 1.3 million gallon waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending Monosodium Titanate (MST), Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. In addition, SRNL will also be conducting pilot-scale tests to determine the mixing requirements for the strontium and actinide sorption. As part of this task, the results from the pilot-scale tests must be scaled up to a full-scale waste tank. This document describes the scaling approach. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scale model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX Program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). MST additions are through Riser E1, the proposed MST addition riser in Tank 41H. To determine the approach to scaling the results from the pilot-scale tank to Tank 41H, the authors took the following approach. They reviewed the technical literature for methods to scale mixing with jets and suspension of solid particles with jets, and the technical literature on mass transfer from a liquid to a solid particle to develop approaches to scaling the test data. SRNL assembled a team of internal experts to review the scaling approach and to identify alternative approaches that should be considered.

  5. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 over a Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst prepared by a solid state ion exchange method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Di; Gao, Feng; Peden, Charles HF; Li, Junhui; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Epling, William S.

    2014-06-01

    A novel solid state method was developed to synthesize Cu-SSZ-13 catalysts with excellent NH3-SCR performance and durable hydrothermal stability. After the solid state ion exchange (SSIE) process, the SSZ framework structure and surface area was maintained. In-situ DRIFTS and NH3-TPD experiments provide evidence that isolated Cu ions were successfully exchanged into the pores, which are the active centers for the NH3-SCR reaction.

  6. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these conditions.

  7. Exchange and polarization effects on elastic electron-atom/ion scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaganovich, Igor

    ~V d IonsElectrons Secondary emission electrons E 11 equation for species coupled with 1 for electric approaches Needed for modeling and simulations : · accurate atomic and molecular data (, d/d, , rates

  8. Ion exchange behavior among metal trisilicates: probing selectivity, structures, and mechanism 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fewox, Christopher Sean

    2008-10-10

    with divalent cations.18 Exhaustive exchange of K2TiSi3O9•H2O with various cations at neutral pH gave the selectivity series Mn2+, Ca2+, > Sr2+ >Cs+. The crystal structures derived from powder data showed great disorder in the cation sites of all... site was more selective than the exchange site in the larger tunnel. It was also demonstrated that changing the size of the unit cell through isomorphous substitution of the octahedral M4+ metal altered the selectivity of the material. Those...

  9. Core-ion temperature measurement of the ADITYA tokamak using passive charge exchange neutral particle energy analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandya, Santosh P.; Ajay, Kumar; Mishra, Priyanka; Dhingra, Rajani D.; Govindarajan, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

    2013-02-15

    Core-ion temperature measurements have been carried out by the energy analysis of passive charge exchange (CX) neutrals escaping out of the ADITYA tokamak plasma (minor radius, a= 25 cm and major radius, R= 75 cm) using a 45 Degree-Sign parallel plate electrostatic energy analyzer. The neutral particle analyzer (NPA) uses a gas cell configuration for re-ionizing the CX-neutrals and channel electron multipliers (CEMs) as detectors. Energy calibration of the NPA has been carried out using ion-source and {Delta}E/E of high-energy channel has been found to be {approx}10%. Low signal to noise ratio (SNR) due to VUV reflections on the CEMs was identified during the operation of the NPA with ADITYA plasma discharges. This problem was rectified by upgrading the system by incorporating the additional components and arrangements to suppress VUV radiations and improve its VUV rejection capabilities. The noise rejection capability of the NPA was experimentally confirmed using a standard UV-source and also during the plasma discharges to get an adequate SNR (>30) at the energy channels. Core-ion temperature T{sub i}(0) during flattop of the plasma current has been measured to be up to 150 eV during ohmically heated plasma discharges which is nearly 40% of the average core-electron temperature (typically T{sub e}(0) {approx} 400 eV). The present paper describes the principle of tokamak ion temperature measurement, NPA's design, development, and calibration along with the modifications carried out for minimizing the interference of plasma radiations in the CX-spectrum. Performance of the NPA during plasma discharges and experimental results on the measurement of ion-temperature have also been reported here.

  10. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, Jane P. (813 E. Rollingwood Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  11. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, J.P.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus are presented for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  12. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-08-12

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and ion exchange properties of a sodium nonatitanate, Na4Ti9O20.xH2O 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graziano, Gina Marie

    1998-01-01

    of these problems, the waste needs to be removed from these tanks and given permanent, safe storage. The purpose of this research is to produce a more efficient ion exchanger to separate the highly radioactive isotopes (9oSr, 137 Cs and transuranics) from the large...

  14. Adsorption of Hydrofluorocarbons HFC-134 and HFC-134A on X and Y Zeolites: Effect of Ion-Exchange on Selectivity and Heat of Adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siperstein, Flor R.

    Adsorption of Hydrofluorocarbons HFC-134 and HFC-134A on X and Y Zeolites: Effect of Ion-Exchange on Selectivity and Heat of Adsorption Scott Savitz, Flor R. Siperstein, Robert Huber, Stephen M. Tieri, Raymond J Adsorption isotherms and heats of adsorption were measured for HFC-134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC

  15. X-RAY SIGNATURE OF CHARGE EXCHANGE IN L-SHELL SULFUR IONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankel, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Gu, M. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA, 94550 (United States); Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States)], E-mail: frankel4@llnl.gov, E-mail: beiersdorfer1@llnl.gov

    2009-09-01

    The X-ray signature of L-shell charge exchange in sulfur was studied in the laboratory. A comparison of the charge exchange (CX) spectra with those obtained under electron-impact excitation showed marked differences. In the CX spectra, an enhancement was observed in the transitions from levels with high principal quantum numbers, n = 4, 5, 6 {yields} n = 2 in comparison with the n = 3 {yields} n = 2 transitions that dominate the direct excitation spectra. An even greater enhancement was recorded in the transitions from the levels of electron capture to the ground states: n = 7, 8, 9 {yields} n = 2. The spectra mainly consist of emission from S XIV, but lower charge states such as S XIII, S XII, and S XI also contribute. The results have been compared with observations made by the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories of Jupiter's polar regions. The enhancement we noticed in transitions from the high-n levels is not seen in the Chandra spectra.

  16. Short-time hydrothermal synthesis and delamination of ion exchangeable Mg/Ga layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unal, Ugur [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ugurunal@chem.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-09-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis of magnesium-gallium layered double hydroxides (Mg/Ga LDHs) was studied under static and agitated conditions. Not only well-crystallized and large-sized Mg/Ga LDHs having hexagonal morphology were obtained but also the reaction time was comparatively decreased from 24 to 2 h by means of agitation during hydrothermal synthesis. In static conditions, mainly GaOOH and magnesite phases were formed. The elemental analysis results show that the final Mg/Ga ratio is significantly different from the initial ratio. The reason was attributed to the difference in the hydrolytic behavior of Mg{sup 2+} and Ga{sup 3+}. Furthermore, the anion exchange studies with glycine, dodecyl sulfate, ferrocyanide and ferricyanide were performed to investigate the intercalation behavior of the anions into Mg/Ga LDHs. In addition, delamination of Mg/Ga LDHs was performed in formamide for the glycine exchanged forms. Large size of nanosheets thus obtained can be utilized in the fabrication of functional thin films. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis under agitation resulted in highly crystalline Mg/Ga LDHs slabs in a short time. The LDHs slabs were delaminated into two-dimensional nanosize sheets.

  17. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  18. Development and implementation of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer for the investigation of ion conformations of peptide sequence isomers containing basic amino acid residues by gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marini, Joseph Thomas

    2004-09-30

    The gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of protonated di- and tripeptides containing a basic amino acid residue has been studied with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Bimolecular reactions...

  19. DISSOCIATIVE CHARGE EXCHANGE AND IONIZATION OF O2 BY FAST H+ ENERGETIC ION INTERACTIONS IN EUROPA'S OXYGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    ABSTRACT Measurements of electron capture and ionization of O2 molecules in collisions with H+ and O+ ions to Oþ 2 product formation are shown to be dominant for both the H+ and the O+ projectiles in the capture, and sulfur ions (Cooper et al. 2001; Paranicas et al. 2002). Collisions with these ions can lead

  20. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  1. Devices using resin wafers and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL); St. Martin, Edward (Libertyville, IL); Arora, Michelle (Woodridge, IL); de la Garza, Linda (Woodridge, IL)

    2009-03-24

    Devices incorporating a thin wafer of electrically and ionically conductive porous material made by the method of introducing a mixture of a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material into a mold. The mixture is subjected to temperatures in the range of from about 60.degree. C. to about 170.degree. C. at pressures in the range of from about 0 to about 500 psig for a time in the range of from about 1 to about 240 minutes to form thin wafers. Devices include electrodeionization and separative bioreactors in the production of organic and amino acids, alcohols or esters for regenerating cofactors in enzymes and microbial cells.

  2. Chemical and radiation stability of SuperLig{reg_sign}644, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and CS-100 cesium ion exchange materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.N.; Adami, S.R.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    At the request of the Initial Pretreatment Module Project within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) under the task ``Develop and Test Sorbents.`` The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the chemical and radiolytic stability of several cesium-selective ion exchange materials in simulated alkaline Hanford tank waste matrices. Pretreatment of nuclear process wastes to remove of cesium and other radionuclides by ion exchange was proposed previously as one method of minimizing the amount of high-level radioactive waste at Hanford. In this study, PNL evaluated three cesium-selective materials SuperLig{reg_sign}644, resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F), and CS-100 for chemical and radiation stability in 1 M NaOH and a simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). The objective of the study is to investigate the stability of the newly produced SuperLig{reg_sign}644 under a variety of conditions in an attempt to simulate and predict the degradation process. The following specific conclusions and recommendations resulted from the study.

  3. Calcite dissolution and Ca/Na ion-exchange reactions in columns with different flow rates through high ESR soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarre, Audrey

    1999-01-01

    min?¹ under conditions of saturated flow. Column eluate was monitored for pH, carbonate alkalinity, and Na, Ca and Cl concentrations to evaluate the elution of SAR 10 solution, dissolution of CaCO? and exchange of Na by Ca on the cation...

  4. PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

    2010-06-29

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is targeted for Sludge Batches 8, 16, and 17, regardless of the addition of SCIX or SWPF streams. This indicates that the blending strategy for these sludge batches should be reevaluated by Savannah River Remediation (SRR). (2) In general, candidate frits were available to accommodate CST additions to either Tank 40 or Tank 51. A larger number of candidate frits were typically available for the sludge batches when CST is added to Tank 51 rather than Tank 40, meaning that more compositional flexibility would be available for frit selection and DWPF operation. Note however that for SB8 and SB17, no candidate frits were available to accommodate CST going to Tank 40 with and without SWPF streams. The addition of SWPF streams generally improves the number of candidate frits available for processing of a given sludge batch. (3) The change in production rate from 40 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) batches per year (i.e., the current production rate) to 75 SRAT batches per year, without SWPF streams included, had varied results in terms of the number of candidate frits available for processing of a given sludge batch. Therefore, this variable is not of much concern in terms of incorporating the SCIX streams. Note that the evaluation at 75 SRAT batches per year (approximately equivalent to 325 canisters per year) is more conservative in terms of the impact of SCIX streams as compared to a production rate of 400 canisters per year. Overall, the outcome of this paper study shows no major issues with the ability to identify an acceptable glass processing window when CST from the SCIX process is transferred to either Tank 40 or Tank 51. The assumptions used and the model limitations identified in this report must be addressed through further experimental studies, which are currently being performed. As changes occur to the planned additions of MST and CST, or to the sludge batch preparation strategy, additional evaluations will be performed to determine the potential impacts. As stated above, the issues with Sludge Batches 8, 16, and 17 should be further evaluated by SRR. A

  5. Effects of Ion Beam on Nanoindentation Characteristics of Glassy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; BRAZIL; CARBON; CARBONIZATION; CHAINS; GOLD; HARDNESS; HEAT TREATMENTS; ION BEAMS; MODIFICATIONS; OXYGEN; RECOMBINATION; RESINS; SILICON; TAIL...

  6. Heavy-ion double charge exchange reactions: a tool towards 0v\\b{eta}\\b{eta} nuclear matrix elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappuzzello, F; Agodi, C; Bond`?, M; Carbone, D; Cunsolo, A; Foti, A

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay is fundamental for neutrino physics. In this paper, an innovative technique to extract information on the nuclear matrix elements by measuring the cross section of a double charge exchange nuclear reaction is proposed. The basic point is that the initial and final state wave functions in the two processes are the same and the transition operators are similar. The double charge exchange cross sections can be factorized in a nuclear structure term containing the matrix elements and a nuclear reaction factor. First pioneering experimental results for the 40Ca(18O,18Ne)40Ar reaction at 270 MeV incident energy show that such cross section factorization reasonably holds for the crucial 0+ --> 0+ transition to 40Args, at least at very forward angles.

  7. Heavy-ion double charge exchange reactions: a tool towards 0v\\b{eta}\\b{eta} nuclear matrix elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Cappuzzello; M. Cavallaro; C. Agodi; M. Bond`?; D. Carbone; A. Cunsolo; A. Foti

    2015-11-12

    The knowledge of the nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay is fundamental for neutrino physics. In this paper, an innovative technique to extract information on the nuclear matrix elements by measuring the cross section of a double charge exchange nuclear reaction is proposed. The basic point is that the initial and final state wave functions in the two processes are the same and the transition operators are similar. The double charge exchange cross sections can be factorized in a nuclear structure term containing the matrix elements and a nuclear reaction factor. First pioneering experimental results for the 40Ca(18O,18Ne)40Ar reaction at 270 MeV incident energy show that such cross section factorization reasonably holds for the crucial 0+ --> 0+ transition to 40Args, at least at very forward angles.

  8. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.

    2011-10-23

    Ion Exchange column loading and elution of cesium from spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde resin have been conducted for two potential non-acid eluants -(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}. The results revealed encouraging cesium elution performance. 100% elution was achieved in at most 22 hours ({approx}28 bed volumes) of elution. Elution performance was fairly high at 6 hours ({approx}8 bed volumes) of elution for some of the eluants and also practically comparable to the benchmark acid eluant (HNO{sub 3}). Hence, it is quite possible 100% percent elution will be closer to the 6th hour than the 22nd hour. Elution is generally enhanced by increasing the concentration and pH of the eluants, and combining the eluants.

  9. Nonlinear ion concentration polarization : fundamentals and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwak, Rhokyun

    2013-01-01

    Ion exchange membrane (IEM) is a functional material that has a permselectivity of ions. Two types of IEMs - anion exchange membrane (AEM) and cation exchange membrane (CEM) - are used in a variety of electrochemical ...

  10. Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

    1994-12-01

    Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of {sup 137}Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve {sup 137}Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m{sup 3} and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m{sup 3} i.e., 0.1/m{sup 3}. The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified.

  11. Chromatography resin support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  12. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; Peters, Bethanne D.; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzù, Keti; Yang, Yuan; Poynton, Simon D.; Varcoe, John R.; Seifert, Soenke; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Di Noto, Vito; Herring, Andrew M.

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm-1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there is little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH- form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH- as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.

  13. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; Peters, Bethanne D.; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzù, Keti; Yang, Yuan; Poynton, Simon D.; Varcoe, John R.; Seifert, Soenke; et al

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm-1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there ismore »little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH- form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH- as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.« less

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-01-01

    Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are synthesized using two methods: solid-state ion exchange (SSIE) and one-pot synthesis. SSIE is conducted by calcining SAPO-34/CuO mixtures at elevated temperatures. For the one-pot synthesis method, Cu-containing chemicals (CuO and CuSO4) are added during gel preparation. A high-temperature calcination step is also needed for this method. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. In Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE, Cu presents both as isolated Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuO. The former is highly active and selective in NH3-SCR, while the latter catalyzes a side reaction; notably, the non-selective oxidation of NH3 above 350 ºC. Using the one-pot method followed by a high-temperature aging treatment, it is possible to form Cu SAPO-34 samples with predominately isolated Cu2+ ions at low Cu loadings. However at much higher Cu loadings, isolated Cu2+ ions that bind weakly with the CHA framework and CuO clusters also form. These Cu moieties are very active in catalyzing non-selective NH3 oxidation above 350 ºC. Low-temperature reaction kinetics indicate that Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE have core-shell structures where Cu is enriched in the shell layers; while Cu is more evenly distributed within the one-pot samples. Reaction kinetics also suggest that at low temperatures, the local environment next to Cu2+ ion centers plays little role on the overall catalytic properties. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830. The authors also thank Shari Li (PNNL) for surface area/pore volume measurements, and Bruce W. Arey (PNNL) for SEM measurements. Discussions with Drs. A. Yezerets, K. Kamasamudram, J.H. Li, N. Currier and J.Y. Luo from Cummins, Inc. and H.Y. Chen and H. Hess from Johnson-Matthey are greatly appreciated.

  15. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  16. Amino resin modified polymer gels for permeability control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.

    1989-03-07

    An aqueous cross-linked gel formed by a polysaccharide polymer, an aminoplast resin, and transitional metal ions is described, comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross-linkable polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of polysaccharide bipolymers and cellulose derivatives having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the polymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in a formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  17. Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

  18. Porous polymer monolithic columns with gold nanoparticles as an intermediate ligand for the separation of proteins in reverse phase-ion exchange mixed mode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Terborg, Lydia; Masini, Jorge C.; Lin, Michelle; Lipponen, Katriina; Riekolla, Marja -Liisa; Svec, Frantisek

    2014-11-04

    A new approach has been developed for the preparation of mixed-mode stationary phases to separate proteins. The pore surface of monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) capillary columns was functionalized with thiols and coated with gold nanoparticles. The final mixed mode surface chemistry was formed by attaching, in a single step, alkanethiols, mercaptoalkanoic acids, and their mixtures on the free surface of attached gold nanoparticles. Use of these mixtures allowed fine tuning of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amount of attached gold nanoparticles according to thermal gravimetric analysis was 44.8 wt.%. This value together with results of frontal elution enabled calculation of surfacemore »coverage with the alkanethiol and mercaptoalkanoic acid ligands. Interestingly, alkanethiols coverage in a range of 4.46–4.51 molecules/nm2 significantly exceeded that of mercaptoalkanoic acids with 2.39–2.45 molecules/nm2. The mixed mode character of these monolithic stationary phases was for the first time demonstrated in the separations of proteins that could be achieved in the same column using gradient elution conditions typical of reverse phase (using gradient of acetonitrile in water) and ion exchange chromatographic modes (applying gradient of salt in water), respectively.« less

  19. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  20. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  1. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  2. Electronically and ionically conductive porous material and method for manufacture of resin wafers therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

    2008-11-18

    An electrically and ionically conductive porous material including a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material. The thermoplastic binder immobilizes the moieties with respect to each other but does not substantially coat the moieties and forms the electrically conductive porous material. A wafer of the material and a method of making the material and wafer are disclosed.

  3. Electronically and ionically conductive porous material and method for manufacture of resin wafers therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

    2011-07-12

    An electrically and ionically conductive porous material including a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material. The thermoplastic binder immobilizes the moieties with respect to each other but does not substantially coat the moieties and forms the electrically conductive porous material. A wafer of the material and a method of making the material and wafer are disclosed.

  4. Solvent impregnated resin for isolation of U(VI) from industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karve, M.; Rajgor, R.V.

    2008-07-01

    A solid-phase extraction method based upon impregnation of Cyanex 302 (bis(2,4,4- trimethylpentyl)mono-thio-phosphinic acid) on Amberlite XAD-2 resin is proposed for isolation of U(VI) from uranmicrolite ore tailing samples and industrial effluent samples. U(VI) was sorbed from nitric acid media on the solvent-impregnated resin (SIR) and was recovered completely with 1.0 M HCl. Based upon sorption behavior of U(VI) with Cyanex 302, it was quantitatively sorbed on the SIR in a dynamic method, while the other metal ions were not sorbed by the modified resin. The preparation of impregnated resin is simple, based upon physical interaction of the extractant and solid support, has good sorption capacity for U(VI), and is also reliable for detection of traces of U(VI). (authors)

  5. Enhancement of exchange bias and training effect in ion-beam sputtered Fe{sub 46}Mn{sub 54}/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulara, Himanshu; Chaudhary, Sujeet, E-mail: sujeetc@physics.iitd.ac.in; Kashyap, Subhash C. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Granville, Simon [Callaghan Innovation, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2014-01-28

    We present a remarkable enhancement by 300% of the exchange-bias field at room temperature, without affecting the coercivity value, via optimum magnetic annealing (250?°C/3 kOe) in ion-beam sputtered FeMn(30?nm)/NiFe(10?nm) bilayers. This specific behavior has been attributed to a higher degree of ?-FeMn(111) orientation that offers more interfacial FeMn moments to get pinned with the moments of the adjacent NiFe layer. Unlike the absence of training effect at room temperature, a pronounced training effect and an accompanying magnetization reversal asymmetry are evidenced upon field cooling below 50?K due to the presence of biaxial exchange induced anisotropy across the interdiffused FeMn/NiFe interface. The present findings not only have technological significance but also are of relevance to the understanding of interfacial spin disorder and frustration in these exchange-biased systems.

  6. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-01-03

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both strontium-85 and cesium-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor for strontium-85 with monosodium titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% strontium-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the strontium-85 instantaneous decontamination factor with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the monosodium titanate impregnated membrane cartridges and crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges and co-sintered active crystalline silicotitanate cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of cesium-137 with co-sintered crystalline silicotitanate cartridges. Tests results with crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges for cesium-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semicontinuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  7. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-11-10

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with MST impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% Sr-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with co-sintered active MST cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the MST impregnated membrane cartridges and CST impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active MST cartridges and co-sintered active CST cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of Cs-137 with co-sintered CST cartridges. Tests results with CST impregnated membrane cartridges for Cs-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  8. Anion exchange membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  9. DIVALENT ION EXCHANGE WITH ALKALI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bunge, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    and Imporved Drilling Methods, Tulsa, OK, Aug. 22-24, 1979.on Enhanced Oil Recovery, Tulsa, OK, Apri120-23, 1980.on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, OK, March 22-24, Radke, C.

  10. Investigation of gamma induced degradation of Amberlite 200 cation resin by mass spectrometer and liquid chromatograph 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freitag, Albert Antonio

    1977-01-01

    the liquid chromatograph setup. After the irradiations, the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Salt-splitting Cation Capacity (SSCC) and solids content (both CEC and SSCC) of the control and irradiated resins were measured by the 6 following procedures. ~cd...' ' ' ? B f r t ~ t d h* i conditioned with the appropriate regenerant (4/ HC1 for CEC and 10E NaC1 for SSCC). The resin was partitioned into two columns, one for CEC and the other for SSCC. Ten bed volumes of the appropriate regenerant was passed...

  11. Rapid gasification of nascent char in steam atmosphere during the pyrolysis of Na- and Ca-ion-exchanged brown coals in a drop-tube reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondej Maek; Sou Hosokai; Koyo Norinaga; Chun-Zhu Li; Jun-ichiro Hayashi [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials

    2009-09-15

    Several recent studies on in situ steam gasification of coal suggest a possibility of extremely fast steam gasification of char from rapid pyrolysis of pulverized brown coal. The unprecedented rate of char steam gasification can be achieved by exposing nascent char, that is, after tar evolution (temperature range >600{sup o}C), but before devolatilization (<900{sup o}C), to steam in the presence of Na and/or Ca dispersed in/on the char. In this study, we conducted rapid pyrolysis experiments using ion-exchanged Loy Yang brown coal samples, that is, H-form coal with Na/Ca contents <0.001 wt %, Na-form coal with Na content = 2.8 wt % and Ca-form coal with Ca content = 3.2 wt %. These samples were pyrolyzed in an atmospheric drop-tube reactor at a temperature of 900{sup o}C, inlet steam concentration of 50 vol. %, and a particle residence times of 2.8 s. The char yields from the pyrolysis of Na-form and Ca-form coals were as low as 12 and 33% on the respective coal carbon bases, and accounted for only 18 and 53% of the char yields from the full devolatilization of the respective coals at 900{sup o}C. In addition, the pyrolysis also consumed as much as 0.7-1.1 mol of H{sub 2}O per mol of coal C. On the other hand, the nascent char from the H-form coal allowed carbon deposition from the nascent tar, resulting in a char yield as high as 115% of that from the full devolatilization. The chars from the Na-form and Ca-form coals also acted as catalysts for steam reforming of tar, which was evidenced by significant negative synergistic effects of blending of H-form coal with Na-form coal or Ca-form coal on the tar and soot yields. 57 refs., 6 figs.

  12. New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    spent resin for treatment. Using a resin skid designed to simulate the treatment vessels, CH2M HILL tested a series of resins that were previously demonstrated or reported to...

  13. Ortho-ortho aramatic bis maleimide-diamine resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zupancic, J.J.; Swedo, R.J.; Jamieson, D.R.; Schumacher, E.F.; Buehler, A.J.

    1991-06-18

    APO-BMI is a chain-extended with certain diamines to provide thermosetting resins retaining the improved properties of APO-BMI resins, but having increased toughness in the cured resins.

  14. Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, L.W.

    1993-07-01

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

  15. Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Cleanup - Efficiency delivered more than 6 million in cost savings, 3 million in annual savings Treatment Resin...

  16. Dissolution of mega-voids in resin transfer molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Paul Nordstrom

    2007-01-01

    Effects in Resin Transfer Molding, Polymer Composites, V21,of Filling in Resin Transfer Molding, American Society ofRemoval in Liquid Composite Molding, Polymer Composites, V16

  17. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  18. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA); Sun, Jeffrey J. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  19. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA); Sun, Jeffrey J. (Ames, IA)

    1993-07-27

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  20. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT08, KT09, AND KT10-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-04-26

    This report is the fourth in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. The KT09-series of glasses was designed to study the effect of increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O concentrations on the propensity for crystallization of titanium containing phases in high TiO{sub 2} concentration glasses. Earlier work on the KT05-series glasses recommended that the impact of these two components be studied further. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations have been shown to improve the properties and performance of high waste loading glasses, and K{sub 2}O has been reported to improve the retention of TiO{sub 2} in silicate glasses. The KT10-series of compositions was designed to evaluate any impacts of the SCIX components at concentrations 50% higher than currently projected.a The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized to identify crystallization, to verify chemical compositions, to measure viscosity, and to measure durability. Liquidus temperature measurements for the KT10-series glasses are underway and will be reported separately. All but one of the KT08-series glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which had no practical impact on the durability of the glass and is typically found in DWPF-type glasses. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the KT08-series glasses are well predicted by the DWPF models. The viscosities of the KT08-series glasses were generally well predicted by the DWPF model. No unexpected issues were encountered when uranium and thorium were added to the glasses with SCIX components. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were not successful in preventing the formation of iron titanate crystals in the KT09-series glasses. Increased K{sub 2}O concentrations were successful in hindering the formation of iron titanates in some of the glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. However, this result did not apply to all of the CCC versions of the glasses, indicating a compositional dependence of this effect. In addition, high concentrations of K{sub 2}O have been shown to hinder the ability of the DWPF durability and viscosity models to predict the performance of these glasses. The usefulness of increased K{sub 2}O concentrations in preventing the formation of iron titanates may therefore be limited. Further characterization was not performed for the KT09-series glasses since the type of crystallization formed was the characteristic of interest for these compositions. All of the KT10-series glasses were XRD amorphous, regardless of heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements showed that the glasses met the targeted concentrations for each oxide. In general, the measured PCT responses of the KT10-series glasses were well predicted by the DWPF models. The measured, normalized release values for silicon for some of the glasses fell above the 95% confidence interval for the predicted values; however, the PCT responses for these glasses remain considerably lower than that of the benchmark Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The viscosities of the KT10-series glasses were generally well predicted by the DWPF model. The next step in this study will be to compile all of the data developed and further compare the measured properties and performance with those predicted by the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models. Recommendations will then be made as to which models, if any, may need to be modified in order to accommodate the material from SCIX into DWPF

  1. Amino resin modified xanthan polymer gels for permeability profile control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.

    1988-01-05

    A process for closing pores in a hydrocarbonaceous fluid bearing formation to obtain improved sweep efficiency during a water flood oil recovery operation wherein the process comprises injecting into the formation a gellable composition is described comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross linkable polysaccharide biopolymer having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the biopolymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in the formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  2. Branched Polymeric Media: Boron-Chelating Resins from Hyperbranched Polyethylenimine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    -methylgluc- amine to produce resins with boron-chelating groups. However, such boron-selective resins have a limited-known that boron/borate can selectively complex with organic moieties containing two or more vicinal hydroxyl

  3. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  4. Characterization of Group V Dubnium Homologs on DGA Extraction Chromatography Resin from Nitric and Hydrofluoric Acid Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despotopulos, J D; Sudowe, R

    2012-02-21

    Studies of the chemical properties of superheavy elements (SHE) pose interesting challenges due to their short half-lives and low production rates. Chemical systems must have extremely fast kinetics, fast enough kinetics to be able to examine the chemical properties of interest before the SHE decays to another nuclide. To achieve chemistry on such time scales, the chemical system must also be easily automated. Most importantly however, a chemical system must be developed which provides suitable separation and kinetics before an on-line study of a SHE can be performed. Relativistic effects make studying the chemical properties of SHEs interesting due to the impact these effects could have on the SHEs chemical properties. Relativistic effects arise when the velocity of the s orbital electrons approach the speed of light. As this velocity increases, the Bohr radius of the inner electron orbitals decreases and there is an increase in the particles mass. This contraction results in a destabilization of the energy of the outer d and f electron orbitals (5f and 6d in the case of SHE), which can cause these to expand due to their increased shielding from the nuclear charge. Another relativistic effect is the spin-orbit splitting for p, d, and f orbitals into j = 1 {+-} 1/2 states. This can lead most interestingly to a possible increased stability of element 114, which due to large spin-orbit splitting of the 7p orbital and the relativistically stabilized 7p{sub 1/2} and 7s orbital gives rise to a closed shell ground state of 7s{sup 2}7p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}. The homologs of element 105, dubnium (Db), Ta and Nb and the pseudo-homolog Pa, are well known to hydrolyze and form both neutral and non-neutral monoatomic and polyatomic species that may cause issues with extraction from a given chemical system. Early ion-exchange and solvent-extraction studies show mixed results for the behavior of Db. Some studies show Db behaving most similar to Ta, while others show it behaving somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent, which separates analytes based on steric interactions between the cavity of the crown ether and electrostatic interac

  5. Computational Modeling of theComputational Modeling of the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer MoldingVacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Computational Modeling of theComputational Modeling of the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer MoldingVacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) Process(VARTM) Process April 2004April 2004 DepartmentMS Thesis Advisor: Dr. Grujicic #12;What is VARTM?What is VARTM? Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

  6. DIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mamishev, Alexander

    of defects, control of mold filling is needed. In this paper, direct adaptive control strategy is presented is a crucial stage in RTM. Defect-free parts cannot be obtained without successful consistent mold fillingDIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING B. Minaie1,* , W. Li, J. Gou1 , Y. Chen2 , A

  7. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snowden, Jr., Thomas M. (P.O. Box 4231, Clearwater, FL 33518); Wells, Barbara J. (865 N. Village Dr., Apt. 101B, St. Petersburg, FL 33702)

    1987-01-01

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40.degree. to 365.degree. C. to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  8. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snowden, T.M. Jr.; Wells, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40 to 365/sup 0/C to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  9. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Weeks, Donald R. (Saratoga, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

  10. Radioactive ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  11. FERRIC ION-SPECIFIC SEQUESTERING AGENTS. 7. SYNTHESIS, IRON EXCHANGE KINETICS, AND STABILITY CONSTANTS OF N-SUBSTITUTED, SULFONATED CATECHOYLAMIDE ANALOGUES OF ENTEROBACTIN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecoraro, Vincent L.; Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1980-10-01

    For treatment of chronic iron overload (as occurs in Cooley's anemia), ferric ion sequestering agents with specific properties are necessary. Two analogues of enterobactin [a microbial chelating agent with the greatest stability constant known for an Fe(III) complex] are reported which exhibit: i) hydrolytic stability; ii) water solubility; iii) N-substitution to block peptidase hydrolysis. The first compound, N,N',N"- trimethyl-N,N',N"-tris(2,3-dihydroxysulfobenzoyl)1,3,5-triaminomethyl- benzene, [Me{sub 3}MECAMS, 6] was prepared from the amide of trimesloyl chloride (1) and MeNH{sub 2}. The resulting amide was reduced to the triamine (3) and converted in three steps to the final product 6 in 6% overall yield. The proton-dependent formation constant (log K*) for the reaction: Fe{sup 3+} + H{sub 3}L{sup 6-} = FeL{sup 6-} + 3H{sup +} is 4.87, which gives an equilibrium concentration of [Fe{sup 3+}] at pH 7.4 of 2 x 10{sup -27} M for 10{sup -5} M L (6) and 10{sup -6} M total Fe{sup 3+}. The estimated formation constant (log {beta}{sub 110}) is 40. At low pH the FeL{sup 6-} complex undergoes a series of three, one-proton reactions which probably gives a tris-salicylate complex formed by the carbonyl and ortho-catechol oxygen of the 2,3~dihydroxybenzoyl units (the same reaction that occurs with ferric enterobactin). After six hours in the presence of 6 mM ascorbate, Me{sub 3}MECAMS (6.0 mM) removed 3.7% of the ferric ion initially sequestered by the iron storage protein, ferritin. The human iron transport protein transferrin goves up iron to Me{sub 3}MECAMS with a pseudo first-order rate constant of 1.9 x 10{sup -3}min{sup -1} (ligand concentration 2 X 10{sup -4} M). This rate is comparable to that of enterobactin and other catechoyl amide sequestering agents. and greatly exceeds that of desferrioxamine B (Desferal{reg-sign}). the current drug of choice in treating iron overload. Two related compounds have been prepared in which the catechol ring is attached to the amide nitrogen through a methylene group, with amide formation with an acetyl group. In N,N',N"-triacetyl-N,N' ,N"-tris(2,3- dihydroxysulfobenzoyl) -N,N',N"-triaminomethylbenzene [NAcMECAMS, 111... and its unsulfonated precursor, the amide linkage of the catechoyl amides such as Me{sub 3}MECAMS (6) has been shifted from an endo position relative to the benzene and catechol rings to an exo position in which the amide carbonyl is not conjugated with the catechol ring and cannot form a stable chelate ring in conjunction with a catechol oxygen. The preparation of 11 and 10 proceeded from the previously described precursor of TRIMCAM, 7. borane reduction to the tri.amine 8, and amide formation with acetyl chloride to 9, followed by deprotection of the catechol oxygens with BBr{sub 3}/CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} to give 10. Sulfonation of 10 to NAcMECAMS, 11, is carried out in fuming sulfuric acid. In comparison with Me{sub 3}MECAMS, the protonation of NAcMECAMS (11) proceeds by an initial two-proton step in contrast to the one-proton reactions typical of the catechoyl amides, which can form a salicylate mode of coordination involving the amide carbonyl group. Also as a result of the removal of the carbonyl group from conjugation with the catechol ring, the acidity of NAcMECAMS (11) is less than Me{sub 3}MECAMS (6). While the estimated log {beta{sub 110} is approximately the same as for Me{sub 3}MECAMS (40). the effective formation constant (log K*) and pM.(- log [Fe{sub aq}{sup 3+}] ) values are lower (4.0 and 25.0, respectively).

  12. SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Small Particle Heat Exchange Receiver (SPHER) for Solarof the small particle heat exchange receiver (or SPHER), asabsorption process, the heat exchange to the gas, the choice

  13. Glutathione Resins I. List of Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    , dilute 4 ml of 10X Extraction/Loading Buffer with 36 ml of deionized water. If necessary, warm is prepacked with 1-ml Glutathione-Uniflow Resin. · 5 x 100 mg of Glutathione (reduced) · 10X Extraction/Loading Buffer (1.4 mM NaCl; 100 mM Na2 HPO4 ; 18 mM KH2 PO4 , pH 7.5): To prepare the extraction/loading buffer

  14. SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    heat exchangers. These types of heat exchangers have limitedheat exchanger to solar collection systems that utilize linear trough- typenon-solar heat exchangers. These may be of the type used to

  15. C-13 NMR IDENTIFICATION OF UREA-FORMALDEHYDE RESINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of Urea-Formaldehyde Adhesives by NHRand S.Hatono, "Urea-Formaldehyde Resins. IJI. Constitutionalof Equilibriums in the Urea-Formaldehyde System by Carbon-13

  16. Terebinth resin in antiquity: possible uses in the Late Bronze Age Aegean region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peachey, Claire Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The remains of an estimated one metric ton of terebinth resin, the yellowish, semi-fluid, aromatic resin of a Pistacia tree, were recently discovered on the Late Bronze Age shipwreck site at Uluburun, Turkey. The resin was ...

  17. Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden DocumentationAccommodations Accommodations LosUnderground Find More Like

  18. Remote Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes by Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mamishev, Alexander

    . In order to manufacture defect-free parts with consistent material properties, it is important to monitorRemote Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes by Distributed Dielectric Sensors MICHAEL C, 2003) (Accepted November 8, 2004) ABSTRACT: Feed-forward adaptive control of resin transfer molding

  19. Characterization of DGEBA (diglycidyl ethers bisphenol-A) epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, F.N.; Spieker, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    High-resolution gel permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography can be applied to commercially available DGEBA epoxy resins to elucidate small but significant differences in the oligomer and impurity compositions of these resins. The GPC profiles can be used to type or identify the various commercial grades of these DGEBA resins. Lot-to-lot consistency and aging characteristics can also be determined using GPC and HPLC. Quantitation of the various oligomers and impurities such as the ..cap alpha..-glycol, isomer, and chlorohydrin species is possible. Using 20% isoconversion predictive cure thermal analysis data, the relative resin reactivity of several liquid, low-molecular DGEBA resins has been measured. These data show that the higher viscosity, higher oligomer content resins, which have higher hydroxyl content, reacted faster with amine cure agents than the lower viscosity, higher purity - and consequently lower hydroxyl content - resins. Thus, a combination of liquid chromatography (GPC or HPLC) and DSC kinetics can be used to establish a correlation or equivalency beween the commercially available low-molecular-weight DGEBA epoxy resins.

  20. Tribological Properties of Blends of Melamine-Formaldehyde Resin With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    Tribological Properties of Blends of Melamine-Formaldehyde Resin With Low Density Polyethylene the miscibility behavior and thermal properties of LDPE þ melamine-formaldehyde resin (MFR) blends containing 1, 5 LDPE was supplied by Aldrich Chemicals. Melamine, C3H6N6 (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine); formaldehyde

  1. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, Alison (Fremont, CA); Michel, Richard P. (Bloomington, MN)

    1998-01-01

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bia layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200.degree. C., the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 .ANG./sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous.

  2. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1998-07-21

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bias layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200 C, the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 {angstrom}/sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous. 4 figs.

  3. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  4. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  5. Monitoring the resin infusion manufacturing process under industrial environment using distributed sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Monitoring the resin infusion manufacturing process under industrial environment using the Liquid Resin Infusion process under industrial environment is proposed. To detect the resin front; Liquid Resin Infusion. #12;2 1. Introduction Recently, Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) processes have been

  6. Non-isothermal preform infiltration during the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Non-isothermal preform infiltration during the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM conditions within a high-permeability resin-distribution medium based vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding.V. All rights reserved. PACS: 61.41.+e (Polymers) Keywords: Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM

  7. Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2014-03-25

    The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

  8. Fast-ion D measurements of the fast-ion distribution ,,invited...a... W. W. Heidbrinkb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidbrink, William W.

    Fast-ion D measurements of the fast-ion distribution ,,invited...a... W. W. Heidbrinkb University; published online 25 October 2010 The fast-ion D FIDA diagnostic is an application of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Fast ions that neutralize in an injected neutral beam emit Balmer- light

  9. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  10. Ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  11. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  12. Energy Conservation Opportunities in Hydrocarbon Resin Manufacturing Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganji, A. R.; Hackett, B.; Chow, S.; Lonergan, R.; Wimer, J.

    2003-01-01

    -Wide Opportunity Assessment Program. Resin manufacturing is a highly energy intensive process. The process needs extensive heating accomplished through steam boilers and thermal oil heaters, and cooling which is accomplished through refrigeration as well...

  13. MOLD FILLING PARAMETERS IN RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING OF COMPOSITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MOLD FILLING PARAMETERS IN RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING OF COMPOSITES by Charles William Hedley A thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Compression Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Filament Winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Hand Lay-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Prepreg Molding

  14. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM); Roybal, Herman E. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  15. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, G.W.; Roybal, H.E.

    1983-11-14

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  16. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  17. Resinous binders for coal and chars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    Binder development and application to the briquetting or pelleting of coal fines has been extensive. The search for low-cost, effective binders for making strong and durable briquettes or pellets continues unabated. Strong, durable compacts are required, not only for handling, transport, and storage of the product but also to withstand the rigors of application such as flue gas treatment sorbents and catalytic supports. Many kinds of binders, organic and inorganic, have been used to gain the desired strength. Synthetic polymers have been investigated because they promote good strength and water insolubility, but these features are generally outweighed by the polymer cost. Promising earlier developments of biomass-derived binders have received slow market acceptance, mainly because of the cost resulting from the high concentrations required. However, recent advances in processing lignocellulosic materials have generated potentially low-cost polymeric binding agents for making coal briquettes. Phenol novolaks were previously used with lignites to make activated carbons. Recently, binders were prepared from mixtures of phenol, lignin, and formaldehyde and used for wood flour molding and friction materials. The goal of our work was to investigate the characteristics of resinous binders from lignocellulosic as well as coal-derived materials when used with dried or beneficiated coals and chars.

  18. Energy Exchange Registration Desk

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sunday through Thursday, staff will be available at the Energy Exchange registration desk at the Phoenix Convention Center to answer any questions, distribute attendee badges, and register those seeking to attend the Energy Exchange.

  19. Energy Exchange News

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please join FEMP Director Tim Unruh and Julia Kelley with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for a presentation on the Energy Exchange. The Energy Exchange is a new 2 1/2 day training opportunity...

  20. High-resolution studies of charge exchange in supernova remnants with Magellan, XMM-Newton, and Micro-X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heine, Sarah Nicole Trowbridge

    2014-01-01

    Charge exchange, the semi-resonant transfer of an electron from a neutral atom to an excited state in an energetic ion, can occur in plasmas where energetic ions are incident on a cold, at least partially neutral gas. ...

  1. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan (Okemos, MI)

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  2. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2013-09-10

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

  3. ERASMUS EXCHANGE LEARNING AGREEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    ERASMUS ­ EXCHANGE LEARNING AGREEMENT --FINAL THESIS / PROJECT -- Name of Applicant Exchange to conclude Bachelor Master PhD Other: Course No. Course Title Duration (Months) ECTS (5 ECTS / Month) N is approved. Date and Stamp: Coordinator Signature: #12;ERASMUS ­ EXCHANGE | LEARNING AGREEMENT --FINAL THESIS

  4. Charge exchange system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Oscar A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  5. Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX FOrigin ofAllenDepartmentNYSERDANanolubricantsLithium-Ion

  6. Simulation of the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process and the development of light-weight composite bridging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Marc J.

    2008-01-01

    Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Polymer CompositesAssisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM): Model Verification.in the Reaction Injection Molding Process. AICheE Journal

  7. Process for preparing phenolic formaldehyde resole resin products derived from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Kreibich, Roland E. (Auburn, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.

  8. Internet Exchanges: Enabling Local Online Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Keith

    Interconnect Principles Internet Exchange History Internet Exchange Models Internet Exchange Security Setting, Foundry #12;Internet Exchanges History #12;A decade+ of Internet Exchanges The London Internet ExchangeInternet Exchanges: Enabling Local Online Communities Keith Mitchell Chair, United Kingdom Network

  9. Creep of an epoxy resin under transient temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Larry Alan

    1973-01-01

    in Table 1, Table l. Ingredients of Shell 58-68R Resin [17] Material Epon 828 Epon 1031 Nadic Methyl Anydride (NMA) Benzyldimethylamine (BDMA) Formulation: Parts by weight 50 50 90+ 5 0. 55 + 0. 05 20 The mixing procedure [17] for the resin..., 1200 psi o 130'F, 600 psi ~ 75'F, 600 psi gB og e~~ 0 g 8 8 a ~ 5b ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -5. 75 -1. 50 -1. 00 0. 00 1. 00 LOG TIME Figure 12. Creep comp1iance for two stresses and temperatures. 80 C) 60 I III CL...

  10. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SOLID FLUIDIZATION IN A RESIN COLUMN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-24

    The objective of the present work is to model the resin particles within the column during fluidization and sedimentation processes using computation fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The calculated results will help interpret experimental results, and they will assist in providing guidance on specific details of testing design and establishing a basic understanding of particle’s hydraulic characteristics within the column. The model is benchmarked against the literature data and the test data (2003) conducted at Savannah River Site (SRS). The paper presents the benchmarking results and the modeling predictions of the SRS resin column using the improved literature correlations applicable for liquid-solid granular flow.

  11. Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, C.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Havens, S.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1998-03-10

    Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

  12. Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J. (Oliver Springs, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); Havens, Stephen J. (Knoxville, TN); Lopata, Vincent J. (Manitoba, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

  13. EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS Yang2hang1 Post February 2005) ABSTRACT Dimensional stability is an important property of wood composites. Both resin and wax are essential additives in the manufactureof composite panels such as OSB. Resin binds wood

  14. Thermoplastic Resin Sales by Major Market (millions of pounds, dry weight basis)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Thermoplastic Resin Sales by Major Market 2004-2008 (millions of pounds, dry weight basis) Major selected thermoplastic resins: Low-Density Polyethylene Polyvinyl Chloride Linear-Low-Density Polyethylene-Acrylonitrile Polystyrene Other Styrene-based Polymers Styrene Butadiene Latexes (SBL) Engineering Resins Thermoplastic

  15. APPLICATIONS OF FRONT TRACKING TO THE SIMULATION OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    APPLICATIONS OF FRONT TRACKING TO THE SIMULATION OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING Yu Song 1 2 Department: Computers & Mathematics with applications Abstract Resin Transfer Molding, as a method for the manufacture enhance product quality. Key words. resin transfer molding, composite materials, front tracking

  16. Ion exchange-induced dissolution of calcite in Na-montmorillonite/CaCO?b3?s systems: its effect on hydraulic conductivity, CaCO?b3?s dissolution kinetics, and CaCO?b3?s equilibrium relations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Rio Durand, Jose Bruno

    1990-01-01

    Minerals Repository, Clay Minerals Society, University of Missouri, Columbia, MQ) was treated with pH 5. 5 Na-acetate in order to remove traces of CaCO3; complete Na-saturation of the sample was achieved by successive washings with 1 M NaC1... was present. The DD reaction resulted in pH values of approximately 10, a decrease of the exchangeable sodium percemage (ESP), and in a substantial enhancement of calcite dissolution. The rate of calcite dissolution in these systems, as well as in batch...

  17. New Innovations in Highly Ion Specific Media for Recalcitrant Waste stream Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, M. S.; Wilson, J.; Ahrendt, M. [RWE NUKEM Corporation (RNC), 800 Oak Ridge Tnpk., Suite A701, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Bostick, W. D. [Materials and Chemistry Laboratory (MCL), Inc., East Tennessee Technology Park, Building K-1006, 2010 Highway 58, Suite 1000, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); DeSilva, F.; Meyers, P. [ResinTech, Inc., 1 ResinTech Plaza, 160 Cooper Road, West Berlin, NJ 08091 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Specialty ion specific media were examined and developed for, not only pre- and post-outage waste streams, but also for very difficult outage waste streams. This work was carried out on first surrogate waste streams, then laboratory samples of actual waste streams, and, finally, actual on-site waste streams. This study was particularly focused on PWR wastewaters such as Floor Drain Tank (FDT), Boron Waste Storage Tank (BWST), and Waste Treatment Tank (WTT, or discharge tank). Over the last half decade, or so, treatment technologies have so greatly improved and discharge levels have become so low, that certain particularly problematic isotopes, recalcitrant to current treatment skids, are all that remain prior to discharge. In reality, they have always been present, but overshadowed by the more prevalent and higher activity isotopes. Such recalcitrants include cobalt, especially Co 58 [both ionic/soluble (total dissolved solids, TDS) and colloidal (total suspended solids, TSS)] and antimony (Sb). The former is present in most FDT and BWST wastewaters, while the Sb is primarily present in BWST waste streams. The reasons Co 58 can be elusive to granulated activated carbon (GAC), ultrafiltration (UF) and ion exchange (IX) demineralizers is that it forms submicron colloids as well as has a tendency to form metal complexes with chelating agents (e.g., ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, or EDTA). Such colloids and non-charged complexes will pass through the entire treatment skid. Antimony (Sb) on the other hand, has little or no ionic charge, and will, likewise, pass through both the filtration and de-min skids into the discharge tanks. While the latter will sometimes (the anionic vs. the cationic or neutral species) be removed on the anion bed(s), it will slough off (snow-plow effect) when a higher affinity anion (iodine slugs, etc.) comes along; thus causing effluents not meeting discharge criteria. The answer to these problems found in this study, during an actual Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) outage cycle and recovery (four months), was the down-select and development of a number of highly ion specific media for the specific removal of such elusive isotopes. Over three dozen media including standard cation and anion ion exchangers, specialty IX, standard carbons, and, finally, chemically doped media (e.g., carbon and alumina substrates). The latter involved doping with iron, manganese, and even metals. The media down-select was carried out on actual plant waste streams so that all possible outage affects were accounted for, and distribution coefficients (Kd's) were determined (vs. decontamination factors, DF's, or percent removals). Such Kd's, in milliliters of solution per gram of media (mug), produce data indicative of the longevity of the media in that particular waste stream. Herein, the down-select is reported in Pareto (decreasing order) tables. Further affects such as the presence of high cobalt concentrations, high boron concentrations, the presence of hydrazine and chelating agents, and extreme pH conditions. Of particular importance here is to avoid the affinity of competing ions (e.g., a Sb specific media having more than a slight affinity for Co). The latter results in the snow-plow effect of sloughing off 3 to 4 times the cobalt into the effluent as was in the feed upon picking up the Sb. The study was quite successful and resulted in the development of and selection of a resin-type and two granular media for antimony removal, and two resin-types and a granular media for cobalt removal. The decontamination factors for both media were hundreds to thousands of times that of the full filtration and de-min. (authors)

  18. Energy Exchange Presentations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentations from Energy Exchange, a two-and-a-half day training scheduled for August 11-13, 2015, at the Phoenix Convention Center in Phoenix, Arizona.

  19. Energy Exchange Speaker Biographies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Speaker Biographies U.S. Department of Energy Energy Exchange, August 2015 Chris Abbuehl (Constellation Energy) Christopher Abbuehl is responsible for leading the development of...

  20. Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D. (1886 Atkin Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 84106); Yi, Ye (2875 E. Wander Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84117); Yu, Qiang (224 University Village, Salt Lake City, UT 84108)

    1994-01-01

    A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin from by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method.

  1. Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Yu, Q.

    1994-06-07

    A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method. 12 figs.

  2. Nanoheterostructure Cation Exchange: Anionic Framework Conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Prashant K.; Amirav, Lilac; Aloni, Shaul; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-05-11

    In ionic nanocrystals the cationic sub-lattice can be replaced with a different metal ion via a fast, simple, and reversible place-exchange, allowing post-synthetic modification of the composition of the nanocrystal, while preserving its size and shape. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that during such an exchange, the anionic framework of the crystal is preserved. When applied to nanoheterostructures, this phenomenon ensures that compositional interfaces within the heterostructure are conserved throughout the transformation. For instance, a morphology composed of a CdSe nanocrystal embedded in a CdS rod (CdSe/CdS) was exchanged to a PbSe/PbS nanorod via a Cu2Se/Cu2S structure. During every exchange cycle, the seed size and position within the nanorod were preserved, as evident by excitonic features, Z-contrast imaging, and elemental line-scans. Anionic framework conservation extends the domain of cation exchange to the design of more complex and unique nanostructures.

  3. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  4. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  5. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  6. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  7. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  8. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  9. SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS FOR COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DR. DENNIS NAGLE; DR. DAJIE ZHANG

    2009-03-26

    Silicon carbide (SiC) materials are prime candidates for high temperature heat exchangers for next generation nuclear reactors due to their refractory nature and high thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. This research has focused on demonstrating the potential of liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) for making SiC to achieve this goal. The major advantage of this method over other ceramic processing techniques is the enhanced capability of making high dense, high purity SiC materials in complex net shapes. For successful formation of net shape SiC using LSI techniques, the carbon preform reactivity and pore structure must be controlled to allow the complete infiltration of the porous carbon structure which allows complete conversion of the carbon to SiC. We have established a procedure for achieving desirable carbon properties by using carbon precursors consisting of two readily available high purity organic materials, crystalline cellulose and phenolic resin. Phenolic resin yields a glassy carbon with low chemical reactivity and porosity while the cellulose carbon is highly reactive and porous. By adjusting the ratio of these two materials in the precursor mixtures, the properties of the carbons produced can be controlled. We have identified the most favorable carbon precursor composition to be a cellulose resin mass ratio of 6:4 for LSI formation of SiC. The optimum reaction conditions are a temperature of 1800 C, a pressure of 0.5 Torr of argon, and a time of 120 minutes. The fully dense net shape SiC material produced has a density of 2.96 g cm{sup -3} (about 92% of pure SiC) and a SiC volume fraction of over 0.82. Kinetics of the LSI SiC formation process was studied by optical microscopy and quantitative digital image analysis. This study identified six reaction stages and provided important understanding of the process. Although the thermal conductivity of pure SiC at elevated temperatures is very high, thermal conductivities of most commercial SiC materials are much lower due to phonon scattering by impurities (e.g., sintering aids located at the grain boundaries of these materials). The thermal conductivity of our SiC was determined using the laser flash method and it is 214 W/mK at 373 K and 64 W/mK at 1273 K. These values are very close to those of pure SiC and are much higher than those of SiC materials made by industrial processes. This SiC made by our LSI process meets the thermal properties required for use in high temperature heat exchanger. Cellulose and phenolic resin carbons lack the well-defined atomic structures associated with common carbon allotropes. Atomic-scale structure was studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen gas adsorption and helium gas pycnometry. These studies revealed that cellulose carbon exhibits a very high degree of atomic disorder and angstrom-scale porosity. It has a density of only 93% of that of pure graphite, with primarily sp2 bonding character and a low concentration of graphene clusters. Phenolic resin carbon shows more structural order and substantially less angstrom-scale porosity. Its density is 98% of that of pure graphite, and Fourier transform analysis of its TEM micrographs has revealed high concentrations of sp3 diamond and sp2 graphene nano-clusters. This is the first time that diamond nano-clusters have been observed in carbons produced from phenolic resin. AC and DC electrical measurements were made to follow the thermal conversion of microcrystalline cellulose to carbon. This study identifies five regions of electrical conductivity that can be directly correlated to the chemical decomposition and microstructural evolution during carbonization. In Region I, a decrease in overall AC conductivity occurs due to the initial loss of the polar groups from cellulose molecules. In Region II, the AC conductivity starts to increase with heat treatment temperature due to the formation and growth of conducting carbon clusters. In Region III, a further increase of AC conductivity with increasing heat treatment temperature is obs

  10. Method of recovering hazardous waste from phenolic resin filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bourne, Gary L. (Idaho Falls, ID); McFee, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Burdge, Bradley G. (Idaho Falls, ID); McConnell, Jr., John W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the recovery of hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and radioactive elements from phenolic resin filter by a circulating a solution of 8 to 16 molar nitric acid at a temperature of 110 to 190 degrees F. through the filter. The hot solution dissolves the filter material and releases the hazardous material so that it can be recovered or treated for long term storage in an environmentally safe manner.

  11. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  12. Energy Exchange Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The schedule for Energy Exchange is now available. Attendees will have the option of attending a variety of training sessions offered within 10 tracks during the times listed below. Session details...

  13. Greywater heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmberg, D.

    1983-11-21

    A kilowatt meter and water meter were installed to monitor pregreywater usage. The design considerations, the heat exchanger construction and installation, and the monitoring of usage levels are described.

  14. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  15. Transport of multiply and highly charged ions through nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . PACS: 34.50.Dy Keywords: Slow highly charged ions; Capillary transmission; Charge exchange 1-the-barrier model (COB) [4­7]. The model can be used to estimate the critical distance for charge transfer dc exchange of multiply and highly charged ions for transmission of aper- tures in silicon nitride targets

  16. Synthesis of Anion Exchange Polystyrene Membranes for the Electrolysis of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jayant K.

    - moval of chloride ions. The composite membrane is homogeneously modified by gas phase nitration separation technique, in which electrically charged membranes are used and electrical poten- tial differenceSynthesis of Anion Exchange Polystyrene Membranes for the Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride Sonny

  17. Dynamic Asphaltene-Resin Exchange at the Oil/Water Interface: Time-Dependent W/O Emulsion Stability for Asphaltene/Resin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    oil (W/O) emulsions continue to challenge the petroleum industry during crude oil production roles in stabilizing water-in-crude oil emulsions.3-10 They adsorb onto and accumulate at W/O interfaces of crude oil emulsions.11,12 Many research groups have studied extensively this subject for decades.13

  18. Cationanion versus cationframework interactions in sodalites: First-principles study of model Cu-exchanged sodalites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selloni, Annabella

    as catalysts for the reduction of NOx compounds.6­8 In this respect, Cu- exchanged sodalites may represent for silver-exchanged sodalites. The reduction of the lattice parameter is accompanied by the formation of Cu ions per cage, resulting in a simultaneous reduction of Cu­framework distances. For fully

  19. Turbine superalloy component defect repair with low-temperature curing resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, David W.; Allen, David B.

    2015-09-08

    Voids, cracks or other similar defects in substrates of thermal barrier coated superalloy components, such as turbine blades or vanes, are filled with resin, without need to remove substrate material surrounding the void by grinding or other processes. The resin is cured at a temperature under 200.degree. C., eliminating the need for post void-filling heat treatment. The void-filled substrate and resin are then coated with a thermal barrier coating.

  20. Effect of resin toughness on fracture behavior of graphite/epoxy composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald Nelson

    1982-01-01

    . Schaper , Mob (Y. Weitsman, Member) ( L . S . F, etcher, Head of Department. ) ABSTRACT Effect of Resin Toughness on Fracture Behavio~ of Graphite/Epoxy Composites (Becember 1982) Ronald Nelson Cohen, B. S. , Purdue University Chairman of Advisory... with subsequent frac- tography on fractured surfaces. The critical energy release rate for delamination fracture and transverse fracture is less than the critical energy release rate for the neat material for a tough resin system. For a brittle resin system...

  1. Catalytic Modification of Polymers: Hydrogenation Routes to Amine Functional Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including ion exchange resin, waste water treatment, paper sizing cosmetic products, pharmaceutical of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 Department of Chemistry North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695 Waste water treatment Hair care products Ion exchange resin Paper sizing Motor oil additives Applications

  2. EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING..........................................................................................................1 Hand Lay-up in Turbine Blade Fabrication

  3. Effects of petroleum resins on asphaltene aggregation and water-in-oil emulsion formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Effects of petroleum resins on asphaltene aggregation and water-in-oil emulsion formation P 1. Introduction Emulsion challenges during petroleum recovery have been attributed to colloidal

  4. Amino resin modified xanthan polymer foamed with a chemical blowing agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazlett, R.D.; Shu, P.

    1989-05-16

    A method is described for reducing the permeability in an area of a subterranean formation which consists of mixing a gellable composition containing: water, about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt.% of a cross linkable polysaccharide biopolymer having at least one functional group charide biopolymer having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group, and about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt.% of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the biopolymer thereby causing the polymer to become more thermally stable. Also included are sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to reduce permeability in a more permeable zone in the formation. A chemical surfactant, and an alkali metal salt of azodicarboxylic acid, are then introduced produce a gas sufficient to foam the composition described above. The composition is then injected into the desired area of the formation where the azodicarboxylic acid decomposes thereby generating nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas in an amount sufficient to form a foam which subsequently hardens and reduces the permeability in the desired area.

  5. Thermoacoustic imaging using heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Tesmer, J.R.; Deemer, B.C.; Murphy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Ion beams have been used for surface modification, semiconductor device fabrication and for material analysis, which makes ion-material interactions of significant importance. Ion implantation will produce new compositions near the surface by ion mixing or directly by implanting desired ions. Ions exchange their energy to the host material as they travel into the material by several different processes. High energy ions ionize the host atoms before atomic collisions transfer the remaining momentum and stop the incident ion. As they penetrate the surface, the low energy ions ionize the host atoms, but also have a significantly large momentum transfer mechanism near the surface of the material. This leads to atoms, groups of atoms and electrons being ejected from the surface, which is the momentum transfer process of sputtering. This talk addresses the acoustic waves generated during ion implantation using modulated heavy ion beams. The mechanisms for elastic wave generation during ion implantation, in the regimes where sputtering is significant and where implantation is dominant and sputtering is negligible, has been studied. The role of momentum transfer and thermal energy production during ion implantation was compared to laser generated elastic waves in an opaque solid as a reference, since laser generated ultrasound has been extensively studied and is fairly well understood. The thermoelastic response dominated in both high and low ion energy regimes since, apparently, more energy is lost to thermal heat producing mechanisms than momentum transfer processes. The signal magnitude was found to vary almost linearly with incident energy as in the laser thermoelastic regime. The time delays for longitudinal and shear waves-were characteristic of those expected for a purely thermal heating source. The ion beams are intrinsically less sensitive to the albedo of the surface.

  6. Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  7. Evaluating guayule resin fractions for mutagenicity and toxicity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avirett, Donald Baker

    1992-01-01

    microorganism, Il. The system measures the inhibitory effects of test substances upon the normal light producing ability of the bacteria. The purpose of this investigation was to assess several fractions of guayule resin for mutagenicity using the Ames ~a... Salm~ test is a short ? term microbial test using a mutant form of ~(IB~ EEI1~~g bacteria for assaying mutagenic activity of chemicals. It is termed an in-vitro test versus an in-vivo test (using laboratory animals), which is more expensive and time...

  8. Curing Properties of Epoxy Resins for Use to Abandon Wells Destroyed by Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Suining

    2012-02-14

    completely destroyed and toppled. This project tested the curing properties of several epoxy resin systems in different environments. A bisphenol-F/epichlorohydrin (BPF) resin cured by curing agent MBOEA system was successfully tested in the laboratory as a...

  9. Ankara, Turkey Exchange Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Ankara, Turkey Exchange Program Bilkent University Bilkent University (BU) was founded in 1984 as Turkey's first private, non-profit institution of higher education. BU is recognized and ranked internationally as the premier institution of higher education in Turkey. Its lively campus with its cultural

  10. Brazil, Florianpolis Exchange Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Brazil, Florianópolis Exchange Program Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL) Brazil, one Culture through Music and Cinema (Beg./Int. level), (Alternative Media and Social Movements in Brazil (int Economics in the Age of Globalization: focus in Brazil Consumer Behavior Ethnicity and Society

  11. Technology Performance Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  12. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Deliverable for F?ST project: Ln Resin based PLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Dominic S.; Armenta, Claudine E.; Rim, Jung H.

    2012-05-03

    This memo describes the fabrication of a polymer ligand extractant based on Eichrom's LN-1 resin. This work has been in support of the Fast Alpha Spectrometry Tool (F{alpha}ST) project. The first part of LANL's role in this project is to evaluate new extractants for use in polymer ligand extractants (PLEs). The first new extractant evaluated is Di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), which is an effective metal extractant. It has very efficient chelating properties for a wide variety of metal ions. HDEHP is an amphiphillic molecule with two long hydrocarbon chains and a polar end with a phosphoryl oxygen (P=O) and an acidic -OH group as shown in Figure 1. HDEHP has shown effectiveness in extracting lanthanides, selective actinides, and other trivalent elements. Several authors have reported that lanthanides and elements with +3 oxidation state have similar extraction behavior in nitric acid. The distribution ratio for lanthanides rapidly decreases at lower nitric concentration then start to increase at higher concentration as shown in. The trivalent americium, curium, and yttrium exhibit similar trend as trivalent lanthanides. This extraction trend can be also observed from hydrogen chloride solution. This work describes the use of this ligand in a PLE to extract plutonium from solution. Polymer ligand films were prepared by dissolving HDEHP ligands and polystyrene beads in THF. The solution was directly deposited onto a 40 mm diameter stainless steel substrate using an automated pipette. HDEHP based PLEs with direct stippling method are shown in Figure 2. The solution was air dried at room temperature overnight to ensure complete evaporation of THF. The plutonium tracer solution was prepared in 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 8M nitric solutions to study the effect of nitric concentration in plutonium extraction. 0.1667 Bq {sup 239}Pu tracer solution was directly stippled on each PLE and was allowed to equilibrate for 3 hours before removing the solution. The plutonium activity of each sample was measured by direct alpha counting to quantify the plutonium recovery by HDEHP PLE. The alpha spectra from alpha spectroscopy are shown in Figure 3. 1:5, 1:10, and 1:20 PLEs had sharp peak with low tailing. 1:2 had an extremely long tail, which is a possible indication that a large amount of ligands caused the film to not form a smooth surface. Also, it can be noted that 1:2 ratio PLE surface was not as rigid as the other ratio PLEs and it was prone to scratching during sample handing. The resolution of alpha spectra was quantified by measuring Full Width at Half of the Maximum (FWHM) using Bortels equation. The tailing component of the peak was also measured along with FWHM. The peak resolutions and tailing measurements for 0.1M nitric solution samples are given in Table 1. The best resolution was achieved with 1:5 PLE and worst was given by 1:2 PLE. The plutonium recovery by HDEHP PLE was dependent on both nitric concentration and ligand to polymer ratio. 1:2 PLE consistently had the highest recovery followed by 1:5 as shown in Figure 4. It should be noted that 1:2 ratio PLEs consistently had long tailing and the ROI of the spectrum had to be increased to encompass total counts from the tracer. 1:10 and 1:20 PLEs had close to zero percent recovery in all nitric concentration except for 0.01M. The highest plutonium recovery was observed for 0.1M nitric acid. 1:5 PLE gave the best combination of alpha spectroscopy resolution and plutonium recovery. Radiography image of samples were generated to study the plutonium distribution on the PLE surface. Samples were placed on an imaging plate (Fujifilm BAS-TR 2025) for 24 hours and the plate was scanned using GE Typhoon FLA 7000 system. The radiography image in Figure 5 shows uneven distribution with hot spots along the edge and in the center of the samples. These hot spots may be the result of highly localized concentration of ligands or surface defects that were observed in SEM. This unevenness in distribution may cause inaccurate activity measurement by alpha spectroscopy due to a bias in the

  14. Flame-Retardant Electrical Conductive Nanopolymers Based on Bisphenol F Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Nano Polyanilines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    for obtaining epoxy resin polymer nano- composites (PNCs). The effects of nanofiller morphology and loading The development of conductive or semiconductive polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) from insulating polymers hasFlame-Retardant Electrical Conductive Nanopolymers Based on Bisphenol F Epoxy Resin Reinforced

  15. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J. (Powell, TN); Lopata, Vincent J. (Manitoba, CA); Havens, Stephen J. (Knoxville, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); Moulton, Richard J. (Lafayette, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  16. PLASTIC RESINS INDUSTRY HIT HARD BY GLOBAL ECONOMIC RECESSION IN 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    PLASTIC RESINS INDUSTRY HIT HARD BY GLOBAL ECONOMIC RECESSION IN 2008 The US plastic resins in the second half of the year. According to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) Plastics Industry Producers deficit in plastic products deteriorated from a $1.21 billion deficit in 2007 to a $2.36 billion deficit

  17. Cure Kinetics of Aqueous PhenolFormaldehyde Resins Used for Oriented Strandboard Manufacturing: Analytical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cure Kinetics of Aqueous Phenol­Formaldehyde Resins Used for Oriented Strandboard Manufacturing their manufacture.2 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a well-established technique to study the polymer. To evaluate the effect of lignin addition on the curing of phenolic resin, Barry et al.16 obtained

  18. PROCESS MODELING IN RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING AS A METHOD TO ENHANCE PRODUCT QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    PROCESS MODELING IN RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING AS A METHOD TO ENHANCE PRODUCT QUALITY W.K. Chui, 1 J Transfer Molding (RTM) has drawn interest in recent years as an attractive technique for the manufacture. resin transfer molding (RTM), composite materials, mathematical modeling, porous media flow AMS subject

  19. MODELING OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING W.K. Chui, J. Glimm, F.M. Tangerman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    MODELING OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING W.K. Chui, J. Glimm, F.M. Tangerman Department of Applied Transfer Molding (RTM), as a method for the manufacture of advanced fiber rein­ forced composite materials con­ tent of the finished product. 1 Introduction Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) is a process

  20. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, C.J.; Lopata, V.J.; Havens, S.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Moulton, R.J.

    1999-03-02

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  1. Setup Exchange 2010 on an Android Device Exchange 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Setup Exchange 2010 on an Android Device Exchange 2010 The following instructions are for setting up an Exchange 2010 account on an Android device such as a Samsung Galaxy III or tablet. These instructions are designed for devices using the 4.1 or better Android operating system. You will need to use

  2. High Performance Laminates Using Blended Urethane Resin Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Jones, George G.; Walsh, Sean P.; Wood, Geoff M.

    2005-03-24

    Hybrid blended resin systems have the potential to provide excellent impact performance in structured laminates. Although mostly under development for sheet molding compound (SMC) applications using glass fiber with high levels of fillers, the resins have been found to be useful in liquid molding applications with other high-performance fiber systems. A research pro-gram to develop the molding capability, property data, and capability to model the composites using newly de-veloped codes and modeling techniques was initiated through the Department of Energy’s Office of Freedom-Car and Vehicle Technologies. Results have shown ex-cellent adhesion to different fiber systems as evidenced by mechanical properties, and a capability to develop very good impact results – thereby allowing thin panel structures to be developed. Comparison to predicted me-chanical properties has been achieved and mechanisms for the development of observed high energy absorption under impact loadings are being investigated. Scale ef-fects based on panel thickness, fiber type loading, and position in laminate are being investigated. DOE pro-gram sponsorship was provided by Dr. Sidney Diamond, Technical Area Development Manager for High-Strength Weight-Reduction Materials.

  3. Optimal electrode geometries for 2-dimensional ion arrays with bi-layer ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. N. Krauth; J. Alonso; J. P. Home

    2014-11-04

    We investigate electrode geometries required to produce periodic 2-dimensional ion-trap arrays with the ions placed between two planes of electrodes. We present a generalization of previous methods for traps containing a single electrode plane to this new geometry, and show that for a given ion-electrode distance and applied voltages, the inter-ion distance can be reduced by a factor of up to 3 relative to single-plane traps. This represents an increase by a factor of 9 in the trap density and a factor of 27 in the exchange coupling between the oscillatory motion of neighboring ions. The resulting traps are also considerably deeper for bi-layer structures than for single-plane traps. These results could offer a useful path towards 2-dimensional ion arrays for quantum simulation. We also discuss issues with the fabrication of such traps.

  4. Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report The Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES),...

  5. Information Exchange Among Collaborating Enterprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng

    Information Exchange Among Collaborating Enterprises David Levermore1 , Gilbert Babin2 , and Cheng enterprises. Otherwise, the exchange tends to be limited at the level of file transfers. To overcome a new information exchange model to extend previous global query results and cover independent databases

  6. The allowance exchange - ALEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangis, J.K.; Miller, C.; Nicholas, J.

    1997-12-31

    The success of market approaches to pollution control in reducing the cost of compliance with environmental regulation, has insured the inclusion of emissions trading programs in current and future regulatory programs. As these environmental trading programs multiply, (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Ozone Precursors, Wetlands, CO{sub 2} and others), utility companies will need a central location to buy, sell, and trade these allowances to meet regulatory needs. In response, SAIC has designed and prototyped an electronic trading system that can provide a common forum for the location and exchange of environmental allowances, marketable permits, and other market based instruments for environmental management. SAIC intends to open and operate the Allowance Exchange (ALEX) for the trading of all environmental allowances, associated with the operation of electric utilities, as a service to the nation, the industry, and the environmental community.

  7. Heat exchange apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  8. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  9. DOE Energy Exchange

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigerators | Department DOE Energy Exchange Ms. Amanda

  10. Alkyd-amino resins based on waste PET for coating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torlakoglu, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey); Gueclue, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: gguclu@istanbul.edu.tr

    2009-01-15

    Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes were depolymerized by using propylene glycol (PG) in the presence of zinc acetate as catalyst. Glycolysis reaction products of waste PET obtained by using PET/glycol molar ratio 1/2. Two short oil alkyd resins of high acid values (30-40 mgKOH/g) were prepared from phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerin (G), coconut oil fatty acids (COFA) and glycolyzed products of waste PET (PET-based alkyd resins) or glycols (PG) (reference alkyd resins). These alkyd resins were blended with 30%, 40%, and 50% of a commercial urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde/melamine-formaldehyde mixture (1/1 weight ratio) and heated at 140 deg. C. The physical and chemical properties such as drying time, hardness, abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, water resistance, alkaline resistance, acid resistance, gelation time, and thermal oxidative degradation resistance (with thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) of these alkyd-amino resins were investigated. The properties of the waste PET-based resins were found to be compatible with the properties of the reference resins.

  11. Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Rockward, Tommy Q. T.

    2013-03-12

    Compositions, and methods of making thereof, comprising from about 1% to about 5% of a perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer or a hydrocarbon-based ionomer; and from about 95% to about 99% of a solvent, said solvent consisting essentially of a polyol; wherein said composition is substantially free of water and wherein said ionomer is uniformly dispersed in said solvent.

  12. Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung (Los Alamos, NM); Lee, Kwan-Soo (Blacksburg, VA); Rockward, Tommy Q. T. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2011-07-19

    Compositions, and methods of making thereof, comprising from about 1% to about 5% of a perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer or a hydrocarbon-based ionomer; and from about 95% to about 99% of a solvent, said solvent consisting essentially of a polyol; wherein said composition is substantially free of water and wherein said ionomer is uniformly dispersed in said solvent.

  13. The Ion-Exchange Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Street, Kenneth Jr.; Seaborg, Glenn T.

    2008-01-01

    Special Weapons Projeot Atomic Energy Commission, Washingtonauspices of the Atomic Energy Commission at the Radiation

  14. The Dynamics of Platinum Precipitation in an Ion Exchange Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burlatsky, S F; Atrazhev, V V; Dmitriev, D V; Kuzminyh, N Y; Erikhman, N S

    2013-01-01

    Microscopy of polymer electrolyte membranes that have undergone operation under fuel cell conditions, have revealed a well defined band of platinum in the membrane. Here, we propose a physics based model that captures the mechanism of platinum precipitation in the polymer electrolyte membrane. While platinum is observed throughout the membrane, the preferential growth of platinum at the band of platinum is dependent on the electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane. In this paper, the location of the platinum band is calculated as a function of the gas concentration at the cathode and anode, gas diffusion coefficients and solubility constants of the gases in the membrane, which are functions of relative humidity. Under H2/N2 conditions the platinum band is located near the cathode-membrane interface, as the oxygen concentration in the cathode gas stream increases and/or the hydrogen concentration in the anode gas stream decreases, the band moves towards the anode. The model developed in this paper...

  15. Exploration of Ion-Exchanged Glass for Seals Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghanbari, Roushan

    2012-10-19

    As the nuclear industry grows around the globe, it brings with it a need for more safeguards and proliferation resistant technologies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) depends on effective containment and ...

  16. Ion Exchange Membrane Cathodes for Scalable Microbial Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    applications. Introduction A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a new technology for bioenergy production because separator to reduce oxygen diffusion to the anode can increase volumetric power density to 627 W/

  17. Small Column Ion Exchange at Savannah River Site Technology Readiness

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProjectDataSecretaryDepartment of Energy Changes Help Long Island

  18. External Technical Review Report for Small Column Ion Exchange Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order 13514 Federal LeadershipDepartmentSeptemebr

  19. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Contractor Pricing Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Contractor Pricing Better Buildings...

  20. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

    1993-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  1. Ion Temperature Evolution in an Ultracold Neutral Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuillen, P; Langin, T; Killian, T C

    2015-01-01

    We study the long-time evolution of the ion temperature in an expanding ultracold neutral plasma using spatially resolved, laser-induced-fluorescence spectroscopy. Adiabatic cooling reduces the ion temperature by an order of magnitude during the plasma expansion, to temperatures as low as 0.2 K. Cooling is limited by heat exchange between ions and the much hotter electrons. We also present evidence for an additional heating mechanism and discuss possible sources. Data are described by a model of the plasma evolution, including the effects of ion-electron heat exchange. We show that for appropriate initial conditions, the degree of Coulomb coupling of ions in the plasma increases during expansion.

  2. Microsoft Exchange Archives - Nercenergy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillionStockpileEqual EmploymentElectricity &Exchange

  3. Priority Firm Exchange .

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices inPrincipalFirm Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . .

  4. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  5. Photothermal determination of thermal diffusivity and polymerization depth profiles of polymerized dental resins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    emitted diode LED . Due to the highly light dispersive nature of dental resins, the polymerization process a frequency scan. Prior to each frequency scan, photopolymerization was induced using a high power blue light

  6. Compositional differences in biomarker constituents of the hydrocarbon, resin, asphaltene and kerogen fractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Allen P.

    Compositional differences in biomarker constituents of the hydrocarbon, resin, asphaltene fraction, so biomarker parameters measured for different fractions are not directly comparable. The samples- tion are of equal magnitude to the quantities that are present in the extractable aliphatic hydrocarbon

  7. New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Groundwater Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – A new resin EM, the Richland Operations Office, and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company are using in contaminated groundwater treatment is expected to increase...

  8. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sugarcane Rind and Mixed Hardwood Oriented Strandboard Bonded with PF Resin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    comrind and hardwoods oriented strandboard (OSB) was manufactured using phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin, accounting for more than 40% of the total U.S. production (Rowell 1995). Large quantities of outer rinds (i

  9. Copolymer resins made of agricultural and forest residues extracts for wood laminating adhesives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Extracts of Southern pine bark, peanut hulls, pecan nut pitch, and pecan shell flour were used to synthesize copolymer resins using resorcinol, phenol, and formaldehyde. The test joints of both southern pine and oak were laminated in room temperature. The gluability of these copolymer resins were evaluated with shear compression loading test. The effects of resorcinol level, the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenolic, and the composition of the hardener on bonding quality were investigated. With a more than 80% wood failure after vacuum pressure treatment, several copolymer resins provided good bonding quality as a wood laminating adhesive. Different extracts required different formulations of copolymer resin and hardner to obtain the best bonding quality.

  10. Optimization of Heat Exchanger Cleaning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegell, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    EXCHANGER CLEANING Jeffrey H. Siegell Exxon Research and Engineering Company Florham Park, New Jersey ABSTRACT The performance of heat integration systems is quantified in terms of the amount of heat that is recovered. This decreases with time due... to increased fouling of the heat exchange surface. Using the "Total Fouling Related Expenses (TFRE)" approach, economic incentives for heat exchanger cleaning are evaluated using linear, exponential, and exponential finite decrease models of the heat...

  11. Improved ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  12. Process for separation of zirconium-88, rubidium-83 and yttrium-88

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, passing the first ion-containing solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in the first ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, contacting the first resin with an acid solution capable of stripping adsorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin whereby the adsorbed ions are removed from the first resin to form a second ion-containing solution, evaporating the second ion-containing solution for time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the second ion-containing solution whereby a residue remains, dissolving the residue from the evaporated second-ion containing solution in a dilute acid to form a third ion-containing solution, said third ion-containing solution having an acid molarity adapted to permit said ions to be adsorbed by a cationic exchange resin, passing the third ion-containing solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are adsorbed by the second resin, contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the adsorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin, and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the adsorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. Zirconium, rubidium, and yttrium radioisotopes can also be recovered with additional steps.

  13. Ion transport across individual sub-continuum graphene nanopores : phenomenology, theory, and implications for industrial separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Tarun (Tarun Kumar)

    2015-01-01

    Atomically thin materials, and in particular graphene, provide a new class of solid-state nanopores - apertures that allow for the exchange of matter across thin membranes - with the smallest possible volumes of any ion ...

  14. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  15. Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riba Sagarra, Jaume

    Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M. Inherent unsaturation. Partial pressure vacancy. Most divers with an interest in decompression diving have affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

  16. 4, 125164, 2007 Methanol exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 125­164, 2007 Methanol exchange between grassland and the atmosphere A. Brunner et al. Title Discussions Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Methanol (albrecht.neftel@art.admin.ch) 125 #12;BGD 4, 125­164, 2007 Methanol exchange between grassland

  17. ERASMUS EXCHANGE HOUSING APPLICATION FORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    ERASMUS ­ EXCHANGE HOUSING APPLICATION FORM PERSONAL DATA Family Name / Last Name Type your names Permanent Address Street, House Number Postal Code, City Country Phone Number eMail Address MOBILITY August 31. See: www.uni-ulm.de/io/exchange/housing.html Beginning of rental period: End of rental period

  18. Uptake of metal ions by extraction chromatography using dimethyl dibutyl tetradecyl-1,3-malonamide (DMDBTDMA) as the stationary phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Sriram, S.; Manchanda, V.K.; Badheka, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    The uptake of several actinides and fission products such as U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), Eu(III), Cs(I), and Sr(II) from nitric acid solutions by a novel extraction chromatographic resin containing dimethyl dibutyl tetradecyl-1,3-malonamide (DMDBTDMA) has been investigated. the order of uptake follows the order Pu(IV) > U(VI) {much{underscore}gt} AM(III) {approximately} Eu(III) > Sr(II) {approximately} Cs(I). The possibility of this resin material sorbing trace concentrations of actinide ions from nitric acid solutions containing relatively larger amounts of Nd(III) and U(VI), as well as from simulated pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) waste solution, has been evaluated. The uptake of Am(III) in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, as well as in the presence of a macro concentration of Fe(III), has been investigated. The capacity of the resin for Am(III) and the elution behavior of the actinide ions from the resin were also studied.

  19. Modular heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giardina, A.R.

    1981-03-03

    A shell and tube heat exchanger is described having a plurality of individually removable tube bundle modules. A lattice of structural steel forming rectangular openings therein is placed at each end of a cylindrical shell. Longitudinal structural members are placed in the shell between corners of the rectangular openings situated on opposite ends of the shell. Intermediate support members interconnect the longitudinal supports so as to increase the longitudinal supports rigidity. Rectangular parallelepiped tube bundle modules occupy the space defined by the longitudinal supports and end supports and each include a rectangular tube sheet situated on each end of a plurality of tubes extending there through, a plurality of rectangular tube supports located between the tube sheets, and a tube bundle module stiffening structure disposed about the bundle's periphery and being attached to the tube sheets and tube supports. The corners of each tube bundle module have longitudinal framework members which are mateable with and supported by the longitudinal support members. Intermediate support members constitute several lattices, each of which is situated in a plane between the end support members. The intermediate support members constituting the several lattices extend horizontally and vertically between longitudinal supports of adjacent tube module voids. An alternative embodiment for intermediate support members constitute a series of structural plates situated at the corners of the module voids and having recesses therein for receiving the respective longitudinal support members adjacent thereto, protrusions separating the recesses, and a plurality of struts situated between protrusions of adjacent structural plates. 12 figs.

  20. Modular heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giardina, Angelo R. [Marple Township, Delaware County, PA

    1981-03-03

    A shell and tube heat exchanger having a plurality of individually removable tube bundle modules. A lattice of structural steel forming rectangular openings therein is placed at each end of a cylindrical shell. Longitudinal structural members are placed in the shell between corners of the rectangular openings situated on opposite ends of the shell. Intermediate support members interconnect the longitudinal supports so as to increase the longitudinal supports rigidity. Rectangular parallelpiped tube bundle moldules occupy the space defined by the longitudinal supports and end supports and each include a rectangular tube sheet situated on each end of a plurality of tubes extending therethrough, a plurality of rectangular tube supports located between the tube sheets, and a tube bundle module stiffening structure disposed about the bundle's periphery and being attached to the tube sheets and tube supports. The corners of each tube bundle module have longitudinal framework members which are mateable with and supported by the longitudinal support members. Intermediate support members constitute several lattice, each of which is situate d in a plane between the end support members. The intermediate support members constituting the several lattice extend horizontally and vertically between longitudinal supports of adjacent tube module voids. An alternative embodiment for intermediate support members constitute a series of structural plates situated at the corners of the module voids and having recesses therein for receiving the respective longitudinal support members adjacent thereto, protrusions separating the recesses, and a plurality of struts situated between protrusions of adjacent structural plates.

  1. Ion Monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  2. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. Roya source of ?100 mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized

  3. Heat exchanger with ceramic elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1986-01-01

    An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

  4. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  5. Entanglement Exchange and Bohmian Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Huggett; Tiziana Vistarini

    2009-05-25

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of entanglement exchange in Bohm's pilot wave interpretation of quantum mechanics. The interesting feature of the phenomenon is that systems become entangled without causal interaction; hence it is a useful situation for investigating the unique nature of interaction in Bohmian mechanics. The first two sections introduce, respectively, entanglement exchange in the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the basic principles of Bohmian mechanics. The next section shows that the Bohmian interpretation makes the same experimental predictions about entanglement exchange as the standard one. The final section draws some conclusions about interactions and entanglement in Bohmian mechanics.

  6. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  7. Nonlocal exchange correlation in screened-exchange densityfunctional methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Byounghak; Wang, Lin-Wang; Spataru, Catalin D.; Louie,Steven G.

    2007-04-22

    We present a systematic study on the exchange-correlationeffects in screened-exchange local density functional method. Toinvestigate the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the bandgap correction, we have compared the exchange-correlation potential termin the sX-LDA formalism with the self-energy term in the GWapproximation. It is found that the band gap correction of the sX-LDAmethod primarily comes from the downshift of valence band states,resulting from the enhancement of bonding and the increase of ionizationenergy. The band gap correction in the GW method, on the contrary, comesin large part from the increase of theconduction band energies. We alsostudied the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the totalenergy by investigating the exchange-correlation hole in comparison withquantum Monte Carlo calculations. When the Thomas-Fermi screening isused, the sX-LDA method overestimates (underestimates) theexchange-correlation hole in short (long) range. From theexchange-correlation energy analysis we found that the LDA method yieldsbetter absolute total energy than sX-LDA method.

  8. Sabdia's Radial Flow Air Bearing Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sandia's Radial Flow ir Bearing Heat Exchanger 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Sandia's TRL 5 Air Bearing Heat exchanger technology (a. k. a. The Sandia Cooler)...

  9. Sandia Energy - Heat-Exchanger Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat-Exchanger Development Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy Systems Laboratory (NESL) Brayton Lab Heat-Exchanger Development...

  10. Dynamic response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube composites to shock wave loading

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Arman, B.; An, Q.; Luo, S. N.; Desai, T. G.; Tonks, D. L.; C?ag??n, T.; Goddard, III, W. A.

    2011-01-04

    We investigate with nonreactive molecular dynamics simulations the dynamic response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube (CNT) composites to shock wave compression. For phenolic resin, our simulations yield shock states in agreement with experiments on similar polymers except the “phase change” observed in experiments, indicating that such phase change is chemical in nature. The elastic–plastic transition is characterized by shear stress relaxation and atomic-level slip, and phenolic resin shows strong strain hardening. Shock loading of the CNT-resin composites is applied parallel or perpendicular to the CNT axis, and the composites demonstrate anisotropy in wave propagation, yield and CNT deformation. Themore »CNTs induce stress concentrations in the composites and may increase the yield strength. Our simulations indicate that the bulk shock response of the composites depends on the volume fraction, length ratio, impact cross-section, and geometry of the CNT components; the short CNTs in current simulations have insignificant effect on the bulk response of resin polymer.« less

  11. Heat exchange assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2004-06-08

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  12. Hear Exchange Assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey (Rocky Hill, NJ); Tonon, Thomas S. (Princeton, NJ)

    2003-05-27

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  13. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  14. Mass Exchange Processes with Input

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. L. Krapivsky

    2015-03-07

    We investigate a system of interacting clusters evolving through mass exchange and supplemented by input of small clusters. Three possibilities depending on the rate of exchange generically occur when input is homogeneous: continuous growth, gelation, and instantaneous gelation. We mostly study the growth regime using scaling methods. An exchange process with reaction rates equal to the product of reactant masses admits an exact solution which allows us to justify the validity of scaling approaches in this special case. We also investigate exchange processes with a localized input. We show that if the diffusion coefficients are mass-independent, the cluster mass distribution becomes stationary and develops an algebraic tail far away from the source.

  15. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  16. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  17. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  18. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Cy H. (Albuquerque, NM); Hibbs, Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Ambrosini, Andrea (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  19. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

    1993-08-10

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  20. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L. (8448 Allison Ct., Arvada, CO 80005); Black, Stuart K. (4976 Raleigh St., Denver, CO 80212); Diebold, James P. (57 N. Yank Way, Lakewood, CO 80228); Kreibich, Roland E. (4201 S. 344th, Auburn, WA 98001)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  1. Temporal Development of Ion Beam Mean Charge State in PulsedVacuum Arc Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2007-06-21

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ionsources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is knownthat the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4,depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presenceor absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well background gaspressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significantdecrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can beobserved up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value isestablished. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in theion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beamenergy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of theinfluence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beammean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown thatfor fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced bylower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of thedistance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may beassociated with charge exchange processes in the dischargeplasma.

  2. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Biedermann, Grant (Albuquerque, NM); Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stick, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Serkland, Darwin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Olsson, III, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  3. Formation and spread of callus tissue and tangential rows of resin ducts in Larix decidua and Picea abies following rockfall impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    Formation and spread of callus tissue and tangential rows of resin ducts in Larix decidua and Picea After mechanical wounding, callus tissue and tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) are formed extension, traumatic resin ducts. Introduction Rockfall is a common mass movement process in alpine

  4. Incorporation of oxidized uranium into Fe (hydr)oxides during Fe(II) catalyzed remineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nico, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    I. H. Modelling the adsorption of uranyl on the surface ofof molecularly imprinted uranyl ion exchange resins. Sep.processes in which uranyl compounds, e.g. uranyl hydroxide

  5. Delayed neutron assay to test sorbers for uranium-from-seawater applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitta, Cynthia K.

    1982-01-01

    Delayed Fission Neutron (DFN) assay has been applied to the measurement of uranium content in sorbers exposed to natural seawater for the purpose of evaluating advanced ion exchange resins. DFN assay was found to be ...

  6. Analytic model of the ion angular distribution in a collisional sheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vahedi, V.; Stewart, R.A.; Lieberman, M.A. (Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and the Electronics Research Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1993-07-01

    An analytic model is developed for the ion angular distribution in a collisional sheath. In a previous study, the one-dimensional (normal to the sheath) ion velocity distribution was obtained under the assumption that charge exchange is the dominant ion-neutral collision mechanism. In the present model, we assume [lambda][sub scat][ge][lambda][sub cx], where [lambda][sub scat] and [lambda][sub cx] are the mean free paths for ion-neutral elastic scattering and charge-exchange collisions, respectively. With this assumption, the angular distribution mainly arises from ions that strike the electrode after undergoing only one scattering collision following the last charge-exchange collision. Comparison of the analytic model with results obtained from a particle-in-cell simulation gives excellent agreement. Both the average angle of ions striking the electrode and the ratio of parallel to perpendicular ion flux at the electrode are shown to scale with the ratio of scattering to charge-exchange cross sections [sigma][sub scat]/[sigma][sub cx].

  7. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus D. Hughes; Bjoern Lekitsch; Jiddu A. Broersma; Winfried K. Hensinger

    2011-06-28

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions within ion traps, which becomes an important factor in the miniaturization of ion traps.

  8. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF THE VACUUM ASSISTED RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING (VARTM) PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    simple process which utilizes matched, two- part molds made of a metal or a composite material. The fiber, polymer composite parts are made by placing dry fiber reinforcing fabrics into a single- part, open mold with resin. In the last stage of the process, the mold is heated until the part is fully cured since VARTM

  9. EFFECTS OF TOUGHENED MATRIX RESINS ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF TOUGHENED MATRIX RESINS ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES by Ricardo Orozco. Finally, I would like to thank Sandia National Laboratories for supporting this research and the wind turbine energy project. #12;v TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES

  10. Cure Kinetics of Aqueous Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins Used for Oriented Strandboard Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cure Kinetics of Aqueous Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins Used for Oriented Strandboard Manufacturing the onset cure temperature, and caused separation of the addition and condensation reac- tions involved in curing of CR. Compared with neat CR, the addition reaction of CR/wood mixture also followed an nth

  11. Hydro-Mechanical Loading and Compressibility of Fibrous Media for Resin Infusion Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Hydro-Mechanical Loading and Compressibility of Fibrous Media for Resin Infusion Processes P processes where hydro-mechanical coupling takes place depends on the validity of compressibility and permeability models. In this work, the computer code initially used to simulate the effect of coupled hydro

  12. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF COMPRESSION MOLDED KENAF FIBER REINFORCED VINYL ESTER COMPOSITES THROUGH RESIN ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Laddha, Sachin; Kafentzis, Tyler A.

    2010-05-17

    Plant-based bio-fiber has the potential to achieve weight and cost savings over glass fiber in automotive polymer composites if moisture stability and fiber-resin compatibility issues can be solved. This paper describes the compression molding of 50vol% 2 inch random nonwoven mat kenaf fiber vinyl ester composites with and without chemical resin additives intended to improve moisture stability and resin compatibility. The 2wt% addition of n-undecanoyl chloride or 10-undecenoyl chloride to the styrene-based resin prior to molding of the kenaf composites was observed to decrease the 24hr, 25oC moisture uptake of the molded panels by more than 50%. The tensile stiffness and flexural stiffness of the soaked panels containing these additives were seen to increase by more than 30% and 70%, respectively, relative to panels made with no additives. While ‘dry’ panel (50% relative humidity at 25oC) strengths did not significantly change in the presence of the additives, tensile strength was observed to increase by more than 40% and flexural strength more than doubled for the soaked panels.

  13. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  14. UCI Equipment Management Peter's Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    the Asset Retirement Global document available in KFS under KFS Capital Asset Management (as the EIMR formUCI Equipment Management Peter's Exchange (UCI Surplus Sales) SURPLUS PICK-UP REQUEST Department) Phone: (949) 824-6111, 6447, 6519, 6100 Fax this form to (949) 824-4115, or e-mail Equipment-Management

  15. Primer on nuclear exchange models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hafemeister, David [Physics Department, Cal Poly University, San Luis Obispo, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Basic physics is applied to nuclear force exchange models between two nations. Ultimately, this scenario approach can be used to try and answer the age old question of 'how much is enough?' This work is based on Chapter 2 of Physics of Societal Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007 and 2014)

  16. BRAZIL, Belo Horizonte Exchange Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    BRAZIL, Belo Horizonte Exchange Program Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) Brazil, one and Carnival. Belo Horizonte is the 1st planned city in Brazil and is the capital of Minas Gerais. It has transportation, and spending money. These fees are paid in Brazil and are estimated at R$1,800 Real per month

  17. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single [superscript 88]Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the ...

  18. Applications of decelerated ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1985-03-01

    Many facilities whose sole purpose had been to accelerate ion beams are now becoming decelerators as well. The development and current status of accel-decel operations is reviewed here. Applications of decelerated ions in atomic physics experiments are discussed.

  19. Electron-less negative ion extraction from ion-ion plasmas (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    results showing that continuous negative ion extraction, without co-extracted electrons, is possible from highly electronegative SFsub 6 ion-ion plasma at low gas...

  20. Single Ion Implantation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thomas Schenkel

    2010-01-08

    On the equipment needed to implant ions in silicon and other materials. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/f...

  1. Negative ion generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  2. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. RoyUSA Abstract A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion

  3. Integrated Approach to Revamping Heat Exchangers Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass, K. E.; Dhole, V.; Wang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    A heat exchanger network constitutes the core of the plant energy systems interlinking the core process operation and the utility systems. This paper will illustrate an integrated approach for the revamp of a heat exchanger network by bringing...

  4. Synergistic diffuser/heat-exchanger design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazzara, David S. (David Sergio), 1980-

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical and numerical evaluation of synergistic diffusing heat-exchanger design is presented. Motivation for this development is based on current diffuser and heat-exchange technologies in cogeneration plants, which ...

  5. Second Law Optimization of Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witte, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    A new method for optimizing heat exchangers is developed in this paper. It is based on second law efficiency relationships rather than on the traditional heat exchanger effectiveness concept. The cost of energy is based on its availability level...

  6. Thermodynamic Efficiency of Heat Exchange Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witte, L. C.; Shamsundar, N.

    1982-01-01

    inlet temperatures, the efficiency and effectiveness for particular heat exchange configurations are related. Conclusions regarding the effect of stream temperatures on the efficiency of various types of exchangers are made. The concept is applied...

  7. Ab initio investigation of the exchange interactions in Bi$_2$Fe$_4$O$_9$: The Cairo pentagonal lattice compound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. V. Pchelkina; S. V. Streltsov

    2013-08-05

    We present the \\emph{ab initio} calculation of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Bi$_2$Fe$_4$O$_9$. This compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal structure with the Fe$^{3+}$ ions forming the Cairo pentagonal lattice implying strong geometric frustration. The neutron diffraction measurements reveal nearly orthogonal magnetic configuration, which at first sight is rather unexpected since it does not minimize the total energy of the pair of magnetic ions coupled by the Heisenberg exchange interaction. Here we calculate the electronic structure and exchange integrals of Bi2Fe4O9 within the LSDA+U method. We obtain three different in-plane (J3=36 K, J4=73 K, J5=23 K) and two interplane (J1=10 K, J2=12 K) exchange parameters. The derived set of exchange integrals shows that the realistic description of Bi2Fe4O9 needs a more complicated model than the ideal Cairo pentagonal lattice with only two exchange parameters in the plane. However, if one takes into account only two largest exchange integrals, then according to the ratio x\\equiv J3/J4=0.49<\\sqrt{2} (a critical parameter for the ideal Cairo pentagonal lattice, see. Ref.~1) the ground state should be the orthogonal magnetic configuration in agreement with experiment. The microscopic origin of different exchange interactions is also discussed.

  8. Distance-dependent plasma composition and ion energy in high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehiasarian, Arutiun P; Andersson, Joakim; Anders, André

    2010-04-18

    The plasma composition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been studied for titanium and chromium targets using a combined energy analyser and quadrupole mass spectrometer. Measurements were done at distances from 50 to 300 mm from the sputtering target. Ti and Cr are similar in atomic mass but have significantly different sputter yields, which gives interesting clues on the effect of the target on plasma generation and transport of atoms. The Ti and Cr HIPIMS plasmas operated at a peak target current density of ~;;0.5 A cm-2. The measurements of the argon and metal ion content as well as the ion energy distribution functions showed that (1) singly and doubly charged ions were found for argon as well as for the target metal, (2) the majority of ions were singly charged argon for both metals at all distances investigated, (3) the Cr ion density was maintained to distances further from the target than Ti. Gas rarefaction was identified as a main factor promoting transport of metal ions, with the stronger effect observed for Cr, the material with higher sputter yield. Cr ions were found to displace a significant portion of the gas ions, whereas this was less evident in the Ti case. The observations indicate that the presence of metal vapour promotes charge exchange and reduces the electron temperature and thereby practically prevents the production of Ar2+ ions near the target. The content of higher charge states of metal ions depends on the probability of charge exchange with argon.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Li-ion Anode Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Pittsburgh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about nanoscale...

  10. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon X. Wang; Yufei Ge; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Eric Dauler; Karl Berggren; Isaac L. Chuang

    2010-12-14

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  11. Hadronic physics in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Natale

    2002-01-22

    We discuss the production of hadronic resonances in very peripheral heavy ion collisions, where the ions collide with impact parameter larger than twice the nuclear radius and remain intact after the collision. We compare the resonance production through two-photon and double Pomeron exchange, showing that when we impose the condition for a peripheral interaction the $\\gamma \\gamma$ process dominates over the Pomeron interaction, due to the short range propagation of this last one. We also discuss the observation of light resonances through the subprocess $\\gamma \\gamma \\to R \\to \\gamma \\gamma $, which is a clean signal for glueball candidates as well as one way to check the existence of a possible scalar $\\sigma$ meson.

  12. Predicting the adsorption of second generation biofuels by polymeric resins with applications for in situ product recovery (ISPR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, David R.

    The application of hydrophobic polymeric resins as solid-phase adsorbent materials for the recovery and purification of prospective second generation biofuel compounds, including ethanol, iso-propanol, n-propanol, iso-butanol, ...

  13. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-08-18

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle.

  14. Heat exchanger and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2015-12-22

    Heat exchangers include a housing having an inlet and an outlet and forming a portion of a transition chamber. A heating member may form another portion of the transition chamber. The heating member includes a first end having a first opening and a second end having a second opening larger than the first opening. Methods of conveying a fluid include supplying a first fluid into a transition chamber of a heat exchanger, supplying a second fluid into the transition chamber, and altering a state of a portion of the first fluid with the second fluid. Methods of sublimating solid particles include conveying a first fluid comprising a material in a solid state into a transition chamber, heating the material to a gaseous state by directing a second fluid through a heating member and mixing the first fluid and the second fluid.

  15. Energy spectrum of argon ions emitted from Filippov type Sahand plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammadnejad, M.; Pestehe, S. J.; Mohammadi, M. A.; Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz

    2013-07-15

    The energy and flux of the argon ions produced in Sahand plasma focus have been measured by employing a well-designed Faraday cup. The secondary electron emission effects on the ion signals are simulated and the dimensions of Faraday cup are optimized to minimize these effects. The measured ion energy spectrum is corrected for the ion energy loss and charge exchange in the background gas. The effects of the capacitor bank voltage and working gas pressure on the ion energy spectrum are also investigated. It has been shown that the emitted ion number per energy increases as the capacitor bank voltage increases. Decreasing the working gas pressure leads to the increase in the number of emitted ion per energy.

  16. EXCHANGE FUNCTIONS Exchange Functions is a speci cation mechanism for designing and a model for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filman, Robert E.

    to monitor and control a manufacturing process is an embedded system. 74 #12;exchange functions 75 exampleCHAPTER SEVEN EXCHANGE FUNCTIONS Exchange Functions is a speci cation mechanism for designing and a model for describing distributed and embedded systems.* Exchange Functions assumes ex- plicit processes

  17. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Marcus D; Broersma, Jiddu A; Hensinger, Winfried K

    2011-01-01

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions with...

  18. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  19. An experimental investigation of thermal contact conductance across carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites as a function of interface pressure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoades, Michael Everett

    1989-01-01

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE ACROSS CARBON FIBER/EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES AS A... This work investigates thermal contact conductance across carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites at discrete contact pressures. Samples with unidirectional, continuous fibers oriented at zero and ninety degrees to the contact interface are analyzed in 90...

  20. Evaluation of bisphenol E cyanate ester for the resin-injection repair of advanced composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilber Yaote Lio

    2009-12-19

    This thesis is a compilation of a general introduction and literature review that ties together the subsequent chapters which consist of two journal articles that have yet to be submitted for publication. The overall topic relates to the evaluation and application of a new class of cyanate ester resin with unique properties that lend it applicable to use as a resin for injection repair of high glass transition temperature polymer matrix composites. The first article (Chapter 2) details the evaluation and optimization of adhesive properties of this cyanate ester and alumina nanocomposites under different conditions. The second article (Chapter 3) describes the development and evaluation of an injection repair system for repairing delaminations in polymer matrix composites.

  1. Fluid flow modeling of resin transfer molding for composite material wind turbine blade structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, Douglas S. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Rossel, Scott M. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT)

    2004-06-01

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a closed mold process for making composite materials. It has the potential to produce parts more cost effectively than hand lay-up or other methods. However, fluid flow tends to be unpredictable and parts the size of a wind turbine blade are difficult to engineer without some predictive method for resin flow. There were five goals of this study. The first was to determine permeabilities for three fabrics commonly used for RTM over a useful range of fiber volume fractions. Next, relations to estimate permeabilities in mixed fabric lay-ups were evaluated. Flow in blade substructures was analyzed and compared to predictions. Flow in a full-scale blade was predicted and substructure results were used to validate the accuracy of a full-scale blade prediction.

  2. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  3. Bonding exterior grade structural panels with copolymer resins of biomass residue components, phenol, and formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Components of various forest and agricultural residue biomass-including the polyphenolic compounds-were converted into aqueous solution and/or suspension by extraction and digestion. Some biomass components reacted vigorously under alkaline catalysis with formaldehyde and initially showed a high degree of exothermic reaction; however, other components did not react as vigorously under these conditions, indicating that different biomass materials require different methods to obtain optimum reactivity for the copolymerization with phenol. Our primary goal is to develop adhesives capable of producing acceptable bond quality, as determined by the wood products industries` standards, under a reasonable range of gluing conditions. Copolymer resins of phenol, formaldehyde, and biomass components were synthesized and evaluated for gluability of bonding exterior grade structural replaced with chemicals derived from peanut hulls, pecan shell flour, pecan pith, southern pine bark, and pine needle required shorter press times. These resins also tolerated a broader range of gluing conditions. In summary, it appears that the technology of the fast curing copolymer resins of biomass components as adhesives for wood products has been developed and is ready to be transferred to industrial practice.

  4. Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Quality Assurance Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assurance Strategies Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Quality Assurance Strategies Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Quality Assurance Strategies, call...

  5. Frequently asked questions about MFCs and our replies (Logan lab, Penn State) 1. In the paper by Liu, H., Cheng, S. and Logan, B.E. (2005b) Env. Sci. Tech., Vol. 39(14), pp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nafion perfluorinated ion-exchange resin, 5% solution in low aliphatic alcohols/H2Omix, contains 15.5 mm diameter, 5 meters length, $264.60 USD, Manufacturer - Alfa Aesar 3. What is the difference technology. 5. Can you tell us costs and where to get anion exchange membranes (AEM) and cation exchange

  6. Measurement of spin diffusion length in sputtered Ni films using a special exchange-biased spin valve geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birge, Norman

    valve geometry Charles E. Moreaua Department of Physics, Albion College, Albion, Michigan 49224 Ion C exchange-biased spin valve geometry that inserts a Ni "spoiler" layer into a Py/Cu/Py spin valve. Fits In the context of ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic F/N multilayers or spin valves, the size of the giant

  7. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  8. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  9. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  10. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  11. Collection of ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide an improved technique for detecting ions as the area from which ions are attracted to a detector is increased, consequently increasing the number of ions detected. This is achieved by providing the outer electrodes of the detector connected to the electrical potential, together with alternate intermediate electrodes. The other intermediate electrodes and preferably the housing are grounded. The technique renders such detection techniques more sensitive and gives them a lower threshold at which they can function.

  12. Information transmission without energy exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert H. Jonsson; Eduardo Martin-Martinez; Achim Kempf

    2015-02-24

    We show that it is possible to use a massless field in the vacuum to communicate in such a way that the signal travels arbitrarily slower than the speed of light and such that no energy is transmitted from the sender to the receiver. Instead, the receiver has to supply a signal-dependent amount of work to switch his detector on and off. Because of that, this kind of communication without energy exchange may be called "Quantum Collect Calling". This type of communication is related to Casimir-like interactions and it is made possible by dimension ---and curvature--- dependent subtleties of Huygens' principle.

  13. Green Exchange | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View New Pages RecentPlantMagmaIncentives JumpElectronics CouncilExchange

  14. Microsoft Exchange Servers Archives - Nercenergy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture | CenterTechnologies | BlandineExchange

  15. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rohde, Steven B. (Corrales, NM)

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  16. Evaluation of Hydrogen Isotope Exchange Methodology on Adsorbents for Tritium Removal

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morgan, Gregg A.; Xiao, S. Xin

    2015-03-06

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has demonstrated a potential process that can be used to remove tritium from tritiated water using Pt-catalyzed molecular sieves. The process is an elemental isotope exchange process in which H2 (when flowed through the molecular sieves) will exchange with the adsorbed water, D2O, leaving H2O adsorbed on the molecular sieves. Various formulations of catalyzed molecular sieve material were prepared using two different techniques, Pt-implantation and Pt-ion exchange. This technology has been demonstrated for a protium (H) and deuterium (D) system, but can also be used for the removal of tritium from contaminated water (T2O, HTO,more »and DTO) using D2 (or H2)« less

  17. Development of ion sources for ion projection lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.

    1996-05-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of generating ion beams with low axial energy spread as required by the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL). Longitudinal ion energy spread has been studied in two different types of plasma discharge: the filament discharge ion source characterized by its low axial energy spread, and the RF-driven ion source characterized by its long source lifetime. For He{sup +} ions, longitudinal ion energy spreads of 1-2 eV were measured for a filament discharge multicusp ion source which is within the IPL device requirements. Ion beams with larger axial energy spread were observed in the RF-driven source. A double-chamber ion source has been designed which combines the advantages of low axial energy spread of the filament discharge ion source with the long lifetime of the RF-driven source. The energy spread of the double chamber source is lower than that of the RF-driven source.

  18. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  19. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  20. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  1. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Peer Exchange Call: Engaging and Growing Small Contractor Businesses Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance * Discussion: Do programs have any lessons learned, success...

  2. Energy Exchange Payment Information and Cancellation Policy ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Payment Information and Cancellation Policy Energy Exchange Payment Information and Cancellation Policy Payment Information An invoice will be sent to you with payment options....

  3. Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

  4. NETL's Energy Data eXchange

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22

    A brief tour around NETL's Energy Data Exchange site, where researchers can upload data or look at data from another researcher.

  5. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kW air-to-water and air-to- refrigerant heat exchangers Investigate conventional and additive manufacturing techniques Analyze system level performance of novel heat...

  6. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1, 2011 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance ...

  7. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Sustainability Peer Exchange...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1, 2012 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call: Revenue from Contractor Fees Agenda and Discussion * Welcome and Call Purpose This call was the...

  8. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Working with the Real Estate Sector Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance...

  9. Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovations and Trends Northwest electric power industry connects on the latest energy efficiency programs and...

  10. Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations and trends Northwest electric power industry connects on the latest energy efficiency programs and strategies Portland,...

  11. NETL's Energy Data eXchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-16

    A brief tour around NETL's Energy Data Exchange site, where researchers can upload data or look at data from another researcher.

  12. Industrial Plate Exchangers Heat Recovery and Fouling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers have special characteristics for both fouling and heat recovery. These are discussed in general then related to two industrial examples....

  13. Ion mobility sensor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  14. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of phenolic resin containing waste streams to sequentially recover monomers and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; selecting, if desired, a catalyst and a support and treating said feedstreams with said catalyst to effect acid or basic catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said first temperature program range to utilize reactive gases such as oxygen and steam in the pyrolysis process to drive the production of specific products; differentially heating said feedstreams at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantity of said high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other monomeric components therein; separating said high value monomeric constituent; selecting a second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said phenolic resins waste and differentially heating said feedstreams at said higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said different high value monomeric constituent; and separating said different high value monomeric constituent.

  15. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of phenolic resin containing waste streams to sequentially recover monomers and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.

    1992-08-04

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; selecting, if desired, a catalyst and a support and treating said feedstreams with said catalyst to effect acid or basic catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said first temperature program range to utilize reactive gases such as oxygen and steam in the pyrolysis process to drive the production of specific products; differentially heating said feedstreams at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantity of said high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other monomeric components therein; separating said high value monomeric constituent; selecting a second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said phenolic resins waste and differentially heating said feedstreams at said higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said different high value monomeric constituent; and separating said different high value monomeric constituent. 11 figs.

  16. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

    1992-12-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. 1 fig.

  17. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed.

  18. LANL: Ion Beam Materials Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and materials synthesis through ion implantation technology, and radiation damage stud- ies in gases, liquids, and solids. The laboratory's core is a 3.2 MV tandem ion...

  19. Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Print Monday, 19 December 2011 18:29 While mononuclear, polynuclear, and polymeric metal complexes are most often...

  20. Measurement and modeling of uranium and strategic element sorption by amidoxime resins in natural seawater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pina-Jordan, Jose Gregorio

    1985-01-01

    -JORDAN Approved as to style and content by: F, A. Best (Chairman of Committee) C. A. Erdman (Head of Department) S. sun aram (Member) Mar R. Scott (Member) Dec. 1985 ABSTRACT Measur ement and modeling of Uranium and Strategic Element Sor ption... by Amidoxime Resins in Natural Seawater . (Dec. 1985) Jose Gregor io Pica-Jordan, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr . F. R. Best The international effort to economically recover ur anium and strategic elements from seawater has...

  1. 4. Heat exchangers; Steam, steam processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    to transfer a certain heat rate Q (J/s = W) For a small section dx of the tube (with diameter D), the heat With average temperature difference = for the heat exchanger length, the heat rate can1/74 4. Heat exchangers; Steam, steam processes Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal

  2. Exchange Driven Growth E. Ben-Naim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Naim, Eli

    Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 P. L. Krapivsky Center for Polymer Studies direction for exchanges, i.e., symmetric exchange kernels, K(i, j) = K(j, i). This is unlike migration behaviors and the emergence of self-similar size distributions are as in aggregation and migration pro

  3. Exchange Driven Growth E. BenNaim #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Naim, Eli

    Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 P. L. Krapivsky + Center for Polymer Studies direction for exchanges, i.e., symmetric exchange kernels, K(i, j) = K(j, i). This is unlike migration of possible behaviors and the emergence of self­similar size distributions are as in aggregation and migration

  4. Deniable Internet Key Exchange Andrew C. Yao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Deniable Internet Key Exchange Andrew C. Yao Frances F. Yao Yunlei Zhao§ Bin Zhu¶ Abstract In this work, we develop a family of protocols for deniable Internet Key-Exchange (IKE) with the following of privacy protection (especially for E-commerce over Internet), this work is naturally of practical interest

  5. Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets Mark J L Orr Centre for Cognitive Science Edinburgh University June 1997 #12; Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets Mark J L Orr y Centre for Cognitive; Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The Price Change Scaling Law 5 3 Business Time 7 4 The BZW Data 11 5 Volatility

  6. Relating to ion detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for improving detection of alpha and/or beta emitting sources on items or in locations using indirect means. The emission forms generate ions in a medium surrounding the item or location and the medium is then moved to a detecting location where the ions are discharged to give a measure of the emission levels. To increase the level of ions generated and render the system particularly applicable for narrow pipes and other forms of conduits, the medium pressure is increased above atmospheric pressure. STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

  7. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titus, J. B., E-mail: jtitus@cepast.famu.edu; Mezonlin, E. D. [Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Johnson, J. A. [Pyramid Plasmas LLC, Lawrenceville, Georgia 30043 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34–5.2?keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20?kHz throughout the entire discharge (?70?ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail)

  8. Design and Test of Tube & Shell Heat Exchangers for Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of double-tube heat exchangers #12;Company Logo Experimental apparatus Metal Type Ti SUS304 Al Cu Al 15m AlDesign and Test of Tube & Shell Heat Exchangers for Potential OTEC Application Jeong-Tae Kwon1 exchanger #12;Company Logo Cross-Counter -1 heat exchanger Cross-Counter -2 heat exchanger Double tube heat

  9. Production of high brightness H- beam by charge exchange of hydrogen atom beam in sodium jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davydenko, V.; Zelenski, A.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2010-11-16

    Production of H{sup -} beam for accelerators applications by charge exchange of high brightness hydrogen neutral beam in a sodium jet cell is experimentally studied in joint BNL-BINP experiment. In the experiment, a hydrogen-neutral beam with 3-6 keV energy, equivalent current up to 5 A and 200 microsecond pulse duration is used. The atomic beam is produced by charge exchange of a proton beam in a pulsed hydrogen target. Formation of the proton beam is performed in an ion source by four-electrode multiaperture ion-optical system. To achieve small beam emittance, the apertures in the ion-optical system have small enough size, and the extraction of ions is carried out from the surface of plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of {approx}0.2 eV formed as a result of plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. Developed for the BNL optically pumped polarized ion source, the sodium jet target with recirculation and aperture diameter of 2 cm is used in the experiment. At the first stage of the experiment H{sup -} beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}0.15 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained. To increase H{sup -} beam current ballistically focused hydrogen neutral beam will be applied. The effects of H{sup -} beam space-charge and sodium-jet stability will be studied to determine the basic limitations of this approach.

  10. Hydrogen isotopic exchange over palladium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carstens, D.H.W.; Encinias, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently developed the laser-Raman technique as a means of unambiguously measuring the partial pressures of all possible hydrogen isotopes in the gas phase. Using this technique we have investigated the hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a number of metals. This report presents detailed data for isotopic exchange in the palladium hydride system over the temperature range 26{degree}C to -100{degree}C at a pressure of 7 atm. First order kinetic rate constants and activation energies are summarized for the forward (hydride to deuteride) and reverse (deuteride to hydride) exchange processes. In addition, we have found that small amounts (100 ppm) of impurities in the exchange gases considerably slow the exchange kinetics with the effect increasing down the series CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Use of 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexane diamine as a curing agent for epoxy resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinde, J.A.; Newey, H.A.

    1981-02-24

    Primary diamines are disclosed of the formula shown in a diagram wherein R is a straight chain saturated hydrocarbon of 2 to 4 carbons, a disubstituted benzene ring, or disubstituted dibenzomethane for use as a curing agent for epoxy resins. These curing agents can be used to form epoxy resin mixtures useful in filament winding and pre-impregnated fiber molding and in formulating film adhesives, powder coatings and molding powders. The epoxy mixtures form for such uses as room temperature non-reacting, intermediate stable state which has a latent cross-linking capability.

  12. Use of 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexane diamine as a curing agent for epoxy resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinde, James A. [Livermore, CA; Newey, Herbert A. [Lafayette, CA

    1981-02-24

    Primary diamines of the formula ##STR1## wherein R is a straight chain saturated hydrocarbon of 2 to 4 carbons, a disubstituted benzene ring, or disubstituted dibenzo methane for use as a curing agent for epoxy resins. These curing agents can be used to form epoxy resin mixtures useful in filament winding and pre-impregnated fiber molding and in formulating film adhesives, powder coatings and molding powders. The epoxy mixtures form for such uses as room temperature non-reacting, intermediate stable state which has a latent cross-linking capability.

  13. Secondary ion collection and transport system for ion microprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, James W. (Canoga Park, CA); Schlanger, Herbert (Simi Valley, CA); McNulty, Jr., Hugh (Santa Monica, CA); Parker, Norman W. (Camarillo, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A secondary ion collection and transport system, for use with an ion microprobe, which is very compact and occupies only a small working distance, thereby enabling the primary ion beam to have a short focal length and high resolution. Ions sputtered from the target surface by the primary beam's impact are collected between two arcuate members having radii of curvature and applied voltages that cause only ions within a specified energy band to be collected. The collected ions are accelerated and focused in a transport section consisting of a plurality of spaced conductive members which are coaxial with and distributed along the desired ion path. Relatively high voltages are applied to alternate transport sections to produce accelerating electric fields sufficient to transport the ions through the section to an ion mass analyzer, while lower voltages are applied to the other transport sections to focus the ions and bring their velocity to a level compatible with the analyzing apparatus.

  14. Focused ion beam system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Gough, Richard A. (Kensington, CA); Ji, Qing (Berkeley, CA); Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  15. Focused ion beam system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  16. HEAVY ION INERTIAL FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keefe, D.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerators as Drivers for Inertially Confined Fusion, W.B.LBL-9332/SLAC-22l (1979) Fusion Driven by Heavy Ion Beams,OF CALIFORNIA f Accelerator & Fusion Research Division

  17. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Wan, B.; Hu, L.; Hu, C. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. 1126, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China); Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Hellermann, M. G. von [FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. BOX 1207, Nieuwegein 3430 BE (Netherlands); Gao, W.; Wu, C.; Li, Y.; Fu, J.; Lyu, B.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

  18. CRYOGENIC LIFETIME TESTS ON A COMMERCIAL EPOXY RESIN HIGH VOLTAGE BUSHING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenterly, S W [ORNL; Pleva, Ed [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Ha, Tam T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems, SuperPower, and Southern California Edison to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is energized at 25 kVac around the clock. Liquid nitrogen (LN) is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  19. Ion electric propulsion unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Light, Max E; Colestock, Patrick L

    2014-01-28

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) thruster is disclosed having a plasma chamber which is electrically biased with a positive voltage. The chamber bias serves to efficiently accelerate and expel the positive ions from the chamber. Electrons follow the exiting ions, serving to provide an electrically neutral exhaust plume. In a further embodiment, a downstream shaping magnetic field serves to further accelerate and/or shape the exhaust plume.

  20. High current ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  1. Energy Learning Exchange 2014-15 Year-End Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Energy Learning Exchange 2014-15 Year-End Report June 2015 #12;#12;Introduction to the Energy ................................................................................................2 What is the Energy Learning Exchange (ELE......................................................................................................................................6 Achieving the Objectives of the Energy Learning Exchange

  2. Hierarchical Modeling for Population-Based Heat Exchanger Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geb, David

    2013-01-01

    Figure 3.3: Heat exchanger core pressure drop. Adapted fromFigure 3.3: Heat exchanger core pressure drop. Adapted fromtotal pressure drop through a compact heat exchanger as ? P

  3. Simultaneous Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks with Operability Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Simultaneous Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks with Operability Considerations: Flexibility for the synthesis of flexible and controllable Heat Exchanger Networks. The synthesis is projected to operate over: heat integration, heat exchanger network synthesis, operability, flexibility, controllability

  4. Polyimide resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tesoro, Giuliana C. (Dobbs Ferry, NY); Sastri, Vinod R. (Brooklyn, NY)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a polyimide containing reversible crosslinks comprising the step of curing a monomer having the formula ##STR1## wherein R and R' may be the same or different and each is H or lower alkyl having 1-5 carbon atoms under conditions conducive to the formation of a polyimide and thereby forming a polyimide having the formula ##STR2## R and R' are as defined above and n is an integer from 10 to 100. The polyimide may be converted to a soluble polymer by cleaving the disulfide bond in the presence of a solvent and a reducing agent. The reduced polymer may be reformed into the polymer in an oxidation step or into a modified polyimide in other reaction steps. Copolymerization processes are also disclosed.

  5. Skew chicane based betatron eigenmode exchange module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA)

    2010-12-28

    A skewed chicane eigenmode exchange module (SCEEM) that combines in a single beamline segment the separate functionalities of a skew quad eigenmode exchange module and a magnetic chicane. This module allows the exchange of independent betatron eigenmodes, alters electron beam orbit geometry, and provides longitudinal parameter control with dispersion management in a single beamline segment with stable betatron behavior. It thus reduces the spatial requirements for multiple beam dynamic functions, reduces required component counts and thus reduces costs, and allows the use of more compact accelerator configurations than prior art design methods.

  6. Heat Exchanger Support Bracket Design Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-01-12

    This engineering note documents the design of the heat exchanger support brackets. The heat exchanger is roughly 40 feet long, 22 inches in diameter and weighs 6750 pounds. It will be mounted on two identical support brackets that are anchored to a concrete wall. The design calculations were done for one bracket supporting the full weight of the heat exchanger, rounded up to 6800 pounds. The design follows the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of steel construction, Eighth edition. All calculated stresses and loads on welds were below allowables.

  7. Injection to the pick-up ion regime from high energies and induced ion power laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. -J. Fahr; I. V. Chashei; D. Verscharen

    2009-07-31

    Though pick-up ions (PUIs) are a well known phenomenon in the inner heliosphere their phase-space distribution nevertheless is a theoretically unsettled problem. Especially the question of how pick-up ions form their suprathermal tails, extending to far above their injection energies, still now is unsatistactorily answered. Though Fermi-2 velocity diffusion theories have revealed that such tails are populated, they nevertheless show that resulting population densities are much less than seen in observations showing power-laws with a velocity index of "-5". We first investigate here, whether or not observationally suggested power-laws can be the result of a quasi-equilibrium state between suprathermal ions and magnetohydrodynamic turbulences in energy exchange with eachother. We demonstrate that such an equilibrium cannot be established, since it would require too high pick-up ion pressures enforcing a shock-free deceleration of the solar wind. We furthermore show that Fermi-2 type energy diffusion in the outer heliosphere is too inefficient to determine the shape of the distribution function there. As we can show, however, power-laws beyond the injection threshold can be established, if the injection takes place at higher energies of the order of 100 keV. As we demonstrate here, such an injection is connected with modulated anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) particles at the lower end of their spectrum when they again start being convected outwards with the solar wind. Therefore, we refer to these particles as ACR-PUIs. In our quantitative calculation of the pick-up ion spectrum resulting under such conditions we in fact find again power-laws, however with a velocity power index of "-4" and fairly distance-independent spectral intensities.

  8. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water Distillation for Water Detritiation Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water...

  9. Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call: Transitioning to a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call: Transitioning to a Utility Funded Program Environment: What Do I Need to Know? Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call: Transitioning...

  10. Energy Exchange Pre- and Post-Trainings and Agency Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several pre- and post-trainings and agency meetings are held in conjunction with the Energy Exchange and are unaffiliated with the training provided through the Energy Exchange.

  11. The Energy Exchange: Doing Our Part to Support Sustainable Practices...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Energy Exchange: Doing Our Part to Support Sustainable Practices in the Federal Government The Energy Exchange: Doing Our Part to Support Sustainable Practices in the Federal...

  12. Better Buildings Working with Utilities Peer Exchange Call: Kick...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Better Buildings Working with Utilities Peer Exchange Call: Kick-off Better Buildings Working with Utilities Peer Exchange Call: Kick-off Better Buildings Working with Utilities...

  13. Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Kick-off | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Documents & Publications Better Buildings Working with Utilities Peer Exchange Call: Kick-off Administering Nonprofit Energy Efficiency Programs Finance Peer Exchange Kickoff Call...

  14. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board...

  15. Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls -- No. 3 | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    & Publications Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls Fall 2014 Better Buildings Residential Network: Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency...

  16. Validation of Hydrogen Exchange Methodology on Molecular Sieves...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Validation of Hydrogen Exchange Methodology on Molecular Sieves for Tritium Removal from Contaminated Water Validation of Hydrogen Exchange Methodology on Molecular Sieves for...

  17. The role of Glauber exchange in soft collinear effective theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    exchange in soft collinear effective theory and the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov Equation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The role of Glauber exchange in soft...

  18. Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery using mixed radiant and convective heat transfer Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for...

  19. NNSA hosts Illinois emergency responders during technical exchange...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    responders during an Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Technical Exchange meeting at NNSA's Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) in Las Vegas, Nev. The technical exchange consisted of...

  20. Emittance and Phase Space Exchange for Advanced Beam Manipulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Emittance and Phase Space Exchange for Advanced Beam Manipulation and Diagnostics Alternative chicane-type beam lines are proposed for exact emittance exchange between...

  1. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for...

  2. Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene Title: Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene Authors:...

  3. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HeatMass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and solar Renewable Energy Systems Advanced HeatMass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and solar Renewable Energy Systems Advanced...

  4. 2012 National Trainers' Exchange for Department of Energy Safety...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    12 National Trainers' Exchange for Department of Energy Safety and Health Trainers 2012 National Trainers' Exchange for Department of Energy Safety and Health Trainers Workshop...

  5. Independent control of the shape and composition of ionic nanocrystals through sequential cation exchange reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Joseph Matthew; Zheng, Haimei; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-07-06

    Size- and shape-controlled nanocrystal growth is intensely researched for applications including electro-optic, catalytic, and medical devices. Chemical transformations such as cation exchange overcome the limitation of traditional colloidal synthesis, where the nanocrystal shape often reflects the inherent symmetry of the underlying lattice. Here we show that nanocrystals, with established synthetic protocols for high monodispersity, can be templates for independent composition control. Specifically, controlled interconversion between wurtzite CdS, chalcocite Cu2S, and rock salt PbS occurs while preserving the anisotropic dimensions unique to the as-synthesized materials. Sequential exchange reactions between the three sulfide compositions are driven by the disparate solubilites of the metal ion exchange pair in specific coordinating molecules. Starting with CdS, highly anisotropic PbS nanorods are created, which serve as an important material for studying strong 2-dimensional quantum confinement, as well as for optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, interesting nanoheterostructures of CdS|PbS are obtained by precise control over ion insertion and removal.

  6. QUANTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL ARSENIC BIOAVAILABILITY IN SPATIALLY VARYING GEOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS AT THE WATERSHED SCALE USING CHELATING RESINS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LAKE, GRACIELA ESTHER

    2002-01-01

    or element by organisms. The objective of this research is to quantify the potential bioavailability of arsenic in laboratory microcosms and in different geologic environments in the Nueces and San Antonio River Watersheds, Texas, using a chelating resin... Stripping……………………………………………………….. 19 Anion Competition..……………….…………………………………. 20 Soil Microcosms…...…………………………………………………. 20 Sediment Sample and Collection Site Descriptions……………… 21 Sediment Characterization…………………………………………. 22 Arsenic Analysis...

  7. Fatigue of Wind Blade Laminates:Fatigue of Wind Blade Laminates: Effects of Resin and Fabric Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatigue of Wind Blade Laminates:Fatigue of Wind Blade Laminates: Effects of Resin and Fabric University MCARE 2012 #12;Outline · Overview of MSU Fatigue Program on Wind Blade MaterialsWind Blade Wind Blade Component Materials Acknowledgements: Sandia National Laboratories/DOE (Joshua Paquette

  8. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  9. Ballast Water Exchange in the North Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pederson, Judith

    2004-01-01

    This white paper focuses on the regional component of ballast water management and specifically addresses concerns in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Gulf of Maine. It summarizes vessel traffic and ballast water exchange in ...

  10. Essays on exchange rates and electricity demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiangming, 1966-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examines two important issues in economic development: exchange rates and electricity demand and addresses methodological issues of using time series and panel data analysis to investigate important policy ...

  11. Markets, distribution, and exchange after societal cataclysm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantor, R.A.; Henry, S.; Rayner, S.; Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti, MI . Dept. of Sociology; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-11-01

    The report identifies constraints and opportunities for the restoration of economic exchange following nuclear war. Four survival scenarios are postulated based on high or low levels of damage to (1) institutions that signal trading opportunities, reduce transaction costs, and regulate and enforce contracts, and (2) resources that are used to create and define wealth. The four scenarios are best case, worst case, resource abundance, and an institution intensive case. Three kinds of literature were reviewed, (1) the economics literature on formal markets, (2) the sociological literature on informal markets, and (3) the economic anthropology literature on pre-capitalist and pre-industrial exchange. From this corpus a set of non-market and market exchange structures are derived and rendered as rules vectors describing their operation. Each of the four survival scenarios is expounded as a subset of the possible exchange structures that is logically compatible with the constraints defining that scenario. 242 refs.

  12. Handbook for Incoming Law Exchange Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasch, Audrey P.

    Handbook for Incoming Law Exchange Students Prepared by Global Legal Studies Center UW Law School Directors .......................................................................... 5 Selecting courses in conjunction with other material sent to you by the International Academic Programs (IAP) which coordinates

  13. Antiferromagnetic domain size and exchange bias 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lederman, D.; Cheon, M.; Shi, H.; Olamit, J.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2008-01-01

    Using neutron diffraction, we measured the sizes of antiferromagnetic domains in three ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayer samples as a function of the magnitude and sign of exchange bias, temperature, and antiferromagnet composition. Neutron...

  14. Predicting particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, J A; Nazaroff, William W

    2003-01-01

    Processing 75 (1), 121-127. Muyshondt, A. , Nutter, D. ,Bott and Bemrose, 1983; Muyshondt et al. , 1998). However,HVAC heat exchanger fouling (Muyshondt et al. , 1998). It is

  15. Configuring Entourage 2008 w/ Exchange Web Services. Note: These instruction assume that the Exchange Web Services (EWS) Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yi

    Configuring Entourage 2008 w/ Exchange Web Services. Note: These instruction assume that the Exchange Web Services (EWS) Update , also known as Entourage 13.0, has already been

  16. Heat exchanger for power generation equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nirmalan, Nirm Velumylm; Bowman, Michael John

    2005-06-14

    A heat exchanger for a turbine is provided wherein the heat exchanger comprises a heat transfer cell comprising a sheet of material having two opposed ends and two opposed sides. In addition, a plurality of concavities are disposed on a surface portion of the sheet of material so as to cause hydrodynamic interactions and affect a heat transfer rate of the turbine between a fluid and the concavities when the fluid is disposed over the concavities.

  17. Microwave ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  18. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  19. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  20. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.